Killing Kennedy: the Brief Biography of Kennedy’s Policies
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29th 1917 In Brookline, Massachusetts. His father, Joseph Kennedy, was a successful businessman and politician. Joseph was a very influential figure in the Kennedy household. After World War 1 Joseph Sr. began buying chains of movie theaters in New England. Soon after this he began buying and selling movie companies in Hollywood. Joseph Sr. was able to turn a profit from the stock market crash in 1929, and was able to establish trust funds for his children, ensuring each with ten million dollars. In the 1930’s Joseph Sr. was a large donor to the semocratic party, and was an avid supporter of Theodore Roosevlet’s New Deal.
JFK grew up in Brookline, where he and his brother attended the prestigious Noble and Greenough Lower School. While Joseph Sr. was kept busy with his work, he was still able to be a good father. He encouraged them to be ambitious, demanding high grades from both of them. It was understood that JFK and his brother were to compete against each other, however when competing with an outsider, they came together.
In 1935, JFK graduated from Choate, ranking 64th in a class of 112 students. JFK was frequently sick while attending school, and after deciding to go to Princeton he had short by a bout of jaundice. After taking the spring of 1936 off from school, he decided to enroll in Harvard after all in the fall of the same year. JFK’s political career began in Massachusetts, where his father had numerous contacts, and where a prominent seat in the House of Representatives had just become vacant. He decided on running for the Eleventh District. Aside from Harvard, the Eleventh was a poor district, teeming with Irish and Italian immigrants. Joseph Kennedy, Sr. pulled out all the stops. Using his connections in the newspapers he played up his family’s charitable work.
JFK’s opponents accused him of being a “spoiled carpetbagger” (Spark Notes), relying for votes in a poor and poverty district. However, nobody doubted how much energy and enthusiasm he had. No matter, he made many speeches around the district. JFK easily won the Primary in 1946. And entered congress in 1947 JFK later ran for Senate in 1952. Again, Joseph Sr.’s money, value and connections had an astounding impact. JFK won in Massachusetts and in January 1953, he was sworn in as a U.S. Senator.
Consequences and Conspiracy Theories Around John F. Kennedy
Shortly after noon on November 22nd, 1963 President John F Kennedy was assassinated in the state of Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was to blame not only did he take John F Kennedy’s life but seriously wounded Governor Connally luckily, he would recover. Although there is too much evidence to prove otherwise, there are still many conspiracy theories over this topic. Some people believe that Oswald did not act alone and there could have been another shooter. others even believe that the government had set John F. Kennedy up for his own death.
Some say Kennedy was the turning point for America the time. A brand new start on U.S. politics. People even say 1963 was a big turning point in American history. In marked the end of the old generation (Meagher). Someone that was young enough to understand the people. “We are not afraid to entrust the American people with unpleasant facts, foreign ideas, alien philosophies, and competitive values. For a nation that is afraid to let its people judge the truth and falsehood in an open market is a nation that is afraid of its people.” – John F. Kennedy Someone that could sympathize and be relatable. Maybe the scared people or motivated people to be better and believe that change could happen. After his death people roared in anger. The even furious enough to attack the government and demand answers. And when they didn’t get them they put together the pieces themselves and out came thousands if not millions of different conspiracy theories. “In a few days people will forget and there will be a new President.” Lee Harvey Oswald
Lee Harvey Oswald was reportedly lonely he probably had to deal with bad childhood memories. All the evidence points towards how Oswald was not mentally stable. And hating Kennedy enough to shoot him only proves further. On the morning that Oswald had pre-planned, he left a note talking about how he was going to shoot the president of the United States. not only leaving this note he had also left pictures of himself holding a rifle the same rifle that he used to shoot John F Kennedy. Oswald is not only just known for the John F Kennedy assassination but also how he assassinated general Edwin Walker in 1963 (Keener).
Maybe people were not satisfied. The way that John F Kennedy had to end his term this is most likely the reason why so many conspiracy theories are made about this. People even contact government officials asking for them to reopen the case and to let all the files out to the public. some think that John F Kennedy was assassinated due to the Communist problem at the time. Communists seem to be invading the US at the time and maybe some people just disappointed in the way that JFK dealt with the issue. Communism has never come to power in a country that was not disrupted by war or corruption, or both (JFK).
Kennedy did many Successful things during his years as president. one of those things was the space race. the Space Race began in 1955 and ended in 1975 against the Russians. call Kennedy saw this as a great way to get the American people motivated and excited, to give them hope. and when the Russians sent up their first man into space we knew we were behind. John F Kennedy pushed for us to start making progress and get our first person into Space as well. although we are always one step behind the Russians we ended up winning the Space Race by sending the first person to the Moon. (Why should man’s first flight to the moon be a matter of national competition? Why should the United States and the Soviet Union, in preparing for such expeditions, become involved in immense duplications of research, construction, and expenditure? (JFK)
What if JFK lived or the attack never happened? It is pretty obvious that he would have continued his second term. Things like Vietnam, The Cold War, Necular weapons and Cuba would have been drastically different. He would have resisted war in Vietnam by ending all military involvement. The ultimate objective would have ended up being to stay out of it completely. During the Cold war, JFK would have resisted the soviet union from confronting the US. JFK would have prevented the Cuban misses even further and would have put the Cold war down. People wanted more nuclear missiles and a full nuclear arsenal after the craze of the Cuban Missle Crisis. JFK would have kept denying them on this problem for years to come. JFK would have resisted the urgent calls for the US to destroy the Cubans after they had pointed missiles towards the US. Not only would he have calmed the American population down but he would have talked to the Cubans to clarify things. If JFK survived the bullet from Oswald, the world would most likely be in a better state and would have been more peaceful. He would have kept order well and would have made the American people calm when the crisis hit (Blight).
John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States died in the state of Texas by the hands of Lee Harvey Oswald. Everybody knew the potential that John F Kennedy had. it really is a shame that Lee Harvey Oswald decided to take his life that day. people are so upset about his death they will make up crazy stories about what they think happened. thousands of conspiracy theories came out of the people of the internet. people are furious at the government seeing as they did not give out full information over his death. they wanted to know the secrets that they were hiding as they thought that it could have been important. they were so Furious because they knew how much potential John F Kennedy had as president. he would have kept peace and order to all of the upcoming events that will take place in the United States. things such as the Cold War, Vietnam, nuclear weapons, and the disaster that was unfolding in Cuba. We can only imagine and hope that the United States can I have another president like John F Kennedy yet again.
Personal Characteristics: Directory of Personalities of the Cuban
There are many definitions of politics, but they usually involve intense awareness, meticulous alliance building, and shrewd use of power. JFK had an instinctive political and practical knowledge. He understood that things go wrong likely stemming from his experience as a Naval officer in World War 2. He also understood that politics is a team sport and although he relished roles of leadership, he consciously knew that team designation and support are necessary qualities. But, ultimately, he was able to wield power in a way that was clear and definite. These qualities probably fueled his reticence for an initial military response to the Soviet missile placement. He described himself as the first “nuclear age” president. With such potential catastrophic consequences, he knew there was no second chance; he had to negotiate and ultimately find common ground.
The Vienna Summit in 1961 soon after the Bay of Pigs incident was widely regarded as a disaster for JFK who came across as naïve and inexperienced in the matters of international relations. He was bullied by Premier Khrushchev and appeared weak among the allies of the United States. As a result, JFK felt that he had to confront the Soviets someplace to correct this impression, but also, according to Richard Reeves, he learned that “even the Premier of the Soviet Union is a practicing politician” with whom he would develop a relationship that would serve the world very well, as evidenced in October, 1962. A primary reason that nuclear war was avoided during the Cuban missile crisis is that the President, not the members of the ExComm, wanted to give Khrushchev an exit opportunity that was politically acceptable. Kennedy immediately recognized the potential for disaster and understood that an action must be swiftly undertaken. He purposely developed a very long policy formation period with the ExComm and inherently realized that a blockade had significant advantages over a first-strike attack. It would be seen as reasonable and prudent, as opposed to an airstrike which would be seen as a “sneak” attack reminiscent of Pearl Harbor some twenty years earlier. President Kennedy’s goal was not to force Khrushchev to choose between two undesirable option: surrender or fight. To accomplish this end, it was necessary for the President to avoid reflexive behavior and empathize with his adversary, and in so doing, he orchestrated a scenario to both solidify the United States position and encourage the Soviet Union to remove its weapons from Cuba. Removing the intermediate-range “Jupiter” nuclear missiles that the United States had installed in Turkey in 1961, adjacent to the Soviet Union, allowed Premier Khrushchev a respectful exit. In fact, the quarantine against incoming Soviet ships containing nuclear weapons was primarily an active strategy, but it also allowed time to elicit a response from the Soviet Union. This course also permitted the use of additional steps as part of the resolution process.
On Sunday night of Oct. 28, 1962, the day concluding the Cuban Missile Crisis, JFK’s relief would be expressed to his brother, Robert, ‘This is the night I should go to the theater,’ a reference to Lincoln’s visit to Ford’s Theatre after the Civil War was won. Comparisons to Abraham Lincoln constantly filled Kennedy’s mind. Abraham Lincoln died in office in 1965 at the age of 56 years. Although JFK was a decade younger, he harbored thoughts of death due to his battle with Addison’s disease, a condition where the adrenal glands are unable to produce adequate amount of hormones. Prior to 1930, when medical treatments became available, it was associated with a very high mortality rate. Even with treatment, John Kennedy dealt with illnesses that almost cost him his life on several occasions. He once remarked, “The doctors say I’ve got a sort of slow motion leukemia, but they tell me I’ll probably last until I’m 45.” Not surprisingly, John Kennedy became very fatalistic and knew he had to achieve any greatness in the limited time he had available. He was “very impatient, addicted to excitement, living his life as if it were a race against boredom’. The goals he set, the ambitions he sought, and risks he took all were governed by his certainty of an early death. Ironically, John Kennedy’s 1960 Presidential campaign stressed the importance of youth and “vigor.” It should not be surprising that this obsession would lead him to become the youngest elected President of the United States. According to Geoffrey Perret, historian and Kennedy biographer, during the Cuban Missile when the world held its breath, here is John Kennedy, “Where life lived as a challenge to death had brought him, not away from oblivion but straight towards it, his family, his country and his species crowded at his back, needing him to find a way out. This was a life lived intensely, taken as far as it could go’.
Three Main Conspiracy Theories and Their Influence on the Society
Conspiracy theories surround the average human in the world of education. Whether the average person chooses to ignore them or to accept them is one thing, but before any person should put their faith in any conspiracy theory, you must first study all the facts of that specific theory. There are hundreds of conspiracy theories that have been nagging at humanity for years; however, there are three main conspiracies that stick out more than others. The first being the JFK conspiracy theory, second is the moon landing conspiracy, and last the Illuminati.
The John F. Kennedy assassination is and always will be one of the most controversial topics of all time. Perhaps the world will never know what was behind the fateful events of John F. Kennedy’s assassination on November 22, 1961. Many different groups have generated various theories as to the culprits behind the JFK assassination. Each grouping would claim to have the correct answer to the never-ending mystery. However, questions still exist concerning every single theory proposed. The accused killer of John F. Kennedy is Lee Harvey Oswald. If Oswald was the lone killer of President Kennedy, then one would think that all the information regarding the details of the assassination would have been forgotten over time. James A. Garfield was the President in 1891. However, he was brutally murdered by Charles Guiteau while he was still in office. Charles Guiteau was a lone assassin who was looking for a spot in political office. So, if Guiteau was forgotten, then why was Oswald not forgotten? The most probable reason as to why the JFK assassination is remembered more than the assassination of Garfield is that there have been ongoing questions and controversies over JFK’s assassination.
Almost everyone in the educated world knows about this terrific occurrence. “Fifty years after the event, basic evidence such as the location of wounds, autopsy photographs, x-rays, fingerprints, the accuracy of the weapon, and even the famous Zapruder film, remains controversial.” All these questions and histories indicate a mystery within itself. A point that anti-conspiracists like to argue is that fifty years after the event, the truth still has not been revealed. Anti-conspiracists contend that it is highly improbable that there was a secret plot to kill JFK. Guy P. Harrison takes a different point of view on this matter. Rather than choose to believe that the truth has not been officially revealed, he believes that the answer is out there, just not widely accepted. He believes that the answer is exposed through books, speakers, and websites. The problem is that there have been so many different theories and solutions that no one could never truly verify any one of them. However, the facts that are presented with each one of these authors or speakers may not be one-hundred percent true, but each different source of information brings to light their own bits and pieces of differing facts. Many of these facts and bits of information have been dismissed by the public and considered as ludicrous. However, badly people want the truth revealed, sadly it most likely will never be publicly revealed. One reason as to why the government would not release this information is that they fear they would lose the trust of the public. Sadly, in all their attempts to maintain the peoples’ trust, all they have managed to do is lose it.
When it comes to any conspiracy theory, one cannot trust any single source. The same is true with JFK’s assassination. One would have to look at all the different sources and information before they come up with their conclusion. The JFK assassination is considered one of America’s major turning points in American history. Since the day after Kennedy was murdered, the attitudes of the average American have changed from post-World War II optimism and idealism to cynicism and mistrust of the government. Slowly Americans have been losing faith in their government due to events such as the Oklahoma City bombing cover-up, the Waco deaths, and the many unanswered questions regarding the Twin Towers bombing.
In reality, John F. Kennedy could have been murdered by anybody – Castro agents, mafia hitmen, KGB assassins, and even the lone assassin. So, the real question is not, “Will we ever know the truth about the Kennedy assassination?” but rather “Will the government officially reveal to the public what truly happened on that beautiful day of November 22, 1961?” At the age of forty-three, Kennedy was elected into office and at age forty-six he became the youngest president to have died. His presidency lasted only 1026 days and in this short span of time, he stirred the emotions of nearly every American in the United States. No one was ever neutral about how they felt for Kennedy, they either loved him or they hated him. In some ways Kennedy was oblivious to all the controversies surrounding him, his goal and main importance was his country. This obliviousness most likely was probably the leading cause as to why he was murdered in cold blood.
Out of all the different conspiracy theories, the moon landing conspiracy is by far the least credible of all. Almost all moon landing conspiracists have credible claims, but when those claims are studied and examined, they all fall short. The famous astronaut Neil Armstrong states, “It would have been harder to fake the moon landing rather than do it.” If anyone has ever looked up at the moon on a starry night, then they must have realized how impossible it may seem that somebody was walking on it.
Well, in fact, many people tend to believe this ludicrous idea. They believe that the whole reason why the United States would fake the moon landing was too ‘show up’ the Soviet Union during the Cold War. As crazy as that idea may sound, there are some legitimate reasons behind their reasoning. During the Cold War America’s military and political face-off with Russia were at extremely high stakes. So, it is not completely crazy to suggest that the US government might have faked the moon landing in order to win this ‘public relations’ battle. If someone were to really think about how twentieth-century technology worked, then a journey to the moon and back is no easy feat. Also, one must not underestimate how manipulative a government can be towards its own people. While the believers of the moon landing hoax come across as comical in their denial of one of the most thoroughly documented events of all time, laughing at their claims and dismissing their ideas is not necessarily the best approach.
A claim that believers tend to make is that if the moon landing was all one big hoax, then explain how there are so many astronauts who give personal and emotional accounts for something that did not happen? Charlie Duke, an astronaut who lived on the moon for three days, explained to Guy P. Harrison how he left behind a photograph of his wife and kids on the moon as an eternal monument to them. Another personal experience from an astronaut who walked on the moon explained that he was inspired to become an artist because of his astronaut adventures. Commander of Apollo 17, Gene Cernan, tells us how his personal experiences humbled him when he stared down on earth. Gene also talks about how he engraved his daughter’s initials in the lunar dust. Honestly, to claim that all these men were lying about their personal experiences is quite ridiculous, would be saying that dozens of astronauts have been excessively lying to the world for half a century. Gene Cernan says “When you look back at the earth, it is so overwhelming, so powerful and beautiful. You see no borders, no language differences, no color differences. you don’t see any terrorism. I just wish that I could take every human being up there and tell them to look.” It is not only just the astronaut’s personal experiences that stand out, it is there obvious passion for space exploration, their enthusiasm, and their pride.
These astronauts have pride in their personal accomplishments and pride in their country. These astronauts display their pride through their actions and in their facial expressions. In addition to the dozens of astronauts that have walked on the moon, there have been thousands of people that have worked on the Apollo programs. One of the very big problems that the moon landing hoax has, is that there are just too many people who are describing the same story of a greater vision, hard work, and spectacular success. There are simply just too many people and too many layers of detail for this plot to work. For NASA to have pulled this off, then they would have had to have assembled a team of actors far more superior than anyone Hollywood could have found. The Soviet Union also plays a very important role in this. For the Soviet Union to have let America sneak by them is highly unlikely. If America’s sole reason for faking the moon landing then when the Soviet Union fell, the truth would have already slipped out. Overall, the debate over the JFK assassination will wage on forever. There will always be debates and arguments but if you were to look deep into the facts you will find the truth yourself.
The Illuminati has been debated for years; in fact, most people don’t even know what it is. The Illuminati is a secret group of people who are bent on creating a new world order. The severity of the accusations against the Illuminati varies highly. Sadly, one cannot be sure if the Illuminati is real or not however, we cannot deny the facts. Numbers of influential intellectuals and freethinkers of the eighteenth century made up a secret society that was termed, Illuminati. The reason that this group came to be was that the Roman Catholic Church controlled all society’s science and philosophy. The Illuminati opposed the Roman Catholic Church and its strict rules on women’s rights. The Illuminati felt that they needed to be the liberators of their times. Whatever rumors that have been displayed about the present-day Illuminati, are very un-accurate. Its beginnings were quite simple. They hated how others were treated unequally so their main goal was to have equal treatment for all. Their logic was undeniable. However, there is one drawback to how the Illuminati works: they are anti-religious in all aspects. So however righteous they may seem, the fact that they despise religions gives one a slight insight on how the Illuminati functions.
Another main goal that the Illuminati has is that they want to create a new world order. When the Illuminati reference the term “new world order’ they have means to move politics from a democracy to a meritocracy. They also mean to change our current economic system. If the Illuminati were to have their way, then there would be no more Free Market capitalism. In replacement of free-market capitalism, our government would have generic social capitalism. There are many different theories and subdivisions of Illuminati, but all have corrupt ends. There is no good way to view the Illuminati because it stands against everything that religion holds as a value. Now whether the Illuminati are in fact a real organization or if it is just a hoax cast by others to scare us, there is one fact that remains certain. The Illuminati may have valuable means, but their goals and priorities are far from righteous.
These differing conspiracy theories could never be solved by any one person because there is so much contradicting information surrounding these topics. Most people tend to believe the first thing they read or hear about that conspiracy however, this is the wrong approach. Conspiracy theories are out there and before you decide to delve into one, one must first check all the facts.
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
It was an average day in the life of Cheryl Merrick at 13 years old and living in Garden Grove, California. She was in the 7th grade and remembers being in English class when she heard about the event. Her teacher received a note and then started to cry. “Which was shocking because this was a teacher who didn’t cry” (Merrick, C.). The teacher composed herself after about five minutes and then told the class that “Our President has been shot”. Many people in her class cried and even though she didn’t cry she remembers feeling very sad, sad for the President, sad for the nation, and sad for his family.
Cheryl remembers “Our teacher said we could offer prayers, and then everyone started talking in low voices trying to convince themselves that he really had died.” (Merrick, C.). For the rest of her classes and throughout lunch it seemed like everyone was in a daze. The whole school was quieter than usual. They put the flag at half mast, and had a moment of silence before school was let out.
By the time she got home she had realized what had happened but still felt stunned. She proceeded with her after school chores and remembers her family being glued to the TV. They watched it for hours which then turned into days. She spent much of her time thinking about John F. Kennedy’s children and how would they be okay without their father. When news came about Lee Harvey Oswald being caught “She felt a sense of relief knowing he wouldn’t be able to hurt anyone else.” (Merrick, C.). As I live in a society where shootings are an everyday occurrence I wonder what my feelings would be if this were to happen today with our current President. I am sure there would be some shock and sadness, but not to the magnitude that everyone felt in 1963. I don’t think I would be leaving work half way through the day.
When Cheryl said her teacher said they could pray I thought, wow and wondered, in today’s society would be something that would be thought of and told to anyone to help bring comfort. The country felt it was a personal attack on them as individuals, and their everyday lives, they looked to the comfort of home and the television for guidance. Through my interviews and research it appears many people became very sad and felt truly lost. When Lee Harvey Oswald was caught, and then several days later, people turned to anger.
In conclusion, with all the influence we have today from social media, the internet, TV, plus our friends and family it can be hard for us as individuals to form our own opinions about things without any outside influence. In 1963, people did not have many outside influences but, as a general rule it seems that most had the same feelings of sadness, anger, and relief throughout the days following the assassination. No matter what emotion American citizens turned to in 1963, one thing that continues to unite us all is that while so many of our historical events are memorable, few are as remarkable and left as lasting of an impression as the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
The assassination of John F. Kennedy: Conspiracy theories Analytical Essay
Following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963, the warren commission was setup to investigate the case. The team came to a conclusion that the assassination was carried out by a lone gunman. However, the house select committee on assassinations carried out fresh investigations in the period between 1976 and 1979 concluding that the assassination was a conspiracy, essentially denouncing the earlier findings that suggested a one man effort.
The conspiracy theories developed in the latter years implicated a number of public figures including former Cuban leader Fidel Castro, the mafia, the FBI, Lyndon Johnson, the CIA amongst many others. These groups and individuals were named in several conspiracy theories namely, the organized crime theory, the secret service, the federal reserve conspiracy and the new Orleans conspiracy among others.
From personal opinion, the theory that seems to hold most water in this particular case is the organized crime conspiracy which basically implicates the mafia, Cuban exiles and Fidel Castro’s supporters. Mob involvement has been well presented in David Kaiser’s book, The road to Dallas.
When President John F. Kennedy took over office from Dwight Eisenhower, he made it a point to ensure that criminals were incarcerated in numbers that were unprecedented (Kaiser, 11). Under his watch the number of persecutions increased by upto 12 times the number recorded during his predecessor’s tenure. Members of mafia formed a big number of the criminals he had sent to jail and this gave them a reason to retaliate.
The Mafioso considered Fidel Castro their biggest enemy and most of them built strong relationships with anti-Castro Cubans. Some of the documents that were allegedly not consulted by the Warren commission indicate that some of the Mafiosi had been involved in plotting conspiracies directed at assassinating Fidel Castro.
The Mafia felt short changed when President Kennedy failed to support their efforts in the invasion. The mafia in this cause was under the support of Cuban exiles in the USA who wanted to go back to Cuba and carry out an invasion Castro’s communist government (Kaiser, 123). It has also been suggested that anti-Castro Cubans were angered by Kennedy’s failure to destroy Cuba during the 1962 missile crisis.
Giving the mafia and the Cuban exiles even more reason to hate him, President Kennedy had been at the forefront of leading charges against organized crime as a young and idealistic lawyer. Further, the president’s younger brother Bobby also followed in his footsteps leading the administration in protests against the mafia.
The mafia had helped John F. Kennedy win the elections and therefore they felt betrayed when he started prosecuting them when he got the office. The polls ended in dispute with allegations of the elections being marred with irregularities.
Investigations that were carried out by to the CIA revealed that Carlos Marcello, a suspected member of the mafia could have organized and implemented the conspiracy. The investigations also realized that Marcello had the motive, the opportunity and the resources necessary to carry out the assassination.
The most popular organized crime conspiracy involving the Cubans suggests that Kennedy could have been assassinated by Fidel Castro. According to this theory, Castro was fully aware that the mafia aided by some Cubans was baying for his blood. These two groups were purported to be under CIA’s command (Kaiser, 53). As a result, the only two choices available to Castro were to kill or be killed.
Aside from the Mafia and the Cubans, other organized groups that could have committed the crime include the KGB. This argument suggests that Oswald was possibly a member of the KGB and his work was to handle such “dirty” missions. Individuals who are pro this line of thought such as Professor Revilo Oliver believe that JFK was assassinated because he did not serve the soviet and related communist groups as effectively as he had promised prior to the election.
Kennedy had been seen as the one who could turn America to communism but once he got into office he appeared to soften his stand and in a move described as ‘turning American’ (Kaiser, 293). From readings, it has been discovered that this conspiracy could have been covered up to avoid the eruption of the third world war; a war which was imminent were it to be revealed that the KGB controlled Oswald.
Of all the conspiracy theories that have been fronted to explain the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the theory suggesting that organized crime could have been the major involvement appears to be more credible.
In the book The Road to Dallas, David Kaiser has clearly provided in-depth explanations supporting the argument that organized crime groups were the major plotters and developers of the plot to kill JFK.
As much various discussions have arisen in regards to who could have been involved and the particular reasons for their involvement, it is definitely clear from Kaiser’s book that Oswald could not have been the sole mastermind of the attack. The Mafioso, the Cuban exiles, the KGB and probably even Fidel Castro’s henchmen could have contributed to the development of the plot.
It is however clear as has been presented earlier in this essay that whichever group was involved had to have some agreeable amount of inside help. It is definitely ridiculous to try and purport that a single individual in the name of Oswald could have bypassed all the security systems around the president of a super power without either outside or inside help, or both.
By the standards of those days JFK must have been the most well protected individual on earth yet he went down by a bullet from a sniper’s gun; a sniper who was not immediately traced. His evasion from security forces around the president and all over the country could be telling of the fact that he had enlisted a definite level of inside support.
This is the kind of support that could only be negotiated for by a well connected group of individuals. The level of organization in the execution of the assassination was clearly a team effort, and though Oswald came to take most of the credit, it is evident that there were many people counting on his success.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that the assassination of JFK is a mystery that has puzzled many. The way it happened and the subsequent events have been some of the discussions that have generated heated debates especially among analysts and historians. Unfortunately, with every re-analysis of the story come new findings serving to thicken the plot.
However, readers of the theories fronted by scholars are free to choose the one that makes most sense and in the above discussion it has been argued that the conspiracy theory involving organized crime groups is the most credible.
Kaiser, David. The Road to Dallas. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2008. Print.
John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address, 1961 Essay
This presentation was effective because President Kennedy was able to communicate his feelings and ideas to the public openly. His opening tone was warm and this endeared him to the audience. His voice, body expressions and reassuring smile made Americans have confidence in his ability as their new leader. This made it easy for him to strike a strong rapport with all dignitaries who had attended the ceremony.
The President was humble in victory and this showed that he was ready to work with all people in his quest to build a united nation. He showed that his Presidency was going to set high standards of leadership because he was ready to be judged more by his performance in office rather than mere rhetoric (Kennedy). The speech revealed the strong charisma which President Kennedy was famous for, which was just one of his many admirable traits.
He was passionate about human rights, justice, equality for all and freedom; ideals which are traditionally associated with the US as a nation. The inauguration speech was a testimony to the fact that President Kennedy’s administration was willing to practice these ideals to make America strong and united. He showed his willingness to make America more progressive economically, socially and culturally (Kennedy).
This inaugural address showed his traits as a statesman who was willing to transcend racial, ideological, cultural and religious barriers to reach out to leaders of other states. He revealed his own selfless virtues as a leader who was willing to accommodate dissenting views in his own country. His words offered encouragement to people from all different backgrounds to work hard to improve their own welfare in society.
President John F. Kennedy’s inauguration address came at a critical point in the history of the U.S as a nation.This speech showed that he had a lot of enthusiasm in his role as the country’s new leader which made America proud as a nation. He was an inspiring leader who was in touch with feelings and aspirations of what fellow citizens in his country wanted. President Kennedy came to office at the height of the Cold War between U.S.A and the then, U.S.S.R.
The two super powers were engaged in a battle to dominate global affairs through their capitalist and communist political ideologies, respectively (Kennedy). When he assumed office, President Kennedy faced many challenges as a leader which seemed insurmountable at the time. Through his words, he managed to uplift the morale and pride of his fellow Americans, who were going through tough political times.
Historically, President Kennedy is regarded as one of the best leaders that served America. His inaugural address portrayed him as a leader who was not afraid to make sacrifices for the benefit of all Americans. He proved that he was ready to use his wisdom to steer the country to greater heights both economically and socially.
President Kennedy’s address showed that he was committed to the welfare of his people; a trait which many modern political leaders do not have (Kennedy). He had defeated his challenger in the election by a very narrow margin yet his win proved pivotal in America’s history. His presidency was a calming influence to a nation which was becoming restless about the intentions of U.S.S.R regarding its support for Fidel Castro of Cuba.
Kennedy, John F. U.S. Presidential Inaugural Address. You Tube, 1961. Speech.
The Vietnam War: Presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy Leadership Roles Essay
During the mid-twentieth century, the United States became increasingly involved in the world affairs. As there were problems in different parts of the world, the United States, as the emerging world power, took its responsibility and sought for ways of tackling the problems.
Notable among these is the Vietnam War (1955-1975) that the U.S. involvement was largely felt. Initially, the conflict was internal between South Vietnam and North Vietnam, but it soon shot up into a limited international conflict in which the U.S. supported the government forces of the South. During the war, the roles of Presidents Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy were pronounced.
President Dwight Eisenhower was the thirty-fourth president of the U.S. who served two terms in office from 1963 to 1961.Under his administration, the U.S. became increasingly involved in global affairs so as to counter the increasing threat to dominance of the Soviet Union.
In particular, he used the emerging role of the United States to assist in establishing a non-Conformist state in South Vietnam. His action resulted in catastrophic long-term outcomes that largely increased his effectiveness as the President of the U.S. Eisenhower inherited the foreign policy of his predecessor, Harry S. Truman, in providing financial and military assistance to the South Vietnamese (Solheim, 2008).
On November 1, 1995, Eisenhower’s action to give military training to the government of South Vietnam marked the official start of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnamese conflict. On this day, he sanctioned the deployment of the Military Assistance Advisory Group to South Vietnam.
Eisenhower’s dynamic leadership style made the Vietnam War to become America’s war. In addition to the military training, he provided the CIA’s (Central Intelligence Agency) Air America services and intelligence assets to assist in the war. Consequently, France, which had tried to re-establish its presence in Vietnam after the Second World War, left the country by April 1956. As much as these actions were effective in defining the role of the U.S. in world affairs, some of his actions inhibited his role as the president.
For example, in 1958, he did not take a strong stand when North Vietnam conquered Laos and controlled some sections of the nation. Most Americans believed that he used behind-the-scenes leadership style to exert America’s influence in the world. Eisenhower’s indirect tactics, both at home and abroad, were effective in increasing the engagement of the U.S. in the Vietnam War.
Under President John Kennedy, the United States became increasingly engaged in global affairs, particularly in the Vietnam War. On assuming office, he continued with the policy of his predecessor, Eisenhower, in providing more military as well as financial assistance to South Vietnam (Peake, 2008).
He was determined not to see the rise of communism in South Vietnam. Therefore, he actively participated in the affairs of the country. Kennedy believed that America should be able to “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend…to assure the survival and success of liberty” (Trueman, 2010, para. 3). This is what defined his resolute leadership style in increasing the engagement of the U.S. in global affairs.
However, the introduction of the ‘Strategic Hamlet” program to resettle the peasants into fortified camps under his administration resulted in major failures that inhibited his effectiveness. Because of this program, many South Vietnamese peasants started giving assistance to the North Vietnamese communists; consequently, it provided the critics of the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War with the ground to oppose Kennedy’s actions.
Kennedy, with the intention of advocating for democratic ideals across the world, saw that North Vietnam’s communist principles were an impediment to achieving this objective. Therefore, the Kennedy administration strived to uphold the Truman Doctrine that allowed the United States to provide support for countries that wanted to be democratic.
He sanctioned the coup on November 1, 1963 that ended up in the overthrow and unfortunate murder of the South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem when he perceived that Diem was an obstacle to winning the war. However, the assassination of Diem inhibited his effectiveness because he was accused of the crime since he had authorized the coup. Prior to his death, Kennedy had added the number of America’s military personnel from nine hundred that were present in Vietnam before he assumed presidency to sixteen thousand.
In the United States, the direct leadership of the sitting President is very important in the running of the affairs of the country. The U.S. president, as the head of the state and the head of the government, is endowed with the responsibility of addressing various issues affecting the country.
Since the U.S. has emerged as a major world power in this century, the decisions that the President makes are also significant in tackling various international issues. During times of crisis when the country is at war or facing another major crisis, as exemplified by the Vietnam War, the intervention of the President is crucial.
Peake, L. A. (2008). The United States in the Vietnam War, 1954-1975: a selected, annotated. New York: Routledge.
Solheim, B. O. (2008). The Vietnam War era: a personal journey. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Trueman, C. (2010). John F Kennedy and Vietnam. The History Learning Site. Retrieved from https://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/privacy-policy/
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Essay
At a relatively young age of forty-three, John Fitzgerald Kennedy took the oath of office as the president of the United States of America. Handsome, with a friendly face that projected a sense of assurance and with a beautiful wife by his side, JFK, as he was popularly known, captured the imagination of the American nation.
He came across as a dedicated family man, a loyal husband, and a proud father. Prior to his inauguration in 1961, he had supposedly authored a bestselling book that won him the much-coveted Pulitzer Prize. His bravery and life-saving acts as a marine officer after his ship was sunk during the World War II, was an example of his courage, selfless attitude, and patriotism. In his brief, if not ephemeral, presidency, the United States’ economy grew considerably and the unemployment rate was at acceptable low single digit levels.
His inaugural speech was a study in optimism, and it stirred a sense of patriotism and hope in Americans, urging them to offer themselves for their country and not wait for their country to offer something to them. Nevertheless, President Kennedy fails the test of historical analysis, which is the ultimate test of a leader’s credibility.
However, beyond the rhetoric and carefully projected media image, laid a President J. F Kennedy that many Americans, who freely adored would find questionable, and even revolting. His career as a politician from his days as a congressman and senator indicate that, he was mostly absent from the house, gave very few speeches, and participated in few debates of national significance.
His alleged authorship of the Pulitzer Prize winning book, Profiles in Courage, cannot be ascertained, and many critics and historians agree that his participation in the actual writing and research of the content of the book was negligible. Therefore, his claim of authorship and the subsequent awards given are invalid.
President Kennedy’s love of women was legendary. J.F Kennedy engaged in numerous extra-marital affairs that sometimes put the country’s security at risk. Some of the many women that had access to the president were hardly vetted by the Secret Service, which put the president at risk of blackmail. His narrow victory in the presidential election – with slightly over 100,000 votes, has been attributed to the help of some Mafia elements within the City of Chicago and the wider Illinois State.
President Kennedy’s dalliance with the Mafia, thus, exposed him to even greater risk of exploitation, and there is documented evidence of his secret communication with known mob Bosses such as Sam Giancana (Hersh 45). His appointment of his brother as Attorney General also had a hint of nepotism.
In light of the above evidence of President Kennedy’s lack of positive moral persuasion, he is a figure not to be revered as has happened so much after his death, but to be reviled. Many Americans, as shown in many polls, consistently regard President Kennedy as one of America’s greatest Presidents. Together with Abraham Lincoln, President Kennedy continuously polls as the greatest ever president.
As a symbol of youth and optimism throughout his presidency, his tragic assassination traumatized the American public that looked forward to many more years with the ‘perfect’ and picturesque Kennedy family at the White house. His death signalled a sad moment in the American history, with both supporters and opponents alike, wondering ‘what might have been’ had President Kennedy lived out his full term of office, and maybe even won a second term.
The national outpouring of sympathy was impartial, and the figure of his brave widow and children at his burial service has remained forever etched in the minds of most Americans. Waves of sympathy and condolences came not only from within America, but also worldwide. His death gave rise to many conspiracies concerning his killers, and to this very day, many theories abound regarding the motives behind his assassination.
In light of the circumstances surrounding his brief presidency and his sudden death in the hands of an assassin, (purportedly Lee Harvey Ostwald), the subsequent analysis of his presidency, character, and policies were bound to be heavily partial.
To paint the fallen president in a bad light would amount to re-opening the healing national wounds wrought by his sudden assassination. Very few publications focused on the multitude of President Kennedy’s moral and political transgressions while in office and prior as a senator and congressional representative.
Kitty Kelley, who is famed for digging up the secrets of famous personalities and prominent families, was one of the earliest writers to attempt to bring to light President Kennedy’s moral failings. She highlighted the case of Judith Exner, who had previously revealed her longstanding eighteen-month affair with President Kennedy in the years 1960-61.
As a Roman Catholic, President Kennedy is the only president in the US history to profess the Catholic faith. Although many viewed his religion as an indicator of his positive moral standing, he hardly practiced the teachings of his faith. Many of his actions were in complete contravention of the tenets of the catholic faith. His wife once remarked to a reporter that, it was ironic that, during the presidential campaigns, people were focusing on her husband’s faith yet he hardly practiced it (Massa 308).
Painfully aware of her husband’s philandering ways, Jacqueline Kennedy, his wife, was left to uphold the image of the first family in a positive light. In his book, The Dark Side of Camelot, published in 1997, investigative journalist, Seymour Hersh, depicts President Kennedy’s numerous adulterous relationships and portrays him as a serial womanizer (p18).
Hersh alleges that the President was even once married to Miss Durie Malcolm, and thus in marrying Jacqueline Kennedy, he had committed bigamy. According Hersh, although President Kennedy publicly portrayed himself as an ambassador of peace, his administration, in partnership with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), was guilty of assassinations of leaders of sovereign countries.
For instance, Hersh declares that the President was fully aware of the CIA’s plot to eliminate Patrice Lumumba of the Congo, and Lumumba’s eventual death can be traced to President Kennedy’s approval. The CIA was also intensively involved in the campaign to eliminate Cuba’s Fidel Castro, and both President Kennedy and Attorney General, Robert Kennedy, were the prime movers of the idea.
President Kennedy was always portrayed as fit, and he appeared so, but according to Thomas C. Reeves, he was plagued by a multitude of diseases throughout his lifetime. In his 1991 book, A question of Character: A life of John F. Kennedy, Reeves portrays the president to have had two personalities: the one he projected in public, and a private one.
Publicly, the president came across as an affable and astute, but his private life was anything but what many people thought. Reeves asserts that, not only was President Kennedy a lazy person, but also was one of the most philandering presidents to have occupied the White House.
He asserts the notion that the president did not author his Pulitzer Prize winning book, Profiles in Courage, and was a beneficiary of the work of his subordinates. Reeves further states that, the 1960 presidential election was tainted by fraud facilitated by the Chicago mafia bosses (77). The office of the President of the United States is the highest political office of the strongest and mightiest nation on earth. In and of itself, the office demands a certain level of respect and reverence.
Therefore, the cavalier manner in which President Kennedy perceived the high office of the US Chief executive diminished the status of the office. His careless amoral acts, including his hedonistic pursuits inside and outside the walls of the oval office depict a President who did not take his role and title seriously.
According Victor Lasky, President Kennedy’s public profile deferred sharply with his private profile. In his book, J.F.K.: the Man and the Myth, Lasky expounds on the various malpractices by President Kennedy, and he is one of the earliest critics of the president having published his book in 1963. Lasky asserts that, the American public only saw the president as a capable and morally upright man due to efforts by his handlers to project this mythical image (27).
The true President Kennedy was reckless and opportunistic and continuously placed the American nation at a high security risk due to his careless dalliance with many call girls and mafia bosses. As the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in the early tensions that characterised the onset of the Cold War, President Kennedy’s flirtations with call girls, who did not receive security clearance from the Secret Service, could very well have exposed him to a situation of blackmail by elements from the Soviet Union.
In conclusion, President John F Kennedy’s legacy does not deserve reverence. As stated earlier, some positives came out of his brief stay as America’s chief executive. The economy grew by folds, and the levels of unemployment were low. President Kennedy’s impressive speech delivery skills inspired millions across the United States and the world. For a while, Americans begun to believe in the possibilities of a peaceful and prosperous nation envisioned by the nation’s founding fathers.
For instance, after President Kennedy signed the nuclear non-proliferation treaty with the Soviet Union, the world was able to overcome the fears of a possible nuclear war. However, the above-mentioned positives count for little when juxtaposed against President Kennedy’s personal and political failures and transgressions. He fails the test of historical analysis, which is the ultimate test of a leader’s credibility.
His absenteeism from the Congress and the senate throughout his career as a legislator points to a politician not keen on his work. His philandering ways put the entire nation at risk and left his wife feeling ashamed and abandoned. He developed various diseases, as a result. His dalliance with the mafia denigrated the high office of the president.
Even though Kennedy may have made some modest accomplishments in his presidency, one cannot help but wonder how much more he could have achieved if he had forgone the many unnecessary pleasures he sought. His enormous potential was stifled by his own lifestyle choice, and the American people were denied the complete potential of his presidency, not by an assassin’s bullet, but by the president’s own carefree moral attitude and hedonistic pursuits.
Hersh, Seymour. The Dark Side of Camelot. London: Harper Collins, 1997.
Lasky, Victor. J.F.K: The Man and the Myth. New York: Macmillan Publishers, 1963.
Massa, Mark S. “A Catholic for president?: John F. Kennedy and the `secular’ theology of the Houston speech, 1960.” Journal of Church & State 39.2 (1997): 307-331.
Reeves, Thomas C. A Question of Character: A Life of John F Kennedy. New York: Free Press, 1991.
Ballistics Evidence of John F. Kennedy’s Assassination Essay
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the thirty-fifth president of the United States, at the young age of forty-two. By the time he took office, president John F. Kennedy (JFK) was America’s first Catholic elected to the office, and was arguable perceived and embraced as America’s ”political darling”.
His premature death came through assassination on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Kennedy was riding in an open limousine that also carried First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, Texas Governor John B. Connally, and Mrs. Nellie Connally. Gunshots that supposedly killed John Kennedy were fired as the presidential limousine was rounding off a corner in Dealey Plaza.
He had only served for three years by the time he made that fateful trip which he had hoped would help bolster relations between his administration and the electorate. His assassination terminated the sense of national innocence and started the political and social upheaval that is usually associated with the 1960s. Despite his term in office being cut short, John F. Kennedy left an affluent personal and political legacy that has long been admired for many years.
The aftermath of John F. Kennedy assassination saw the arrest and the subsequent murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, who was the lead suspect in the shooting that took place from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository’s southeast window. Oswald is allegedly said to have used a Mannlicher-Carcano, World-War II vintage 6.5 mm Italian bolt-action rifle to do the shooting.
Ballistic evidence and varying witness accounts project that at least three-four shots had been fired. Although this knowledge is widely known to the media and the general public, there is no comprehensive and concrete theory on the ballistics evidence that backs up the events in the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
Examination of Rifle and Cartridge Cases
The rifle that is supposedly used in the assassination of president John Kennedy is described in the volume, ”Assassination Report of the Warren Commission” by Gerald Ford, where it states that, ” the telescopic-sight rifle found on the sixth floor of the Depository building had various inscriptions on it, including ”MADE ITALY,” which referred to its origin; ”CAL. 6.5,” which referred to the rifle’s caliber ; ”1940” which referred to the year of manufacture; and the number C2766 which is the rifle’s serial number.
After a close examination of these markings, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) identified it as a 6.5-millimeter model 91/38 Mannlicher-Carcano rifle.
FBI experts independently identified the rifle by inserting a 6.5 millimeter Mannlicher-Carcano cartridge into the weapon for fit, and then making a sulfur cast of the rifle’s inside barrel and measuring the cast with a micrometer. By doing this the weapon’s outward appearance seemed to be a 7.35-millimeter rifle, but its mechanics had been rebarreled with a 6.5- millimeter barrel” (54).
Following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, various investigations did center on the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository building. According chapter III of the report, ” The Shots from the Texas School Book Depository” by the Warren Commission, it states that,” a rifle and three spent cartridges were found on the sixth floor of the Depository building by the Dallas police.
They also discovered a nearly intact bullet on the stretcher, which was used for Governor Connally’s transportation to the Parkland Hospital, while the president’s limousine had five bullet fragments, which were all analyzed by qualified experts. Therefore, to the exclusion of other weapons, the expert analysis pointed out that all the evidence at hand suggested that they were all fired in the rifle found on the sixth floor of the Depository building”(79-81).
The characteristics of any given weapon is usually engraved on a bullet upon been fired, mainly by examining the bullet’s fragments and cartridge cases. The bullet fragments removed from Kennedy’s limousine and the other victims came from those empty cases (Spencer 46). A new bullet analysis was conducted by a research team that comprised of two Texas A&M University scientists and a former top FBI laboratory expert.
This team took boxes from two of the four total lots of the Mannlicher-Carcano bullets that were manufactured in 1954. One of these lots had the ammunition used by Lee Harvey Oswald to assassinate the president. By obtaining 30 bullets from three different boxes, the researchers were able to analyze the bullets’ chemical composition with a technology with was not available in the 1960s.
The result of this new technique showed that many bullets within the same box had similar composition, therefore showing that fired bullet fragments do not necessarily come from the same bullet despite it having the same chemical composition. The team of researchers was also able to test-match the chemical composition of a bullet which was not among the same box of ammunition used by assassin Lee Harvey Oswald, to one of the five bullet fragments found at the assassination scene.
The lead in the bullet fragments found at the scene of crime was uniquely recovered from just the two bullets traced to the batch, which was in Oswald’s possession (Flemming 310). This finding do support the theory of Oswald being the lone assassin, and if the fragments came from three or more bullets then a second shooter could have fired the other bullet. The significance of this research is that it calls into question the number of bullets, which were fired at president John F. Kennedy.
Single Bullet Theory
Arlen Specter who is a former United States senator from Pennsylvania, was also a junior counsel to the Warren Commission. He came out to the chief proponent of the single bullet theory, which allowed the Warren Commission to conclude that Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone assassin in president John F. Kennedy’s assassination.
According to the web article, ” The Single Bullet Theory” researcher Gerald McKnight writes that, ” the theory suggests that one bullet did hit Kennedy’s neck in the back, it exited his neck from his front throat to continually hit Connally in the back, wrist and leg, and the same bullet eventually falling out of Connally’s leg and onto the stretcher which was used to carry him at Parkland”.
This scenario is supported by the theory that the purported number of shots could only be within an allotted time frame and that the bullet changed course several times, behaving in the manner it did to incur wounds to both president Kennedy and Governor Connally (Yardum,98). However, some commissioners from the Warren Commission openly opposed this theory.
The Magic Bullet
This theory suggests that the ”Magic bullet” which was found in the hospital was in an almost ”pristine” condition, with its copper jacketing being completely intact, therefore pointing out that it was a full metal jacketed bullet, commonly known as a non-frangible bullet that leaves very little metallic fragments in its outcome (Becker,321).
Over the years, extensive test-firing have been done with a similar rifle to that of Lee Oswald, and results have shown that the bullet came up deformed. More metal grains were also discovered in Connally’s wrist and chest, and relinquished the possibility of this being incurred from the same bullet to cause the total number of nine wounds. (Livingstone 453). This therefore meant that if all those bullet fragments came from the so-called ”magic bullet”, then there could have been more than one assassin involved in the shooting.
Various controversies still looms Kennedy’s assassination with accusations of both internal and external conspiracies, with some theories seeming more plausible than others. There is a bitter disagreement on whether Lee Harvey Oswald was even involved or whether he acted alone or even had an inside or outside help in the president’s murder.
According to the online article, ”Old JFK documents may stir controversy”, by Reuters, states that, ” some old documents that linked to the assassination of president John F. Kennedy, have reportedly been discovered. These documents also include a transcript conversation between Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby, who shot and killed Oswald while still in police custody.
The controversial transcript is a conversation between Oswald and Ruby in which they talk on killing Kennedy so as to stop the mafia-busting agenda which his brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy was deeply involved in” (1). This adds to the conspiracy that Oswald did not act alone in killing Kennedy, and that the elements involved in Kennedy’s assassination did not want to see him ”talking”.
Some controversial opinions have speculated that Cuba’s government could have been involved in the assassination, in response to plots by the CIA to have Fidel Castro killed. Some other quarters think that senior U.S. officials may have been involved, because prior to president Kennedy’s assassination, it has speculated that American troops might pull out of Vietnam, and this left some military officials deeply angered with the president.
However, most theories have also owed to the ballistic evidence which indicated that a single-loaded gun used by Oswald could not fire all the shots presumably fired, and also the autopsy and the photographic evidence proves that president Kennedy could not have been hit from the angle where the Depository school building was situated (Genovese 28).
My conclusion from this writing is that, there have been some ballistic inconsistencies over the years through the analysis of the bullets character and the type of wounds they inflicted in John F. Kennedy’s assassination.
Various evidences hold the idea that there was more than one shooter in Kennedy’s shooting, while others do support the idea of only one shooter involved in the shooting, therefore, no comprehensive conclusion can be given out to support the Warren Commission report which implies the three bullet theory, there being only one gunman, and there being no conspiracy in Kennedy’s assassination.
This means that the shooting and killing of Lee Harvey Oswald, who was the lead suspect in the assassination, gives investigators a ”dead wall”, in understanding and compiling his character, motive and intention in their reports.
The killing of Oswald only adds to the various conspiracy theories of there being some other elements involved as sporadically circulated in the media and public life over the years. Witness accounts at the scene in regards to them hearing shots being fired from different positions does not confirm the ballistic evidence at the scene This can only leave the American public and the rest of the world to contend with the past, current, and future theories and evidences that will come in light over the years.
Becker, Don. The JFK Assassination: A Researcher’s Guide. Indiana. Author House, 2010. Web.
Commission, Warren. Report of the President’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy. National Archives and Records Administration, 1964. Web.
Ford, Gerald. President John F. Kennedy: Assassination Report of the Warren Commission. Nashville. Gerald Ford Signed Edition, 2005. Web.
Flemming, Laraine. Reading Keys. Boston. Cengage Learning, 2010. Web.
Genovese, Michael. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency. New York. Infobase Publishing, 2010. Web.
Livingstone, Harrison. The Radical Right and the Murder of John F. Kennedy: Stunning Evidence in the Assassination of the President. British Columbia. Trafford Publishing, 2004. Web.
McKnight, Gerald. The Single Bullet Theory. JFL Lancer. 2007. Web.
News, Dallas. ‘‘Old JFK documents may Stir Controversy”. Reuters, 2008. Web.
Spencer, Lauren. The Assassination of John F. Kennedy. New York. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2002. Web.
Yardum, Harry. The Grassy Knoll Witnesses: Who Shot JFK?. Indiana. Author House, 2009. Web.