John F Kennedy’s Rice Stadium Moon Speech Analysis
Since the industrial revolution, countries have been competing against each other to see who is the most advanced in medicine, technology, and education.In 1957, Russia successfully launched the first artificial satellite, this had started the space age and the United States of America and the U.S.S.R. space race. President John F Kennedy delivered the Rice stadium moon speech in hopes of persuading the American people to support NASA’s intention to send a space craft to the moon.
Kennedy attempts to do this by the use of syntax and ethos.
Kennedy begins by trying to establish credibility with his student audience by the use of ethos. Kennedy is made an “honorary visiting professor” and states that his “first lecture will be very brief”. By putting himself into the position of a professor, he tries to convey to his student audience that he will teach them something important and to open their minds to him. He then lists how humans have advanced learning to “use skins of animals to cover them” to developing “penicillin…television and nuclear power”.
By listing these advancements in mankind, Kennedy shows the audience his knowledge and gives them another reason to trust what he is saying. In gaining the audiences trust, Kennedy can easily persuade them to support NASA’s intentions of sending an aircraft to the moon.
The word choice and sentence structure Kennedy uses to deliver his speech helps to persuade American citizens to support NASA’s intentions. Kennedy uses phrases such as “10,000 automobiles…as tall as a 48 story structure… [and] as wide as a city block”. He uses lament terms to appeal to the commons man’s ballpark figure of everyday lengths and power. With better understanding of what Kennedy is saying, his student audience can support NASA with their acquired knowledge. He then states how his surroundings are “noted for” knowledge, progress, and strength. By his word choice he helps to instill a sense of pride for the homeland. This promotes nationalism among the audience and their desire for their country to be helpful.
Analysis of JFK Inauguration Speech
On Friday, 20 January 1961 freshly elected President John F. Kennedy delivered his Inauguration speech to the nation of America in the time of unpredictability and fear. Kennedy was the “youngest chosen president and the first Roman Catholic president”. Throughout this turbulent period the Cold War was at its peak and threats of nuclear power were building.To ease the rising stress constructing among the individuals Kennedy emphasizes optimism and idealism in his speech. In doing so, Kennedy hopes in “representing the United States as a force to be reckoned with while preserving tranquil worldwide relations with other nations”.
While many don’t believe it had an impact, John F Kennedy’s speech helped America pull through one of its darkest times.
At the time President Kennedy had huge shoes to fill. With increasing pressure coming from separate countries due to nuclear power the people of America are concerned now more than ever. Though with his charming ego and kindhearted technique, Kennedy was figured out to get his input through the people.
Simply put Kennedy was what America needed at the time, a savior. Not only that but with his dashing good appearances and significant household he was to some degree a good example. This speech was somewhat normal of Kennedy compared to other speeches of his. Like Kennedys “City upon a Hill”speech he tends to interest the individuals, as seen when he says “We need to always consider that we shall be a city upon a hill-the eyes of all people are upon us”. Kennedy is a credible speaker and this can be associated due to the truth that he had actually been giving effective speeches throughout his presidential campaign that ultimately convinced individuals to choose him and in due course win the governmental election.
Kennedy delivered his Inaugural Address before an audience of twenty thousand people and a televised audience of eighty million. The people of America were fearful because of the development and stockpiling of nuclear weapons. It was a very volatile time in history, with the country not far removed from WW2 and the Korean War. Though Kennedy felt that it wasn’t just the people of America but the people of the world he should address. He asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the “common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself”. Kennedy’s main responsibility was to represent the nation of America as one that was strong and was able to maintain peaceful international relations. Though Kennedy is just truly attempting to emphasize optimism and idealism since the nation is in such panic and hysteria.
The focal point of Kennedy’s speech was the relationship between duty and power. This was highlighted with Kennedy’s vivid usage of juxtaposition. In the first part of the speech Kennedy states in the second passage, “…Man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life”. This appeals to the idea of shifting towards peoples values and affluence. The use of tropes can also be spotted within the text.
Kennedy overemphasizes the strength of America by the use of hyperboles. By exaggerating and saying that America can “pay any price” or “bear any burden,” Kennedy generates a perception of pride in the reader for his or her country. One of the most famous lines ushered by Kennedy in his inaugural speech was the use of chiasmus when he says “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country”. Kennedy’s use of ethos is attributed to much of this because of his trustworthiness and credibility as a speaker. This gives Kennedy authority since his use of rhetoric establishes him as a good character that can appeal to the public
Kennedy’s Inaugural Address was obviously much more than any regular speech given by a president in office. Kennedy’s commitment to insure freedom to countless civilians possibly encouraged him to “escalate the U.S. involvement in the war in Vietnam”. This is foreshadowing for what is to become the cold war and one of the” longest and costliest wars”. Although today Kennedy is remember more for his notoriety and assassination, many forget how big a mark his inaugural speech left upon the world. Kennedy envisioned and urged change for the better. Former president Harry S Truman told journalists that history would remember it as “One of the greatest speeches of all time”. If not for Kennedy’s speech, relations with America and other countries would be in turmoil and chaos. History is essential to why John F Kennedy and his inaugural speech in office were so influential to his administration and in turn the rest of the 20th century.
- “John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address. U.S. Inaugural Addresses. 1989.” John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address. U.S. Inaugural Addresses. 1989. Bartleby Bookstore, 2 Aug. 2007. Web. 16 Dec. 2013.
- Antecelli, Nathan M. “Home.” Our Documents -. The Peoples Vote, 17 Mar. 2001. Web. 15 Dec. 2013. “USA Presidents.” USA-Presidents.Info. Ezoic, 2004. Web. 21 Dec. 2013.
- Mehltretter, Sandra M. “John Fitzgerald Kennedy, “Inaugural Address” (20 January 1961).”John Fitzgerald Kennedy, “Inaugural Address” (20 January 1961). The Pennsylvania State University, n.d. Web. 21 Dec. 2013.
A New Generation John F Kennedy is about President John F Kennedy
The book John F. Kennedy and a New Generation is written by David Burner and released by Little Brown, Boston in 1988. David Burner is a Teacher in the Department of History in State University of New York. Teacher Burner research study interest includes social history of US. He is currently dealing with a job with patty Limerick about colonialist ladies. His other publications consist of “A History of Democratic Celebration (1970 ), A History of Presidential Elections (2002 ), Checking Out from Settlement to restoration (1998) and Making Peace with the 60s (1997 ).
His book A Brand-new Generation John F Kennedy is about President John F Kennedy affection that can be seen throughout the book. Despite the fact that critics have actually pointed out many imperfections about Kennedy, Burner instead focuses on Kennedy leadership and his accomplishments throughout his life. Burner mentions that Kennedy appealed to various segment of public for his style, looks and achievements that formed the basis of his support. For example he won the support of Jews, Asians and Hispanic and other blue-collar democrats providing them a guarantee of American dream as he himself had immigrant background.
Burner explores the controversies consisting of success and failures of Kennedy life and how it formed American awareness. He offers much deeper discussion of Kennedy both as a private and as a leader permitting readers to analyze the changes that formed the American political system throughout 1950s and 1960s, and how Kennedy created a greater wish for every American. The author points out a number of occasions and incidents from the time and how Kennedy was influential altering the course of history.
For example the Cuban missile crisis tested the leadership of president leadership when Kennedy threatened making use of nuclear arms in the wake of Cuban Objective crisis in 1962. The marine blockade bought by Kennedy showed effective and the negotiation with Russia ended peacefully. Another event Burner points out is the rough end of state sponsored racial discrimination, which Kennedy brought to an end by supporting racial integration and civil liberties movement. Kennedy was also eager to see US leader of the area race.
It was JFK speech in Rice University in September 1962 where he mentioned, “No nation can expect to be the leader of the other nations. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do other things not because they are easy, but because they are hard”. Kennedy approached Khrushchev for cost sharing the technology. Kennedy approved a huge sum of $22 billion to launch American Space Project and Apollo goal was finally realized when Neil Armstrong became the first American to land on moon. Bruner discuss the charm of Kennedy and his wife who were more popular than pop stars and movie stars.
One main reason was their good looks and charm that was often photographed by magazines and set the changing fashion trend. Kennedy’s even changes the White House environment from a bleak house to lively and house of mirth and joy. They believed that White House should be place of American History, arts and culture. They invited various artists, writers, and scientists including noble laureate which made White House a livelier place. Despite all the good points which burner has mentioned, the book ignores the bed sheet and fashion stories were associated with Kennedy.
Kennedy is well known for his history of extra marital affairs including involvement with Marilyn Monroe do not suit a sitting president. Burner did not talk about these issues, even though it has no thing to do with his professional life, yet such incidents were part of Kennedy should have been discussed. Burner has mentioned on several occasions the influence of Kennedy in the domestic and international affairs including the civil rights; however the view of Burner is more of only glorification of the Kennedy.
Even though Kennedy is the most popular President of the United States; but critics argue that his reputation is overrated. He was young and charming; but he was unable to achieve any thing major in his lifetime. Kennedy popularity is based on optimistic beginnings on various domestic and international issues. Critics mention that the popular Civil Right Act was envisioned by his brother Robert Kennedy and was signed by President Johnson in 1964 that was Kennedy successor. Kennedy did not disclose the severity of his health condition.
He was believed to have Addison disease that is tantamount of failure of professional integrity. He is considered to be the unhealthiest man to sit in the oval office. While other the Addison disease he was also suffering from an extreme backache from childhood added with various kinds of infections. There is also criticism about his domestic politics that Burner has ignored in his book. For example Kennedy tried to appease Southern Democrats by stocking the lower federal bench with segregationists who did not live up to the mark he was advocating.
It is believed that by making attorney general he tried to form a political dynasty that the Founding Father did not advocate. However Vietnam is considered his greatest mistake, where during his time US intervention in Vietnam increased and Kennedy authorized a coup absent the Diem; while dictator general overtook the power which further aggravated the situation in Vietnam.. Even though it was in fact Johnson who made his own mistakes by over involving and bombing the Vietnamese excessively, but the game was started by Kennedy and it was not easy to backup.
The people who supported war become protestor calling the American administration immoral. Even though Kennedy assignation fueled the Vietnam cause as his untimely death became martyrdom, but Vietnam was blunder that cost US a lot in time money and human life. Had Kennedy not intervened in the Vietnam there would have no loss of time, money and American lives in an unethical war that continued for decades without any outcome.
In the case of Cuban Missiles Crisis, it is mentioned that Kennedy went too far and the world was standing at the brink of a nuclear war due Kennedy antagonism. Had the Russian not backed off, there was every possibility of end of the world. For his supporters he his aggressiveness increased US role in international affairs, but for his opponents it was not sane for president to resort to Nuclear weapons as a last choice. Kennedy critics often label him as youthful charmer with little substance especially by conservatives.
And it is often done to minimize his efforts about Civil Rights and international affairs, but the truth is Kennedy was a man of vision. He initiated many new debates in American Society that was unthinkable in his time. Even though most his policies were achieved by his successors; as he was not able to see his vision fulfilled due to his untimely death, the credit still goes to him. Had he not been able to think ahead of time; many things would have been delayed.
For example his plan for landing a man on moon was mega project, which took place ahead of the decade. The landing on moon not only increased US prestige in the world, but it also boosted US military technology and power that continues till today. The Vietnam War was mistake but the same mistake can be seen today in the case of Iraq War. The people who initially supported Iraq War now are chanting against the current administration; there are always opposite views regarding any issue.
Kennedy advocated the Civil Right Movement at a time when country was divided; and there was division among his own members, but he took the stance and even called the Martin Luther Jr wife to show his affiliation for a just cause. Though Johnson signed the bill, but it was Kennedy who took a step ahead in a difficult time for which he is worth praise. The book is good for people who have no knowledge of Kennedy as a President; however Burner has not justified his role as writer by discussing his dark side that could have made Kennedy more of a man rather a mythical figure.
Reference David Burner, (1988). John F. Kennedy and a new generation. Boston: Little, Brown Robert l Bartley, (February 26, 2001). Coolidge deserves more praise. Retrieved July 8, 2006, Web site: http://www. opinionjournal. com/columnists/rbartley/? id=85000640 SUNY SB Department of History -Faculty Page- David Burner. Retrieved July 8, 2006, Web site: www. sunysb. edu/history/faculty Stephen G. Rabe, (2000). John F. Kennedy and Cuba, November 1962 to November 1963. Presidential Studies Quarterly. 30,
Presidential Rhetoric The Speech Analysis
For the modern American president, the ability to be an effective public speaker can make all the difference in terms of the perception of the intelligence of any given commander-in-chief of the most powerful nation on earth. The value of this talent is also highly desirable among employers in the private sector as well. Politically speaking, the skill of orators has been seen as essential in written accounts dating back to days of the ancient Greeks, Romans and Egyptians (Lucas, 2008).
It is with the inaugural addresses of two of America’s most beloved modern presidents in mind that this paper will discuss rhetoric, speaker’s purpose, and personal opinions as well.
President Barack Obama Inaugural Address: January 20th, 2009 To begin, it is possible to find both the most recent inaugural address and an address from one of the 21st century’s most popular presidents in one. On January 20, 2009, President Barack Obama delivered an inaugural speech to a nation on the brink of financial chaos, facing threats from rogue nations and terrorist groups, and dealing with moral decay from all sides.
Rhetorically, there was an attempt in this speech to sell the American people on undertaking the massive amount of work that lie ahead in helping the nation recover from its many problems and issues, but the absence of specific examples of ways this could be accomplished took away from the potency of the rhetoric. Because of both the audience and the situation, Obama spoke of a “crisis” facing America, while still reassuring the average American that brighter days would eventually prevail. Overall, Obama’s inaugural speech was long on style, but short on substance. President John F. Kennedy Inaugural Address: January 20th, 1961
Nearly half a century before president Obama delivered his inaugural speech to the American people and indeed the entire world, President John F. Kennedy did the exact same thing, but in closer examination, was more effective in doing so. First, a look at the rhetoric of Kennedy in his speech; simply put, Kennedy was attempting to sell the American people on the idea that for all of the challenges that America faced at the time of his inauguration- the threat and rivalry of communism, a transition of power from one generation to the next, and the protection of American interests across the globe.
Kennedy achieved his rhetorical objective with the use of power phrases such as “ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man” and “the energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it”. These types of words were chosen given the fact that the target audience for the speech would be the working generation of Americans, in whose hands the future of the nation was placed with the occasion of Kennedy’s election.
Overall, there is compelling evidence to fairly argue that the purpose of the speech- to revive, protect and rebuild America- was accomplished. A Comparison of the Speakers Generally speaking, both the inaugural address of Obama and that of Kennedy are inspiring in their own ways. Obama used words such as “hope”, “promise” and “bold and swift action” to reassure Americans that there were possible remedies for the economic, social and military problems facing the nation, delivered by a man who exudes confidence, youth and power.
While the same can be said of Kennedy’s delivery and choice of powerful words, the speech of Kennedy appears to be of a higher caliber, for while Obama speaks in generalities and platitudes, Kennedy lays out specific tasks to complete, such as space exploration, protection from communist oppression, and the like. In the final analysis, it would appear that public speaking must have style as well as substance. An Opinion on American History Taking into account the inaugural addresses of both Obama and Kennedy, it is possible to make a personal assessment of which time in American history the researcher would like to be a part.
Judging strictly from the inaugural addresses, it would seem that the time of the Kennedy presidency would be the preferable time in which to live for a variety of reasons. First, the very presence of Kennedy as a public figure was quite inspiring based on the youth, vigor and power he portrayed, giving weight to the assertion that the messenger is often as important as the message itself (Lucas, 2008). This is not to say that the message was not inspiring as well, for the challenge posed for Americans to embark on new endeavors and lead the nation in an exciting new direction are convincing reasons to embrace this period in American history.
Conclusion As this research has shown, presidential inaugural addresses have inspired Americans for generations, reflecting a tradition in public speaking which is thousands of years old. Moreover, in the hands of a skilled orator, the right speech can quite literally change history. Therefore, in conclusion, what should be taken away from this paper is the importance of speeches as well as the speakers who deliver them. Works Cited Lucas, S. E. (2008). The Art of Public Speaking, 10th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Analysis of the 1960’s Civil Rights Movement
In the era of the 1960’s America faced problems which new to the country. Problems like antiwar rallies, civil rights movements, and assassinations of some of the greatest men that ever made an impact on society. The horror of the Vietnam War spreading through the nation from media, and the continuous fight to have equality was just too much for some. The 1960’s brought even the President of The United States to his knees. The 1960’s had many changes in the goals, the strategies, and the civil rights movement throughout America.
This era was at the very least a struggle and a heart wrenching time. With Vietnam came the demise of the draft and Lyndon Johnson’s Civil Rights Act brought major changes to America. Many men burnt and refused to accept the idea of fighting, what many thought, as an unnecessary war. With so many people against the war in Vietnam, rallies even in the nation’s capital were known.
This antiwar spark led to a new kind of political activism and political rallies that still have an impact today. The most lasting political effect was the change in the voting age from 21 to 18. This allowed soldiers being drafted in Vietnam to have a say in the way the government they were fighting for was run. Though hard to see, the war not only powered the sixties, but the civil rights movement. As the Vietnam War sparked, this brought about a change in Civil Rights more than anything. With African American leaders such as Martin Luther King and Malcolm X fighting for civil rights for African Americans, this small group started to become more equal citizens in the eyes of the government. The Civil Rights movement came to a head during the 1960’s, after much work in the 1950’s, and the effects are still being felt today. In Document A from the SNCC in April of 1960, the idea of nonviolence was the main source of progress.
“Through nonviolence, courage displaces fear; love transforms hate.” This idea of fighting with no violence was pushed by Martin Luther King, a leader that even John F. Kennedy respected. Kennedy, in a television and radio report told fellow Americans: “Next week I shall ask the Congress of the United States to act, to make a commitment it has not fully made in this century…” This act to change what had for years frightened American was beginning to change. As Martin Luther King wrote from the Birmingham jail in 1963, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” He was a minister above being a leader, and this lead him to greatness; a greatness that ended all too quickly. 1968, this was the year that brought the simmering decade to a fire.
Although Civil Rights legislation was passed, the non-violent Civil Rights movement was becoming more violent by 1968. Americans were speechless as they listened, and watched President Johnson announce his refusal to accept nomination for re-election. This refusal was interpreted by most Americans as ‘throwing in the towel’, and giving up. This caused much political anxiety in the country, and across the world in Vietnam. 1968 is also remembered as the year that saw the assassinations of Martin Luther King, and Robert Kennedy; two Americans that had set out to help raise the country that was close to its crumbling point. In the 1968 election, Richard Nixon seemed to be the solution in times that needed a savior; he beat out the completion of both the Democratic and Independent party.
The heart wrenching moments that make up the year of 1968 were coming to an end. The 1960’s had a rollercoaster of changes. Americans seemed to forget what they were fighting for. These ten years haunt and hang over the American people in every way. The many that endured what seemed like countless years of fighting in Vietnam, only to come home to an unthankful people; the ones that stood up for equality and civil rights, only to get pushed back down, those many and few are the 1960’s. Those many and few show the goals, the strategies, and the support of this era. Those Americans are the heart break and the stories of the past.
John F. Kennedy Assassination
On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder. It is believed that Lee Harvey Oswald was not the only one involved with the crime. There are countless theories on how President Kennedy was murdered. Some of the theories include the FBI, CIA, and the mob being involved. The Warren commission said that they believe that it was solely Lee Harvey Oswald who killed President Kennedy.
Most of the evidence shows that Lee Harvey Oswald could not be the only one involved.
John F. Kennedy was the fourth United States President to be assassinated. Even today, there remains tremendous debate on who was responsible for the murder of Kennedy. The assassination of President Kennedy has started many different conspiracy theories about who was involved with the murder.
President Kennedy wanted to travel to Dallas, Texas to help strengthen his vote for the upcoming election and also to gain more Democratic Party members.
Before Kennedy went on the trip there was some concern about a sniper being on top of a building. President Kennedy also made comments before he was killed about his safety in a convertible car. The car President Kennedy was driving in was a 1963 Lincoln Continental open top limo.
Sergeant Davis of the Dallas police department was the one who made sure the city was secure whenever any President or foreign leader came to Dallas. The secret service agent who was responsible for the planning of the Kennedy motorcade was Winston Lawson. Lawson told Sergeant Davis not to allow any police officers to follow the president’s car.
It was standard procedure for the police to secure the perimeter when any president came to Dallas. Jessy Curry who was the chief of police said that if the cops were allowed to secure the area, then the murder could have been stopped. The cops who would normally secure the area have submachine guns and rifles.(Harrison Edward Livinstone, “High Treason 2 – The Great Cover-Up:The Assassination of John F. Kennedy” (1992) Hardback)
The original plan was to go from the Love Field Airport to downtown Dallas and Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was supposed to give a speech at the Dallas Trade Mart. Kennedy’s car did not have a bullet proof top, because they did not have anything invented at the time. At 12:30 President Kennedy’s limo went towards the Texas School book depository. Then the car turned right in front of the building and was only 65 feet away.
The car was going 13 miles per hour and then slowed down to 9 miles per hour. Once the car passed the building the shots rang out. A man named Abraham Zapruder was right in front of the limo when it was being shot at. Zapruder was filming as the shooting took place. Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally were both shot.
John Connally was riding in the same car as Kennedy and was sitting in the passenger seat in front of the president. Governor John Connally was in critical condition but he survived. There was also another person that was just watching the motorcade that was injured from debris when the bullet hit a curb. (David S. Lifton, “Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy”)
Lee Harvey Oswald had been arrested for the killing a Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged for killing President Kennedy and officer J.D. Tippit. Whenever Oswald was questioned about the shooting of President Kennedy he denied everything. There was a twelve hour interrogation of Lee Harvey Oswald and no recordings or notes were taken. Oswald said that he wasn’t involved and that he was just a patsy. Two days after the assassination, Lee Harvey Oswald was shot by Jack Ruby. Oswald was in police custody at the time of the shooting. Jack Ruby posed as a reporter who was trying to ask Oswald a question.(The Assassination of JFK 19 June 2005 )
The gun that was used was an Italian Manlicher-Carcano rifle. The rifle was found at the Texas School Book Depository on the sixth floor. When the police officers found the gun they recorded everything. The rifle is said to be the same gun that was used in the assassination. There was a bullet on the Connally’s stretcher and it was fired from the gun that the police had found. Lee Harvey Oswald purchased the gun under the fake name of Alek James Hiddell. (The Assassination of JFK 19 June 2005 )
President Kennedy was announced deceased at the emergency room. The surgeons at the hospital said that Kennedy had absolutely no chance for survival. Dr. George Burkley came to the hospital shortly after the president was shot and looked at the head wound and said that it was the cause of death.
A priest came to give President Kennedy his last rites. Lyndon B. Johnson who was the vice president was the next person to become president. Lyndon B. Johnson was riding in a car behind Kennedy. Lyndon B. Johnson went through the procedure to become president while he was on Air Force One. (The Assassination of JFK 19 June 2005)
Once Air Force One had landed, an autopsy was performed at Bethesda Naval Hospital. The autopsy report said that Kennedy had been shot in the head and in the shoulder. Reports of the autopsy were incorrect and did not match up. It is said that Dr. James J. Humes probably destroyed the autopsy report and notes that were taken during the autopsy. The measurements that Dr. James J. Humes took were inconsistent and not exact.
The autopsy reports were not shown to the Warren Commission. The people who handled the autopsy records did not keep track of how many pictures were taken. It is also said that the pathologists were not experienced enough to handle Kennedy’s body in the first place. Kennedy’s neck was not looked at to determine how the bullet entered and exited. After the autopsy Kennedy’s body was embalmed and was put into the white house for the public to see. The body was removed from the white house and buried in Arlington National Cemetery. (David S. Lifton, “Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy”)
There was also no recordings or radio coverage of the assassination. All of the news crews were waiting at the trade Mart for Kennedy and not in Dealey Plaza. There was some news crews riding with the Kennedy motorcade, but they were in the very back. The only recording of the murder was from Abraham Zapruder’s camera.
Many individuals took still pictures of the shooting also. The Zapruder film shows Kennedy’s head moving forward and then backwards. The Zapruder film was shown on television, but was edited a lot. More recently, in 2003 ABC News drew Dealey Plaza in three dimensional computer models.(David S. Lifton, “Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy”)
The government is doing a good job in preventing records of the Kennedy assassination from becoming publicly available. In 1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson made the Warren Commission findings to be kept from public viewing. Johnson said that the documents cannot be seen by the public for 75 years, which would be until 2039. Covering up all of the records, leads more people to believe that there is indeed a conspiracy involved with the death of President Kennedy. Congress established the “President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992”.
Congress made the act so that people could see the records earlier and they also felt that there was not a need to keep the records from public eyes. The act says that any document that has not been lost of destroyed must be given to the public by 2017. Many documents have already been opened, but the majority still remains locked away. All of the original evidence and material cannot be released, because it was lost or destroyed. Some import pieces of evidence that were neglected are; the Governor of Texas’s suit being dry cleaned, the limo being cleaned, and Lee Harvey Oswald’s Marine service file being lost. (Josiah Thompson, “Six Seconds in Dallas” (1976 Paperback))
There was a paraffin test conducted on Lee Harvey Oswald’s right cheek and hands. The purpose of the test was to tell if Oswald had fired a weapon. The paraffin test came out positive, but the Warren commission said the data was inaccurate.
The first people to conduct an investigation were the FBI. The director of the FBI said that he wanted something to convince the public that Lee Harvey Oswald was the only one involved with the assassination. The FBI report took 17 days to complete and was given to the Warren Commission. The FBI assisted the Warren Commission. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission said that there were only three shots fired from the rifle that Lee Harvey Oswald had. The House Select Committee Investigated the FBI’s results.
The committee concluded that the FBI did not investigate whether or not President Kennedy was involved in a conspiracy and also that they did not give their data to other law enforcement agencies. James Hosty was an FBI agent who name appeared in Jack Ruby’s address book. The FBI made another copy of the address book and erased James Hosty’s name out of it and then gave it to the Warren Commission. Before the assassination took place, Lee Harvey Oswald went to the FBI office so that he could meet with James Hosty. Hosty was not in his office when Oswald had arrived, so Oswald left a note for him. When Oswald was murdered by Ruby, James Hosty destroyed the note by tearing it up and flushing it down the toilet. (Josiah Thompson, “Six Seconds in Dallas” (1976 Paperback))
When the Warren Commission completed their report many people questioned it and did not believe its findings. Many people have written books and articles disproving what the Warren Commission had said. In 2003 ABC News did a poll to see what the public thought about the John F. Kennedy assassination. The poll said that seventy percent of the people think that there is a plot involved with the murder of Kennedy.
Around seventy to ninety percent of the American people did not believe the Warren Commission’s findings. Even government officials that worked for the Warren Commission said that they did not completely believe the commission’s results themselves. The House Select Committee on Assassinations said that the Warren Commission and the FBI failed to investigate who else could have been with the murder. The committee also said that the main reason for the lack of information and results were due to the Warren Commission not communicating with the CIA. (Gerald Posner, “Case Closed” (1993 Hardcover, 1st Edition))
The House Select Committee determined that President Kennedy was killed because of a conspiracy. Their results went directly against the Warren Commissions and were the complete opposite. The HSCA said that four shots were fired and Lee Harvey Oswald was not the only one who did the shooting. Lee Harvey Oswald has shot 3 shots and another gunman had fired the other shot from behind the fence on the grassy knoll.
The grassy knoll theory has came from acoustic evidence and many different witnesses. In 2001, an article by D.B. Thomas stated that the HSCA’s second gunman theory was right. The Assassination Record Review Board said that the autopsy of John F. Kennedy was a tragedy. (David S. Lifton, “Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy”)
The majority of the evidence involved with the John F. Kennedy assassination was mishandled and not dealt with the way it should have been. Since most of the evidence was lost and is locked away, its leads people to further believe in a conspiracy theory. The murder of John F. Kennedy shows that the government has not served its people in a righteous manner. They have lied, covered-up, and twisted things so much that it will never be possible to find out who was really involved with the murder.
The government has violated the right of its own people. If the government took the time to correctly gather all of the evidence and look at all the aspects of the murder, than there would not be so much mystery surrounding the murder today. The government had violated the Kennedy family’s 14th amendment. The 14th amendment and the due process of law were violated, because the Government failed to do a proper investigation of the assassination. The Kennedy family was not provided with a thorough and correct investigation of the murder. The government should have been a lot more accurate and involved with the investigations its agencies performed.
Analysis of John F Kennedy’s Inagural Address
Inaugural addresses are extremely important and usually set the tone for how a president will be in office. It is the first speech that the new President delivers as being President in the office. Around the world people tune in to watch American presidents present their speech and listen to their presidential goals. John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, gave one of the most famous and quoted inaugural addresses. President John Fitzgerald Kennedy began his term of presidency for the United States of America on January 20th 1961.
During this time America was fairly happy and peaceful. American citizens were excited to have a young president and were hopeful for the future (McAdams). However, communism was stirring up, especially in Russia and Americans were nervous and frightened. They feared that communism was going to be a direct threat to our American democracy (McAdams). President John F. Kennedy delivered a memorable inaugural address through sentence structure, diction and content to prove to American’s that he would protect his country from communism.
With confidence and pride he impacted Americans with his hopeful persona. During his speech John F. Kennedy delivered powerful declarations enabling Americans to trust him. He also requested for citizens to work together proving that together, as a nation, American’s would live together in a peaceful country. John F. Kennedy presented his inaugural address on the Capitols West Front immediately after taking the presidential oath of office. Hundreds of Americans stood in front of John F. Kennedy at the capitol, while even more people watched on their televisions and listened in on the radio (Simkin).
Many people were looking up to the President because the cold war was occurring during this time and communism was a huge issue. John F. Kennedy delivered his inaugural address to people listening all over the world. He had a hopeful persona through his address that enlightened Americans and brought them trust. He provided hope for the nation when he said, “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty” (Kennedy).
His sentence structure through out this statement allowed him to keep his hopeful persona like when he said, “bear any burden”, “meet any hardship” and “support any friend. ” These short promises made him sound believable and people could trust him. John F. Kennedy’s sentence structure by using short promises and the use of “any” made him seem ready to take on anything that came at him. Also his repetition of “any” enforced his power because it made him seem confident and ready to begin his job as president.
His confidence resulted in his hopeful persona for the country, allowing citizens to put their trust into him to take over in office. John F. Kennedy’s inaugural speech was the fourth shortest address but it was filled with numerous powerful declarations (Chew). He refers to malevolent dictators of the past saying, “those who foolishly sought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside” (Kennedy). John F. Kennedy also later said, “To assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty” (Kennedy). He used diction in his speech to make powerful declarations to the audience.
He used metaphorical expressions that were impacting which resulting in some of his best appeals made to the audience. These declarations were powerful because talking about dictators in the past visibly shows his intentions of becoming a present figure on the international level. That metaphor also caught people’s attention because he called out the dictators, stating what they did wrong as leaders. This was powerful to citizens because he proved that he was knowledgeable about being a leader and he would not make the same mistakes as previous leaders.
The use of diction with his second metaphor was also a powerful declaration because John F. Kennedy used this metaphor as an oath to southern nations for a goal of liberation. He used figurative language to direct this quote towards the southern nations and made his goal clear the he wanted to bring them liberation. With this metaphor it is also apparent that John F. Kennedy believes the injustices of the past will not be repeated freely. The use of his diction kept the audience entertained and it also impacted them because the metaphors were powerful and direct. Not only did John F.
Kennedy make a pledge to the southern nations, but through out his speech he also reached out to all of America. John F. Kennedy was focused on bringing America together as one and made that evident during his campaign and inaugural address. During this speech is when he spoke his famous words, “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country” (Kennedy). These words resulted in one of the most quoted statements made during an inaugural address, not to mention one of the most famous quotes ever made by an American president (Chew).
John F. Kennedy used content in this statement to appeal to his audience. Here he asks Americans to draw upon themselves and take responsibility. If they want something to get done, they should not just look at the government; instead take the initiative to solve the problem. This content strikes as influential because he is requesting that Americans get involved with their country. John F. Kennedy is declaring that he will not be able to fight off communism alone. Nor will the government be able to fight off communism entirely.
It will take every citizen to work together in order to beat communism and save America’s democracy. John F. Kennedy is encouraging citizens to take some pride in being an American and help out the nation so they can improve America and make it be the best country it can be. America was an idyllic country when John F. Kennedy swore into office, it was peaceful and people were excited about their new young president. However people were concerned of the cold war and communism (Simkin. John F. Kennedy did not want his fellow Americans to be worried; he wanted to bring them together as one so everyone felt safe (McAdams).
On the twentieth of January in 1961, John F. Kennedy delivered one of the most famous inaugural addresses (Simkin). He used sentence structure, diction and content to prove to American’s that he would protect his country from communism. With confidence and pride he impacted Americans with his hopeful persona. During his speech John F. Kennedy delivered powerful declarations enabling Americans to trust him. He also requested for citizens to work together proving that together, as a nation, American’s would live together in a peaceful country.
Throughout time speeches have allowed the ideas and the voices of people to be heard. It has allowed action to have started and awareness for others. Through a speech an underlying message is present and the distinctive voice allows this message to be heard. In this assignment I have talked about eight speeches and the way their distinctive voice reflected their ideas about various issues.
Martin Luther King ‘I have a dream’
“I have a dream” are the famous words stated by Martin Luther King Jr.
on August 28th, 1963 in civil rights movement speech. Although King expressed his feelings on that in 1963, his ideas directly reflect his life previous to the speech. Throughout his life, King devoted so much time to the civil rights movement due to his many limits by segregation laws as he was growing up, in addition to the many influences of both people and his religion throughout his life. As a result of Martin Luther King Jr.’s dedication, the blacks were given equality throughout the United States, and people were more encouraged to pursue their goals due to his great success.
Martin Luther King Jr.’s distinctive voice allows the audience to feel empowered to do something about inequality. His message is based upon his experiences and the sense of truthfulness runs through the entire speech. Due to his witnessing of harsh racial discrimination he became passionate to achieve his goal, and achieve it peacefully. Because of King’s work life became better for all people who heard his triumph. Overall his distinctive voice allows a connection with him and the suffering people as King truly was an amazing hero, expressing his complete feelings in the summer of 1963 with his famous words “I have a dream.”
Severn Cullis-Suzuki – Address to the Plenary Session, Earth Summit
The speech by Severn Suzuki to me was very impactual as it addressed the environmental issues that were/are present in 1992. Although we have changed our ways many of the environmental factors eg. “and now we here of animals and plants going extinct” are still happening today.
Severn Suzuki’s distinctive voice allows the audience to feel as though we have gone too far and the environment and it can’t take it anymore. Using a child to tell the speech shows that it’s not just effecting the adults in the world its effecting children and others. If we don’t stop doing these acts now the future will be very bleak for the future generations. Overall her distinctive voice allows the audience to become aware of what is happening in society and the effects of abusing the environment.
John F Kennedy – Inaugural Address
“We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning signifying renewal, as well as change.” In this speech JFK uses many features of political language to present his message. His aim to persuade voters is clear in the speech.
John F Kennedy’s distinctive voice allows the audience to become rapt in his speech. We are able to hear his passion about “human poverty” and “revolutionary beliefs” through his speech. Being president I believe that his distinctive voice allows him to address the public with his ideas of what should America be like. Overall his distinctive voice allows a connection with him and the fellow Americans. The audience can connect with what he is saying and therefore put their trust in him.
Jessie Street – ‘is it back to the kitchen’
Jessie Street was a main figure in Australian political history as she committed to fight for women’s struggle in England and to remove Australia’s constitutional discrimination against Aboriginal people in 1967. She is recognized in Australia and around the world for her fight in women’s rights, social justice and peace.
Jessie Street’s distinctive voice allows the audience to feel concerned for the discriminated groups that she fought for. We feel empowered to do something about inequality for both women and aboriginal people and aim to help those in need. to become part of a group to help those who are out-casted by society and therefore create a more equal community.
Eulogy to Princess Diana by Earl Charles Spencer
Earl Charles Spencer’s speech presented the audience with the idea of grief. Through the speech he talked highly of his sister through many times and how she will be missed dearly. “a symbol of selfless humanity.”
Earl Charles Spencer’s distinctive voice allow the audience to feel grief and sorrow for the family but also are able to feel great full for all the things that she gave to people and humanity throughout her life. We are positioned to feel awe in her greatness and sadness due to her departure. Overall his distinctive voice allows an in-depth study of her life and contributions while informing the audience that allow she will be missed greatly we will be able to think of her with fond memories.
Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India
Indira Gandhi fought hard for the reduction of poverty and the increase in India’s standard of living. This was clear in her speeches and the way she addressed the public. Throughout her life she fought hard for the reduction of poverty through speeches such as the “green revolution” until her death in 1984.
Indira Gandhi’s distinctive voice, although creating a fair bit of controversy allowed the Indian public to be heard due to the poor levels of living. Through her speeches she enabled change to occur helping those in need. Overall her distinctive voice allowed the audience to become aware of the extreme levels of poverty and therefore she created action with her underlying messages through her distinctive voice.
399 BC:’Apology of Socrates – Plato
Plato’s The Apology is an account of the speech Socrates makes at the trial in which he is charged with not recognizing the gods recognized by the state, inventing new deities, and corrupting the youth of Athens.
Plato’s distinctive voice allows the audience to feel as though Socrates has done the wrong thing. We are able to feel that he is sorry for worshipping fake gods although this is what he believes is right. Overall his distinctive voice allows an understanding into the thinking of Socrates at the time of worshipping the fake gods. We can see that this distinctive voice positions the reader to feel empathy for Socrates and therefore respond to the authors ideas that are present.
Barack Obama speech a more perfect union
In Barack Obama’s speech the ideas of equal citizenship and freedom are expressed. Similar to the speech by Martin Luther King Jnr. Obama’s ideals are present through his speech. He draws on his past experiences of his life and how he feels that America is the only place where an African American could become a country’s leader. “In no other country on Earth is my story even possible”.
Barack Obama’s distinctive voice allows the audience to connect to his story of overcoming white prejudice and becoming a beacon of light that represents that anybody no matter what color, ethnicity or cultural background can become an influential member in society. Overall his distinctive voice allows an understanding and connection to those who feel separated from society and therefore a link to a “more perfect union”
In conclusion meaning is shaped due to the understanding and knowledge of distinctive voice and the way certain aspects of the text are highlighted. Therefore the beliefs of the author are reflected through their speech which helps the audience to feel connected with the author and the speech’s ideas. Overall the each of the above speeches allows an in-depth analysis of the author and what they deem as worth fighting for.
Khrushchev and Kennedy
- 1 Khrushchev and Kennedy: Who Had the Biggest Corn Cob?
- 2 Work Cited
Khrushchev and Kennedy: Who Had the Biggest Corn Cob?
When asked to name 5 presidents off the top of their head prior to the 21st century, most of the American population would probably name John F. Kennedy as one of them. It appears that long after his assassination nearly 55 years ago, the reputation of the Kennedy administration is still dubbed as one of America’s greats.
Perhaps this has a great deal to do with his family’s popularity in the public eye and not the actual proceedings of his administration. Although John F. Kennedy is revered as being one of the most beloved presidents in American History, the blatant reality of his term in office is that of a counterproductive and increasingly immature presidency as shown from his foreign relations and internal command of the military during the hottest part of the cold war. The result of this brash presidency is one that had left a lasting impression on foreign and global relations for decades to come.
Before the dubbing of his power in office, Kennedy illustrated great intelligence on the subject of domestic allocation of funds (O’Brien). As part of the most recent wave of economists at the time, Kennedy was soon to enact his new domestic plan for public funding and tax cuts. In this, John F. Kennedy was able to decrease the unemployment rate by over 3% and reduce taxes for the common man. This was not the only progress he made; Kennedy also prompted the development of urban refurbishing projects, modern health care systems, and the promotion of the American arts. These domestic reforms, however, do not encompass the entirety of Kennedy’s term, rather they act as a lovely kind of fluff for the American people in order to cover up his international diplomatic shortcomings (Schlesinger). This being supposed, conflict between the United States and Russia during the cold war was unlikely to come to an end anytime soon specifically because of key interactions between Kennedy and Khrushchev.
Perhaps one of the most decisive interactions Kennedy had with the Soviet Union was, in part, the Vienna Summit, whereupon the Kennedy and Khrushchev discussed the happenings of the Berlin Crisis. The Berlin Crisis was a culmination of conflicts that began in 1950 between Soviet and Allied military blockade forces occupying the East and West blocs of Berlin after World War II. This engagement escalated greatly in the years of ’60 to ’61 when Soviet forces pushed further for the removal of the Allied militia. However, given the poverty rate and risk for yet another uprising in Berlin after World War two, Allies repudiated the situation until there were no other options. When British, French, and American militaries refused to quell the conflict, the Berlin Crisis ensued, and the Vienna Summit was arranged to meet the demands of both sides (Carmichael).
Prior to the Vienna Summit Khrushchev attempted on multiple occasions to meet with Kennedy. On February 22nd, 1961 he addressed Kennedy as such: “I hope it will be possible, before too long, for us to meet personally for an informal exchange of views” (Kempe). Khrushchev believed greatly that the affair of the Berlin Crisis and other foreign affairs could be settled quite easily if only Kennedy would speak to Khrushchev (Ashton). This meeting was entirely a failure: the poor negotiating diplomacy of the United States resulted in the building of the Berlin Wall (Kempe). Yet at this time in May of ?61, Kennedy addressed the funding of NASA as an “urgent national need”. By partaking in frivolous proxy campaigns rather than taking on Khrushchev directly, as recommended of his advisors, Kennedy attempted to divert the attention of the Soviets. In this, astonishing technological achievements were made at the expense of world peace with the series of competitive maneuvers by both Soviet and Non-Soviet forces called “The Space Race” (“Space Program”). However, this urgent need proved a flump, as in April of the same year, the Soviet Union had already launched the very first man in space during the Vostok Program which lasted from 1960-1963, resulting in the first woman in space in 64and the first space walk in 65. Thus illustrating Americas lag in aerospace technology behind the USSR more publically than ever (Hall and Shayler).
Rather than meet openly with Khrushchev, Kennedy diverted tactics away from USSR. Given the recent Laos affair in February, Kennedy pulled focus towards the newly emerging Third world countries (“Laos”). This tactic could also be seen in the Bay of Pigs incident on April 17th of the same year. In the Bay of Pigs Defeat, the US experienced a failed invasion of yet another Second world country, costing the United States government 54 million dollars and the embarrassing defeat of our own invasion from a Soviet-allied nation (“The Bay of Pigs”). To put that in perspective, the average gallon of milk at the time cost $0.47 whereas it now exceeds $3.11, putting those measly 54 million dollars now at an estimated 445 million given an 8.27 inflation increase from 1961 to 2018 (“National Retail Report-Dairy”). This incident not only negatively impacted external affairs, but also ignited a huge controversy involving the CIA when their ties to the Mafia were revealed. In the 1975 publication by the Church Committee in Senate, the CIA had insured a “monopoly on gaming, prostitution, and drugs” for the Mafia, thus shifting the American popular opinion on their own country and the overall morality standard that Britain and France held of the US (Church Committee).
Rather than learning from his mistakes in Laos and Cuba, Kennedy launched another set of forces to quell the “Soviet uprisings” in South East Asia in ?62. Through a series of events involving the 194th Armored Brigade and the second drafting of American men in the last 10 years – the Vietnam War began. Extending long after Kennedy’s era, the Vietnam Wars informal declaration initiated the brutally savage and utterly futile 13-year involvement of American forces against the Viet Kong (Wilson). The Vietnam War was so brutal that forty years later when the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs conducted the first National Longitudinal Study on the impacts of PTSD, 11% of the male and 9% of female populations still experienced PTSD. Of those who still experienced PTSD from the Vietnam War in 1987, they had double the risk for death unrelated to suicide than those who did not still carry PTSD. This is only one of the effects of Vietnam on the American soldiers and does not enter into the impact that violently opposed public opinions of the war, and the soldiers, had on the unity of the United States population. Further, consideration also needs to be afforded regarding the tremendous emotional, mental, and economic toll that the war took on the already poverty-stricken civilians of Southern and Northern Vietnam (US Department of Veterans Affairs).
On the contrary, instead of the diversions serving effectively to distract Khrushchev, Kennedy’s entertainment of such proxy wars only angered the USSR further. Kennedy’s actions then resulted in the Berlin Crisis of ?61 which prompted for the building the Berlin Wall. This wall did not just serve as a barrier between Soviet and Non-Soviet, but also a negotiating barrier between world superpowers that would solidify the relationship of Russia and the U.S. for years to come (Ashton). The “Iron Curtain”, as it were, set up the diplomatic wall between Russia, the United States, and even Cuba in the Missile Crisis of 1962. Rising closer and closer to mutual annihilation, the Cuban Missile Crisis breached a point that would scar worldviews for the next 55 years.
Robert Kennedy, John F. Kennedy’s brother, insisted that the President “did not want a military conflict” and felt as though he had done “everything possible to avoid a military engagement with Cuba and with the Soviet Union” (Robert F. Kennedy). However, RFK’s public position on the matter is far from the report Dobrynin, the Russian ambassador in Washington, gave to Khrushchev. In Dobrynin?s rather detailed report of his unofficial meeting with RFK, the string of events in the Cuban missile crisis seemingly had gotten so out of control that Kennedy was apprehensive about whether or not “the military would overthrow him and seize power” (Crankshaw). This, of course, was not a surprise as the aforementioned Jupiter Missiles already stationed in Turkey and Italy had undergone some extreme developments since 1957 (Hershberg). While the initial “OK” was given by Kennedy, plenty of military happenings were out of Kennedy’s hands in a time that required boundless attention to detail regarding military involvement. The extremity of the situation was especially highlighted after the fiasco that was the Crisis of Berlin and the attempted overthrow of Cuba with the Bay of Pigs Invasion (or lack thereof). The nearing doomsday, nevertheless, did not stop the Joint Chiefs of Staff from pushing for a more aggressive response to the missiles in San Cristobal, Cuba; military command was illustrating yet again how little input was needed from the president to control the balance of the American and Russian futures (“The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962”). It was in those final moments that Kennedy gave the final say. Kennedy chose to mend the wrongs he had made in the past 13 days. This decision would label America as the “peacemaker” of the event, thus undermining the blatant candor: America was the aggressor.
The entire year of ’63 had been filled with triumphs and tragedies in American civil rights. Kennedy and his close relations acted as a forefront of this in pushing for Civil Rights Act which was enacted in ’64 and the Equal Pay Act against gender discrimination. It is significant to note as well that Kennedy was not actually the one to carry through with these acts, rather, his predecessor Lyndon B. Johnson did – without any credit of course (LBJ). In spite of all of the failures of ’61 and ‘612, Kennedy served his last year on a high note for minorities across America, making him one of the most popular public figures in American popular culture. So, on November 22nd, 1964, when John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas the American people immortalized Kennedy’s administration in the 20th century – rivaling only Franklin Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan (A Nation in Upheaval, 1954-1975). Four days later, the United States people had very little to be grateful for that Thanksgiving, and so instead they made Kennedy a martyr.
Despite the many shortcomings in the first two years of his presidency, John F. Kennedy is still seen as one of the most beloved presidents in United Stated History. In swooning the American people with lavishing reforms, the vile impacts of war, invasion, and political intimidation were all but washed away. Modern society took a more optimistic view of his candidacy, seeking the brighter side of a very dark era in place of the harsh reality of the United States past. Indeed, his reforms set a precedent in American civil rights and public funding, but it cannot be refuted that the mistakes of the Kennedy administration resulted in an even worse precedent of cold foreign policy for the days nearing closer to the end of the Soviet Union. Thus, history has donned a sweeter coat in defense of Kennedys short term as president. After all, no one can steal from a dead man, not even his reputation.
- A Nation in Upheaval, 1954-1975.” American History, ABC-CLIO, 2018, americanhistory2.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/270426. Accessed 10 Oct. 2018.
- Ashton, N. (2002). Kennedy, Macmillan and the Cold War: The Irony of Interdependence
- Church Committee (20 November 1975). “Alleged assassination plots involving foreign leaders”
- Crankshaw, trans. and ed. by Strobe Talbott. (1970). Khrushchev Remembers. Boston: Little, n.d.
- Cuban Missile Crisis. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Presidential Library and Museum, www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/jfk-in-history/cuban-missile-crisis.
- Hall, Rex and David Shayler. The Rocket Men: Vostok & Voskhod, the first Soviet manned spaceflights. Springer, May 18, 2001.
- Hershberg, Jim. JFK and the Diem Coup: Declassified Records. National Security Archives, The George Washington University, Spring 1995, nsarchive2.gwu.edu//nsa/cuba_mis_cri/moment.htm.
- Kempe, Frederick. Berlin 1961. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 2011.
- Kennedy, Robert F., Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York: New American Library, n.d.
- Laos. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Laos.aspx.
- LBJ. Biography, LBJ Presidential Library, www.lbjlibrary.org/lyndon-baines-johnson/lbj-biography.
- National Retail Report-Dairy. Dairy Market News Branch, USDA, 16 Nov. 2018, www.ams.usda.gov/mnreports/dybretail.pdf.
- O’Brien, Steven. “John F. Kennedy.” American History, ABC-CLIO, 2018, americanhistory2.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/247203. Accessed 24 Nov. 2018.
- Poole, Walter S (2013), Adapting to Flexible Response, 1960“1968, Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense
- Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr (2002) . A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
- Space Program. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Space-Program.aspx.
- The Bay of Pigs. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, JFK Library, www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/jfk-in-history/the-bay-of-pigs.
- The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962. Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State, history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/cuban-missile-crisis.
- US Department of Veterans Affairs, and Veterans Health Administration. PTSD and Vietnam Veterans: A Lasting Issue 40 Years Later. Public Health, 7 May 2015, www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/publications/agent-orange/agent-orange-summer-2015/nvvls.asp.
- Wilson, John B. (1998). “XII: Flexible Response”. Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. United States Army Center of Military History.
About John F Kennedy
Kennedy became the very first person to announce the fight for the presidency in America in the 1960 elections. Given the fact that his whole dynasty was in the conductors. I respect him very much, only for the fact that he is one of the very first who advocated the equality of all religions. After, this speech, most newspapers, magazines and television channels announced support for Kennedy.
Of the first 200 people appointed by Kennedy to top government posts, about half were from the state apparatus, 18% were university professors, 6% were businessmen, which contrasted sharply with the staff of his predecessor Eisenhower administration, where and 42% are businessmen.
One of Kennedys priorities was the fight against criminal organizations, which was led by his brother Robert. Under the leadership of Robert Kennedy, the Office for Combating Organized Crime was created. The pursuit of criminals increased by 800%. In fact, under the guide of the Kennedy brothers, the structure of interaction between law enforcement services and mafia clans was broken down.
The Consumer Bill of Rights pushed for by John F. Kennedy fixed four basic rights; the proper to security, the proper to be told, the proper to decide on, and also, the right to be detected.
In 1985, the international organization another four additional rights to safeguard consumers: the proper to content of basic desires, the proper to recovery, the proper to shopper education, and also the right to a healthy setting. Consumer security compose of laws and organizations consigned to confirm the rights of shoppers, as listed higher than.
- 1 Proper to safety
- 2 Right to be knowledgeable
- 3 Right to choose
- 4 Right to Be Heard
- 5 Consumer safety
- 6 Consumerism
- 7 history of Consumerism
- 8 Modern-day Consumerism
- 9 Moral Consumerism
- 10 References:
Proper to safety
The proposition of this proper is aimed at the protection of consumers in opposition to injuries as a result of merchandise aside from automobile vehicles, and mean that products need to purpose no damage to their users if such use is performed as regulation. The customer Product safety commission (CPSC) has jurisdiction over thousands of commercial products, and powers that allow it to establish performance requirements, require product checking out and caution labels, call for immediate notification of faulty merchandise, and, whilst essential, pressure product recall.
Right to be knowledgeable
These proper states that corporations have to continually offer customers with sufficient suitable information to make shrewd and informed product picks. Product statistics provided through a business ought to constantly be complete and honest. This right aims to obtain safety against deceptive statistics within the areas of financing, advertising and marketing, labelling, and packaging.
Right to choose
The right to unfastened desire amongst product offerings states that consumers have to have a spread of options furnished by way of special groups from which to pick out. The federal authorities been taken many steps to make certain the availability of a healthful environment open to opposition via rules, such as limits on idea ownership through Patent regulation, prevention of monopolistic enterprise practices thru Anti-believe legislation, and the outlaw of price reducing and gouging.
Right to Be Heard
This right asserts the capability of customers to voice complaints and issues about a product so one can have the issue treated successfully and responsively. even as no federal company is tasked with the particular duty of providing a discussion board for this interplay between purchaser and producer, sure shops exist to useful resource consumers if trouble happens in communication with an aggrieving birthday party. nation and federal lawyer generals are equipped to resource their components in managing events who’ve provided a service or product in a manner unsatisfactory to the customer in contravention of an, relevant law.
To have access to primary, important goods and offerings: good enough food, garb, safe haven, fitness care, education, public utilities, water, and sanitation.
Even though purchasers have these rights, they are able to without problems be unnoticed. Thats wherein client safety comes in. consumer safety includes laws and corporations designed to make certain the rights of customers, as well as truthful exchange competition and the unfastened drift of straightforward information inside the market. The legal guidelines are designed to save you businesses that engage in fraud or distinctive unfair practices from gaining a bonus over competitors and can offer extra protection for the vulnerable and people unable to take care of themselves.
Agencies that sell purchaser safety include government corporations, individuals as client activism, and self-regulating commercial enterprise businesses, such as consumer protection businesses and groups, the Federal change fee, the better business Bureaus, and so forth.
Purchaser pastimes also can be protected by means of promoting competition inside the markets, which immediately and in a roundabout way serve clients, consistent with financial performance
Consumerism is a social and monetary order that encourages the purchase of goods and offerings in ever-extra quantities. The time period is often related to criticisms of intake starting with Thorsten Veblen. While the term consumerism is also used to consult the consumerists movement, consumer protection or purchaser activism, the point of interest of this segment relates to the first definition.
In economics, consumerism refers to monetary regulations that region emphasis on consumption. In an, summary experience, it’s miles the notion that the unfastened preference of consumers need to dictate the economic shape of a society (cf. Producers, specifically inside the British sense of term).
The time period consumerism turned into first utilized in 1915 to refer to advocacy of the rights and pastimes of customers (Oxford English Dictionary). Today the term consumerism more usually refers back to the, emphasis on or preoccupation with the acquisition of client goods (Oxford English Dictionary), a motion that emerged in the Sixties. This more cutting-edge conceptualization is primarily based on the writings of sociologist and economist Thorsten Veblen who lived at the turn of the 20th century. He coined the time period conspicuous intake to describe this seemingly irrational and confounding form of financial conduct. Veblens scathing inspiration turned into that useless intake is a form of repute display.
history of Consumerism
Consumerism these days is an international phenomenon. Humans buying goods and consuming substances in extra in their primary desires is as old as the first civilizations (e.g. ancient Egypt, Babylon and historic Rome).
The seeds of cutting-edge day consumerism grew out of the commercial Revolution. In the nineteenth century, capitalist improvement and the commercial revolution have been more often than not targeted on the capital goods quarter and commercial infrastructure. for instance, after gazing the assembly strains within the meat packing industry, Frederick Winslow Taylor brought his theory of clinical management to the enterprise of the meeting line in different industries; this unleashed tremendous productivity gains and decreased the prices of all commodities produced on assembly lines. Henry Ford and other leaders of enterprise understood that mass manufacturing presupposed mass intake.
Within the agrarian economic system, the operating lessons labored long hours and had little time for intake. At the same time, as formerly the norm had been the scarcity of resources, the economic Revolution created a brand new financial situation. After the economic Revolution, products were available in extraordinary portions, at low fees, being hence to be had to truly everybody. get entry to credit, in the shape of instalment payments aided in addition consumption.
Starting in the Nineties, the cause most often given for attending university had modified. Making a whole lot of cash outranked preceding motives together with becoming an authority in a, area or supporting others in issue. This purpose correlates with the rise of materialism, particularly the technological factor: the growing occurrence of mp3 players, virtual media, tablets and smartphones. Madeline Levine criticized what she saw as a massive alternate in American way of life; a shift away from values of network, spirituality, and integrity, and toward competition, materialism and disconnection.
Businesses have found out that rich purchasers are the most inviting objectives of advertising. Therefore, top elegance tastes, life, and options trickle right down to grow to be the standard for all customers. The not so wealthy customers then buy something new so one can speak of their location inside the lifestyle of affluence. A purchaser will have the instant gratification of buying an, costly item to improve social repute.
Emulation is likewise a middle factor of twenty first century consumerism. As a trendy trend, normal consumers searching for to emulate people who are above them inside the social hierarchy. The bad attempt to imitate the rich and the wealthy imitate celebrities and different icons. The superstar endorsement of products can be seen as evidence of the evocation of the desire of contemporary customers to buy merchandise in part or completely to emulate human beings of better social repute.
The rise in popularity of ethical consumerism over the last two decades can be linked to the rise of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) movement. As global population increases, so does the pressure intensify on limited natural resources required to meet rising consumer demand. Industrialization of developing countries, facilitated by technology and globalization is further straining these resources. Consumers are becoming more and more aware of the environmental and social implications of their day-to-day consumer decisions and are therefore beginning to make purchasing decisions based on environmental and ethical implications. However, the practice of ethical consumerism is in its nascent stages and far from universal.