Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

The Review of the Book Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Book Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, by J.K Rowling, was published by Scholastic in 1990, has 435 pages, and a reading level of 6.7 (MG). It’s Harry Potter’s third year at Hogwarts and he learns that the mass murder, Sirius Black, has escaped from the wizard prison, Azkaban. It is rumored that he was on the Dark Lord’s side, and of his intentions to kill Harry. Soon, Potter and Black come face to face, and the outcome isn’t what you would expect. Black has valid explanations, and the person who killed Harry’s parents is found. But, it is important to know, that he wasn’t found like any other, he was living with him and his best friends all along.

The book majorly takes place in Hogwarts Castle, in the early 1900s. It takes up the span of one year; it’s Harry’s third year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. The main characters are Harry Potter, Hermione Granger, Ron Weasley, Professor Lupin, Sirius Black, and Peter Pettigrew. The major conflict is to find Sirius Black, an escaped convict from the wizard prison Azkaban, and to protect Harry from him. IT is rumored that Black is on Voldemort’s side and means to kill Harry, the enemy of the Dark Lord. The rising action includes a lot of appearances of Sirius Black within Hogwarts and even inside Gryffindor tower, where Harry sleeps. The climax occurs when Harry, Hermione, and Ron follow the black dog down the Whomping Willow. They discover that the black dog was actually Sirius Black and that he is innocent and must have his name cleared and Pettigrew is to be blamed. The falling action is when Peter Pettigrew escapes and dementors come to suck Black’s soul. The resolution is when Harry and Hermione use the time turner to go back in time and save Sirius Black and help him escape. This is highly dangerous because if they were caught, huge suspicion would rise and they could be killed.

The majority of this book is set at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry castle. This is in the wizarding world, a world that only wizards and witches can see and interact in. Since Harry lived in London, he would go to the train station and use the platform numbered 9 ¾ to get on the Hogwarts Express, that would drop him to the school. The book is set in the early 1900s. But, like all of the other books, this book starts out with Harry at the Dursleys house. Harry doesn’t like the Dursleys at all. “Harry was bursting to say that he’d rather live in an orphanage than with the Dursleys, but the thought of the Hogsmeade form stopped him (24). This shows how Harry feels like living with the Dursleys is like being in prison. Another example of this is on page 44, “I always stay at Hogwarts for the Christmas and Easter holidays,” he said, “and I don’t ever want to go back to Privet Drive” (44). This is important to notice because this is what makes Harry feel like Hogwarts is his real home. He really likes it there, making him more attached to the place.

One example of simile used in this book is, “waxy skin stretches so tightly over the bones of his face, it looks like a skull”(339). I think the author did this to show how Azkaban has affected Sirius Black and how yet after all this suffering, he is conscious of everything and has a great sense of humor. An example of Irony in this book is Professor Trelawney’s prediction. On pages 106-107, Professor Trelawney makes a prediction that Harry has “the grim”, the worse omens of death. Professor McGonagall is sure that Harry looks in excellent health and she is not going to let him off homework. But, she adds, “I assure you that if you die, you need not hand it in [Homework]” (109). Professor McGonagall doesn’t realize the danger on Harry from Sirius Black’s escape. This irony is based on the fact that Professor McGonagall doesn’t seem to realize or grasp Harry’s danger seriously. I really enjoyed reading this book. It was very action packed and alluring, and I think any reader who enjoys that would like this book. In the middle, however, it did get very confusing as to who was where, because Harry and Hermione were essentially going back in time.

Readers who like stories that are action packed with fascinating plot lines, filled with adventure and uncertainty, showing thrilling events, with a tinch of mystery, and the ups and downs in friendship, this book is meant for you!

Works Cited

  • Rowling, J. K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Scholastic, 1999.
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Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, One of My Favourite Books

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is the third installment of the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling. The story focuses on Harry Potter, a student at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and his two best friends, Ron and Hermione on their quest to defeat Voldemort. In the Prisoner of Azkaban, Harry finds out that an escaped prisoner named Sirius Black is the man who betrayed Harry’s parents, Black’s friends, and revealed where they were hiding to Voldemort, who eventually murdered them. Harry and his friends set out to catch Black after Harry finds out he is his godfather, but it is revealed that a man named Pettigrew, another friend of Harry’s parents, betrayed them, and framed Black for the incident.

This book’s genre is fantasy and mystery, though more fantasy than the latter. Fantasy stories usually include magic, things that are purely fiction, and a conflict of good versus evil. This book includes all three of those characteristics. Magic being the main one, the majority of the characters are wizards or witches and are able to perform magic. The second characteristic, fictionalized elements, are also common in this book. For example, one of the main creatures featured is a Hippogriff, which is a fictional animal with the front half of an eagle and the second half of a horse.

Many people read this genre of books, and it’s one of my favorite genres. The main reason I like fantasy novels so much is because they transport you to another world and another life, where you can be a whole new person. Fantasy books create a new world where our laws, cultures, ways of life, etc. don’t apply; They offer an escape from reality and I think that that’s an aspect every fictional story should have. Another reason I generally read fantasy is because most of the stories have something really cool in them, like magic or dragons, or people who can transform themselves into any appearance.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is honestly one of the best books I have ever read and is definitely one of my favorites so far. I would rate this book a 10/10 because I really enjoyed the storyline, the new characters introduced, the mystery that takes place in this particular story, and J.K. Rowling’s writing style. In my opinion, the two books that preceded this one weren’t as good – I couldn’t really get into them as well as this one. I especially enjoyed the new characters, Remus Lupin and Sirius Black. Lupin is the new Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher for the year, and is also one of Harry’s parents’ friends. He and Harry quickly form a bond much closer than that of just a teacher and student, and it was pretty cool to read about from Harry’s perspective. Sirius Black was believed to be a murderer and was in prison at Azkaban for twelve years, when in reality he was framed and is a nice guy who wanted revenge on Pettigrew for what he did to two of his best friends. The mystery in this story is figuring out who Black really is and what events actually transpired. I really liked being able to read through it and piece it together – even though I already knew what happened because of the movie. Finally, the last thing that made me really enjoy this book is J.K. Rowling’s writing style. I really liked how she does commentary from Lee Jordan at the Quidditch matches, the way she writes Harry’s thoughts and the way he thinks, and how she brings back characters from the past, like Black and Lupin.

I would recommend this book to anyone who enjoys reading about magic, fictional creatures, and anything that helps them escape from the real world. I think anyone who read and liked the A Game of Thrones series by George R. R. Martin, The Hobbit, by J. R. R. Tolkien, or The Lord of the Rings series, also by J. R. R. Tolkien would very much enjoy this book. All of the books have things in common – some type of magic, mythical creatures, like dragons, and an escape from reality.

Works Cited

  • Characteristics of Fantasy and Futuristic Fiction. www.wcpss.net/cms/lib/NC01911451/Centricity/Domain/3924/Fantasy-Science Fiction versus Fantasy.doc.
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Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban by J. K. Rowling: Literary Analysis

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Book Analysis of Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

The title of my book is Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. The author of the book is J.K. Rowling. There are 435 pages in Prisoner of Azkaban. In Prisoner of Azkaban, the third book about the young wizard Harry Potter, is about Harry’s third year at the magical school Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizadry. Harry is the son of his parents who were killed by the dark Lord Voldemort. He lives with his Aunt and Uncle, and incredibly fat nephew, who despise him and magic. In this story, Harry finds himself returning to Hogwarts for his third year. This time a suspected murderer by the name of Sirius Black has escaped from the wizard prison of Azkaban. He is suspected of escaping and heading to Hogwarts to kill Potter. Because of this, the guards of Azkaban come to Hogwarts. They are known as Dementors and when around one, all your happy feelings and thoughts disappear. Also this year there is a new Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher and looks to fit the job unlike all the teachers before. Hagrid, the huge groundskeeper of Hogwarts and good friend of Harry and his friends, is also teacher. So once again Harry Potter and his best friends, Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley, are in another adventure. Hermione is a very smart girl who spends most of her time studying. Ron is the youngest son of the Weasleys, so everything he owns has been handed down from brothers down to him. His family is poor so nothing he owns is new. At Hogwarts, everyone suspects that Sirius is at the castle and evidence is showing up that begins to prove it. From the slashing of pictures to Ron actually seeing Sirius with a knife. Once again the trio decide to figure out what is going on. This leads to many happenings. In the end the mystery is solved and once again the end is unpredictable.

This was overall a great book. It was entertaining and interesting. One thing I liked about this book was that once again, this one was another mystery, which had me trying to figure out the end like the first two. Another is that J.K. Rowlings take on magic is very imaginative. In the world of Harry Potter there are shape-shifters, spell users, charm makers and so on and so forth. One more strength about Prisoner of Azkan is that there are many creatures that live in the world of Harry Potter. From dragons to hippogriffs(horse mix with eagle). Something not good about the book was that it was somewhat childish. Another thing about this book is it seems to be using the same methods of plot from the last two books. One more weakness I found is that its too short. I finished within a matter hours.

I would recommend this book to anyone who likes the subject matter of magic. This book appealed to me because I found myself smiling at all the main parts of the story and all the small parts.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is a good book and fun to read. It has good storyline, imaginative settings, and great characters. I am greatly looking forward to reading the next book and the upcoming release of the movie, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone.

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J. K. Rowling’s Description of the Grandfather Paradox as Illustrated in Her Book, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Thesis: The Grandfather Paradox is often misrepresented in works of literature and film. However, in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the paradox is represented fairly well with only a few errors.

The Grandfather paradox is commonly known as the myth of killing one’s grandparents in order to prevent his/her own birth. This paradox of time travel originates around the Great Depression and appeared in early works such as “Ancestral Voices by Nathaniel Scachner and Future Times Three by Rene Barjavel” (Grandfather Paradox 1). However, this paradox is not necessarily based on eliminating the possibility of a person’s existence by murdering their source of life. It is rather about doing something when they travel back into the past that would prevent their future self from traveling back (Krasnikov 6). There are two main arguments for and against time travel which are important when looking at this paradox. Argument one is against the idea of time travel and argument while the latter is in favor of it. Argument one’s reconstruction follows:

  • 1. If time travel was possible, then a time traveler could change events in the past.
  • 2. If a time traveler could change the events of the past, then the time traveler could bring about contradictory states of affairs.
  • 3. It is not possible for someone to bring about contradictory states of affairs.
  • 4. (Conclusion) Time travel is impossible (Sorensen 60)

This argument supports Casual Determinism, or the idea that there is only one timeline. This also must abide by the events of the past and the laws of nature. This would align with premise one of that argument that the traveler could not change the past. Argument two however, supports the opposite. Argument number two:

  • 1. There are two different senses of the word ‘can’ or ‘possible’
  • 2. If that is right, then there is an equivocation in NTT (Premise 1 is false)
  • 3. (Conclusion) Time travel is possible, and it is not true that a time traveler can change the events of the past. (Lewis 317)

This argument supports Casual Indeterminism, or the idea of multiple timelines. It hinges on the first argument by the words ‘can and possible’. An example would be like riding a bike. I can ride a bike, meaning I know how to ride a bike and have done this action. The other, refers to your ability to learn this action, but you have no yet done it. This small difference causes the two different arguments which are critical to understanding time travel paradoxes.

Time travel stories using this paradox are rather common in modern literature as well as modern film. One situation of the Grandfather Paradox is present in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. This is the third movie in the Harry Potter series. The story begins with the escape of a very dangerous criminal from a high security prison. The prisoner Sirius Black, happens to be the Godfather of main character, Harry, who does not know this. With the escape, many are incredibly frightened that he will try and track Harry down at their school, Hogwarts. While there, Harry’s best friend, Hermione, is given a timeturner by the Headmaster. This timeturner allowed her to be in two places at once in order for her to take multiple classes at the same time. She can therefore take one class, then proceed to travel back to the same time period, and take another class. This raises issues ass to the brains capacity to have memories from the same point in time however.

As the plot progresses, Harry learns that Sirius is his Godfather and is coming to talk to him at Hogwarts. During this time, the school groundskeeper Hagrid, is about to have one of his pets executed due to it injuring a student. When they think witness the execution, they are mortified and upset as they believed the execution was unjust. Later in the movie, Harry and Hermione use the timeturner to go back before the execution to try and prevent the death of Buckbeak, his pet. They sneak down behind some giant pumpkins to hide from the executioner. They then lure the creature over to them, and take it into the woods to free it from its impending death. This personifies the core of the Grandfather Paradox, traveling back in time to prevent an action from being made. In this particular case, instead of killing their grandparents to prevent their own death, they must travel back in to save the animal. Therefore, it is more of a causal loop than a direct reference to the Grandfather Paradox.

As they proceed through the forest, they see their current selves, the ones who are being observed by the time travelers. They do not want to be seen otherwise they will disrupt time. They are able to evade themselves, for now. They eventually get to a clearing where they can rest. At the clearing, Harry is able to see him and his Godfather being attacked by Dementors, who suck one’s soul away until you die. Harry knows that he must intervene in order to save the life of his current self, but weighs the consequences of disrupting time. He decides that he must save himself in order to be where he currently is, traveling in time. This is another example of the Grandfather Paradox in this movie.

As with many films and novels, there are issues with the way paradoxes are used and portrayed. Each instance of the paradox can be evaluated slightly differently, so each can be taken as a separate instance. Instance one, is when Hermione strictly uses the timeturner to go back in time so she is able to take classes and be in multiple places at once. While she does this, she would effectively be participating in two places at the same time. This would essentially create a timeline that has small loops in which the original timeline is changed. However, what the movie fails to take into account is that Hermione will create a different version of herself on each timeline. One cannot simply learn at two places at once, and retain the knowledge as one being. Even if you include Lewis’s system with little loops on a single timeline, multiple memories coexisting at the same time may not be physically possible. This is difficult to know for sure, as this technology is not available to test this thesis. Moreover, I would agree with her keeping both memories only if it were a multiple timeline system. If the timeline has the loops like strands of DNA, then I believe one memory should have to replace the other.

However, some may argue it is also possible and very plausible that Hermione actually has a different internal clock than the physical time that is going on around her. This would offer a solution to the brain’s capacity to have multiple memories at the same time, because her time does not line up with the timeframe of the universe. I would agree, as this seems plausible for her alone. On the other hand, it would raise more questions that is answers. For example, if others were to travel back with her, which does happen later, would they also have a different personal system of time? Furthermore, since the technology doesn’t exist to test either theory, it is difficult to come to a definite conclusion.

The second case involving the apparent execution falls more within the accepted uses and application of the Grandfather Paradox and time travel. While in the house of the groundskeeper, Harry and Hermione are hushed away back to the castle, as they should not be there during that time. While walking back, they hear the sound of an axe cutting into presumably Buckbeak. However, the animal lives. This is because later in the movie, Harry and Hermione travel back in time and see the animal. This is an occurrence of the single timeline view. It actually makes sense with the story and how it is portrayed. The reason they travel back in time is to save the animal they thought was killed. Therefore, not being completely sure of its death led the pair to go back in time. This part of the paradox, the movie is correct. However, they did mix singular and multiple timelines of travel, which brings about a contradictory state of affairs. The movie also fails to address the causal loop that is supposed to be created. Since they originally do not see the death, they would be inclined to go back. The loop would then be repeated. However, they are able to save the creature, which breaks the original loop. The possible explanations for this situation are a broken loop which spun off into an alternate universe, or it is actually deterministic. If it was a failed loop all along, then the alternate universe would support indeterminism with many universes. If somebody saved Buckbeak from the beginning and they did not see, this would be consistent with determinism. The cinema photography left grey area for debate which does not do this film philosophical due justice.

The final situation occurs when Harry and Hermione find themselves across from a dying Harry and Sirius. This is the best example of the Grandfather Paradox as it is more about the actual paradox rather than the plausibility of time travel. In this section, Harry must either save himself and change events of the past, or let himself die, in which case he would not be able to travel back in time. When the perspective of the movie changes to the Harry who is lying dying, he sees a dark figure in the shadow that casts a spell and ultimately saves his life. Unbeknownst to him, he casted the spell while he traveled back in time. This follows the structure of a Grandfather Paradox and the single timeline view. The film would be constantly deterministic if the second example was able to be proven as deterministic. However, due to the possibility of both determinism and indeterminism in more than one occasion, the film raises questions as to which system it truly prefers.

As a whole, time travel and the Grandfather Paradox show up more than we may think in modern media. The Grandfather Paradox and time travel are a big part to Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Although the execution of the movie with regards to the paradox and philosophy, are not perfect, is does not hinder the viewer’s comprehension and enjoyment of the film.

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Notions of Class in the Harry Potter Novels | English Literature Dissertation

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

The world in which one lives today is one that is not different from the past in many aspects. Though there have been several changes in society, there are still several things that remain the same.

Human lifestyle undoubtedly has changed along with the way thatpeople think. However, memories and records of events and the like arenot always forgotten. People may not forget things easily, and somemake it a point to hang on to memories and even grudges. Historicevents may be recorded solely for the purpose of preserving thoughts ofthe world so that man, in time to come, would have a chance of knowinghis roots.
Through history, one important thing that has come to man’s attentionis the existence of inequalities through time. Inequalities have alwaysexisted, and these have always been a major source of conflict.

Conflict has always been known man, and has never been a strangerto man at any point in time. This is not to say that wars always ragedacross the earth, but certainly does mean that atrocities and the likealways existed. The hostilities and crime that one witnesses today ishardly different from the crimes that were committed in the past. Theonly thing that makes it much more different to what it was in the pastis that there is technology on one’s side today. Instead of this beingof greater help to man today, it has resulted in much more death anddestruction, all starting from inequalities in resources. Theoristslike Karl Marx and Stephen Greenblatt are individuals that would beable to shed greater light on the disharmony in society. Their views onsocial living also help one to understand the way that things were andare today, and how similar conflicts may be through time .

Domination could take almost any form, and this would depend on whatkind of resources one class has. If one has economic resources, it ispossible to dominate others extensively. In Marxist terms, dominationis usually because the resources a class has in hand. If a class haseconomic resources, it has greater strength and can dominate others. Ifthe resources have limited value, they cannot dominate all that much.In addition to the possession of resources that causes conflict, thereis also something known as a sense of belonging. If a person feels thatanother is not of his status or does not speak the language that s/hedoes, conflict might arise. However, “Differences of habit and languageare nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts are open”.

Aside from the differences in resources and the conflict that takesplace because of a difference in resources, Marxism has other values.It is a theory that explains social change, which is why it can beapplied to various situations of conflict. The reason for this is thatthere always has to be a reason for conflict, and this refers todifferences in resources of strengths .

Marxism being a macro-sociological theory is one that can also apply tosmaller setups. This means that it can apply to communities as welleven though a community is only a part of a larger society. However,thismakes sense because of the fact that it also applies to a wholestate that itself a smaller part of a global environment .

Being a theory that can be used to see significance in communities, itis one that can be applied to the magician’s community in Harry PotterNovels by J.K Rowling. The community in Harry Potter Novels is perfectfor implementing Marxist theory. This is because of the fact that thereis existence of segregation, class/group conflict, oppression, slavery,Prejudice, etc. existing in the community. It is all these factors thatexpose the importance of Marxist theory and the way that communities gothrough changes during conflict. The stages in a conflict are alsoclearly visible as one reads through the Harry Potter books. Thesestages are similar to Marxist explanations, and are also in sync withsocial changes that occur because of conflicts .

In addition to the class conflict that would occur because of controlover resources or magical powers, there is also the case of descent.Descent or heritage is an issue in Harry Potter stories as well becausethose who belong to an original group are believed to be rightful heirsand have authorized control. This is something that is explained byother theories as well, but Marxism primarily considers these to bebecause of beliefs and doctrines that are embedded in people’s minds.They are also most likely to occur because of the control that peoplebelieve they are entitled to when they are of original or pure descent. This is precisely the case wit the pure bloods that think they arerightful owners of magic. The purebloods assumed that they have therights to magic and only they should be allowed to study at the schoolof magic. They wanted the half bloods and the mudbloods ousted.However, since they could not do it through fair means they resorted toother means. At various stages of the whole story of Harry Potter’sexperience this is demonstrated. Not only is Harry Potter subject totheir unfair means but so are many innocent people. The pure bloods arewilling to go to any length to dominate and gain control over allothers. They want to gain control in the wider society by first takingover the magic school and proving themselves as rightful owners ofmagic. They are inbred and come from generations of practice. AlbusDumbledore asserts: “You place too much importance… on the so-calledpurity of blood! You fail to recognize that it matters not whatsomeone is born, but what they grow to be! ”

Undoubtedly, they may possess exceptional traits and ability to performspells, but it may also be said that they have mastered all thisthrough immense practice. As opposed to this, Harry Potter is anindividual who is of half wizard descent. He still has more abilitiesthan most other wizards of pure descent. He has the ability to applymagical spells at will even though he was warned in the initial stagesthat it could prove dangerous for him. He was told that afterperforming magic for the first time, it is “Natural to want a bitmore”. He was told that he “can’t start flying cars to try and get”himself “noticed” (Chapter 6, p. 91).
The best part about Harry Potter’s character is that he is a wizard ora young wizard with immense skill. He does not use his magicalstrengths unless he really needs to. He had been warned against usingmagical spells, but also preferred to use commonsense to work his waythrough situations. It may be asserted that Harry Potter was a clevermagician who used his magical capabilities to reinforce his efforts.
Describing magical situations in a community of wizards and using amacro-sociological theory to back it up, may seem odd. However, itappears that the discrimination between different groups or classes isbest described through this theory. The manner in which individuals inthis story behave is interesting and fits well into such a theory.

Considering Roald Dahl’s ‘The Witches’, it can also be asserted thatMarxism fits into it too. This is because there are also notions ofgroups or class in this story. There is also existence of oppressors.These oppressors are the ones that cause the disharmony; they try toget rid of children, and people in general cannot detect them livingalong with them in society. They look like normal ladies and have everygeneral character that women have, and no one would even imagine thatthere are some of the wickedest women living right beside them.

Since class distinction is an important part of Marxist theory, it isworth asserting that Harry Potter has no shortage of Marxist notions.This can be observed in the fact that class distinction is quite open.The manner in which classification takes place in ‘Harry Potter and thePhilosopher’s Stone’ is exceptional. This is typically visible whenthey magicians are categorized and placed in traditional houses. Eachmagician is placed in a traditional house according to his or hercapability or status. An example of this is the manner in which Harryis placed in the house of Gryffindor. He is a hero and is placed herewhile other magicians such as Malfoy, are placed in Slytherin. Thoughit may be argued that this is highly unlike a Marxist practice becauseof the inequality, it can be said that it is actually very much in syncwith Marxist theory. This is because of the fact that Marxism holdsthat each one has particular capabilities that could be put to use.Marxism emphasizes on the notion: from each one according to hiscapability, and to each one according to his need (Marx & Engels,1848). In the above example, it is obvious that the emphasis is more onthe capability of the individual, which is why each of thecharacterized are placed in separate houses.

In this kind of segregation, there are particular advantages as well asdisadvantages. This refers to the fact that being segregated couldcause unity in some ways and further disintegration in others. In‘Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone’, both these notions arevisible clearly. Unity is demonstrated through the recognition ofmorals in each character. The characters recognize certain qualities ineach other and they are drawn closer; Harry, Ron and Hermione stand outas examples. In contrast to this, it can also be observed that thereare instances where some characters are repulsed.

It is through the unity that is created by the three friends at themagic school that a plot has been detected to steal the ‘Philosopher’sStone’. Harry, Ron and Hermione work together to discover a culprit atthe top level. It turns out that one of the teachers is a suspect. Thework that the three friends put in to discover the suspect is anexample of the way that the people in a state can work towards foilinga treacherous attempt. This part of the story also reflects the natureof the Marxist state that is more than likely to pull down a leader orany official that puts them at risk. The people are the ones with powerand they may use it collectively to achieve a goal. Though there may beother individuals against them, they may still go ahead with what theybelieve in.

The Philosopher’s Stone is like the importance of a state, and if anyone is trying to steal something that belongs to the state they need tobe stopped. The situation can be deadly, which is why it may also beadventurous. “After all, to the well-organized mind, death is but thenext great adventure” .

This is precisely what Harry and his friends set out to do after theyhave strong suspicions on particular people. However, their earliersuspicions were not accurate as Harry discovers that he has to facesomeone other than Snape. One can have “As much money and life as youcould want! The two things most human beings would choose above all -the trouble is, humans”, even if they are magicians, “do have a knackof choosing precisely those things that are worst for them” .

In order to prevent the Philosopher’s Stone from being stolen, Harryand his friends have to go after the stone themselves. This meant thatthey had to get in through the guards to make sure the Stone would notbe stolen away. At this point in the story, it is specificallymentioned that Harry and his friends had to pull their strengthstogether in order to get where they reached.

Harry and his friends manage to do this quite successfully until Harryhas to go in alone after the Stone. In doing this, he is faced withProfessor Quirrell. Being his crafty self like many politicians thatwant to benefit the most, Professor Quirrell tries to use Harry to getto the stone. He knew that Harry would be able to get through, and soknew it would be the best way. However, the professor remainsunsuccessful in his attempt. Quirrell was killed and Voldemortdefeated. This defeat and death stands for the necessity of conflict tobring peace and restoration to a state. The characters defeated standfor those that interfere with the relatively peaceful system in place.Harry and his friends stand for those that are willing to risk all thatis theirs in order to do what is right. Harry in particulardemonstrates that he is the people of a state because of the fact thathe was ready to lay down his life for everyone. He knew that he was theonly one capable of completing the task, and so went into a dangeroussituation all by himself. However, he emerged victorious and thus livedup to being a hero.

Though Harry did a splendid amount of heroic work single-handedly, itcannot be forgotten that he could not have done it all by himself.Towards the end of the adventure, this is exposed considerably throughthe points scored in all the efforts. Gryffindor earns one hundred andsixty points through the collective efforts of Harry, Ron and Hermione.However, an extra ten points were earned because of Neville’s effortsto stop the three from going to the Philosopher’s Stone.

It is obvious that trying to stop Harry and his friends from goingthrough the defenses of the guards would be seen as a good act. Quitenaturally, Harry’s actions as ring leader were not the mostappropriate; the school of magic may not have been pleased about this,and so placed a ban on him from using magic for the rest of the summer.However, he kept this ban a secret so that no one would take advantageof him. Using magic could not be kept a secret, but not using it couldbe kept a secret. Looking at the practice of magic in the literaturepublished today, there are several religious groups that are againstthe use of magic and witchcraft in Harry potter stories. This has beenthe case so much so that religious groups have moved to have the seriesbanned. However, this is an unlikely thing to happen, as the book isfiction; something that is far from reality. However, in comparing thenotions in this series with Marxist literature, it can also be saidthat there are people who scrutinize it (Marxist Literature) as well,terming it all as evil and a social disease that aims at overturningother just forms of governance. The fears are more real in this sense,but pertinent literature can hardly be banned from publication .

Marxist literature is known to focus on many different aspects ofsocietal living; it is a political theory and often serves as a meansof scrutinizing state operations. One of the main things that ittargets is injustice. It emphasizes on the need to get rid the root ofinjustice in society. In Marxist notions, there are ways of targetingand getting rid of injustice. The words mentioned earlier about Marxismcan aptly be applied here as well: ‘to each one according to his needs’(Marx & Engels, 1848). These words comprehensively overruleinjustice, but of course are not sufficient to make sure that injusticedoes not occur. Injustice still occurs in its various forms, anddiscrimination towards individuals belonging to particular origins isone of the most well known of its forms. Discrimination is alsosomething that is a major consideration in ‘Harry Potter and thechamber of secrets’.

Basically the discrimination is generalized at all magicians lower than‘pure blood wizards’. In ‘Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets’Harry is discriminated by Malfoy because Harry is not a pure bloodwizard. In contrast to this story talking about discrimination andmaking of differences between wizards, there is a great deal that onecan learn from it. Tolerance is one of the major teachings in thisstory. Individuals of all ages can learn from tolerance, no matter whattheir backgrounds are. Marxist theory also holds fast to tolerance asopposed to its notions of conflict. People living in a society may havedifferences, but they still have to live together. Provided that thedifferences are not too magnified, there is no reason why they cannotlive together. In extreme cases, they may need to clash before peace isestablished, but first tolerance is preferred. Conflict is actually thelast option; when there is no other way out, conflict is resorted to.The intensity of the conflict can be observed in the following lineswhen Arthur Weasley says: “Never trust anything that can think foritself if you can’t see where it keeps its brain” .

Tolerance in the Community:

In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, tolerance in the communityis of great importance. If tolerance is non existent, there would be nocommunity. However, there are some individuals that want to causedisharmony even if their intentions seem logical. In the story, SalazarSlytherin wants to get rid of all those that are different andestablish a community that is pure; he wants to get rid of the"mudbloods," or wizards that do not have any magical ancestors. Here,one can see that is a definite distinction between the two classes, andthere is also a definite demeaning tone and term being used againstthose that were not pure magicians . Quite obviously, there was aresponse from those who were being looked down upon. They would defendthemselves if attacked or harmed in any way. This would be legitimatein the sense that all members in a society are entitled to equalrights, and these are natural rights. The targeted class might feel theneed to resist hostilities or even launch attacks. This conflict isnothing unknown to Marxism; in fact, class conflict is normal for peaceto be achieved. Particularly, it must be noted that class conflict inHarry Potter and the Chamber of secrets is also similar to Marxistdescription because of the class conflict existing between two classes.Typically, this was the Quidditch game between Gryffindor andSlytherin. The Gryffindor and Slytherin represent the two classes inconflict.

According to Marxism there are no other classes; there is just aconflict between to very distinctive classes in society because of thedifferences in resources . Here, one can observe that the classconflict or group conflict in Harry Potter exists between those thathave more magical power and those that do not. Also, those that havemore power are ones that claim to have purer heritage. They believethat they can purify their community by getting rid of those withoutsuch heritage.

Purifying the community is something that is out of Marxist views; itis something that does not pertain to the theory. Though there havebeen instances in the past that may be used as examples of purifyingcommunities and races, none can be blamed on Marxism. Purification ofraces and communities is something that has been the result ofDarwinian thought. However, since these notions were integrated withso-called socialist strategies, Marxism is largely blamed for heinousevents in history .

In Harry Potter, the purification that Salazar Slytherin intendsactually goes to show that these ideas are opposed to peace. Peace canonly attained by getting rid of such prejudices. The only way to get ofthese prejudices is to change the way that the dominating class thinksand acts or to have a direct and open conflict to demolish it.

Coming back to the manner in which Harry and Hermione are both demeanedbecause of their heritage, Harry’s is only half of what the pure bloodswere. Both Hermione’s parents were not magicians as well. This meansthat both friends were not pure magicians by blood. However, they werepretty good at whatever they did; there magic was far better and moreeffective than Malfoy’s who was a pure blood. Here again there can be aMarxist comparison. This is because of the fact that Harry’s andHermione’s characters demonstrate the fact that all individuals nomatter what their heritage have the ability to perform in any art; allindividuals are able to do just as well as any other individuals.

Marxism holds that all people in a community have the ability towork and be as productive as any other individual. Though there areindividuals with specialized skills who can be more productive in termsof quality, other individuals should not be demeaned or underestimated. However, this is what Malfoy does; he and his lot aredescribed as oversized, strange-looking, mean and unintelligent, butthey are still pure bloods coming from generations of pure blood. Theyhave not much in their favor, and so, it is very important for them tobe pure. They have worked for generations to be ‘purebloods’ at thecost of losing everything else. This is perhaps the reason why they areso hung up on remaining in control and excluding all those that aredifferent to them. Perhaps they could not stand anyone having magical[powers and not being pure bloods. However, the problem for them wasthat Harry and Hermione were really good at their magic even thoughthey were not pure bloods .

Observing the manner in which the ‘pure blood wizards’ treated the‘mudbloods’, one can say that there already are already two classes inconflict. However, the mudbloods are those that are targeted, andwithin a broad category of those that dominate them are the pure bloodwizards along with others. These others include people such as theDursleys, who virtually fear magic. They are the ones that try to avoidmagic and had kept Harry away from these practices that were rightfullyhis own. The Dursleys serve as a group of people in the category ofthose that oppress the ‘mudbloods’ even though they are not exactly onthe same side of the ‘pure blood wizards’. However, the fact is that,anyone or group that opposes or oppresses the mudbloods areautomatically considered to be in one broad category. This is similarto the manner in which all those who oppose or oppress the proletarianare considered to be one group or class.

As opposed to the class conflict that is clearly visible in Harry{Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Marxist theory has it that for acommunity to survive there is need for tolerance to be practiced. Iftolerance is not a strength in a community, at any point in future, acommunity is liable to fall apart or become a victim of disharmony.
A community should be strong enough in its bonds in order to preventdisharmony. It should tolerance and other qualities at its center sothat its community members can rely on it. Speaking of a community as awhole, in Harry Potter could not have been a hero on his own. He neededother individuals to support his role and cause too. Without them, hecould not be successful and would never have been recognized as a hero.

Harry also has individual traits as well that are required of a hero.He is one that depends on the moment for taking decisions thatultimately define his success. Harry uses each moment intelligently andapplies common sense knowledge to situations. He does not think withhis magical powers. He instead, uses his magical abilities to reinforcehis decisions. He does not think with magic or with power. This isreflected in Marxist theory as well, as individuals and governingbodies or a state or even a community need to think logically and notwith the power they have in their hands. Social living is given a lotof importance in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, which is whyHarry maybe used as an important example. He is a community member. Heis one that is oppressed by those that are in a position to oppresshim, but he does not give in. He knows better because he can think anddoes not abuse his magical power. This is something important and infact is close to utopia in Marxism. Being honest and having the abilityto control one’s power and authority is a quality that many do nothave .

Just like the legal system in Marxism is taken into considerationso is it done in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban’. The systemof governance in place is most important to consider. This is becauseof the fact that it is the foundation of actions to be carried out whendealing with millions of people in a country. If there is injustice inthe legal system, it needs to be dealt with accordingly. An example ofinjustice in the legal system is reflected I the way that Lucius andMalfoy deal with those that make mistakes. Their decisions are severeand harsh, and in most cases are unnecessary.

Lucius and Malfoy represent the harsh hand of the law. In many casesrecorded in history there have been legal systems that have practicedharsh treatment of their people and little was done. However, Marxistideals do not agree with this even though rulers may have misusedtenets of Marxism. Injustice of the kind that Lucius and Malfoy carriedout cannot be tolerated.

The Social set up is such that it allows all individuals to provethemselves. They may do sop as individuals or as a group. The Quidditchis believed to be a social indicator that can reveal the wayindividuals are. This is possible because it allows a competitionbetween two sides, Gryffindor and Slytherin. The integrity of the twosides is measured in terms of the strategies they use. Each of themwants to emerge as the winner and earn recognition through theirpowers. However, the serious conflict is that the Slytherin use unfairmeans to prove themselves even though they are pure bloods. TheGryffindor on the other hand are not necessarily pure in terms ofmagical power heritage; they are however, effective, and are evenbelieved to be more powerful than their opponents.

The Quidditch also serves as an environment of its own kind becauseof the fact that it has the ability to observe individuals as thoughthey are in another environment altogether. Through the Quidditch a lotcan be revealed about an individual’s real life intentions; it can beused to predict the lengths to which that individuals may go in orderto win or prove themselves. On the parts of both competitors,Gryffindor and Slytherin, it can be observed that they have tried hardto prove themselves the best way they know how. In this process, agreat deal has been revealed about the Marxist notions involved in theoverall set up.

Something that reinforces Marxist notions, especially with theoppressed magicians, is the fact that they are concerned about thosethat are enslaved. They understand the plight of those enslaved andknow that their condition is perhaps worse than their own. Beingoppressed is one thing because at least the oppressed like Harry andHermione have the power to fight back. With the elves, there is hardlya chance of fighting back, as they have nothing to fight with and haveno special magical powers. It is this concern for the enslaved that istypical of individuals among the proletarian. This is an attitude thathas the power to bring people together and oppose oppression by thedominant ones.

The slaves in Harry Potter are individuals that are kept for freelabor for the wicked wizarding families. The way that these elves aretreated depends on the mercy the wizards have for them, and since theyhave enslaved them it is obvious what kind of mercy they have shown them.

Hermione has learned much from this enslavement and knows that this isnot far from the way that other good and bad wizards have experiencedat the hands of Lord Voldemort. Hermione then works throughout the bookto liberate the oppressed individuals. Some of those enslaved were madeso by physically restricting them to particular areas or by placingthem under a curse or spell. In view of the way that they wereenslaved, Marxist views would reveal that individuals in society canalso be enslaved in similar ways. The physical way of course ispossible through keeping a person in captivity or even abusingpolitical power to torment individuals. The alternative means ofenslaving a person through a curse could refer to the way that anindividual may be placed under bonds, contracts and the like. Peopleoften take advantage of individuals who fail to fulfill agreementsunder bonds and contracts, and they may subject them to blackmail orcompel them to serve their demands. Just like the wizards may not havebeen able to do much under the Imperius curse, individuals cannot domuch after being placed under a bond.

People with the power to enslave others and control them in this waygradually can take control of a lot of people. Politicians have thepower to do this when they are ion power and create particular decreesthat compel the people in a country to act accordingly. Getting peopleto act according to the demands of a ruler is also enslavement. Thesame thing is in effect in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. Thewords mentioned in this book that say exactly what one should knowabout a man’s behavior towards others are as follows: “If you want toknow what a man’s like, take a good look at how he treats hisinferiors, not his equals” . These are precise words and ones that saya lot about class difference and individual attitude in view of aperson’s social position. However, the intention that Voldemort had wasto get all the slaves together and then get rid of them so that therewould be almost a nation of pure bloods. This sounds very familiar;history rings a bell here, and one is compelled to consider the SecondWorld War in which the Germans had attempted and succeeded at doingthis to some extent. However, this is something is opposed to Marxisttheory because of the fact that Marxism does not hold with purifying acommunity through enslavement and other similar practices.

Though it has been blamed for what happened in the Second World War,Marxism promotes diversity. Again here one of its tenets may beconsidered as it was earlier: to each one according to his need, andfrom each one according to his capability . These words automaticallyclear Marxism, promoting the appreciation of diversity in society.Establishing a pure race is no where within the tenets of Marxismbecause it is a theory that primarily focuses on the value of humanlife and effort . This human life and effort cannot be compared orcompensated for economically; it cannot be sold as a commodity, andshould not be sold as such.

Instead, the value of human life and effortis so high that it should be cared for in such a way that the stateappreciates it through its entire existence. This is particularly thereason why this theory does not believe in the accumulation of personalassets; it is more focused on state-provided care in order to maintainpower that is distributed among the people. When power rests with thestate, no individual a group can rise up easily and take control ofothers with shortage of resources or power. In Harry Potter and theGoblet of Fire, this is what causes the problem in the magician’scommunity; a handful of magicians manage to take control of othersthrough their crafty ways and gain more and more control. “There was nopoint in worrying yet…. what would come, would come… and he wouldhave to meet it when it did” . It is through brave and selfless effortsthat Harry manages to overturn these efforts. Harry is not justinterested in saving the community nor is he totally against wrongdoings, but he is keen on opposing domination. He becomes a herobecause he has one aim and that is to protect what was important toeveryone primarily. He wanted to protect the Philosopher’s Stone andalso confront the evil magicians. However, it is these efforts thatbuild up a community connectedness. In his efforts he had to seek helpfrom those he could. Without his friends by his side, Harry might nothave been able to get to the Philosopher’s Stone.

In the Triwizard Tournament as well, Harry is not alone. Hagrid andMoody had helped him in getting him past the dragon. Also, Cedric andDobby had helped him further when they helped him decrypt the goldenegg; this enabled Harry to rescue the underwater victims.

While trying to figure out what Harry may have done single-handedly,there is apparently little to go on. This even includes Harry gettingthrough the maze; he would not have been able to get through had it notbeen for the protective charms created by his wand’s connection withVoldemort’s wand. Trouble for Voldemort was inevitable. “It’s a strangething, but when you are dreading something, and would give anything toslow down time, it has a disobliging habit of speeding up” .

Harry was also under the protection of his parents’ sacrifice. Harryalways thought about his parents; he also thought “about his father” .He also thought about his father’s three oldest friends: Moony,Wormtail, Padfoot, and Prongs” (Chapter 21, p. 407)

His parents’ sacrifice was the thing that kept him alive. Therefore,whenever he is apparently cornered, he has a way out. Harry only needsto apply himself; his basic groundwork and skill help him out, andreinforcing his skill is the protection he is under. This does not meanthat Harry is not brave because he is certainly courageous. His courageis observed when he goes before the wicked magicians alone. However,Harry is aware of the help that he gets, and makes it known too becausehe openly encourages Hagrid to start teaching again. He also tellsCedric about the dragon. This means that Harry is aware of eachperson’s role and values a connected effort. Informing those who helpedhim about what they should and can do exposes Harry’s value for theirefforts and time. He knows the value of time and understands the valueof acing all situations in the contest.

Time is of immense importance because kit helps Harry become a bettermagician. The experience he gains here at the contest will help him inhis future as a complete wizard. For Harry, patience is a must, andwhatever he does he needs to be patient; whether one observes his lifewith the Dursley’s or his period in the magical contest, Harry has tomature slowly. This helps him to become a better thinker who does notalways need to depend on magic.

In spite of him knowing that he needs to be patient. Harry is facedwith little choice. He was told not to use his magical powers becauseit may not have been safe for him to do so. However, he had to do sobecause he had to defend himself. Fortunately, it all went his way fromthe beginning right till the fifth story of Harry in Harry Potter andthe Order of the Phoenix.

Had the other students at Howgarts not been stubborn to study defensespells, they might not have been able to save themselves in the end.These students were aware of the corrupt Ministry of magic trying totake over the magic school; they knew that this ministry was notallowing the students to learn defense against their dark spells.However, studying defensive spells secretly allows the young magiciansto escape. They developed a secret study group just for the sake oflearning how to defend themselves and overturn any dark spell that theMinistry could put on them. Luna Lovegood asserts the inevitability ofconflict when she says “No, I think I’ll just go down and have somepudding and wait for it all to turn up…. It always does in the end”. Perhaps, they knew what was about to happen.

The secrecy involved with learning how to overturn evil and cripplingspells is reminiscent of the way that people from the oppressed classwould go about formulating a plan to bring down oppressors. This is howa revolution is brought about. Undoubtedly, death and destruction isinvolved in the process, but after the clash, there is peace. In HarryPotter and the Order of the Phoenix this is what the students did whenthey secretly studied defensive spells together. They managed to stat arevolt; they were in a significant number to overthrow the oppressors,and managed to do so successfully. The best part about this plan isthat the oppressors knew little about it. The secrecy involved in theirpractice was in fact a weapon on its own. This helped the students takethe oppressors by surprise, as it should be in a revolt. They weresurprised because of the fact that their spells were not successfulwhen they were really relying on them to take control and maximizetheir hold on the students.

The manner in which the students secretly studied the defense spellsspeaks for the power of knowledge; it is knowledge of the defensespells that helped them survive. It gave them power to survive. InHarry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix it becomes apparent toeveryone that education is in jeopardy because of the Dark Ministry atwork. Everyone knows that there is something bad going on, but there islittle that they could do. It is only thanks to a few individuals whohad good ideas that a plan was devised. The plan was devised andimplemented accordingly. Even though there were few working their waythrough, it made a whole lot of difference in the end. The value tolearn here is that even a few individuals with common sense and skillcan make a difference for a large number of people. This is because ifthey can manage their plans well and implement them without beinginterfered with there is a lot that can be achieved. The key is to keepit all a secret and not let anyone know anything about the plan. Bydoing this, there are greater chances of success because when no oneknows about a revolt, especially the enemy, there can be no actionagainst. The opposition would not know how to deal with it. They wouldnot even have time to deal with it when it does occur, and so, thismakes the chances of a successful revolt even greater.

In addition to the Marxist secrecy observed in action against the DarkMinistry, there are particular rules that are given at the beginning.The Sorting Hat warns the students about standing together. It is theirunity that would prevent them from being defeated. The problem is thatthe housing system at the Hogwart’s was the reason why they wereseparated into two groups . Fortunately though, Ron, Hermione, Ginny,and Neville are all in the same house as Harry. This makes it easierfro them to stick together. However, there is still a lot that theyhave to overcome because of the existing segregation that exists amongmany of the students. Inside the school at which they were studyingmagic as well as outside there was a lot of segregation and hostilityas well. The pure bloods wanted to have control, and they wanted totake control of the magic school so that only they would be educated inmagic. This would reinforce their control in the wider society as well.Obviously, they were not satisfied with the success that half bloodsand mudbloods had with doing magic.

In addition to stories like Harry Potter portraying the manner in whichone class oppresses another in the way that the pure bloods oppressedthe half bloods, the mudbloods and the elves, there are other meansthrough which evil-doers accomplish their goals. There are evil-doersthat come under disguise too. They may appear to be average lookingpeople that the ordinary person may not be able to suspect, which isthe reason why they are most dangerous. Nobody knows who they are; theyare trusted all the way through their secret evil deeds, and often goon being undetected for years. Literature that reveals such is in thebook by Roald Dahl, called ‘The Witches’. In this book, the differencebetween the fairy-tale idea of witches and real idea of witches isrevealed.

‘The witches’ by Roald Dahl is an interesting book that reveals the waythat people conceal their real personalities but still manage to getwhat they want. The book tells one about a seven-year-old boy who comesface to face with real-life witches. These witches are like no othersthat one reads about in a fairy-tale. The book reveals that witches arequite different to those funny or evil looking women dressed upunusually. No, witches are not those that have long ugly hair, wearpointed, tall hats, wear pointed shoes, have a black cat or fly aroundon a broom. Witches are those women living among us that seem to belike any other women: they all dress up the same way and look the sametoo. This makes it so difficult to trace them out. They have ordinarylifestyles and may have ordinary jobs too. The only thing about witchesis that they do not like children.

They may, on the surface, pretend tolike children around them, but they actually hate them. They can bevery deceptive too, which is what makes them dangerous. Children may beable to detect it when a person does not like them for some reason.They may not even want to go anywhere near such women. However, someparents find that their children are being shy or just plain rude towomen when they do that. People do not actually read what a childsenses, and these feelings of a child are hardly ever wrong. This isbecause children do not react in such ways for no reason at all; therehas to be a reason for their fear or dislike of some women.

Quite obviously, children would fear evil women because they know thereis really something to fear about them. According to Dahl, evil women(witches) are capable of going through great lengths in order to doaway with children. They are liable to perform any amount of evilspells to get rid of them for good. Children who know this, would dotheir level best to escape. However, Roald Dahl tells one about a childwanting to expose the existence of a witch before the witch disposes ofthe child.

There are different angles from which one may look at Roald Dahl’s workin the ‘The Witches’. This is because as far as evil-doing isconcerned, it can be said that a state needs to be aware and informedabout evil-doers and those individuals that attempt to bring down astate. Especially those individuals that may be a part of a much largerorganization or class need to be taken into consideration. In view ofthis, it must be said that the witches in disguise are the ones to bewatched out for; there needs to be a great deal of awareness regardingthis issue.

Looking at this book from another angle will reveal that there is needto be careful regarding concrete evidence against individuals. Anyindividual might be accused of evil-doing and be targeted. This wouldbe a dreadful situation if the public is stirred up for no rhyme orreason against any individual or group. However, in the light of proofbeing present to pin an individual down for perpetration, action may betaken. When a state is informed of any misdeeds or unusual action,there is first of all need for thorough investigation. It is throughthis investigative process that it can be determined what has to bedone in the next stage.
If there is sufficient proof against an individual for wrong-doings,s/he may be taken into custody straight away. Individuals who havecommitted crimes in the past have particular patterns that arefollowed. It is on the basis of these patterns that they may be reasonto suspect them of evil-doing.

When it comes to detecting witches in Roald Dahl and arousing suspicionabout them, one can say that those are first and foremost in dangerneed to be considered first. They are the ones that are capable ofhaving as much information as possible about witches and should betaken as seriously as possible. The spreading of knowledge aboutwitches is important because the more people know about it the better.This is not mere propaganda, but is awareness among people in a state .

Another important point to note in ‘The Witches’ is there is existenceof groups that may be measured by Marxist theory . Witches can beconsidered as one class or group as opposed to children. The childrencan be described as the targeted group while the witches can bedescribed as the oppressors. Since the children are the ones that aremost likely to be targeted, they need to watch out for adults,particularly women. The oppressor class does not necessarily consist ofa great many evil women, but there is need to be ware of who might beevil among the women.

Conflicts may be generally the same through time because of the factthat the source of these conflicts lies in inequalities regardingresources. This is typically a Marxist view because Marxism holds thatthe basic reason for conflict and disharmony is inequality ofresources. When one class possesses more resources than the other,there is bound to be some form of conflict. This is because one classtries to dominate the other. Also, the class that does not have all theresources may be displeased and conflict with the class that has allthe resources. It is a well known trend that the class with all theresources dominates the class with fewer resources.

Those with the power to dominate will do so, and this power to dominatecomes through the possession of resources. This is something that hasbeen observed in all parts of the Harry Potter books, as well as ‘TheWitches’ by Roald Dahl. Those with the ability to be harsh or takecontrol will ultimately do so unless they are stooped. In Harry Potter,the readers observe that the oppressed magicians (the half bloods andthe mudbloods) finally manage to overcome oppression by the purebloods. In ‘The Witches’ too, the 7-year-old boy manages to expose thewitches that were out to dispose of him.

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  • Adorno, Theodor. 1978. "Freudian Theory and the Pattern of Fascist Propaganda", The Culture Industry 114-35;
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Emotional Development in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban

March 21, 2019 by Essay Writer

Harry Potter and The Prisoner of Azkaban is an important book in the series due to its transitional nature, both in the maturity of the overall plot of the series, and in Harry Potter’s emotional state. While both Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone and Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets were generally very lighthearted, Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is the point in which the story begins to mature. Similarly, the character of Harry Potter turns thirteen in Prisoner of Azkaban, officially entering adolescence. Harry and his friends begin to experience various emotional changes in this book, such as mental illnesses and overcoming phobias. This signifies a major step in the series’ progression from childhood to adulthood.

One of the major emotional changes that new teenagers often experience are mental illnesses such as depression. Depression is often described as “a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest…You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn’t worth living” (“Depression (major depressive disorder)”). According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, approximately twenty percent of adolescents have a diagnosable mental health disorder, and between twenty and thirty percent of adolescents have one major depressive episode before they reach adulthood (“Adolescent Mental Health in the United States”). If one considers the connections between adolescence and depression, it is no surprise that one of the first major signs of the Harry Potter series beginning to mature in this novel is the appearance of the Dementors. Dementors, as described by new Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher Professor Remus Lupin, are …among the foulest creatures that walk this earth. They infest the darkest, filthiest places, they glory in decay and despair, they drain peace, hope, and happiness out of the air around them… Get too near a Dementor and every good feeling, every happy memory will be sucked out of you. If it can, the Dementor will feed on you long enough to reduce you to something like itself… soulless and evil. You will be left with nothing but the worst experiences of your life. (Rowling 178) As the effects of the Dementors and the effects of depression are extremely similar, it is clear that the Dementors were written by Rowling as a metaphor for depression. Some people have depression so intense it starts to ruin their life, which is similar to those in Azkaban who become “trapped inside their own heads, incapable of a single cheerful thought” (Rowling 188) due to the effects of the Dementors. The Dementors are merciless and attack anyone who gets in their way, just as depression can strike anyone without warning, even those undeserving of such a burden. Sirius Black, the titular Prisoner of Azkaban who has been surrounded by dementors for nearly half of his life even though he ultimately turns out to be innocent of his crimes, has the ability to turn into a black dog. It is no coincidence that the black dog is a literary motif commonly associated with suicide and depression (Quaile 38-39) as Sirius is the character most heavily associated with the dementors and their effects.

Harry, being old enough in this book to begin experiencing depression, has a very intense reaction to the Dementors, the wizarding equivalent. This results in Professor Lupin teaching Harry the Patronus Charm, a way to repel Dementors, just as a depressed teen would seek help from a trusted adult. The Patronus Charm is cast by “…concentrating, with all your might, on a single, very happy memory” (Rowling 237). Just as the Dementors represent depression, the Patronus Charm represents hope, faith, and love. Such positive thoughts and memories can often help negate the real life effects of depression.

Another sign of the characters growing and developing in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban can be found in the theme of overcoming fear. Many individuals gain certain fears during their childhood, such as heights, the dark, enclosed spaces, or animals/insects, that stay with them well into adolescence and even adulthood. Confronting and overcoming these fears is an overarching theme throughout the entirety of the Harry Potter series, but the clearest evidence of this theme is seen in Professor Lupin’s boggart lesson. Remus Lupin, being the excellent mentor that he is, wants to give those students who are entering adolescence the tools to start overcoming any childhood fears they might have, and decides to teach them how to defeat a boggart. Boggarts, as described by Hermione, are creatures who possess the ability to “take the shape of whatever it thinks will frighten us most” (Rowling 133). Lupin then teaches the students the Riddikulus Charm, which transforms the boggart from their worst fears into a humorous parody of them. If one considers Prisoner of Azkaban to be Harry’s entrance into adolescence, than one could consider the Riddikulus Charm to be a metaphor for gaining maturity and realizing that a childhood fear is not actually as scary as originally believed, something many teenagers and young adults experience.

The final major theme in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban that has to do with emotional development is dealing with stress. According to a study by Professor Krishan Lal, the vast majority of high school students consider academic stress such as tests, grades, homework, and expectations from parents and teachers, to be one of their greatest stressors (Lal 124). An example of this in the novel can be found in Hermione and her significant academic stress. Near the beginning of the novel, Hermione, being exceptionally smart for her age, is given a Time-Turner (a device that manipulates time) by Professor McGonagall, in order to take more classes than time would allow. Although Harry and Ron do not learn exactly how Hermione is accomplishing everything on her impossible schedule until the end of the book, they do observe firsthand how her extensive amount of work is affecting her mentally: Even so, he wasn’t showing the strain nearly as much as Hermione, whose immense workload finally seemed to be getting to her. Every night, without fail, Hermione was to be seen in a corner of the common room, several tables spread with books, Arithmancy charts, Rune dictionaries, diagrams of Muggles lifting heavy objects, and file upon file of extensive notes; she barely spoke to anybody, and snapped when she was interrupted. (Rowling 244) Hermione’s stress becomes more and more apparent as the story goes on, resulting in her arguing with Professor Trelawney and dropping Divination class out of frustration (Rowling 298-299) and the boggart taking the form of Professor McGonagall giving her a failing grade when she sees it (Rowling 319). At the end of the book, Hermione finally admits to herself that she is working too hard and goes back to a normal course load, returning the Time-Turner to McGonagall. The fact that Hermione is able to make this decision for herself shows that Hermione has grown, and learned how to better handle work and stress.

Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban marks the beginning of an important transitional period in the Harry Potter series that continues throughout the next few books. The main characters move away from the more childish conflicts from the first two books, and their problems begin to mature. Emotionally, Harry and his friends deal with more issues than they’ve ever had to before. Although these issues increase in intensity as the series continues, the lessons learned in this novel equip the characters with the tools to succeed in dealing with their emotions in the future.

Works Cited

Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 1999. Print.

“Depression (Major Depressive Disorder).” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 3 Feb. 2018, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/symptoms-causes/syc-20356007.

Lal, Krishan. “Academic Stress Among Adolescents in Relation to Intelligence and Demographic Factors.” American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, International Association of Scientific Innovation and Research, 2014, www.iasir.net.

Quaile, Sheilagh. “‘The Black Dog That Worries You at Home’: The Black Dog Motif in Modern English Folklore and Literary Culture.” The Great Lakes Journal of Undergraduate History, Vol. 1 : Iss. 1 , Article 3, 2013, www.scholar.uwindsor.ca/gljuh/vol1/iss1/3.

Schwarz, Susan Wile. “Adolescent Mental Health in the United States.” NCCP | Child Poverty, June 2009, www.nccp.org/publications/pub_878.html.

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