US Imperialism on Panama
Faith Ann Hawkins Mr. Collins World History and Geography 3 November 2018 In history, it is a common theme to see that sacrifices must be made, but can some be too drastic? Many people today know of the vital waterway called the Panama Canal. Opened in 1914, the Panama Canal was one of the greatest engineering achievements in the world.(Alfaro, 2018).
It was first a project started by France in 1881, but they quit due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The U.S took over the project in 1904. This canal cuts through the Isthmus of Panama with a 51-mile long waterway, turning a ship ride around a continent into an 8-10 hour cruise through the canal. This canal has seen many owners, including Columbia, France, and the United States.
Though, the way America got this canal is still a controversy. Was it right for Americans to do whatever it took to make this strategic waterway? The wrongdoing of this is summed up in the word imperialism. Though the Panama Canal is very important, how the U.S obtained it was not right. Imperialism is quite a strong word. At the time the canal was built, most countries sought to imperialism others for power. Imperialism is the control of one nation over another. Though, in this time era, the late eighteenth century, there was a different form of imperialism, New imperialism.
This started when countries wished to have complete control over colonies instead of just setting up trading ports and such. America, even though people don’t hear it much, was an imperializing nation too. What was so wrong with imperialism? There are many periods in history that are strong examples of to why imperialism is corrupt and wrong. There were three continents in which imperialism was very popular, Africa, India, and Asia. In southeast Asia, Great Britain was the first to start imperializing using the concept of new imperialisation. They wished to take Burma but failed.
Instead, there constant influence in Burma caused the monarchy to fall and they took over. Many countries soon heard of this and started following so they wouldn’t fall behind. New ways to rule an area appeared such as indirect rule, direct rule, and making protectorates. This colonialization caused many indigenous people to suffer. Colonizers didn’t want the colonies to make industries, this policy often led to the development of plantation agriculture (Spielvogel 229). In this system, peasants worked as laborers on others plantations. The workers were kept at the poverty level for profit increase and many died due to the unhealthy conditions. Things like this continued in many areas of the world as they were colonized.
The process usually was that colonizers took the area, colonists moved in, natives were treated unfairly, they colonizers try to change the culture, and then revolts pop up. The reason that the imperialist counties gave for these terrible actions was that Western powers were bringing the blessing of Western civilization to their colonial subjects, including representative government.(Spielvogel 229). Even then, not many native people were allowed to be in the government or even educated because the idea of political rights to the people scarred the colonizers. This example of imperialism doesn’t show the full suffering of the native people. In India, people would hold parties at the Taj Mahal, a grave burial for the king’s beloved wife. They would even chip pieces off as souvenirs. Imperialism corrupted many cultures and caused enormous amounts of hate and racism.
Now, is it possible to see that imperialism is unacceptable? The U.S is no exception. The United States intruded onto Latin America and became known as the Big bully to the north(Spielvogel 243). The U.S imperialization of Latin America included Panama. People had dreamed of building a canal across Central America to link the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (“President Roosevelt Decides To Build The Panama Canal.” VOA. N. p., 2006. Web. 4 Dec. 2018.). This included President Theodore Roosevelt. Two places in North Latin America caught the eye of Roosevelt and the U.S; Panama and Nicaragua. Engineers claimed that in the 1880s, Panama would be the cheaper choice. Though, at the time, they would have to buy land and building rights from the French company who was already there, through imperialism. With these two purchases, it could easily cost a hundred million dollars just to own the land. Congress approved of the building of the canal in Nicaragua. A debate soon sparked however because France had lowered the price of Panama. Roosevelt supported the Panama plan, but it was clear Nicaragua would win this debate.
But as volcanic action destroyed homes and killed thousands, Panama became the only choice. The people in this area of Colombia wanted to separate themselves from the Columbian rule, so the U.S gave them a little shove. The United States was intrigued so much by Panama that they convinced rebel groups to take arms against the Colombians with the support of American troops and resources.(“Effects On Panama – Imperialism In Central America.” Sites.google.com. N. p., 2018. Web. 6 Dec. 2018.). The Panamanians successfully won their independence from Columbia with the support of the United States.
Though, the US only helped for one reason, the location to build the canal. Almost instantly the Americans restrained Panama with a treaty that gave the US the land where the canal would be built. The treaty was almost an exact replica of the treaty the US tried to give Colombia. Expect that the canal zone was now 16 meters wide instead of 10 and the US got permanent control of the canal (“President Roosevelt Decides To Build The Panama Canal.” VOA. N. p., 2006. Web. 9 Dec. 2018.). Panama signed it just 15 days after their declaration of independence from Colombia in 1903. Many Columbians and Americans protested and resented the actions of Roosevelt. Many saw him as a pirate. However, Roosevelt continued to build the canal. He said, I took the canal zone and let Congress debate. And while the debate goes on…so does work on the canal. After ten years, the canal was finished in 1914.
Panama, from 1903 to 1939, became a US protectorate. In 1921, Colombia and the United States entered into the Thomson“Urrutia Treaty. (“Panama Canal.” En.wikipedia.org. N. p., 2018. Web. 9 Dec. 2018.). In this treaty, paid Colombia $25 million and granted Colombia privileges to the canal. Colombia, in return, recognized Panama as an independent nation. Through all of the troubles of the imperialization a Panama, the US decided to return the canal. In 1977, US president Jimmy Carter and Panama leader Omar Torrijos signed a treaty that promised full control of the canal to Panama by 2000. Panama got full authority on December 31, 1999. The previous paragraph represented how the US controlled Panama and built the canal through the years, but what was the most important was how the people felt and were affected by this stage of imperialism.
At first, once America had helped Panama lead a successful revolt, the leader of the revolution, Manuel Amador, said, “Yesterday, we were slaves of Colombia. Today, we are free. President Theodore Roosevelt has kept his word. Long live the Republic of Panama! long live President Roosevelt!”. This shows that at first, Panama found the US as an ally that had helped lead them to freedom. Soon, however, they realized this was not true. Colombia protested. It said the United States had acted illegally in Panama. Many American citizens protested, too. (“President Roosevelt Decides To Build The Panama Canal.” VOA. N. p., 2006. Web. 9 Dec. 2018.). As stated earlier, Roosevelt was widely seen as a pirate. Despite all these protested, Theodore Roosevelt didn’t care. He stated, I took the Isthmus, started the canal and then left Congress not to debate the canal, but to debate me.”
Panama was utilized as a tool for America’s growing economy. Once the canal was finished, The US attempted to control all the profits made from it. The US propaganda that was directed toward the Panama government promised that the Panama canal would be profitable for their citizens. However, this was a complete lie on the US’s part. America’s only interest was to imperialize Panama and take control and use the country as a source of profit exclusively(“Effects On Panama – Imperialism In Central America.” Sites.google.com. N. p., 2018. Web. 9 Dec. 2018.). Truly, wealthy American businessmen were the profiteers. The attraction to the Panama canal was for economic growth, but instead, it aggravated tensions between Panama and the Us. Eventually, it leads to thousands of injuries and riots. Many other Latin American nations grew to fear the idea of American imperialization. Roosevelt, however, claimed that the US would only take action on nations who had debts to European countries.
Despite the unjust sides of this, there were some ups. America brought in railroads, sewage, electricity, and schools. No matter what, the cons overpower the pros. What the US did was wrong. Many unfortunate things befell on the people of Panama, and it happens to be America’s fault. In the end, America shouldn’t have imperialized Panama or any Latin American nation. After Roosevelt left office, the United States signed an agreement that showed America’s regret and gave $25 million to Colombia. Even though Roosevelt was out of office, his friends in the Senate rejected the proposal in his place. After his death, another agreement was signed. It still included the money but didn’t include a statement of regret as the previous one did.
This agreement was approved by the Senate. The engineering of this canal is something that should strike awe into anyone. The canal has a total of 3 locks and 3 chambers on each side of the ocean. The locks lift and lower ships from the Gatun Lake, an artificial lake to reduce excavation for the canal. This waterway is very important today. However, the imperialization that took place has left a permanent mark on the history of the US. People can hope that the US isn’t seen as a nation who conquers others for wealth and resource, but instead as an ally to other nations across the world.
The Progressive Era – Time Between the 1890s to the 1920s
The main idea of the Progressive era was trying to reduce problems due to industrialization, urbanization, and immigration. The goal of this movement was to make living conditions better and protect social welfare. To help this they opened libraries, swimming pools, and feed the hungry.
Many people blamed problems on alcohol, so they banned it from many saloons. Some of the accomplishments of the Progressive era are the National Child Labor Committee. This organization helped put laws outlawing child labor. Another is the Adamson Act which was a law created so that railroad workers would not go on strike they formed an 8-hour workday. Lastly in the 19th Amendment. This amendment gave women the right to vote.
Ida B. Wells was an African-American writer and feminist. She was born July 16th, 1862 in Holly Springs, Mississippi. She led an anti-lynching movement in the United States. In her time she wrote many novels about her life and struggles. Her goals were to stop lynchings and to have equal rights. Her accomplishments were her writing. She wrote about the laws, lynching, and other things to show how horrible these problems were and to bring awareness and show people how terrible it was. Because of her writing, this landed her a spot on the newspaper to write about the problems going on.
President Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, in New York City. Roosevelt was the 26th president of the United States after William Mickinly was assassinated. One of Roosevelt’s goals was conservation. He wanted people from all ages to protect nature no matter where you came from. He wanted to make sure the world used its natural resources. Roosevelt doubled the parks in the U.S and created 18 national monuments and started 51 bird sanctuaries.
These two reformers Ida B. Wells and Theodore Roosevelt both have one thing in common. They both wanted to make the U.S better and safer. Ida B. Wells wanted to have equal rights and freedom. Theodore Roosevelt wanted to protect our nation and nature. They both changed America by trying to protect the people. We are still affected by their work today. Theodore changed the way people see conservation. Ida B. Wells changed the way people see equal rights.
The Gilded Age: Part Of Our History
The Gilded Age, 1868-1899, was a difficult time for lower classes in America. Thousands of people were working eight hour days with only little pay, whereas wealthy entrepreneurs ran the United States. Major businessmen such as Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and J.P Morgan did everything in their power to grow in wealth as the rest of the country fell into debt. With it also being a time for rapid growth in industrialization, this topic could easily be argumentative. In this paper, these issues will be discussed to show why change needed to happen in America.
During the Gilded Age, industrialization progressed faster than people could handle, causing many problems we faced throughout the period. Many new ideas were forming such as tariffs, economies of scale, and pools. Money was going into bigger businesses instead of paying workers, causing millions of people to become poor. Children as young as nine and women were working just so they could pay the bills and buy groceries. Deadly strikes began to spread along America, killing thousands of people only looking for better working conditions and higher pay.
The lower Class, the Working Class, the Middle Class, and the Upper Class were the four main social classes during the Gilded Age. Wealth and income, jobs, education, and achievements ranked people in the class they would remain in. Horizontal mobility was a way for someone to improve their job but they would stay in their class they began with while vertical mobility was a way for someone to move up or down in social classes. These classes were extremely unfair; for example a working class sometimes could make more than a middle class but since people did not see this class as more than it was, they were never able to live the life they deserved. Lower classes could barely survive on the salary they would have but were never able to do anything about it and they suffered until someone finally did something about it, which would only be years later.
Every problem during this time period caused Teddy Roosevelt to take matters into his own hands. Once William Mckinley was assassinated in office, the Vice President, Theodore Roosevelt was sworn into office. Already putting his term to good use, Teddy helped resolve many conflicts during the strikes such as forcing men like Andrew Carnegie to pay workers a fair amount. Theodore Roosevelt believed all men should be paid a fair, consistent amount and he put his belief into action. Teddy switched the roles of the monopolies to the point where poor people were making more money.
In conclusion, America was struggling with money and many other problems, leading to the idea of change. Reformation was in need and it may have not been the best idea, but it was one that worked. Another side to this argument might have been Weren’t these men helping America grow- so why were they getting hate? Yes this may have been true but the power was getting to the business men’s heads, causing many problems America was facing at that time. Overall, this is just another part of our history that we must learn from and to make sure we never make this mistake again.
Theodore Roosevelt: President of the United States
Some people know me for being a cattle rancher, hunter, and an explorer. But despite my rugged past, I had become the 26th President of the United States, I am Theodore Roosevelt. Also, being known for my excellent hunting skills I was known as “Telescope Teddy”.
I had received this nickname because of my thick glasses and tiny telescope “eye”, and also just my skills of catching game, out west in 1902. My family has referred to me as “Teedie” as well, just as being a very sickly child. I have a very powerful personality, (of what people would say), this is what had led me into office. I once had quoted “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far,” I say this because of my forcing of going away from a dishonest financial adviser, I take this saying from a West African proverb. My ancestors come from a Dutch colony in New Amsterdam (New York) in the 1600s. I was born the 27th of October, in New York, I was the second out of four children.
My father is named Theodore Sr. He worked as a businessman, causing our family to have plenty of money. My mother, Martha (Bulloch) Roosevelt was raised as a Southerner on plantation land. As a young boy, I suffered from asthma causing me to not to attend school. This made my parents insisted on a private tutor, and by the age of 18, I was accepted into Harvard. But, despite my breathing problems, I was attracted to many sports. As a young boy, I went on many trips with my family around Europe. These experiences this led me into the journeys becoming an explorer. Just months after graduating from Harvard in 1880, I married the love of my life, Alice Lee Hathaway. But tragically she passed away February 14, 1884, from Bright’s disease, leaving me all alone with our four-year-old daughter Alice. I was so devastated with the loss of my wife I have forbidden her name being said in the house, so I nicknamed my daughter Alice “Bamie”. One day on a trip to London, I reunited with my childhood friend Ethel Kermit Carow, later marrying her. Together Ethel and I built a life. We had five children together, Theodore Jr (1887), Kermit (1889), Ethel Carow (1891) Archibald Bulloch (1894), and my youngest son Quentin (1897). My military history consisted of the Civil Rights Service.
Also being appointed being Lieutenant in the Spanish American War by President Mckinley. I created the Rough Riders which is the first Volunteer Cavalry. Before becoming president I wanted to become a Lawyer but dropping out later on. In 1886, I ran for New York’s Governor, later winning. During my free time, I enjoy hunting and journaling. Did you know I was the youngest President to enter the office at the age of forty-two? The dates I served was from 1901-1909. Charles W. Fairbanks was my Vice President, Secretary of State; John Hay and Secretary of Treasure, Elihu Root (1905) and Robert Bacon (1909). People have considered me as the first modern President for my technique and skills in the office. I had completed many accomplishments in the Office. The Domestic Policy, which is a square deal domestic program involving the promise to battle the large Industrial combination, and in 1902 it had threatened to restrain trade. This has brought a successful suit in the Spanish American War. I had a Foreign Policy, which means I wanted to bring America out of its isolation and fulfill successful responsible. But sadly it didn’t turn out as I expected. I had received the Medal of Honor, which means since for my hard work being a Rough Rider.
The Rough Riders greatest victory formed at the Battle of San Juan Hill. I had helped the coal strike of 1902. The Coal Strike is when the mine workers had threatened to heat supplies at their own homes. I had begun to threatened the miners by the US Army to mine the coals and fire the mines and convinced both the miners and the owners to deal with it. After excelling at a great President I made many expeditions, as in exploring jungles with my wife for nine months. I had perished in my bed on January 2, 1919, at the age of 60. I died by a Pulmonary embolism, which is a blood clot in the lung. I was buried in Oyster Bay, New York. My legacy had brought excitement to the Office, with my strong personality I also brought power. I have many national memorials such as my birthplace in Sycamore Hill, being a mansion I lived in. Wilcox mansion Buffalo, New York, where I took an oath. T has several national parks named after me, and let’s not forget I’m on Mount Rushmore. I have made a President, rather than a Political Party, or Congress, which is the center of American Politics. I believe that a President should use only power, or all unless denied for a specific/ political, reason. Now I know, I Theodore Roosevelt, has changed America greatly in many ways as becoming a “modern president”.
Theodore Roosevelt Biography
Theodore Roosevelt was born in New York, October 27, 1858. He was born into a wealthy family. His mother’s name is Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (Mittie) and his father’s name is Theodore Roosevelt Sr.
He had four brothers and sisters, teddie they called him was the second of the four. His brothers and sisters names were Elliot (1860) Corinne (1861) Anna Bamie (1855). Because teddy had severe asthma he started an intense physical fitness regime. And he continued that threw life. Because of his asthma, he had to stay home because he was always sick. Also, he was homeschooled because he was sick all the time. Then in 1871 his grandfather Cornelius Roosevelt died. When he was 13 he finally got his first pair of eyeglasses. On his 14th birthday, he got a shotgun. In the fall of 1876, he joined a law school called Harvard University. His father died in 1878 because he had stomach cancer. That same year his father dies he meets Alice Hathaway Lee. In 1880 on February 14 he was engaged to Alice Hathaway Lee. Then He graduated from Harvard. On his 22nd birthday, he marries Alice. After that then he enters a Columbia law school. On February 12 their only daughter Alice Lee Roosevelt was born. Then he returned home after he got a telegraph that his mother and also his wife were ill. On February 14 his mother died of typhoid fever. A couple of hours later his wife died of kidney failure. Then he Secretly is courting his childhood sweetheart, Edith Carow. On December 2, 1886, in London, he secretly marries Edith Carow. Then in 1887 on September 13 his first son and they named him Theodore Roosevelt Jr.. then on 1889 on October 10 their daughter Kermit Roosevelt was born at Sacomore Hill. Then in 1891 on August 13 their daughter Ethel Carow Roosevelt is born on Sacomore Hill.then in 1894 on April 10 their son Archibald Bulloch Roosevelt born in Washington, DC. then on August 14, Theodore’s brother Elliot dies. then in 1897 on November 19 their Son Quentin Roosevelt was born in Washington, DC.
During the presidency of Then in 1898 September 27, he was Nominated by the Republican Party for him to be the Governor of New York State. Then that same year November 8 he was Elected Governor of New York State. Then in 1900, he was Nominated to vice presidential Republican ticket. Then a big thing in his life on November 6 he was Elected vice president. Then on September President McKinley was shot while Roosevelt is hiking in the Adirondacks mountains. September 14 Theodore Roosevelt Becomes 26th President of the United States, the youngest to ever hold the office. His vice presidents name is Charles W. Fairbanks. Then in 1902 February, he Begins first of 45 antitrust suits to dissolve business monopolies. 1903 in March he Establishes Pelican Island, FL as a first federal bird reserve. Then in 1904, he is re-elected, president. Then in 1906 Establishes a lot of national parks and monuments. Then in 1909 during the month of March, his Presidency ends.
After the Presidency Then in 1909 in March he Departs for a year-long African safari hunting trip with son Kermit. Then in 1912 on October 14 he was Shot in the chest before campaign speech and he finishes his speech with a bullet in his chest. Then that same year on November 5 he lost the presidential election against Woodrow Wilson, Despite receiving a largest number of votes for a third-party candidate. Then in 1917 Four sons enlist in military and daughter Ethel serves as a Red Cross nurse. Then in 1918 July 14 his Youngest son Quentin killed while serving as a fighter pilot in France. That same year July Theodore Refuses Republican nomination for Governor of New York. then in 1919 on January 6 Theodore Roosevelt Dies in sleep at Sagamore Hill of an arterial blood clot, at the age of 60.
Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, www.biography.com/. Thomas Edison’s Religion and Political Views, hollowverse.com/. Breaking News, Streaming Live, 24×7. CBS News, CBS Interactive, www.cbsnews.com/.
HISTORY | Watch Full Episodes of Your Favorite Shows. History.com, A&E Television Networks, history.com/. Miller Center. Miller Center, millercenter.org/. POTUS – Presidents of the United States. POTUS: Presidents of the United States, www.potus.com/. Supplement: Encyclopedia of World Biography, Advameg, Inc., www.notablebiographies.com/.
TR Center – Theodore Roosevelt Center Home. TR Center – Booker T Washington, www.theodorerooseveltcenter.org/. Theodore Roosevelt. About Theodore Roosevelt, abouttheodoreroosevelt.com/. The White House. The White House, The United States Government, www.whitehouse.gov/.
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Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy
“A good many of you are probably acquainted with the old proverb:”Speak softly and carry a big stick-you will go far.” If a man continually blusters, if he lacks civility, a big stick will not save him from trouble; and neither will speaking softly avail, if back of the softness there does not lie strength, power.” Theodore Roosevelt was highly revered during his time for his unique approach to foreign policy, as seen in the quotation, TR held the belief “speak softly and carry a big stick” when handling international foreign affairs, in order to discussing the topic it is helpful to ask what “carrying a big stick” entails, and how the president would proceed in order to execute his new international policy approach. The ideology was contradictory to the nation’s previous policy of international neutrality and isolationism..
The Big Stick policy is very significant in Roosevelt’s approach to foreign policy; in the example of Venezuela, the negotiation of the Panama canal, and heavy hand in the conflicts of the far east. Wielding his new foreign policy proceeding the death of President William McKinley, Roosevelt sets out to establish America as a world power, through the expansion of the nation’s navy and overall confidence in international diplomacy, he solidifies himself in history as an exceedingly charismatic and proactive president who took a fresh approach to international affairs in order to compete with the ever changing politics of the world. The first examples of Roosevelt’s implementation of the Big Stick policy can be found in the various events that took place in Latin America. The negotiation of the Panama Canal is exceedingly important in American history. With the death of McKinley, Roosevelt inherits the task of building a canal to support America’s expanding empire and preserve commercial interests in the Pacific and Latin America.
In order to do so, Roosevelt’s administration first had to negotiate the terms to build and own the canal with accordance to the British, resulting in the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty in which, “It is agreed that the canal may be constructed under the auspices of the government of the United States”, this is the figurative green light for the U.S. to negotiate the canal under the terms of peace and primarily commercial usage. After their failed attempt at creating a canal in Panama the French agreed to sell the land to the United States. Negotiations with Colombia began and were significantly frustrating, after the Columbian refusal to ratify the proposal for the canal, Roosevelt is approached by a representative of Panama, Banau-Varilla, he informed him of revolutionary ideas that were ready to ignite in Panama. Roosevelt agreed to support the revolution sending the U.S. warship Nashville? to reinforce the Panamanian Revolutionaries, they succeed in a nearly bloodless struggle. Thus came the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty which, “to the United States in perpetuity the use, occupation and control of a zone of land and land underwater for the construction, maintenance, operation, sanitation and protection of said canal”, the statement “in perpetuity” meant forever in this sense.
While this was a massive success for America, the treaty was completely one sided and resulted in Panamanian distaste for the American government, aiding a growing Latin American resentment towards the U.S. Another good example of Theodore Roosevelt’s usage of his Big Stick policy in Latin America can be seen in the Venezuelan Crisis of 1902. The Venezuelans similarly to other nations in South America had fallen into debt with European powers. When Germany and Britain sent naval fleets to collect the money from Venezuela an American Navy fleet quickly responded and flourished the new U.S. policy of policing with a big stick. The Navy fleet was claimed to have been there coincidentally, when in reality it seemed as if the president strategically planned an exemplary show of the navy’s preparedness to deploy for war, “I assembled our battle fleet under Admiral Dewey, near Puerto Rico, for ‘maneuvers’,with instructions that the fleet should be kept in hand and in fighting trim, and should be ready to sail at an hour’s notice.” Ultimately American intervention causes the British and Germans to cut off diplomatic ties with the leaders of Venezuela and leave Latin America.
The European powers violation of the Monroe Doctrine was troubling to Theodore Roosevelt, it posed an imminent threat to America’s public safety. In response TR went to congress with what will be called the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in 1905. A proposal intended to expand U.S. Navy, put attention on commercial interests in the far east and transfer European intervention to the hands of America. Roosevelt asks for the expansion of the Army and Navy in the quote, “it is absolutely necessary to consider the Army and the Navy, and the Congress, through which the thought of the nation finds its expression, should keep ever vividly in mind the fundamental fact that it is impossible to treat our foreign policy, whether this policy takes shape in the effort to secure justice for others or for ourselves, save as conditioned upon the attitude we are willing to take toward our army, and especially toward our navy.” The call for naval growth was centered around the Big Stick foreign policy, and the additional responsibilities as a righteous power of the world to police, enforce and protect itself from foreign powers.
TR states in his corollary, “Chronic wrongdoing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society, may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence to the exercise of an international police power.” Overall the implementation of the Corollary resulted in the expansion of the Navy, as well as, the new policy of intervention, causing a further decline in popularity for the U.S. in Latin America. An exceedingly intelligent implementation of Theodore Roosevelt’s Big Stick policy was the deployment of the Great White Fleet. “Over a 14 month period, 14,000 men on 16 battleships and auxiliaries, traveled 46,000 miles, circumnavigating the world and demonstrated to Europe and the Far East, American strength during a time of peace.”
There were many reasons for Roosevelt’s sailing of the Great White Fleet across the world, most of them pertaining to American interest in the East following the Russo-Japanese war, as well as the opportunity to showcase his naval prowess. The deployment of the fleet was viewed by the department of the navy, “as a trial run for a war with Japan” ;however, Roosevelt also used the fleet to stimulate congress to make more ships due to the reinforced popular public interest in the Navy. Simultaneously, the goal of the Great White Fleet was to “bolster his political support on the west coast by capitalizing on fears of a possible war with Japan.” While the deployment of The Great White Fleet had no actual combat motives, it sought to establish Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy internationally with a soft spoken word of peace during a time of growing tensions with Japan. Theodore Roosevelt took an extremely unorthodox approach to American Foreign policy, his implementation of Big Stick ideology broke America from its isolationist shell taking the first steps into establishing itself as a world power. Through the expansion of the Navy, negotiation of the Panama canal, Venezuela Crisis, and resolution of tensions in the East, Roosevelt went through immense means to uphold his administrative declaration of a big stick. Throughout his two terms TR made extremely advantageous decisions and intellectual resolutions to end tensions through the use of diplomacy and solidified himself in American history as a truly pragmatic diplomat.
-?Mathews, John M. “”Roosevelt’s Latin-American Policy.”” ?The American Political Science Review? 29, no. 5 (1935): 805-20. doi:10.2307/1947224.
-?Herring, George C. ?From colony to superpower: U.S. foreign relations since 1776?. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
-?””Http://ljournal.ru/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/a-2017-023.pdf.”” ?“This Great Enterprise”: Theodore Roosevelt and the Panama Canal ?, 2017. doi:10.18411/a-2017-023.
-Livermore, Seward W. “”Theodore Roosevelt, the American Navy, and the Venezuelan Crisis of 1902-1903.”” ?The SHAFR Guide Online?. doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim090300009
-“”Transcript of Theodore Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1905).”” Transcript of Theodore Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1905) (print-friendly version). Accessed December 12, 2017.
-?Neu, Charles E. “”Theodore Roosevelt and American Involvement in the Far East, 1901-1909.”” Pacific Historical Review? 35, no. 4 (1966): 433-49. doi:10.2307/3636977
-Bogle, Lori . “”Why T.R. Sent the Great White Fleet.”” ?The SHAFR Guide Online?. doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim040140120.
– Theodore Roosevelt’s Speech at the Minnesota State Fair – Sept. 2, 1901. Accessed December 12, 2017. .
-HAY-PAUNCEFOTE TREATY, Nov. 18th, 1901, 32 Stat. 1903;Treaty Series 401.https://www.loc.gov/law/help/us-treaties/bevans/b-gb-ust000012-0258.pdf
-Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, Feb. 26th, 1904, U.S. Stats., vol. 33.https://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/pan001.asp
-Root-Takahira Agreement,Nov. 30th, 1908, Treaty series 511 ½. https://www.loc.gov/collections/united-states-treaties-and-other-international-agreements/about-this-collection/bevans/b-jp-ust000009-0414.pdf
Theodore Roosevelt: Friend, Family Member and Leader
Theodore Roosevelt was one of the many presidents of the United States, but being a president was not the only point in his life that made him who he was. To some, he was a friend, family member, a leader, but to those who weren’t sure of who he is, he may have just been a person who used to live on this Earth.
Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858 in New York, New York. His parents were Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. and Martha Bulloch of Georgia. Growing up, Theodore had suffered a very sickly life with asthma but this did not stop him from living his life to the fullest.Even though he was sick, teenage Theodore Roosevelt had went through gymnastics and weightlifting in order to “build his body”. Through this training, Roosevelt had developed a love for exercise and also developed a muscular body. Because he loved to workout so much, he slowly made his way to taking hikes and a riding horses and swimming, basically doing outdoor activities. As he grew older, Teddy Roosevelt’s love for the outdoors never died, only prospered.
Theodore Roosevelt had studied in Harvard College and learned a wide range of subjects. Throughout time, Roosevelt had fallen in love with Alice Hathaway Lee and they were married by October 1880. Theodore Roosevelt had enrolled in Columbia Law School, but that wasn’t his style so he dropped out a year later and focused on public service. This career lead to another and a long time after, Theodore Roosevelt became president in 1901, after a tragic death for President McKinley.
President Theodore Roosevelt was the youngest male to ever be president. His leadership had changed the standards of who a president should be, despite his young age.His presidential term last from September 14, 1901 to March 4, 1909. He had lived a happy and influential life, but just like all people, he later on died. Theodore Roosevelt had taken his last breath on January 6, 1919, ten years after his term ended. It has been 99 years since he died, but his legacy is still remembered and never forgotten.
President Theodore Roosevelt: Biography
Theodore was the twenty-sixth president of the United States of America. He is known for many actions, such as his creation of the “”Bull Moose”” Party, and his political background in New York.
Roosevelt attended Harvard College, studying law. He did not pursue his higher education very long, for he joined the New York State Assembly, breaking the record for the youngest to ever serve as a representative in that assembly. After that, he held several other positions, including captain of the National Guard. He ran to be New York City mayor, but was defeated. All of these jobs must have helped him to gain publicity to become governor of New York in 1898, and won the vice presidency under William McKinley.
During his second term, McKinley was assassinated, making Roosevelt the president at age 42 (this also broke the record for youngest to ever become president at that time).
Roosevelt’s domestic policy was shaped by enforcing the Sherman Antitrust Act, the first piece of federal legislature to outlaw monopolies. Another domestic policy of Roosevelt’s was his “”Square Deal.”” The Square Deal was very progressive for its time, and sought to reform industry, and allow big business to coexist with labor unions. In his second term, Roosevelt was advised to dismiss soldiers involved with an incident of a shooting rampage a rampage that accused African American soldiers of shooting one white man to dead and leaving another one wounded. He waited until after the November midterm election elections where African Americans would vote for Republicans, and then fired all the 167 African American soldiers involved with the incident such that none would receive a pension.
Roosevelt’s foreign policy included aiding the completion of the Panama Canal. This was achieved by giving money to the revolution in Panama, and issuing a naval blockade preventing Columbian forces from reaching Panama (Panama was rebelling against Columbia). These actions much reduced the time it took to sail between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Roosevelt also helped to negotiate the end of the Russo-Japanese War believing that Japan could not beat Russia because it would lead to an “”imbalance of power,”” which would have to be sorted out by the U.S. later on anyways. He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for this action. Yet another piece of Roosevelt’s foreign policy was the (originally named) Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. This corollary further demonstrated the U.S.’s role as “”policeman”” of the Western Hemisphere.
How Progressive was Theodore Roosevelt as U.S. President
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, political corruptions and wealth inequalities were accompanied by the rapid development and expansion in the United States in the form of the Gilded Age. Overlapped at last ten years, the Progressive Era war started, when the major so- cial and political reforms were made in the United States. The progressivism aimed to remove problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and political corruption that se- verely affected the U.S.
The Progressives like Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson insisted that the United States should allow a more active form of government in order to moderate the worst aspects of industrial capitalism. Especially, Roosevelt built The Square Deal for the pro- gressive reforms and implemented some Acts to change America in progressive ways. Roosevelt is considered as a progressive president in the U.S. history, as he worked for the consumer protec- tion, control of corporations, and conservation throughout his presidency.
Theodore Roosevelt was a progressive president who worked for consumer protection, as he espoused the laws that restricted the sale and production of contaminated or mislabeled food and medicines. He hoped every American to eat clean and healthy food whoever they are, hence he carried out few policies dealing with the sanitary of the food. In 1906, Roosevelt applied the Meat Inspection Act in order to prevent the American citizens from consuming the unsanitary meat (Rouse). The Act forced the meatpackers to use and follow the strict sanitation guidelines when slaughtering and processing the meat. In addition, Theodore Roosevelt created the Pure Food and Drug Act in the same year, which stopped the contaminated food and medicine being sold and required the truthful labels on the food products (Schechtman). It also terminated the transportation and trade of adulterated or detrimental food, liquors, and drugs. As these two poli- cies were the laws that had never treated or made before, it determines that Roosevelt was pro- gressive as a U.S. president, with the major reforms for the consumer protection. As well as his policies for the consumer protection, Roosevelt also used his progressive ideas to decrease the political corruptions and monopolies of corporations.
Teddy Roosevelt also curbed the political corruptions and abuses of immense corporations by controlling the trusts and monopolies, pointing out that he is progressive. During his presiden- cy, Roosevelt was renowned for facilitating reforms that controlled monopolies and trusts, and he fought for the appropriate working conditions of factory employees. For instance, in 1900, due to Roosevelt’s acts fighting to dissolve the monopolies and trusts, more than 40 monopolies were controlled. He specifically utilized the Sherman Antitrust Act in order to regulate monopolies and trusts, filing 44 antitrust suits. As a result, Roosevelt’s goal to regulate the monopolies and trusts was achieved by breaking up corporations such as Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Co. and some trusts like the Beef Trust and Northern Securities Trust (Leccese). Moreover, in 1902, when there was an anthracite Coal Strike between the miners’ Union and coalfield operators, Roosevelt interced- ed in the strike and proceeded the compromise. After Roosevelt’s action in the strike, the Coal Strike ended in a 10 percent pay increase and a nine-hour working day for the coalfield workers (Grossman).
As the evidence all show Roosevelt’s maneuver treating the colossal corporations and monopolies, they prove that Roosevelt was successful in curbing the political corruptions and abuses of huge companies. Roosevelt’s attitude towards the corrupted corporations, and the re- forms made to prevent monopolies and trusts indicate that his policies were progressive. Furthermore, Roosevelt proves himself to be progressive by not only curtailing the corruptions of corporations, but also preserving America’s environment and nature. Theodore Roosevelt was progressive since he set a lot of policies and established various conservation centers to protect the United States’ natural resources. As Roosevelt was one of the few Americans who did not ignore the environment and attempted to preserve it at the early 20th century, his behaviors towards the conservation are considered to be progressive.
Ever since he became aware that there is a limited amount of natural resources, he always tried to preserve the nation’s environment by executing several Acts. Take for instance, Roosevelt retained 148 million acres of forest reserves in the United States, and also founded roughly 50 wildlife shelters and many national parks (Howard). Besides, Roosevelt employed the National Reclamation Act of 1902, also known as the Lowlands Act, on the purpose of utilizing the land for agriculture (Ga- noe). The Act allowed the government to fund large-scale irrigation projects for the arid lands in the West of the United States. Roosevelt Dam and Shoshone Dam in Wyoming were the most fa- mous dams constructed by the Act, and they show the ability and passion of President Roosevelt to preserve the environment. These Roosevelt’s laws and constructions about the conservation indicate how progressive Roosevelt was, since the positive attitude of conservation was not common in that period. As he revolutionized the concept of conservation by processing his Acts to protect the environment, Roosevelt was a very progressive president in U.S. history. On the whole, Theodore Roosevelt was progressive due to his policies in regards to conservation.
To sum up, Theodore Roosevelt was progressive as a U.S. president, as he enacted the Square Deal, which mainly protected consumers from the food market, decreased the corruptions of corporations, and conserved the environment. With Roosevelt’s progressive domestic three C’s policies, he is currently well-known for being one of the most progressive presidents in the American history. As his efforts to implement progressive ideas were supported by a large portion of American citizens, he was able to successfully handle domestic problems with confidence. Later, after his presidency, as a result of Roosevelt’s progressive convention and platform, the Progressive Era’ began in the United States, the American Conservationism was established, and the power of the Federal Government drastically grew.
Presidential Paper Theodore Roosevelt
At the start of the 20th Century, the branch in the national government looked upon as the one holding the most power was the United States Congress. The average age of the presidents up until 1901 was about 60 years old, and they were not viewed as the political head like they are today. That all changed in 1901 when Theodore Roosevelt was sworn into office.
Considered the first modern president, Theodore Roosevelt significantly expanded the influence and power of the executive office. believing that it was the exclusive right of the President to use all powers available, except for the powers specifically denied to the office, to accomplish goals. Roosevelt pushed the governmental boundaries of the early 20th Century, challenging against the ideas of limited government.
After graduating from Harvard University, Roosevelt started studies at Columbia University for law, however he dropped out a year after to pursue what would become a lifetime career in politics. Winning a seat in the New York assembly in 1882, Roosevelt left politics briefly, moving out to the western frontier to deal with the death of his wife death from childbirth, and his mothers’ death, both happening on the same day. This event is what led him to become an extreme advocate for the outdoors and famed big game hunter. In 1886, Roosevelt returned to New York City, attempting to revive his political career with a failed attempt campaigning for mayor. In 1889, He was appointed Civil Service commissioner, retaining the office until 1895. Roosevelt was later tapped to be president of the New York City Board.
1897 is the year Theodore Roosevelt stepped into national politics, joining President William McKinley’s administration as assistant secretary of the Navy. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, in which Roosevelt saw coming, and actively prepared for while in office, he resigned from his position, and volunteered to be the commander of the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, known historically as the Rough Riders. With stories of his heroics in Cuba, such as ones of the famed charge at San Juan Hill, Roosevelt returned home a war hero. Using this new fame, he launched a successful bid for governor of New York in 1898. In 1900, Roosevelt was chosen to be the Republican candidate for Vice President, running along side President McKinley. Successfully elected, he was only able to hold vice-presidency for 194 days, due to the tragic death of President McKinley after being shot in Buffalo, New York.
At the age of 42, Theodore Roosevelt became the youngest President of the United States. Referred to as the People’s President, Roosevelt worked to push the government to improve the lives of Americans, creating a domestic-first approach; initiating legislation for welfare, placing government regulation on industry, and advocating for reform in the workplace. As a tip to the outdoors that helped him recover years ago, he became the first environmentalist in office, designating almost 200 million acres of natural land for the National Parks and wildlife conservatories. America’s foreign policies where drastically changed, as Roosevelt wanted to expand the country’s influence around the world. He worked diligently, securing the rights to build the Panama Canal and establishing the United States are the policeman of the Western Hemisphere. In 1905, President Roosevelt furthered his pursuit in American influence, with successfully being the mediator between Russia and Japan, allowing them to negotiate peace in the United States. President Roosevelt believed that the world should settle international disputes through diplomacy rather than war, however described his own foreign policy as the idea of negotiating peacefully, but also having strength incase diplomacy failed.
Theodore Roosevelt significantly expanded the influence and power of the Presidency while in office, accomplishing goals that set the United States on the path towards becoming a world power. As the most popular president of his time, President Roosevelt created the modern view of the presidency; one where the president would forever shape issues, mold opinions on topics, and essentially become the face of American politics. Through his personality and enthusiasm, he forever changed the view of the American political system.