The Raven

The Critical Analysis of Symbolism in Edgar Allan Poe’s The Raven

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

“The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe is written by an author whose writing style can give the reader a detailed image in his or her mind. In this text the author uses multiple writing techniques that amplify his poems to the next level. Poe’s Poems stand out compared to other stories I have read. In “The Raven” Poe describes the characters as ominous, creative, mystical and dark. The setting and language has far surpassed gothic levels. Poe’s writing style is unique and his descriptions are very clever and clear.

In this text Poe uses the phrase “Nevermore” at the end of each stanza amplifying each moment the raven speaks, when the reader reads this repeatedly it adds a more dramatic affect to the poem. By using this writing style Poe is able to intensify each stanza with one word, “Nevermore”. While using this repetitive writing style he is also able to use very descriptive words to increase the readers imagery.

Poe claims to have purposely selected each refrain “Nevermore”, Poe says “ After considering his need for a single, easily remembered word that would allow him to vary the variations of it, as the closing word for each stanza.” When using this refrain repeatedly it causes the tension to intensify and bring a dramatic feeling to each stanza. Poe’s poem opens up with “Once upon a midnight dreary…” by doing so he already is letting us know the dark and dull setting. The raven can be argued to possibly be a figment of the narrator’s imagination, over the distraught death of Lenore. In the first stanza the narrator claims to be “weak and weary”. He is almost sleeping when he hears a tapping at the chamber door, which could be a sound that he has heard in a previous dream, not an actual tapping sound at the door. He is scared of being alone in the chamber, where the poem takes place. The raven is symbolical, it symbolizes the narrator’s torture that he inflicts upon himself due to the death of Lenore, “rare and radiant maiden, nameless here forevermore”. When the narrator speaks to the raven, the raven only answers with “nevermore” this tortures the narrator even more.

Like all stories there’s always something symbolical, either it be a person a place or even a thing. In the book “The Great Gatsby” the main character Nick is a Veteran of WWI who finds himself trapped in a world like nothing he has seen before, being on the battlefield for so long can change a man. Although he is a Veteran and is always prepared for battle he was not ready for this battle, so called “Life”. He lives in a city that is separated by a body of water, one side the rich and the other the poor, Nick is continuously moving from the West to the East not sure of what he is doing. This is similar to “The raven” because The narrator in “The Great Gatsby” (Nick) is confused and scared for his life, in “The Raven” the narrator feels the same way and is also trying to live his life, but without the love of his life, Lenore.

“The Raven” and “The Great Gatsby” are two completely different stories. These two stories are both very different, one is a poem and the other a short book, the authors are completely different as well as the writing style but they do share something in common and that’s a story outline, both stories have characters, setting, conflict, and a conclusion. Something that all stories are required to have in order for it to be a story/poem. For example this six word poem has a story “ I promise it wasn’t me babe “, in this poem you have a character and you have a setting or an image of what’s happening. You can clearly tell that it is a couple talking about a conflict that happened, although there is no certain conclusion, there is a conclusion. Therefore these two completely different stories are similar in a way.

“The Raven” has its own uniqueness because it’s able to make you feel a certain way without actually physically putting you in the situation. It also tends to send off this very gloomy or dark vibe, given the setting in a dark chamber. In the poem there is a line that says “Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before”. The way this is written is unique, the narrator is talking in perspective of himself as well as being completely un-modest, portraying a very compelling and complex character.

In “The Great Gatsby” the narrator Nick is portrayed as a soft but important character in the book. He is important because of the person he is towards other people and himself. Although Nick is usually not in the middle of things he is still the anchor in the story. In “The Raven” the narrator is not the anchor of the story but the Raven itself is.

The Raven is symbolized as the never forgotten pain of his lost love. It also symbolizes the torture he puts himself through because of what happened to the love his life. In this poem it does not clearly clarify what happens to the narrator’s wife although it gives the reader a figment if their own imagination letting the reader make up their own input on what happens to the long lost love, Lenore.

In “The Raven” Poe likes to leave a dramatic cliffhanger affect to the reader, and is able to do so by using a easily remembered phrase “Nevermore”. In Poe’s poem he uses vocabulary such as bleak, entreat, implore, beguile and many other unique words showing us that the author is smart and uses well thought out words to give his poem that extra emphasis. In “The Raven” Poe uses very complex literature and vocabulary that makes the reader think and pause when reading the poem, by doing that it also gives us time to look back or read back on the previous line giving it more clarity and more of a feeling. Poe is one of the many few poets that are able to draw out the feelings in words and the feelings inside you and combine them both into a realistic feeling. This can all be opinion based or solemnly just my opinion but by doing research and thoroughly reading over each of these I can tell you it is not.

From reading both of these stories I have come to the conclusion that “The Raven” and “The Great Gatsby” are similar. I have also come to the conclusion that the poem “The Raven” is more unique and detailed than “The Great Gatsby”. With “The Great Gatsby” I believe that it is a good book, but with all those chapters the author made I believe Edgar Allan Poe could have made a better story in just a few stanza.

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The Symbolism of Visual Imagery in The Raven

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Summary:

The Raven portrays the story of an unnamed narrator who is unattended in his residence on an icy December evening. As he is about to fall asleep, he hears a soft hammering at his door, but decides to overlook it. He says that he has read in the hope of mitigating his unhappiness over Lenore, his beloved, who has died. Though he tries to convince himself that nothing is there, his worry and curiosity overwhelm him. He eventually opens his door, speaking “Lenore” into the twilight. When he hears knocking at his window, he also opens that and a Raven flies inside his room. The narrator asks the Raven’s name and is shocked to hear it answer “Nevermore.” He murmurs to himself that the Raven will presumably abandon him just as his family and companions did, to which the Raven replies once more “Nevermore.” The narrator then seats himself straight before the Raven, trying to fathom what it means by “Nevermore.” Swiftly, the narrator realises that angels sent by God have provoked the air to become scented and opaque. Uneasy, he asks the Raven if the angels are a symbol that heaven will soothe him of his unhappiness, to which the Raven tells, again, “Nevermore.” With the same reaction, the Raven repudiates the narrator’s wish that he might see Lenore again in heaven, and his intense demand for the Raven to leave him solitary. Ultimately, the narrator notifies us that the Raven will live eternally in its shadow and has continued to rest atop his chamber door (LitCharts, 2019).

Introduction:

“Is all that we see or seem but a dream within a dream?” As an artistic director, I wanted to create a dramatic treatment by exploring Edgar Allen Poe’s The Raven as I believed the script would entertain and challenge a contemporary audience about the connections between past and present. I will achieve this by using the visual and physical conventions of Cinematic Theatre to shape dramatic action. The skillful management of the elements of drama and combination of the dramatic languages will create dramatic action. I will create dramatic action by using the elements of drama and conventions of style/s to create dramatic meaning. To make the performance eclectic/contemporary/post-modern I will create total theatre activity that will attract the masses. The overall objective for the production and why this would make the play is that beside Poe’s goals connected to tension, he had specific intentions regarding the prosody and metrical structure of The Raven. The play is a lyrical study of pain and loss; scrutinising man’s connection with death, specifically the effect of a loved one’s death on those left behind. The progression of the speaker’s grief throughout The Raven is seen and though it is not considered biographical, the speaker’s feelings of grief are incredibly vivid and affecting (CourseHero, 2019). The character roles in The Raven are as follows:

  • One
  • Two
  • Three
  • Four
  • Five
  • Shudders

Ultimately, this play, performed in the Perugia auditorium, will engage the audience’s attention and draw them in through the utilisation of Cinematic Theatre techniques such as; montage, interactive element, symbolic, actual place and the mind/s eye. The play will be of great significance, as it will showcase and justify the dramatic elements of role, relationship, situation, and tension. The visual and physical conventions of Cinematic theatre shape the dramatic action and convey the significant themes and depict characters of the play script. My management of the elements of drama and combination of the dramatic languages will insightfully create dramatic action and convey my intended meaning and purpose.

The Raven shifts sequentially through the situation it recounts, stanza by stanza. The narrator wishes for dawn but at the current time all he can do is mope over his lifeless love, “the lost Lenore,” and sense the palpable terror of the situation. The play scrutinises woe as a tension between the demand to recall and yearning to forget through the narrator continuing to ask questions though he recognises the solutions he will discover. The moods of The Raven are macabre, wistful, weird and uncanniness. The sad mood is set by the solitude of the narrator and the gloom of the scenes. The words “dreary”, “weary”, “grim”, “ghastly”, “evil” and “ominous” help submit and render the moods of inactivity and darkness. Frequent predilections to the company of the raven prolongs the mood produced and progresses throughout the play. Through the character of the raven, which gains human-like attributes, The Raven plays with language. The service of lyrical and obsolete language seems relevant, since the play is about a man wasting most of his time with publications of “forgotten lore”. Poe implies that the death of a woman is more touching than that of man. Cinematic sequences are classified by the three primary doctrines of cinematic theatre that will be used to signal where actors interact with the screen, foreground location and linking scenes.

  • Scene: This indicates when the projection is being used during a live stage scene
  • Transition: This indicates where a passage is being used between stage scene
  • Interaction: This indicates where a stage element within a scene interacts with a screen element

Target Audience:

The target audience for The Raven is people who can’t relinquish, but also those who attempt to neglect their past. The didactic statement (central message) for the target audience is that we are all haunted by the wisdom of dying and notably our own mortality.

Performance Technologies:

The sets and props in The Raven are as follows:

  • Chair
  • Table
  • Risers
  • Candle
  • Large black choir books

The costumes in The Raven are as follows:

  • Black Jacket
  • Black Shirt
  • Black Pants
  • Black Boots
  • Black Gloves

All the actors will be wearing a black jacket, shirt, pants, boots and gloves with the shudders and horror animations being projected on the three screens of Perugia. The set design will include a chair placed centre stage and a table placed downstage left. The performance technologies utilised in The Raven will be lighting, audio/visual components (music, cinematic backdrop), set design and costume/makeup. Stark white lighting will be used with ominous and baroque chamber music playing in certain scenes. I will use stark white lighting with ominous and baroque chamber music to create an artistic effect in the performance that will illuminate the truth.

Montage:

A montage will be created through using video or photography and will synergise with the sound of beating wings and The Alan Parsons Project song, The Raven as it suits the context or mood of the scene. This scene uses a number of dramatic and cinematic conventions. In The Raven, a montage of imagery will be cut together to music to effectively introduce the play. These images will be manipulated to create a stark and dynamic look that reflects the symbolic nature of the scene about to take place (Markwell Presents, 2009).

Interactive Element:

A visual and narrative element that interacted directly with the stage action. Interaction between stage and visual elements will require careful planning and rehearsal to synchronise the action especially when using pre-recorded visual sequences. Interactive screen characters will be used to add to the dramatic action and create dialogue between characters that cannot be achieved through conventional means. To create this moment, the actors playing The Shudders will be filmed as a group of motionless figures representing the scene as they bow their heads and say their lines; leaving gaps for the stage actors to fill (Markwell Presents, 2009).

Symbolic:

Symbolic transitions will be used in this non-realism-based work where visual imagery and mood will be the focus, rather than narrative. It is important in symbolic transitions to consider the power of simple, symbolic imagery and how this could further emphasise the themes and message of The Raven. I decided to use movie genres; such as horror, to transition between the scenes and mirror the nature of the relationships by focusing on the key themes. I interpreted the story through the horror genre, where we see the Shudders moving slowly and menacing. Using animation, I heightened the terror in the scene by including clips from a horror genre animation (Markwell Presents, 2009).

Actual Place:

Actual place will be used to reference the real location in which this scene took place. The scale of the image complemented the design, projection size and the colour of the projected imagery, will be consistent with the lights being turned off and on. In the production, a large projection screen will be situated upstage to establish the location. The quality of the video will be designed to have a realistic appearance (Markwell Presents, 2009).

The Mind/s Eye:

The human ability for visual perception, imagination, visualisation, and one’s ability to “see” things in the mind will be utilised in Section 2 where 5, looking off, states “surely that is something at my window lattice; let me see then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore, let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore”. This point of view allowed the audience to get inside the character’s mind and see an interpretation of what the character is visualising, imaging, hearing, and thinking (Markwell Presents, 2009).

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Allegory and Other Literary Devices in The Raven

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Edgar Allan Poe was an American poet, who lived in the 19th century. As for the peculiarities of his writing style, it should be noted that he preferred gothic style, which was more appealing to the public. Among the topics he described were death, and its signs, loss, darkness, etc. As for his influences, it should be noted that Poe’s parents died when he was young and, therefore, this may partially serve as the explanation of the dark motives in his writings. There were many obstacles in his life and one of them was that he was earning his living by only writing.

The critics sometimes refer to his works as of the dark romanticism due to the topics he covers in them. These were largely motivated by the interests of the reading masses, which tended to bring attention to death, burial, mysteries and horror. In spite of his efforts to avoid direct allegories and didacticism, he was strongly convinced that the meaning of the piece of art should be to some extent hidden under the surface, but not too deep. He believed that those writings cannot be regarded as art in case their meaning was not implied but stated directly. He was also convinced of the idea that each piece of writing should be precise and contain a really thoroughly designed idea. Therefore, it took a great deal of thinking planning over each separate piece of art that an author intended to create.

One of his popular poems is “The Raven”, in which it talks about and implies death, loss, suffering and painful emotions. The verse consists of 18 stanzas; each of them consists of 6 lines. As for the rhyme meter it may be trochaic octameter, since there are eight trochaic feet in each line. However, it was stated by the writer himself in the book published later, where he explained the analysis of his poem “The Raven”, proving that everything in it was thoroughly planned. And as for the poetic structure, Poe tends to call it a combination of different kinds of meters. If we take as an example the following stanza, we will be able to detect the rhyme scheme of the poem:

Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,

Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before.

‘Surely,’ said I, ‘surely that is something at my window lattice:

Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore-

Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery

‘Tis the wind and nothing more.’ (Poe, p.5)

Since each second syllable id rhythmically stressed, we may come to the conclusion that the rhyme scheme looks as ABCBBB, where “turning” rhymes with “burning”, and “before” with “explore” and “more”. The author uses alliteration (which is evident from the usage of the words having similar consonant sounds, which emphasize the gloomy mood of the poem and the implied images of death, loss and mysterious phenomena). In addition, the author uses the internal rhyme, which means rhyming the words together inside of a single line. There’s a chance the author uses this kind of rhyme to create particular rhythms that would reflect his inner feelings and tensions that his hero finds himself lost in. According to the author, he intended to make this poem narrative without any intention of creating allegory. However, the image of the raven serves as a symbol. The hero of the poem, who is clearly a student who is mourning the loss of his deceased beloved. He is suffering because of the loss and, therefore, is trying to forget her in order to ease his heartache. At the same time, he wants to remember her, because of how much he loved her.

The hero seems to have understood that the only thing the raven is capable of saying is the word “nevermore”. In connection to this, the young man chooses such questions to ask the bird that would lead to this answer. It seems like the young man to some extent tends to be asking questions which lead to a very sad and unambiguous answer. That the conversation with the raven does not let him forget about the loss of his loved one, but at the same time the image of the raven serves as a distraction from his dreadful mourning. Even though the bird makes him return to the thought of the tragic loss. There is a noteworthy aspect of the poem. The hero first appears as mournful sad person, who later turns into a madman. He turns from weak, helpless and desperate into frantic.

The raven is the central symbol of the poem. According to the author, he did not make a blind choice, since he wanted to choose a bird that would create some associations with death or cemetery and anything that is dark, sad and mysterious. Furthermore, the chosen character should possess the ability to speak, which was realized in the image of a raven. The main function of using the image of the death bird is to emphasize the never ending, ongoing mourning for the lost love.

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Sadness And Depression in The Raven by Edgar Allen Poe

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Morals of Mourning in “The Raven”

Edgar Allen Poe lived a life of sadness and depression. His works usually depicted that quite well. One of his works that showed a lot of bleak and sorrowful feelings in it was his poem named “The Raven.” In the story a man is dozing in his home late at night after looking at some lore that he was using to distract himself. But he is woken up by a strange sound. The story basically explains how the man feels and what he is going through in his mind at this strange time. The lonely and sad man is actually trying to cope with the loss of a loved one, and Poe mentions what the man is trying to do, which could be taken as advice if one wanted it enough.

The man was reading some lore that is supposed to be old and unique, therefore giving it an interesting quality that makes him want to read it. But since it was late he was falling asleep while reading it. Then suddenly a soft tapping at his door woke him up and made him start thinking about what he was doing before he fell asleep. The man recalled reading those books to distract him, or to cease his sorrowful thinking for the lost Lenore (ln 10). Poe seems to be mentioning how the man was temporarily in relief both when he was reading and thinking about something else, and when he was asleep. When the man fell asleep he was finally taking a break from his troubles, as many have done and will do to escape for a time from reality.

When the strange sound awoke the man, he was frightened, but mustered up the courage to look outside and see what was going on. He had assumed there were some visitors at his door, but the fact that it was so late at night when he heard them is what made him so nervous. When he opened the door there was no one and nothing there, so he closed the door and moved on. But yet he heard another tapping, louder this time and was thinking, “maybe the tapping is from the window. When he opened it the bird stepped in with “many a flirt and flutter, (ln 37)” and actually fascinated the man into allowing the black bird to distract and interest him (ln 43). Poe could be saying that one might use just about anything to take their mind off of the sorrow and pain of losing a loved one. So even though the bird is a “ghastly grim and ancient raven wandering from the nightly shore (ln 46), the man decided to acknowledge the presence of that bird and the personality the bird showed.

But the next few things the man does while talking with the bird is to allow the raven to bother him without even trying. When the man mentions aloud that he assumes the bird will eventually leave the raven says “Nevermore (ln 61).” In reality, a phrase such as this coming from a bird should not be taken seriously, but here is the start of the man’s madness as he starts to believe the raven anyway.

The man moved a chair to sit in front of the raven so he could better look at and talk to the bird. He wanted to know why the bird kept saying the word “Nevermore. (ln 73).” But as the man was thinking and guessing as to why the bird would say that, his thoughts soon wandered again to his lost love. The man said aloud to himself that “thy God hath lent thee – by these angels he has sent thee Respite – respite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore!” (ln 83) and that he should accept God’s gift and let it heal him. But the raven says “Nevermore” like as if the bird does not want the man to feel better (ln 85). Poe seems to mention yet again that taking your mind off of things that bother you for a time will help the healing process. Or at least it should.

So after the raven says the solemn word yet again and again at what just seems to be the wrong time, the man freaks out and starts demanding answers of the raven, as if the bird understood what he was saying. In reality, or in a sane man’s mind, the bird would not know what was being talked about, and yes the bird could be shooed away or blown off, which is probably what Poe could be referencing. Poe must be saying that yes it is ok to take one’s mind off of what is troubling them, but no, do not let what that trouble seep negativity into that activity, and do not let what activity that is being used seep negativity into one’s heart either.

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Stylistic And Literary Devices in The Raven Poem

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

“The Raven” Tone v.s. Mood Essay

The tone and mood of a poem or piece of literature has a very great impact on the elements of a story. The tone is the author’s attitude toward the subject, while the mood is the emotion aroused in the reader which the author creates. Word choice affects the tone of the literary work, and mood is expressed through feelings and thoughts of the reader. In the poem “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe, the mood and tone of the poem are both established and are greatly influenced by the language of the poem. Therefore, three ways that the author conveys the tone to set the mood are through the author’s unique choice of words, literary devices, and sound and rhythm techniques.

First off, there are a few ways that Edgar Allan Poe’s use of language helps to convey the tone in order to set the mood. One way is that Poe starts off the poem with dark words, such as dreary, weary, bleak, dying, and sorrow. These words contribute to create a gloomy atmosphere, and depression is portrayed since the poem is about a man who mourns the death of his love. With the use of these words, a sad, lonely, and depressing mood is established. Another way language can help convey the tone to set the mood is that Poe is very descriptive in his writing, and “The Raven” is full of detail. Phrases such as “deep into the darkness” or “stillness gave no token” adds to a melancholy mood. These phrases create a feeling of silence and being completely alone as well. Finally, word choice whether positive or negative contributes in forming the mood of the poem.

Next, literary devices in “The Raven” conveys the tone to set the mood in a couple of ways. One way is through repetition, which is where the same words or phrases are repeated a couple of times to indicate the idea. For example, “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore’” expresses a melancholy tone, which leads to a sad mood, since the man was agitated with only that one word “nevermore” being the answer to his questions. The word nevermore creates a sense of hopelessness, although it does answer the narrator’s questions as well. Another way that literary devices help to convey the tone to set the mood is through the use of alliteration (repeating the sound of the first consonant in a series of words). An example of alliteration in the poem is using words starting with “d”, like deep, darkness, doubting, dared, and dreaming. These words add to a sinister tone, which develops a sense of fear in the reader. Finally, literary devices add a sense of creativity to a poem.

Lastly, the sound and rhythm techniques used in the poem convey the tone in order to set the mood in many ways. One of these ways is that rhythm and sound both correspond with the narrator’s feelings and experiences. Sound and rhythm both bring forth a dark and dismal tone, leading to a despairing mood, and can have a singsong tone which might be haunting and create uneasiness . An example of a rhythm technique portrayed in the poem is internal rhyme (where the middle word rhymes with ending word), like “dreary” and “weary” in the first line of the poem. Another way that sound and rhythm techniques convey the tone to set the mood is through the use of onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia is an imitation of natural sounds, and an example of this in the poem is “rapping” and “tapping.” Such words make the reader curious and the strong, consistent sounds increase the speed of the poem and enhance the tone also. Finally, the patterns of sound and rhythm make the poem more interesting.

In conclusion, “The Raven” is influenced greatly by tone and mood. Word choice, literary devices, and sound and rhythm techniques or patterns all have an effect on the tone and mood. Tone and mood both change over the course of the poem as well. In the beginning of the poem, the tone was calm and slow since the narrator was recalling a flashback. However, by the end of the poem, the tone started to be panicky and frantic. The mood went from depressed to madness also. I personally believe that ‘The Raven” is a very well written poem, and it is very mysterious too. Overall, “The Raven” has a tone that distinguishes the mood of the poem very well.

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Grief As A Main Motive in The Raven

November 3, 2020 by Essay Writer

The Raven: An analysis of the Five Stages of Grief

“The Raven,” a poem written by Edgar Allan Poe in 1845, when taken literally is about the tortuous journey of a man as he experiences the five stages of grief due to the loss of his love Lenore, but when viewed on a spiritual level represents an internal battle of good vs. evil; the narrator struggles to win the losing battle of retaining his humanity but in the end succumbs to insanity. The narrator is visited by a raven; the raven is significant to understanding the narrator’s mental stability and emotions; the symbol of the raven, loneliness, death, and basically never ending hell, rather than the raven drives the narrator to madness. The raven itself seems to be a fabricated image that serves to give the narrator’s dark side and inner thoughts a tangible image. The narrator is able to remain calm and composed, though it’s just a façade weaved out of desperation, until the raven’s visit which causes him to unravel and ignite an internal battle that will lead to ultimate despair. The narrator’s deepening insanity can be seen through the narrator’s passage through the four main stages of grief and interactions with the symbolic raven.

In more detail, the speaker experiences the first stage of grief, denial, in the beginning of the poem. It can be seen in stanza 4, “And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, Lenore? / This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, “Lenore!” / Merely this, and nothing more. (Line 28-30) The speaker is deep in the denial stage; though Lenore is dead, he is hopeful that it might be her at his door. This is impossible but the narrator cannot see this through the fog of his denial. This is a common emotional and mental side effect of grief. Additionally, the narrator experiences denial when he tries to justify the tapping and rapping on his door, “Surely,” said I, “surely that is something at my window lattice; / Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore (33-34).” The speaker is desperately trying to prove that the sound is real and not a sign of his madness. The quotes prove that the narrator is going through denial that Lenore is in fact dead. Though this is a normal side effect of grief, the speaker’s insistence and hopefulness that Lenore is not dead suggests the beginning of his descendent into insanity and madness.

Next, the speaker enter the stage of anger. His anger is most prominent in stanzas 14, 15, and 17. The narrators anger has been building up and finally explodes out of him, “Wretch,” I cried, “thy God hath lent thee—by these angels he hath sent thee / Respite—respite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore; / Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!”(81-83) The speaker to confront the fact that Lenore is dead and reacts with anger, though not necessarily at the bird itself just due to his grief. The narrator’s anger is also evident when he curses the bird as evil. “Prophet!” said I, “thing of evil–prophet still, if bird or devil! / By that heaven that bends above us–by that God we both adore. (91-92) ” The speaker has decided that the bird is an evil being and is growing increasingly angered and frustrated at its presence. Lastly, the narrator’s anger can be seen as he reacts to the news that he will never achieve internal peace, “ Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!” I shrieked, upstarting / “Get thee back into the tempest and the Night’s Plutonian shore! / Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken! / Leave my loneliness unbroken!—quit the bust above my door!” (97-100) The speaker entered a fit of rage and anger after realizing that the Raven is right. The speakers experience through the stage of anger revealed a startling secret, his loneliness. The narrator is very lonely and the raven exploited this causing the speaker to be filled with hysteria. The quotes prove that the raven is merely a figment of his imagination and a tangible representation of his depending insanity. The narrator’s deepest secret, loneliness, is known by the raven and the raven speaks his darkest thoughts.

Furthermore, the narrator experiences the next stage of grief, depression, throughout the poem but can be seen most heavily in stanza 2, “Eagerly I wished the morrow; – vainly I had sought to borrow / From my books surcease of sorrow – sorrow for the lost Lenore.” (Line 9-10)

These lines mark the initial introduction of Lenore and reveals that the narrator is mourning the loss of these mysterious Lenore. Additionally, it can be inferred that the narrator is wracked with grief over his lost love Lenore; He’s not reading for enjoyment but rather as a distraction from his anguish. Moreover, his depression can also be detected in stanza 18, “And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor / Shall be lifted – nevermore! (59-60) The narrator lost the battle and sinks back into a deeper depression than before; He knows that deep down the raven is right and he will never be ‘redeemed.’ These quotes reveal the beginning of the narrator’s downward spiral into insanity and the end of his battle with the Raven that left him emotionally and mentally broken.

Finally, at the end of the poem the narrator enters the last stage of grief, acceptance. The raven accepts that he will never be free from the weight of his grief and that the Raven is right, “And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor / Shall be lifted – nevermore! (59-60) This quote shows depression but also reveals the speakers acceptance of his everlasting suffering. The narrator’s acceptance can be seen in two ways. First, he can finally be accepting the fact that Lenore is dead and is never coming back. Second, the narrator is accepting the loss of his sanity and humanity.

In conclusion, it is clear from these interactions with the symbolic raven and the display of the stages of grief that the narrator is bordering insanity. In fact, Poe does an extraordinary job of utilizing the rhetoric device allegory to allow the story to have two intertwined meanings and the reader to read a hauntingly beautiful poem of a man’s descent into absolute madness. Overall, as the story progressed the raven succeeded in not only shattering the narrators hope and soul but also his sanity.

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Literary Style Of The Raven

November 3, 2020 by Essay Writer

“The Raven” Tone v.s. Mood Essay

The tone and mood of a poem or piece of literature has a very great impact on the elements of a story. The tone is the author’s attitude toward the subject, while the mood is the emotion aroused in the reader which the author creates. Word choice affects the tone of the literary work, and mood is expressed through feelings and thoughts of the reader. In the poem “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe, the mood and tone of the poem are both established and are greatly influenced by the language of the poem. Therefore, three ways that the author conveys the tone to set the mood are through the author’s unique choice of words, literary devices, and sound and rhythm techniques.

First off, there are a few ways that Edgar Allan Poe’s use of language helps to convey the tone in order to set the mood. One way is that Poe starts off the poem with dark words, such as dreary, weary, bleak, dying, and sorrow. These words contribute to create a gloomy atmosphere, and depression is portrayed since the poem is about a man who mourns the death of his love. With the use of these words, a sad, lonely, and depressing mood is established. Another way language can help convey the tone to set the mood is that Poe is very descriptive in his writing, and “The Raven” is full of detail. Phrases such as “deep into the darkness” or “stillness gave no token” adds to a melancholy mood. These phrases create a feeling of silence and being completely alone as well. Finally, word choice whether positive or negative contributes in forming the mood of the poem.

Next, literary devices in “The Raven” conveys the tone to set the mood in a couple of ways. One way is through repetition, which is where the same words or phrases are repeated a couple of times to indicate the idea. For example, “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore’” expresses a melancholy tone, which leads to a sad mood, since the man was agitated with only that one word “nevermore” being the answer to his questions. The word nevermore creates a sense of hopelessness, although it does answer the narrator’s questions as well. Another way that literary devices help to convey the tone to set the mood is through the use of alliteration (repeating the sound of the first consonant in a series of words). An example of alliteration in the poem is using words starting with “d”, like deep, darkness, doubting, dared, and dreaming. These words add to a sinister tone, which develops a sense of fear in the reader. Finally, literary devices add a sense of creativity to a poem.

Lastly, the sound and rhythm techniques used in the poem convey the tone in order to set the mood in many ways. One of these ways is that rhythm and sound both correspond with the narrator’s feelings and experiences. Sound and rhythm both bring forth a dark and dismal tone, leading to a despairing mood, and can have a singsong tone which might be haunting and create uneasiness . An example of a rhythm technique portrayed in the poem is internal rhyme (where the middle word rhymes with ending word), like “dreary” and “weary” in the first line of the poem. Another way that sound and rhythm techniques convey the tone to set the mood is through the use of onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia is an imitation of natural sounds, and an example of this in the poem is “rapping” and “tapping.” Such words make the reader curious and the strong, consistent sounds increase the speed of the poem and enhance the tone also. Finally, the patterns of sound and rhythm make the poem more interesting.

In conclusion, “The Raven” is influenced greatly by tone and mood. Word choice, literary devices, and sound and rhythm techniques or patterns all have an effect on the tone and mood. Tone and mood both change over the course of the poem as well. In the beginning of the poem, the tone was calm and slow since the narrator was recalling a flashback. However, by the end of the poem, the tone started to be panicky and frantic. The mood went from depressed to madness also. I personally believe that ‘The Raven” is a very well written poem, and it is very mysterious too. Overall, “The Raven” has a tone that distinguishes the mood of the poem very well.

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Bleak And Sorrowful Feelings In The Raven Poem

November 3, 2020 by Essay Writer

Morals of Mourning in “The Raven”

Edgar Allen Poe lived a life of sadness and depression. His works usually depicted that quite well. One of his works that showed a lot of bleak and sorrowful feelings in it was his poem named “The Raven.” In the story a man is dozing in his home late at night after looking at some lore that he was using to distract himself. But he is woken up by a strange sound. The story basically explains how the man feels and what he is going through in his mind at this strange time. The lonely and sad man is actually trying to cope with the loss of a loved one, and Poe mentions what the man is trying to do, which could be taken as advice if one wanted it enough.

The man was reading some lore that is supposed to be old and unique, therefore giving it an interesting quality that makes him want to read it. But since it was late he was falling asleep while reading it. Then suddenly a soft tapping at his door woke him up and made him start thinking about what he was doing before he fell asleep. The man recalled reading those books to distract him, or to cease his sorrowful thinking for the lost Lenore (ln 10). Poe seems to be mentioning how the man was temporarily in relief both when he was reading and thinking about something else, and when he was asleep. When the man fell asleep he was finally taking a break from his troubles, as many have done and will do to escape for a time from reality.

When the strange sound awoke the man, he was frightened, but mustered up the courage to look outside and see what was going on. He had assumed there were some visitors at his door, but the fact that it was so late at night when he heard them is what made him so nervous. When he opened the door there was no one and nothing there, so he closed the door and moved on. But yet he heard another tapping, louder this time and was thinking, “maybe the tapping is from the window. When he opened it the bird stepped in with “many a flirt and flutter, (ln 37)” and actually fascinated the man into allowing the black bird to distract and interest him (ln 43). Poe could be saying that one might use just about anything to take their mind off of the sorrow and pain of losing a loved one. So even though the bird is a “ghastly grim and ancient raven wandering from the nightly shore (ln 46), the man decided to acknowledge the presence of that bird and the personality the bird showed.

But the next few things the man does while talking with the bird is to allow the raven to bother him without even trying. When the man mentions aloud that he assumes the bird will eventually leave the raven says “Nevermore (ln 61).” In reality, a phrase such as this coming from a bird should not be taken seriously, but here is the start of the man’s madness as he starts to believe the raven anyway.

The man moved a chair to sit in front of the raven so he could better look at and talk to the bird. He wanted to know why the bird kept saying the word “Nevermore. (ln 73).” But as the man was thinking and guessing as to why the bird would say that, his thoughts soon wandered again to his lost love. The man said aloud to himself that “thy God hath lent thee – by these angels he has sent thee Respite – respite and nepenthe from thy memories of Lenore!” (ln 83) and that he should accept God’s gift and let it heal him. But the raven says “Nevermore” like as if the bird does not want the man to feel better (ln 85). Poe seems to mention yet again that taking your mind off of things that bother you for a time will help the healing process. Or at least it should.

So after the raven says the solemn word yet again and again at what just seems to be the wrong time, the man freaks out and starts demanding answers of the raven, as if the bird understood what he was saying. In reality, or in a sane man’s mind, the bird would not know what was being talked about, and yes the bird could be shooed away or blown off, which is probably what Poe could be referencing. Poe must be saying that yes it is ok to take one’s mind off of what is troubling them, but no, do not let what that trouble seep negativity into that activity, and do not let what activity that is being used seep negativity into one’s heart either.

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Rhetorical Analysis: “The Raven” By Edgar Allen Poe

November 3, 2020 by Essay Writer

Edgar Allen Poe wrote the poem, “The Raven” in January of 1845 and upon the publication of his piece, he was met with great praise and critical success, despite having been a published author and journalist for many years. “The Raven” is deemed as one of Poe’s greatest poems for its structure, language, rhyme scheme, and for the story as a whole. It is a tale about a young man who is continuously grieving over the loss of his love “Lenore. ” A raven enters through the man’s window and sits on the bust of Pallas on the man’s chamber door. Every question the young man asks the raven he only receives one answer: “Nevermore. ” Because the raven can only speak this single word, each question the man asks only frustrates the man and reminds him of his loss. While this poem is critically acclaimed and considered one of the best poems ever written, the question is raised as to why. Could it be his poetic structure, or maybe a factor never been considered? Either way, “The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe is seen as one of the best pieces of poetry ever written.

In order to understand what makes “The Raven” a great piece, one must look at the appeals it makes. At first look, it comes across as a being an ethos based writing, due to the fact that at this point in his career, Poe was already a very well established writer and poet. At a closer look however, it becomes clear that it is actually a pathos based piece. The reason being is that the story is about a man’s struggle to deal with the loss of his beloved. The piece begins and ends with this young man’s focus on the loss of his love, Lenore. It is only when the raven enters the piece that we begin to see this man’s distress in his loss. `Prophet!’ said I, `thing of evil! – prophet still, if bird or devil!By that Heaven that bends above us – by that God we both adore -Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels named Lenore -Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels named Lenore? ‘Quoth the raven, `Nevermore. ‘ `Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!’ I shrieked upstarting -`Get thee back into the tempest and the Night’s Plutonian shore!Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!Leave my loneliness unbroken! – quit the bust above my door!Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!’Quoth the raven, `Nevermore. ‘ Because of his sorrow, the young man begins to question the reasoning of the raven’s presence, taking the raven as devil who has come from the banks of Hades to torture him over his loss of Lenore. Since Poe digs deeply into the loss of Lenore, the piece is based off pathos. Due to the fact that the story as a whole is based off of the young man’s loss of Lenore, it can also be assumed that the piece was also supposed to be based off pathos. Lenore is the focus of the young man’s sorrow, and his sorrow in turn is what leads to the story of the raven tormenting him. This sorrow the man faces and the torturing by the raven all play off the idea of pathos.

Poe’s vocabulary is also a very strong contributor to pathos in this piece. The language Poe uses is very dynamic and forthright, allowing for the piece to be viewed in the way Poe wanted to, instead of leaving his writing up for interpretation. The audience gains a better understanding behind the language, and that allows for a much stronger feeling about what the story really means, making for a deeper connection to the young man’s lost love. Poetic structure contributes to pathos since the story relies on its rhyme scheme and musicality. Due to the fact that the words are so closely connected rhyming wise, it give the reader a chance to read the poem as more of a song, instead of a story which allows for a deeper connection to the reader and the audience. It allows for more emotion to be put into it because it isn’t just a story to be read, but a piece to be experienced.

“The Raven”, which can be seen by its familiarity and acclaim, has a very broad audience, but was not intended for such a range of readers. Poe original focused for “The Raven” was a smaller audience because he released the poem in a periodical without the intent of reaching mass audiences. “The Raven” was simply a piece Poe created for a magazine that by chance made him an overnight sensation, and because of this it is possible to see the true audience. Since it was written for a small periodical, Poe understood that his poem would not be viewed by a large audience so his intent was not to write it for one. This can be seen in his writing style and content. The writing style of the piece uses a vast vocabulary and complex rhyme scheme that isn’t too often seen in standard poetic writings. The content has horror twist to it, which Poe used to narrow down the audience even more.

Despite using these tactics Poe manages to appeal to a larger audience than he would have expected, mostly due to its very emotionally driven story line. Emotion spawns from the loss of Lenore, but also from the insanities in which this young man goes through because of his loss. It also appeals on a bigger scale because of the poetic structure of the piece, due to the fact that the piece as a whole rhymes and has a very consistent flow to it. This gives the piece mass appeal for the reason that it can be enjoyed for its poetic structure alone and doesn’t need to appeal in the sense of literature. The raven appeals emotionally as an instigator to the young man’s feelings and acts as a torturer of young man. Because of the highly charged emotional content, “The Raven” is able to appeal to a greater audience than Poe intended for.

Although Poe attempted to appeal to a small demographic of readers, he ended up appealing to a much larger audience. Poe was able to utilize every piece of his writing to reach an audience much larger than the one he initially intended. Because he uses each piece individually and with a great amount of depth, he was able to compose a stronger piece and thereby able to appeal to a larger audience. He was able to create one of the best examples of poetry through the depth of his piece, demonstrating the overall importance of the “The Raven” in the history of literature.

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Comparison Of The Raven Poem And Kubrick’s Horror Movie The Shining

November 3, 2020 by Essay Writer

It has been strongly argued that our routine language, however mundane it may appear, may be as poetic, precise and intentional as literary texts, leaving the literary and non-literary divide blurred. Linguistic creativity has been defined as the ¨way people use literary-like features¨, associated with poetry and highly valued literature, yet the definition of creativity is extremely broad, with researchers acknowledging the creative process, as well as the final creation as creative. (Swann, 2006, p.12). Creativity has many forms, one of which is literariness. Literariness refers to a quality of literature, something inherent, a value, or a reader´s interaction with a text as well as the text itself. (Swann, 2006, p.12). According to Carter, literariness is formed by the creativity of a text, which varies as it is evaluated by different creativities rather than a ¨essentialist creativity¨. (Carter, R., 2004, P.139). It is a matter of degree along a cline of creativity. This method of identifying creativity allows multiple forms of creativity to be considered although the theory appears to suggest literariness is determined by the amount of literary features it contains, which I suggest may trivialise the text. In deciding which texts to choose for analysis, I gave consideration to the BAAL criteria and I am confident both texts conform to the requirements for good ethical and professional practice. I have chosen the poem, ´The Raven´ by Edgar Allan Poe and a DVD blurb from the horror movie Stanley Kubrick´s 1980´s ´The Shining´ as I believe both texts to be similar. I view ´The Raven´ as a hybrid of a narrative and a poem portraying an eerie tale of a man who loses his mind. Equally Text 2, another hybrid tells a similar plot, with a man descending into madness in the form of a blurb, an advertisement, accompanying a creative production. I will demonstrate that both texts contain creative and literary evidence, demonstrating routine as well as literary texts can be creative.

Carter tells us of three approaches, Inherency, Sociocultural and Cognitive, which help identify creativity and ultimately the literary quality of a text. The Inherency Approach perceives creativity inherent within the text, such as the use of poetic function and artful language. The Sociocultural approach focuses on social and ideological issues, the consequence of beliefs and cultural differences, in particular contexts, that may influence our language use. Lastly, the Cognitive Approach considers the affect and interpretation of the text drawn on by the reader. (R. Carter, 1999 cited by J. Maybin and M. Pearce 2006 p.6). I believe, all three approaches fall short of fully identifying creativity, failing to completely explain why some texts are considered literary with the omission of poetic language such as academic texts or why some text have been persistently valued as literary throughout time, or how a text is considered literature with fragmented multiple meanings, allowing the reader to interpret a text in ways the author may have not anticipated. However, all three approaches do have their merits and due to the many forms creativity adopts through the text itself or the creative process, I believe it is vital to use all three approaches to analyse a text successfully.

Jakobson adopts Carter´s inherency approach claiming deviation, a poetic function, which disrupts the reader´s perceptions causing defamiliarisation, argued by Jakobson to be intertwined with literariness. (Jakobson cited by J. Maybin and M. Pearce 2006 p.16). Jakobson explains all utterances have at least one of the following functions, referential, emotive, conative, phatic, metalingual and poetic, with the most dominant feature defining the text. He claims a dominant poetic function indicates literariness. Text 1 demonstrates a dominant poetic function conveying a significant amount of deviation and parallelism. Graphological deviation is prevalent with the use of stanzas, each consisting of six lines and capital letters commencing each sentence. Phonological parallelism is ubiquitous with a rhyming scheme of ABCBBB and the grammatical parallelism of ¨rapping, ¨tapping¨ are produced for rhyming purposes with ¨chamber door¨, rhyming with the word ¨nevermore¨. These features foreground the text and allows the reader to identify it as a poem. However it is argued readers can be influenced to award a text with literariness based on the speech genre. Once it has been recognised the reader may read it differently. This could be further influenced by our upbringing and education where the definition of literariness is already defined by approved texts and we are taught to find meaning in literary texts when there may be none. (Bakhtin, 1986, cited by Maybin, J., and Pearce, M., 2006 p.14). Therefore, it is essential to acknowledge that individuals due to social practices may classify a text as creative and literary, simply by recognising its inherent features.

Text 1 conveys archaic lexis ¨Tis¨, ¨morrow¨ and ¨lore¨ and semantic deviation with the metaphor ¨dying ember wrought its ghost¨, which personifies fire. This is a formal property of Carter´s pattern-reforming choices demonstrating literariness. Alliteration is prevalent with, ¨weak and weary¨, the repetition of the consonant /w/ and ¨nodded, nearly napping¨ the repetition of /n/. Assonance of /ʊə/ in ¨forgotten lore¨, and /æ/ in ¨rare and radiant¨ consequently adding to the texts literariness. (J. Maybin and M. Pearce 2006 p.8-10).

In comparison, Text 2 demonstrates alliteration in ¨madness and murder¨ and ¨milestone of the macabre¨ with the repetition of /m/. Assonance is present with /ɒ/ in ¨isolated Overlook Hotel¨. Graphological deviation occurs with the elongation of ´Here´ in ¨Heeeere´s Johnny! ¨, quoting an infamous line from the movie. Jakobson tells us when direct lines are taken out of context, it can cause a ´split´ and ambiguity can occur, increasing the potential meaning and thus its creativeness. (Jakobson, R., 1960, cited by Thornborrow, J., 2006, P.56) There is evidence of elliptical syntactic structure, excluding verbs, ¨a member of your own family?¨ Carter claims ellipsis can be used deliberately to create an illusion of closeness. (Carter, R., 2004). The inclusion of multiple adjectives belonging to the semantic field of fear such as ¨terror¨, ¨macabre¨, ¨murder¨ and ¨monstrous¨ foregrounds the text intensifying suspense for the reader. (J. Maybin and M. Pearce 2006 p.8-10). Although Text 2 conveys poetic function, conative function dominates the text, in order to persuade the reader, therefore according to Jakobson, Text 1 would be valued as more literary than Text 2. However, I disagree with this view, adopting Eagleton´s perspective that ´one person´s normal may be another´s deviation´, signifying individuals may have fluctuating perspectives of what deviation is, for example, the archaic language indicated in Text 1 may appear irregular today, yet it was not the case when Poe wrote it in the nineteenth century. (Eagleton, T., cited by J. Maybin and M. Pearce 2006 p.11). This emphasises how creativity is not static and fluctuates with time and place. Thus deviation is highly subjective, varying for each individual and context. However it is clear, Text 2 is using poetic features to manipulate the relationship between reader and author for the purpose of persuading the reader.

The graphological parallelism of interrogative statements, in Text 2, demonstrates defamiliarisation, constructing an informal tone, imitating a conversation genre. Pennycook identifies hybrids as a new form of creativity, challenging the established notions of language. (Pennycook cited by J. Maybin and M. Pearce 2006 p.22). Nauman explains genre deviations, a genre echoing another genre, are exploited to ´make things strange´, foregrounding the text. (E301, CD-ROM Band 2: ´Raw Materials´). While this conforms to the Formalist ideas of creativity, it also adopts a sociocultural ideological function, exploited by the writer to capture the reader´s attention. Fairclough (1992) informs us of interdiscursivity, a hybrid of existing genres combined for specific sociocultural purpose. This concept has stemmed from Intertextuality (Kristeva, 1986), the theory that all discourse is influenced by past spoken and written texts, also present in Text 2 with ¨ Heeeere´s Johnny! ¨. However both require interpretation from the reader, and it is unclear if all readers are able to interpret intertextual references, due to diverse cultural backgrounds. Yet, it can be argued intertextual references are so entwined in literary and everyday discourse, they form a fundamental part of language, implying it is possible that neither the writer nor the reader are conscious of them as they occur so frequently.

Similarly, Bakhtin´s sociohistorical heteroglossic theory states texts carry ´many voices´, posing contextual and social connotations, which echo previous creations. Bakhtin argued literariness is conveyed through its context, manipulated by the author´s intentions. He claims this form of creativity suggests a transient, unrestrictive way of thinking, merging different genres, creating a novel pluralistic discourse to benefit society. (M. Bakhtin, cited by J. Maybin, 2006, p.435-440). Eagleton identifies literariness by suggesting the powerful members of society give a text value to influence and promote social values in society. Therefore the literariness given to a text disregards the notion of intrinsic quality and depends entirely on the ideologies embodied in the text, accompanied by the political complexities of the time. (T. Eagleton, 1983 cited by by J. Maybin and M. Pearce 2006 p.11-14) Text 1 highlights biblical references throughout the text such as ¨angels¨, emphasising religious significance, which may explain its popularity and literary value within society, enforcing cultural beliefs. The poem also focuses on the pain and anguish of personal loss through death, which strikes me as significant with the rising tensions of the time in America with the Civil war looming. In contrast Text 2 has less literary value as an advertisement, however the most important sociocultural issues of the 1980s were to earn money and the film industry was proving vital to the economy, while it was not used directly by the powerful members of society, undoubtedly they benefited from a stronger economy. With this in mind, I believe that both texts can be seen equally creative, however, I suggest that Text 1 is more literary, as it is more appreciated, simply by being an extract from a poem, and thus valued more by society, as a literary text than a blurb.

Cook argues the formal aspects of language invoke fictional worlds, allowing the reader to escape the restrictions of reality and to think creatively. Cook relates this to ´schema refreshing´, literary texts which invigorate and challenge our mental representation, a concept that establishes creativity in Carter´s cognitive model. (Cook, 2006 p.37-45). However Jeffries and Semino argue that not all people are affected by literary texts, insisting that some texts reinforce existing connotations. (Jeffries, 2001, Semino, 1997, cited by Swann 2006 p.14). Perhaps the metaphor of the fire in Text 1 triggers a different schema of warmth rather than a ghostly personification, either way the ambiguity is evidence for literariness, as it accessible to many interpretations. Jefferies also suggests a text may not always have to challenge the reader´s previous knowledge in Schema Refreshment, but may also reinforce what they already know, whether the text is being read for the first time or re-read. This also highlights the possibility that the reader may have previously encountered reviews, regarding Text 2, which may alter their opinion of the text.

Swann supports Cook, referring to story telling, an embedded social activity, as ¨mind intelligence¨. Similarly Text 1 is a narrative poem, combining poetry with a narrative, or story. Text 1 demonstrates an I-Narrators viewpoint by using the personal pronoun ¨I¨. The protagonist recollects a story, and tells it as if it was happening for the first time. Short suggests the writer deliberately manipulates the reader by withholding information as they are telling the story from a limited perspective. (M., Short, 1996, P.257-259) I would also argue that by writing from this viewpoint the text conforms to Bradford´s double pattern theory. Bradford informs us creativity can be identified according its polysemic value, a text´s resistance to closure. A text, which is monosemic, is expected to be less creative as it fails to challenge the reader´s perceptions. (R. Bradford, 1997, P.86-93). A narration from a third-person perspective is perceived as omnipresent, and less plausible to challenge the reader. In comparison, Text 2 utilizes a third-person narrator, demonstrating the writer´s omnipresence, creating ambiguity surrounding the identity of the author. Writers often adopt a third persona narrative to adopt differing viewpoints from their own suggesting a ´implied author´ to the reader. Equally, the reader must adjust to be a ´implied reader´ enabling the reader to completely emerge in the fictional world described by the writer. (M., Short, 1996, P.257-259). Ordinarily the third-person narrator enlightens the reader by giving information demonstrated by the declarative statements shown in the second paragraph ¨Torrance has never been there before¨, however this is immediately followed by a tag question ¨or has he?¨ which acts to forge uncertainty about the narrator. This suggests to the reader the narrator is no longer an omnipresent, but unusually limited, foregrounding and assisting in the suspense and mystery of the text.

Toolan suggests finiteness indicates creativity in connection with plot. Finiteness determines which sentences are essential to plot by assessing the finite verbs within a text. Finite verbs, verbs changed to show present or past meaning, can highlight an alteration in time. Text 1 highlights multiple finite verbs with ¨ I pondered¨, ¨I nodded¨, ¨came¨, and ¨I wished¨. Text 2 has fewer finite verbs with ¨plays¨ and ¨came¨, nevertheless according to Toolan this information is essential to plot. (M., Toolan, 2001, p.124-127). However, I believe that although finite verbs show creativity by strengthening crucial plot elements, other linguistic devices such as the parallelism of ¨chamber door¨ adds suspense and descriptive clauses such as ¨ midnight dreary¨ and ¨bleak December¨ and the choice to use a dark bird such as the raven all aid in emphasising a dark and mysterious aura crucial to plot.

Both texts use multimodality demonstrating creativity through new possibilities of interpretation. The images add meaning, causing deviation, foregrounding the text. They also portray social and cultural information giving the reader connotations to interpret. Text 2 uses a variety of images from the film, to entice the reader and to create an atmosphere of fear. All the images included are dark and frightening, in particular the main image, the protagonist with a sinister smile. However this is my interpretation of the images, it is important to note that not all people will interpret these images in the same way. The interpretation is dependent on cultural context, social and political factors. Cook argues connotations are numerous and loosely connected, resulting in various interpretations, causing confusion for the reader. (Cook, G., 2001, P.105 cited by Goodman, S., 2006 p. 253). Authors and advertisers frequently manipulate meaning to deviate away from the expected interpretation. However it could be precisely this ambiguity, which makes a text creative, the author must challenge the reader´s pre existing knowledge, to actively interact with the text. Although it is important to remember not all is a sign of creativity. In comparison, Text 1 has black and white illustrations by Gustave Doré to enhance a dark and eerie mood, accompanied by the raven, a bird with strong connotations of evil and setting the fiction at midnight in a ¨bleak December¨ influences the reader’s experience. Semino tells us images are combined with texts to help provide the reader with visual support of the mental space described by the writer. The illustrations are also creatively drawn and can be considered creative on their own. Although I believe multimodality enhances meaning communicated through a text, not all multimodality is creative, as we frequently encounter it in our daily routine such as road signs. The reader and their recognition of semiotic domains, the practices that employ one or more modalities, which vary according to our social and cultural background must move beyond the literal translation of the text and focus on the undertone, what is being inferred, to have a greater understanding, (Gee, 2003, cited by Goodman, S., 2006 p268)

Creativity emerges, also in the collaborative construction of reading, editing, and decision-making. Carter and Williams emphasize the importance of collaboration, rather than individual skill, suggesting that it is partly due to our Western traditional beliefs of creativity. The collaboration of text and images demonstrated in Text 1 is successfully used to create the illusion of a fictional world. As well as this, Poe is said to have taken inspiration from other successful writers such as Charles Dickens and drew upon his own experiences of lost love from the death of his wife. This highlights how Poe accessed available resources to construct new texts for his own purpose. In Western cultures creativity is recognized and valued only when it has been changed significantly enough to hold original properties. (Uta Papen and Karin Tusting, 2004, p.316). In contrast, Text 2 has been produced by multiple writers and advertising specialists utilizing market research in order to persuade readers successfully. These are both examples of meaning-making processes, which are considered creative. All meaning-making processes collect existing cultural resources for a purpose in a particular setting. However this definition is extremely broad, making it difficult to find a text that doesn’t have any creative element. (Uta Papen and Karin Tusting, 2004, p.315).

In conclusion I have analysed both texts and highlighted significant evidence of creativity and literariness. Text 1 has conveyed evidence of creativity by demonstrating a dominant poetic function, interdiscursivity, social value, multimodality and ambiguity. In comparison with Text 2, I found Text 1 to have more evidence of creativity due to a greater significance of social value, its narrative qualities and its high content of formal linguistic properties, therefore it has more literary value according to Carter´s cline theory. Nevertheless, Text 2 is still creative having demonstrated evidence of creativity and literariness with ambiguity, intertextuality, multimodality, being polysemic and its collaborative construction. The analysis has emphasized the diverse forms of creativity and demonstrated how they relate to different literary, cultural and socio-historical contexts. Creativity can be seen by the formal properties inherent in a text emphasising how both texts hold literary quality. It is also conveyed by creating ambiguity and meaning-making processes, creative acts involving the collection of resource to create something new for a specific purpose. By analysing all the different aspects of creativity that we are able to see forms of literariness in everyday as well as literary texts which is perhaps not expected by some individuals. I conclude there are many different forms of creativity, which we encounter, in our routine experiences suggesting they are deeply embedded in our society giving roots to literariness in formal texts. However, I believe the reader, what they classify as creative, their ability to read and interpret meaning and willingness for schema refreshment ultimately determines creativity and literariness.

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