Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway’s Attitude to War
Ernest Hemingway was one of the most unique writers of his time. “His literature is free of the extensive use of adjectives…” (Zam). This form of direct writing separated Hemingway from other authors of the time period. The fact that Hemingway worked throughout his life as a journalist heavily influenced the style in which he wrote in. Hemingway’s writing was so singular that he could easily be separated from other works by reading just a single paragraph of his work. What really enticed readers to pick up his works was the way Hemingway wrote from personal experience. One of the biggest influences on Hemingway’s writing was his time spent in World War I. His experiences included “The blow that knocked him unconscious and buried him in the earth of the dugout; fragments of shell entered his right foot and his knee and struck his thighs, scalp and hand.” (“This Day in History”). Along with this injury to his knee, Hemingway also received a silver medal of honor when “A third Italian was badly wounded and this one Ernest, after he had regained consciousness, picked up on his back and carried to the first aid dugout.” (“This Day in History”). With this heroic act under his belt, Hemingway was awarded an “Italian medal of valor, the Croce de Guerra” (“This Day in History”). Although honored with a medal, Hemingway was still bitter about his war experiences. These experiences are what urged Hemingway to express his deep rooted hatred for war in his writings. As a young man, Hemingway was constantly quoted on war. He believed that his view on war was so personally unique that he claimed “I know war as few other men now living know it, and nothing to me is more revolting. I have long advocated its complete abolition.” (Hemingway). As a changed man, he truly believed war was evil. Hemingway stated, “Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is not a crime.”. Not only did he believe war was a crime, he also believed that the lives sacrificed for the war cause was pointless. Hemingway expresses, “In modern war you will die like a dog for no reason.”. However, speaking out loud was not enough for Ernest to spread this beliefs. He wanted the world to hear them. His solution to this was to write books and short stories which would reflect his views. Ernest Hemingway expresses his hatred for war from his personal World War I experience through Frederic Henry, A Farewell to Arms, and “In Another Country”.
Ernest Hemingway expresses his hatred for war through the character Frederic Henry. It is crucial to understand that Frederic Henry is an autobiographical character. He represents Ernest Hemingway and the events he experienced in World War I. There are many ways to detect the similarities between Frederic and Hemingway. As stated by Putnam, “Ernest Hemingway served as an ambulance driver in WWI…” (“Hemingway on War and Its Aftermath”) which is exactly the occupation Henry holds in the novel. Putnam also points out another similarity when he quotes, “Recuperating… Hemingway fell in love with…an American Red Cross nurse.” (“Hemingway on War and Its Aftermath”). Frederic Henry mirrors this when he falls in love with main character Catherine Barkley. The most important similarity between Hemingway and Henry is the hatred for war they both express. Hemingway makes Frederic express this disgust for war when Frederic Henry claims ““I was always embarrassed by the words sacred, glorious, and sacrifice and the expression in vain…” (A Farewell to Arms 184-185). Frederic Henry also expresses his hatred for war when he makes the bold move to bid a “…farewell to arms. No longer supporting the war or the Italian army…” (Brenner). The reader is coaxed into liking Frederic’s character so that they also will agree with his view on war. The reader is clearly introduced to Henry as a volunteer doctor who gave up his dream of wanting “…to be an architect.” (A Farewell to Arms 242). Not only does Frederic offer himself up for another country, but he also is seriously injured while trying to help other war mates. The reader also feels pity for Frederic when he must endure the loss of his child and wife “It seems she had one hemorrhage after another…it did not take her long to die.” (A Farewell to Arms 331). Hemingway purposefully sets in this pity for Frederic so the reader will see the damage and misfortune the war has caused such an innocent man. Here, Hemingway uses the autobiographical character Frederic Henry to express the hatred he has for war.
While Frederic Henry personally makes the reader feel a hatred for war, the book in which he stars in, A Farewell to Arms, is just as expressive of Hemingway’s disgust for war. The title of the book is a dead give away to Hemingway’s belief that war is not an answer to solve disputes. The term “A Farewell to Arms” symbolized the main character Frederic Henry’s disassociation from the war itself. “I was going to forget the war. I had made a separate peace. I felt damned lonely…” (A Farewell to Arms 243). Hemingway formulates the books feelings towards war in the way he wants the readers views to formulate. In the beginning, the characters view war in its glorified form. But, quick to realize at hefty costs, the characters in the novel quickly form a detestation for the war and the reality of its being. This feeling is not only recognized by Frederic Henry, but also his entire regiment. Rinaldi expresses this aura of distaste for the war when he states, “This war is killing me…I am very depressed by it.” (A Farewell to Arms 177). The events in the book makes the reader feel as though the war is gruesome. Hemingway does this so he can exploit war for the gruesome crime it was. Frederic Henry’s knee is completely blown to pieces during battle “I knew I was hit…My knee wasn’t there” (A Farewell to Arms 55). Hemingway also includes the gory details of Passini’s dragged out death as he describes, “The other [leg] was held by the tendons…the stump twitched and jerked as though it were not connected.” (A Farewell to Arms 55). The reader is also exposed to the gruesome mental effect of war when Frederic Henry snaps and shoots down an officer who is then brutally shot in the head by fellow warmate Bonello “…leaned over, put the pistol against the man’s head and pulled the trigger.” (A Farewell to Arms 204). Ernest Hemingway includes these horrific scenes in the novel to give the reader a reality check as to how horrible war is.
However, A Farewell to Arms was not Ernest Hemingway’s only novel which tried to show readers the true detestation he had for war. The short story “In Another Country” focuses on a young soldier returning from the front with an injury to the knee. The main character, Nick Adams, is also meant to be semi autobiographical. “Autobiographical assumption is virtually automatic among those who write about Nick.” (Hannum). The similarities between Nick and Hemingway are very easy to recognize. Nick, like Hemingway, suffers an injury to the knee during World War I, constantly is surrounded by disrespect for the role he plays in the war, and also realizes the cruel reality of war through his experiences. The character of Nick Adams embodies hatred for war. Nick, a supposed respected officer of war, is disrespected by the townspeople during his time of rehabilitation “The people hated us because we were officers, and from a wine-shop someone called out, “A basso gli ufficiali!” (Down with the officers) as we passed.” (Hemingway, “In Another Country”). Nick expresses the true lack of hope in war amongst the injured when he talks about the machines that are supposed to heal them all. “There was a time when none of us believed in the machines, and one day the major said it was all nonsense.” (Hemingway, “In Another Country”). Even the men who are supposed to be his friends and give him comfort end up treating him as an outsider. “…that I had been given the medals because I was an American. After that their manner changed a little toward me, although I was their friend against outsiders.” (Hemingway, “In Another Country”). Nick explains how the war can ruin a person’s post war life when he describes his friend who was a world renowned fencer. “In the next machine was a major who had a little hand like a baby’s…He had been a very great fencer, and before the war the greatest fencer in Italy.” (Hemingway, “In Another Country”). Nick also explains how the war has forced people to put the war before their personal lives and grievances when he has a discussion with the doctor about his friend who is a major “The doctor told me that the major’s wife, who was very young and whom he had not married until he was definitely invalided out of the war, had died of pneumonia…” (Hemingway, “In Another Country”). All of these events Nick goes through are meant to make the reader feel pity for him and the surrounding characters while also setting in a reason to dislike war and its effects. The whole basis of the story “In Another Country” is to focus on showing the reader how much loss war causes people. “Many of the characters grapple with a loss of function, a loss of purpose, and a loss of faith.” (Miksanek). Nick Adams and the major both have lost a function of their body (Nick in the leg, the major in the hand). All of the injured soldiers lose connection to the people they are surrounded by because they are hated. The injured have also lost hope in the machines that are supposed to be rehabilitating their bodies back to health. “There was a time when none of us believed in the machines, and one day the major said it was all nonsense.” (Hemingway, “In Another Country”).. The major faces a more literal form of loss as his young wife dies of pneumonia. Therefore, the main purpose of the story, just as Frederic Henry and A Farewell to Arms, is to make the reader realize the horrible crime war is and form a hatred for it just as Ernest Hemingway has.
Ernest Hemingway expresses his hatred for war from his personal World War I experience through Frederic Henry, A Farewell to Arms, and “In Another Country”. Ernest Hemingway was a renowned writer of his time period. With his unique style, direct wording, and journalistic background, he became quite popular with both fans and critics. “His style of writing and his contributions as an author and journalist made him one of the most famous and influential authors in the U.S.” (Erwin). One of the reasons he was so popular was the way he incorporated his personal life experiences into his works. “There he met a nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky… provided fodder for his works…A Farewell to Arms.” (“Ernest Hemingway Biography”). Popularity comes with both good and bad. The critics loved to pick apart Ernest Hemingway for his extreme hatred for war which he displayed in his writing. “…but there is also a lot of criticism out there for the famed author who only had a handful of major novels to his claim.” (Marina). Ernest Hemingway was brave enough to display an unpopular and new belief in his writings. He gave his readers a different insight on war and the effects it had. With his direct language and persuasive manor, he was able to spread and share his negative view on war. With this controversial writing, Ernest Hemingway was a one of a kind writer who was not afraid to speak his mind.
A Complicated Life Of Ernest Hemingway
Grace Under Pressure in Hemingway’s Life and Literature
Ernest Hemingway has an abundance of experience with the idea of courage. As a Red Cross ambulance driver and reporter, Hemingway saw five battlefronts. Returning home after wars, he fought nada – his own nothingness. Hemingway defined courage as “grace under pressure.” Grace in the face of war and in the face of nada exemplify courage in Hemingway’s own life. Similarly, courage appears in much of his writing. In “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place,” the older waiter looks into the face of nada. Through this character, Hemingway shows his views on grace under the pressure of nada.
Hemingway demonstrates the true meaning of courage throughout much of his life. At age 14, he took boxing lessons. In his first lesson, he faced professional fighter Young O’Hearn, who did not “go easy” (Sherrod and Singer 14) on Hemingway as promised. By the end of the match, Hemingway’s nose was broken. He revealed to a friend that he was scared of the fight, but went through with it regardless of his fears. Hemingway continued to fight, suffering permanent damage to one eye and countless trips to the emergency room. Through his dedication to boxing at such a young age, Hemingway embodies his definition of courage. Hemingway was the only student in the class to continue after the first lesson. His persistence shows his grace under the pressure of physical fear.
Much of Hemingway’s definition of courage can be seen through his own heroism in World War I, which was the “most important war in Hemingway’s development” (Moreira). While stationed in Italy as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross, Hemingway made his way to the trenches, serving chocolate to Italian soldiers. An Austrian attack left Hemingway injured with 237 shrapnel splinters in his body as he unsuccessfully attempted saving the life of an Italian soldier. Although Hemingway later claimed that his actions were not out of courage, but rather “an impulse” (qtd. in Sherrod and Singer 35). Hemingway did, however, demonstrate tremendous grace under pressure. Hemingway risked his life in an attempt to save another. Although unsuccessful, his courage earned the Croce di Guerra, the Italian War Merit Cross, and the Medaglia d’Argento al Valore Militare, the Silver Medal of Military Valor. Hemingway’s act of courage fits his own definition of “grace under pressure.”
Hemingway combines his definition of courage and his love of bullfighting in his short story “The Undefeated.” In this story, Manuel Garcia, a recently injured bullfighter, wants to return to the sport but must settle for low pay and an inopportune time slot. Although advised not to fight, Garcia enters and is injured again, but still refuses to believe that his time with bullfighting may be over. Garcia demonstrates courage in the sense that Hemingway had in mind.
The bullfighter maintains grace under the pressure of a doubtful agent, the memory of his deceased brother – killed by bullfighting –, a worrisome picador, and charging bulls. Garcia’s courage stems from his dedication to the fight and his desire to return to doing what he loves even with the doubt and skepticism of his audience. There had even been rumors that he had died or lost limbs in the hospital, according to Retana. By returning to bullfighting and sticking to the fight in the story although the outcome seems grim – and Garcia is gravely injured – Hemingway brings courage to life in his matador who refuses to acknowledge defeat.
Similar to Garcia in “The Undefeated” is the old man in Hemingway’s “The Old Man and the Sea.” The old man, devastated by 84 days without catching a fish, brings his small skipper out to deeper and more dangerous waters, and succeeds in hooking a giant marlin. Catching the marlin requires days of struggling against nature. When he finally catches the fish, sharks attack the boat in an effort to take this marlin, so the old man – exhausted from catching the fish in the first place – must battle sharks on his journey back to safety. The old man, in his battle against nature, shows his courage as he remains graceful while under the pressure of the marlin and the shakrs. Hemingway has said that “man is not meant for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated,” (Hemingway qtd in Prescott) and the old man embodies this courage.
The characters in “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place” face neither a boxing match nor trench warfare, but instead face a pressure much scarier than any physical enemy: nada. “Spain believed in ‘nada’ … Live for the day, for tomorrow is ‘nada’” (Sherrod and Singer 86). The older waiter, when left to think for himself, ponders nada. He asks himself, “what did he fear?” When realizing that his fear was not fear, but “a nothing that he knew too well,” the older waiter is forced into the realization that “it was all a nothing and a man was nothing too” (Hemingway 291). The waiter faces the pressure of nada through cynicism rather than grace, as he recites the Hail Mary prayer, but turns it into an existentialist ode, effectively nullifying spirituality.
Through this cynicism, the waiter demonstrates a possible understanding of the world similar to Hemingway’s own views. By accepting the inevitability of nada, Hemingway and the waiter show Hemingway’s definition of courage. Many question life until their deaths. This quest to understanding can be viewed as the pressure. Hemingway and the older waiter face the pressure of understanding with a quiet intensity.
The idea of nada can be affiliated with death. In “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place,” the waiters encounter an old man who recently attempted suicide. In this attempt, the old man proves that he had accepted the inevitability of nada and was willing to embrace it. The older waiter demonstrates an understanding of this acceptance. Instead of showing a cynicism towards the old man like the younger waiter, the older waiter simply wonders about the reasons for the attempt. While the younger waiter is angry about the long hours the old man spends at the café, the older waiter is content with staying in the “clean and pleasant café” (Hemingway 290).
Hemingway shared similarities to both the older waiter and the old man. Hemingway committed suicide, as the old man attempted to do. The author accepted nada. At some points in his life, he “simply no longer cared if he live or died” (qtd. in Moreira). By accepting nada, Hemingway again demonstrates his courage as grace under pressure.
Hemingway embodied courage from a young age. Be it physical grace and pressures or grace under the pressure of the eventual nada, Hemingway understood courage. Through his understanding of grace under pressure, the author is able to force characters and readers alike to challenge their understanding of courage, as seen in “A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.”
Isolation in “The Old Man And the Sea”
Isolation is a term in which it is familiar to mean to be secluded from others and or to remain alone or apart from the rest of society. In The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway, isolation is a primary theme that defines who the old man is and helps with one’s reflection on the parts of life that can be considered most important. The old man is a character isolated from people – and, in a way, from the society entirely in his time on the sea. The isolation helps the author define who he is and emphasize the unique nature of the old man’s character. Isolation becomes both a flaw, as he suffers from loneliness, but also a necessary quality he may need in staying strong as he suffers through long hours by himself being pulled by a fish.
The story starts off with Hemingway introducing the old man, Santiago, as “an old man who fished alone… and he had gone eighty-four days now without taking a fish.” Isolation can be one of the hardest mental sufferings to cope with, but Santiago shows us that he still perseveres to focus on what he has to do. Hemingway illustrates Santiago like this because he wants the audience to know from the start that this was a man you could feel sorry for. Manolin, a young boy who Santiago taught how to fish, was forced by his parents to switch boats when Santiago was unable to catch a fish for the 40th day. Manolin, feeling a strong fatherly bond with Santiago, continued to help him by helping him carry his supplies back to the shack and made sure Santiago ate proper food. This loneliness could have been partly due to the old age Santiago dealt with. Throughout the book, Manolin is the only boy introduced who actually cares about Santiago and looks up to him with respect. Evidently, all the other fisherman make fun of Santiago, for his bad luck, or they pity him, because of his poor situation. The author also describes how he hides his deceased wife’s picture under a clean shirt because it makes him feel “too lonely” to see it. The impression we get from this characterization is that Santiago is an old widower barely managing a existence, through the help of a son figure. This may be one of the reasons why as to how Santiago continuously wished for Manolin’s presence to help him throughout his journey on the boat.
Hemingway characterizes isolation throughout the boat ride when he writes about Santiago talking to himself. This shows that whenever he is on his own he misses the sound of another voice. Santiago frequently wishes that he had Manolin there with him so that he would be able to get some assistance in bringing the fish in more quickly. Santiago’s line ‘I wish I had the boy,” proved how isolated he was from the outside world while on this voyage to catch the fish, due to the way he was almost begging for someone to be with him in any way possible. However, since he was alone, he was able to think about the many different aspects of his life. He thinks, ‘No one should be alone in their old age, he thought. But it is unavoidable.’ Evidently, as the people around you start to die of old age, the remaining people are forced to live in isolation by themselves; it is something that will happen at some point. When night falls and he has still not brought the marlin in, Santiago ‘looked cross the sea and knew how alone he was now.’ He felt vulnerable and weak in that moment and wished someone was there to help him, and then he saw some birds and realized that ‘no man was ever alone on the sea.’
Santiago had the chance, when the fish was not pulling or fighting, to think about himself and what he saw as important in his life. While alone on the ocean, Santiago’s thoughts often turn to DiMaggio, the baseball player. In Santiago’s perspective, this baseball player was a symbol of strength and courage, and that could be why his thoughts went to relate with DiMaggio when he needed to reassure himself of his own strength and power. Loneliness for Santiago meant to come out on the other side with improvement of his skills and the recognition of what it was like to have pushed his limits to their maximum capacity.
The Christianity Issues in ‘The Old Man And The Sea’
The Old Man and the Sea looks like a Christian illustration from multiple points of view. Its hero, the angler Santiago, appears epitomize Christian temperances, and the story plainly and more than once interfaces his preliminaries adrift to Christ’s misery on the cross. Notwithstanding, a cautious examination of Santiago’s character and activities demonstrates that he is certainly not a Christian character and that, in all actuality, he typifies a warrior ethic that is contrary with Christian standards. The parallels between The Old Man and the Sea and the commonplace Biblical story of the execution add account and enthusiastic capacity to the novel, however Hemingway does not utilize them to propel a religious good or exercise. Rather, they serve to propel Santiago’s warrior logic. In spite of the fact that The Old Man and the Sea has shallow Christian components, at its center it can’t be viewed as a Christian novel.
At first, Santiago is by all accounts a perfect Christian. He keeps Christian symbols in his home, he alludes to God and Christ more than once, and Hemingway points out his “confidence,” “expectation,” and “love”— the three essential Christian ideals. Be that as it may, these appearances are shallow. For instance, however Santiago says he has “confidence,” he doesn’t utilize the word in a religious sense; rather, he utilizes it regarding a superstitious thought of fortunes and to depict his emotions about baseball. When he supplicates amid his fight with the fish, he introduces his petitions by saying he isn’t religious and afterward continues to discuss them mechanically, overlooking the words. Santiago’s watchful and trained way to deal with everything in life is stressed all through the novel, so his messiness here just attracts regard for his absence of duty to his petitions. Significantly more vital, Santiago never considers God. Rather, he discovers solace, quality, and importance by considering mainstream things: the human world, baseball, and the animals of the ocean—not religion.
Santiago isn’t religious, yet he does live by an ethical code and has a rationality of life. He is an ace of his specialty, considerably more mindful to its fine points of interest than the other angler in his town are. He represents the masculine ideals of mettle and assurance. What’s more, he has a solid feeling of good and bad with regards to slaughtering. He adores and regards the fish he seeks after, thinking of them as his “siblings,” and he loathes executing an animal for no great reason. More than whatever else, Santiago has a continuing pride, which he communicates most obviously at the times he understands that more sharks are coming to eat the immense marlin he has gotten. He says, “A man can be wrecked however not crushed”— that is, a genuine man will battle in any case, to death if necessary, yet he will never surrender. Together, these standards shape a furiously autonomous warrior’s theory of life, where living admirably is tied in with meeting foes in fair fight. This is certifiably not a Christian point of view, which would advocate a patient restraint and a docile resistance of hardship.
Amusingly, Hemingway utilizes Christian imagery to propel this substitute perspective. After Santiago has snared the considerable marlin, he passes the angling line over his back and holds it in the two hands, cutting his palms more than once. This stance takes after that of Christ on the cross, and Santiago’s injuries summon the stigmata, the cut injuries Christ bore from the execution. Be that as it may, toward the finish of his misery, Santiago isn’t recovered or renewed like Christ. Or maybe, his fish is stolen from him by sharks, and he comes back to arrive near death. His anguish must be viewed as redemptive on the grounds that, in Santiago’s view, battle and avoidance are closes in themselves. In the novel’s rationality, we are our best and most genuine selves just in a demise battle. This message is best outlined in Hemingway’s depiction of the plain snapshot of the fish’s demise: “At that point the fish woke up, with his passing in him, and rose high out of the water demonstrating all his incredible length and width and all his capacity and his excellence.” Only in death does the fish come totally alive, or is its significance altogether obvious.
In a Christian story, a profound religious message may be imparted through the activities of a conventional man. In The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway turns this scholarly tradition on end. Rather, he appropriates the intense, thunderous story of Christ’s execution keeping in mind the end goal to pass on and laud the existence logic of a normal man.
Parallel between The Dead by James Joyce and The Snows of Kilimanjaro by Ernest Hemingway
“The fastest way to kill something special, is to compare it to something else.” – Unknown
James Joyce, an Irish novelist and Ernest Hemingway, an American novelist are two of the most important authors in the 20th century, being representatives of modernism.
James Joyce’s works are based on the stream of consciousness, a narrative method that seeks to illustrate the essential happenings of the mind and Ernest Hemingway, belonging to the Lost Generation, and he writes more about the experiences in World War I, the years following it and the lifestyle of the rich people.
The Dead by James Joyce is a novella which appeared in 1914 in the collection Dubliners; The Snows of Kilimanjaro is a short story written by Ernest Hemingway which was published in 1936 in Esquire magazine.
The title “The Dead” represents the death that lies in the soul of the main character, Gabriel. People tend to put behind them the ugly truth, forgetting who they are and come up with a better alternative to life, a false truth. This false truth can take by force everything that stands in front of you, and erase not only what you see, but also what you think. The realization that life is not what it seems, that there is more beneath what it is and what actually happens, is illustrated in the last sentence of Hemingway’s work: “His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead.”
There is a slightly semblance between the title of James Joyce’s work and the one on Ernest Hemingway, The Snows of Kilimanjaro. The title represents also a spiritual death, but a death related more to the inability to do what you aimed to do in life. Compared to The Dead, were the conclusion is the end of life in a metaphorical way, in The Snows of Kilimanjaro, the author inserts an element that is related to immortality, the mountain. In many of the world’s mythologies (Mount Olympus in Greece, Mount Sinai in Egypt and Mount Fuji in Japan), the “mountain” symbolizes a sacred place, the crest of the mountain being the nearer spot to the divinity. The name “Kilimanjaro” means the “House of God”, where only the ones who are worthy can go and if you want to reach the top, just as in life, you need to overcome some obstacles. Harry is doomed to die, the image of snow highlights this (a symbol of death, but also a symbol of a lost innocence and the nostalgia of a purity that people dream of), but he also has an escape hatch which can be seen in the story: “[…] and there, ahead, all he could see, as wide as all the world, great, high, and unbelievably white in the sun, was the square top of Kilimanjaro. And then he knew that there was where he was going.”
“Real people are made out of a whole lot of things – flesh, bone, blood, nerves, stuff like that. Literary people are made up of words.” – Thomas C. Foster
There is always a moment in our life when we realize that this is all we can obtain, there is no more progress, only an illumination of thoughts, a fear of death and an awakening to life: this is all I have accomplished, not more, not less; a turn of events: the future no longer belongs to the past, the past belongs to the future.
The main characters of this two authors (Harry – The Snows of Kilimanjaro and Gabriel – The Dead) are more or less similar. Love represents one of the similarities. Both have experienced a strange love. Gabriel, after years of marriage, considers Gretta no longer his wife, and he soon realizes that “[…] he and she had never lived together as man and wife.” Over years, he becomes overprotective, always watching her like a child, insisting on putting on her galoshes even if she does not want that. He is concerned about her health, her appearance, her thoughts, but he does not really understand her. Even though he considers her no longer beautiful, he has urges: (“catch her by the shoulders and say something foolish and affectionate into her ear.”), even though these thoughts are triggered by the memories of a younger Gretta. Some small events from his life continue to remain on his mind so he clings to them. He is happy that she is still by his side and that he owns her. He finally realizes that the love they had was, from beginning to the end, incomplete. On the other side of the road stands Harry…Harry a cold and violent temper. He likes hurting his wife, Helen, and even though he keeps on apologizing to her after he offends her, he continues to lie, telling her he loves her. “If he lived by a lie he should try to die by it.” He considers Helen a good-looking woman, talented, but not pretty. He knows that his command is her obedience and that she has not the power to leave him even though he speaks to her in an inappropriate way. He blames himself for not taking iodine for his wound and that all the things Helen has built will fall apart because of his irresponsibility. He understands he is not alone in his misery, that he has Helen who wants his well-being and who is happy when he is happy, and he also knows she is there to support him to pass life’s obstacles. He is conscious that their love is a lie and that only Helen shared her care and worries with him.
Why are most people sad? It is simple. They are all caught in their own story, a story which follows a plan, a good plan or a bad one. Nobody stops to wonder if their life turned out to be the life they have always dreamt of. The crucial moment appears only by surprise in the most bizarre way possible. Harry and Gabriel have similar personalities with small differences. Gabriel, even though he is at a party, he only thinks of his speech and how he could be more pleasant in the eyes of his family and acquaintances. He has to maintain his reputation of an intelligent professor and he has to prove that he gained his education for a purpose. He has no connection with what happens next to him, lost in his thoughts, only with his consciousness. He doesn’t take in consideration what Gretta wants and he refuses to travel to the West of the country even though his wife is insisting on. He does not care if he offends someone, as a result Miss Ivors leaves the party because of his remark: “I’m sick of my own country, sick of it!” He thinks of the past to the extent that it can only bring happiness to him. Gabriel, even though he knows his limits, he aspires for more. Only when he sees Gretta listening so passionately a song, he starts putting questions to himself, but he misjudges her feelings. “Perhaps her thoughts had been running with his. Perhaps she had felt the impetuous desire that was in him […]” He starts to get jealous in the moment he understands that the song was designed for another man whom she has loved in the past.
Harry is a self-centered person, who, even in love, thinks of how he could make his life easier, therefore, he marries with a “rich bitch”. He is a kind of person who revives every morning with less and less usefulness which he is aware of. As he is conscious he will die, he strives hard to write one more story, as if he expects his efforts to be recognized, his geniality to be discovered at the last moment. “There wasn’t time, of course, although it seemed as though it telescoped so that you might put it all into one paragraph if you could get it right.” Some small events from his life instead to be erased immediately, they continue to grow, word by word, detail by detail. He is disappointed with his life and with his choices, and though one of the choices was Helen, in a way he loved her, but he did not want her. “Death is not the greatest loss in life. The greatest loss is what dies inside us while we live.” – Norman Cousins. He doesn’t care about Helen and tries to blame her for his destroyed talent which he soon realizes that he is his own destroyer. “He has destroyed his talent by not using it, by betrayals of himself and what he believed in, by drinking so much that he blunted the edge of his perceptions, by laziness, by sloth, and by snobbery, by pride and by prejudice, by hook and by crook.”
“Life asked death, ‘Why do people love me but hate you?’ Death responded, ‘Because you are a beautiful lie and I am a painful truth.” – Unknown
The two writings have similar endings. Both of the main characters experience the concept of death. In The Dead, it is highlighted the diagnosis of unhappiness: the death of the spiritual self. It is discovered slowly, with Gretta’s gestures (There was grace and mystery in her attitude as if she were a symbol of something. He asked himself what is a woman standing on the stairs in the shadow, listening to distant music, a symbol of.”), with unanswered questions (“Why did she seem so abstracted?”, “Was she annoyed, too, about something?”). Gabriel is disappointed and humiliated by the idea that Gretta compares him with another man, he expects love, but he receives a deep terror, he continues to cheer himself, but he understands that he can not give Gretta the same feelings as her past dead lover did (“I think he died for me.”). He considers himself to have brought little impact in his wife’s life. Death is brought into discussion also with Gabriel’s image of his aunt Julia being dead. (“One by one, they were all becoming shades.”) He becomes aware of the fact that he loves Gretta, but also that he no longer considers her the same. He feels that he has no longer a purpose and that everything he has lived was a lie. He experiences an absence of life and he considers that he has lived in deception. His soul is no longer a soulmate to his wife and even himself starts to disappear. It appears the image of snow, the last paragraph of the writing being dedicated to the overwhelming snow (“It was falling on every part of the dark central plain, on the treeless hills, falling softly upon the Bog of Allen and, farther westward, softly falling into the dark mutinous Shannon waves.”) Snow represents a manifestation of Gabriel’s emotions and every snowflake is a step toward, as he says, “his journey to westward”. Snow symbolizes the death of an old Gabriel with all his hopes and dreams, and maybe also the end of the relationship between him and his wife.
In “The Snow of Kilimanjaro” it is illustrated not only a spiritual death, but also a physical death. The spiritual death is emphasized by Harry’s realization that he did not do anything greater with his life (“Now he would never write the things that he had saved to write until he knew enough to write them all.”), that he took the easiest way through life with no struggle for more than richness. The physical death is announced by Harry himself “Don’t be silly, I’m dying now.”, he, most of the times, feels how death is near him “[…] he felt death come again.” There are some animal symbols which represent death. The leopard (“Close to the western summit there is the dried and frozen carcass of a leopard.”) represents strength, desire and dignity, three qualities that died inside of Harry. Hemingway’s work end with the following sentences “Outside the tent the hyena made the same strange noise that awakened her. But she did not hear him for the beating of her heart.” Hyena is a symbol of voracity, the same greed and hunger that is highlighted in Harry’s character. It is an animal of deception and scavenging. Snow appears once again to foretell death and with death, failure.
“Done with the work of breathing; done
With all the world; the mad race run
Through to the end; the golden goal
Attained and found to be a hole!”
The Concept of Expatriate in The Sun Also Rises
The concept of expatriate simply means “a person who lives outside their native country” (Oxford University Press, 2019), but overtime the concept widened its meanings and it comprises notions like exile, identity, self or otherness. Therefore, the concept is quite ambiguous and it may cause confusion when it, “the loss of citizenship, is sometimes used as conterminous with emigration, the physical change of domicile” (Green, p. 308). Although there are a few correlations, perceiving and understanding the concept of expatriate depends on some other elements like “who is initiating the act, state or individual, and whether or not it is voluntary” (Green, p. 308). Moreover, the concept is not only linked with the geographical space, but it is also linked with the spiritual space when referring to the self, depicting an inner exile. Formerly, expatriation was viewed as an exclusive concept – when only outsiders came to the United States, and then at the beginning of the 20th century ‘expatriates transformed’ – there were not only people coming to the United States, but also Americans leaving and emigrating (Green, p. 310). Due to cultural development, the term ‘expatriate’ recalls the concept of ‘Lost Generation’, especially the American writers living in Paris during the 1920s (Monk, p. 2), a generation driven by disillusionment, confusion and aimlessness in the period of Fisrt World War (Hynes, p. 386). The term is attributed to Gertrude Stein, another modernist writer from the expatriate’s circle in Paris: “You are all a lost generation” (Bloom, p. 14) – concept used as the first epigraph of Hemingway’s novel, illustrating the spirit in which it was written.
In order to expand the meanings of such concepts as exile or expatriation, identity and, the self and the other we will analyse them in the light of the novel Fiesta: The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway. The author begun writing his first novel, partly fiction, partly autobiographical work in 1925 and it took him almost nine weeks; it was published in 1926 and suffered many revisions including the title which originally was Fiesta or Lost Generation (Bloom, p. 12). Some types of discourses produce a unique effect on the mind, changing one’s perception about the mental representation of the world. Hence, from the interaction between “a textual form with a reader’s pre-existing mental representations”, the discourse will have attached a certain value which can be universal or not (Cook, p. 4). All the same, some have praised the novel, others have despised it, but certainly it caught critics attention: it has been considered “as nihilistic: a book about no thing with people going nowhere”, or it has been recognized as a forceful depiction of the war generation whose ideals and values for “country, family, and religion” had been devastated (Bloom, p. 13). Moreover, Hemingway’s artistic creed suggests a desire for balance and for an accurate description of the essence from real events : “I am trying … to get the feeling of the actual life…. You can’t do this without putting in the ugly as well as what is beautiful” (Bloom, p. 13).
As it has been said, The Sun Also Rises is partly an autobiographical work due to Hemingway’s inspiration from real life events. Ernest Hemingway was born in on July 21, 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago (Charles, p. 3) and as a teenager he excelled in English classes and practiced and enjoyed sports such as boxing, water polo, track and field, and football. Before being a novelist he was a journalist and a correspondent (Mellow, p. 21). Moreover, his father taught him to hunt, to fish and to camp in the woods and on the strength of this, Hemingway developed love and appreciation for outdoors adventures and nature (Beegel, pp. 65-68). Just before turning 18 years he tried to join the American troops but was rejected due to poor eyesight and then he enlisted in the American Red Cross as an ambulance driver in order to help the Italian army. His service lasted only 34 days for he was extremely bad injured while delivering supplies: “a trench mortar shell exploded a few feet from him”; he went through two operations on his legs from where were removed “227 shell fragments” (Charles, p. 7). During hospitalization he fell in love with Agnes Von Kurowsky, an attractive and good humored 26 year old nurse but the relationship lasted only five months, because she was engaged with a doctor. Their relationship became cold slowly and Hemingway was devastated by the breakup, thinking that she was also in love with him. (Charles, pp. 7-8).
For the author, Paris was the “town best organized for a writer to write in that there is” (Donaldson, p. 57), but he loved to travel and, thefore he firstly visited Spain in 1923 in order to attend with his wife the Festival of San Fermín in Pamplona, where he was thrilled by bullfighting (Meyers, pp. 117-8). They returned there a third time in June 1925 together with a company of British and American expatriates: Ernest’s boyhood friend, Bill Smith – the model for Bill, Donald Ogden Stewart, Lady Duff Twysden – the model for Brett Ashley character, Pat Guthrie – inspiration for Mike Campbell, “a perpetually drunk Scottish debtor”, and Harold Loeb, “a product of Princeton” and one of New York city’s greatest and wealthiest Jewish families” (Blume, pp. 18-9) inspired Robert Cohn (Nagel, p. 89). All these events, the entire experience from Spain and its surroundings, the fiesta and bullfighting, the human relationships, his circle of friends and the climate of post war Paris inspired the author in writing The Sun Also Rises.
The main character, Jake, resembles his writer: he is a journalist who was badly wounded in war, who likes to travel and drinks heavily; he is also the story’s narrator, introducing the other characters and their hedonistic journey through France, its selected cafés, and Spain’s mesmerizing landscapes in their search for meaning and for missing pieces of their identity. The plot revolves around the love triangle between the main characters Brett, Jake, Mike and Cohn, and the rising tension between them, but it also illustrates the expatriate life in Paris, the natural life as a shelter and a place of retreat, all of them in the light of the events lived by characters that reveal their restlessness, their identity markers and their inner exile. The events from Pamplona become tangled and the climax is revealed when Cohn beats up Mike and Jake due to his love and jealousy for Brett who had an affair and will not respond to his affection. Although a substantial part of the novel is constructed around surroundings description, the dialogues and the subtleties offers us an insight into what really troubles the characters and how exactly are they lost in their exile. Perhaps the most visible novel’s theme is the one of “lost generation” highlighted in the character’s “sense of loss — of purpose, of meaning, of permanence and connection” (Bloom, p. 20) from their marathon in cafes and bars from boulevard du Montparnasse, and endless company of others suffering from the same “disease”.
The novel’s second epigraph from the Ecclesiastes’ mirrors a double-sided interpretation: an optimistic one and a pessimistic one. The first instance proposes a state of solace due to imagery of the “earth’s recurring cycles and the perfect harmony of natural rhythms” (Bloom, p. 14), while the second one suggests human’s limitation in front of the cruelty of time and in front of the most frightening chatastrophes such as the IWW: “One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh; but the earth abideth forever”. In the light of this we can conclude that all the expatriates from the novel are in an exile imposed by the circumstances of war, but also in a self-imposed exile where they wanted to experiment the lively Paris, cheap, always animated, with exuberance and full of expat circles.
Consequently, it appears that the “lost generation” lost its moral quality when they deserted their “moral bearings” (Monk, p. 4) and here they “estranged themselves from traditional principles” (Dolan, p. 16). As a response to the bitter disillusionment of war’s scars they fill their voids with an attitude of “Hedonism and cynicism” (Bloom, p. 20), reflected mostly in their unremitting drinking sessions. Moreover, in this case alcohol serves as a mechanism of defense or as a “survival kit”, helping blurring disturbing and unbearable thoughts or postponing the meeting with the lost real self in an unsettled and uncertain world: “It was like certain dinners I remember from the war. There was much wine, an ignored tension, and a feeling of things coming that you could not prevent happening. Under the wine I lost the disgusted feeling and was happy.” (Hemingway, p. 66).
Jake Barnes, the main character is a a newspaper man and an aspiring writer and, his expatriate status is best illustrated in a description offered by Bill, his friend: “You’re an expatriate. You’ve lost touch with the soil […] Fake European standards have ruined you. You drink yourself to death. You become obsessed by sex. You spend all your time talking, not working. You are an expatriate, see? You hang around cafés” (Hemingway, p. 53). This pharagraph highlights the traditional character of Paris’s expats and it draws out the internal dynamics and habbits within the exile groups: diminishing values, drinking, flirting, always moving from one place to another with no actual direction. In addition, the places frecventated by expats in Paris and their circle of expats represent an interdependent microcosmos, constituting an “other” society. In the same way, piqturesque Spain and especially the area of Irati River represent an “other space”, namely a heterotopia; the concept was elaborated by Michael Foucault and it describes a liminal space, different from the other places, a space of alternate social ordering, a “space of deferral, where ideas and practices that represent the good life can come into being, from nowhere, even if they never actually achieve what they set out to achieve — social order, or control and freedom” (Hetherington, p. ix). This space is capable of binging a break whitin the traditional time, offering an escape from the ordering spaces of domination (Michael Foucault, Info.). In other words, this space has the quality of having “an alternative and often oppositional relation to society’s central pillars” (Linde, p. 139). As Bloom suggests, in the intermission between Paris and Pamplona Hemingway constructs an “oasis that exists outside linear time and the tensions of civilization” (p. 31).
Between the “pestilential city” of Paris, always “crowded with Americans” (Hemingway, pp. 37-38) and the never-ending tensions and hum of Pamplona’s fiesta, Spain’s countryside represents a place of retreat, a shelter from the aimlessness society and a way of coping with the brutal post war reality. For Jake, the landscape “meant a search for a solid form …. not existentially present in [his] life in Paris” (Berman, p. 55). Moreover, it illustrates a way of anchoring one’s self through the reconnection with the true self and with the original values of beauty, peace, stability: “Then in the quiet water I turned and floated. Floating I saw only the sky, and felt the drop and lift of the swells […] The water was buoyant and cold. It felt as though you could never sink” (Hemingway, p. 103). The phrase “you could not sink” alludes to the fact that in this heterotopia one’s self will not be forced to hide or will not be suppressed by uncontrolled circumstances. Jake is different from the other characters for he searches meaning in various ways or tries to reconnect with his old self from before the war. Even that in the post war context the religious feeling is abolished and one cannot relate to religion or divinity, Jake is the only one who tries at least to reconnect his self with the religious feeling that brings serenity and confidence for a better world: “I saw the cathedral […] I went inside […] I knelt and started to pray and prayed for everybody I thought of […] I only wished I felt religious and maybe I would the next time” (Hemingway, p. 46). He feels like a “rotten Catholic” because he cannot experience the religious grandeur for his decadent self, always involved in parties, always thinking at money, in perpetual connection with the materialistic world cannot connect with spirituality. Furthermore, Jake’s war wound is something that makes him ashamed and afraid because it attacks his masculinity and overthrows its meaning; the wound nature is almost never revealed, only suggested like in the scene where Georgette tries to touch him but Jake refuses: “‘Never mind.’ ‘What’s the matter? You sick?’ ‘Yes.’ “Everybody’s sick. I’m sick, too’” (Hemingway, p. 12). Moreover, the author accentuates his character insecurities for the adjective “impotent” is mentioned only two times in the novel and the character does not accept his condition: “‘Another group claims you’re impotent’ ‘No, I said.’ ‘I just had an accident’” (Hemingway, p. 53). The wound made him impotent, therefore “his sense of masculine identity is lost — he is less than a man” (Elliott, p. 87). He lost a part of his identity and he cannot manage mentally to accept this loss caused by the war that overthrown the significance of gender roles: “the traditional masculine values of honour, martial prowess, and emotional restraint were severely compromised by the futility of the mass-slaughter and the trauma that followed” (Humble, p. 197). Considering all of these, we can say that the entire fishing trip and the pleasure brought by bullfighting are linked with a sense of freedom and masculinity which is tried to be recovered by Jake. Due to his wound he is incapable of having a fulfilled relationship with his loved Brett; although this reason is not stated specifically in the novel it is clearly that it is a significant part of why their relationship cannot work anymore. He suffers because he cannot be together with her and because their relationship has a potential of destruction. In conclusion, a lmost all the characters are visible affected or wear war’s scars that transposes them intro their inner exile. Mike is in love with Ashley but he never shows directly his dissatisfaction or anger, but instead he prefers to be terrible drunk to supress his own feelings and thoughts. Cohn is constantly mocked about his Jewish identity, he is not fully accepted in group, probably because Jake is jealous of his affair with Brett. In addition, Cohn’s values of love do not match the actual post war society because he is a romantic, as suggested with his reliance on the novel The Purple Land, a novel “about amorous adventures with happy endings” (Bloom, p. 21). Most of the time, communication fails the characters because their thoughts are always soaked in alchool and therefore they cannot truly communicate their feelings and they are revolving around mockery, fighting or stating other empty words. The author wrote the story of Fiesta: The Sun Also Rises as a mean of theraphy: he wanted to reveal his pain about the unfulfilled relationship with Brett, to stigmatize Cohn for his affair with her and the entire post war atmpsphere from Paris; but he also wrote as a mean of understanding the world around him by trying to fiind a way to live in it: “Perhaps as you went along you did learn something. I did not care what it was all about. All I wanted to know was how to live in it. Maybe if you found out how to live in it you learned from that what it was all about.” (Hemingway, p. 67).
Symbolically, the fiesta can be associated with how expatriates chose to live their life and how “the lost generation” perceives it: “The dancing kept up, the drinking kept up, the noise went on. The things that happened could only have happened during a fiesta. Everything became quite unreal finally and it seemed as though nothing could have any consequences” (Hemingway, p. 69).
Violence in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises and Indian Camp, and West’s Miss Lonelyhearts
In the late 19th and early 20th and after World War I, violence of various kinds has set as one of the major themes of literary modernist’s novels/short stories. Each modernist author has his own way of how he handles this theme of violence, and how his own formal properties of his work helps us conceive the theme of violence. This essay will compare and contrast the way violence is portrayed in both of the authors, Ernest Hemingway and Nathanael West’s works. It will depict the differences and similarities between them. This essay will also take a small step and explain how and why modernist author take this theme of violence so seriously in their narratives.
In the one hand, the successful American novelist and the Noble prize winner, Hemingway, has establishes himself a writing style. What makes it special is that he writes and then he avoids direct statements and descriptions of emotion. He tells only the surface leaving the deep meaning hidden from us to conceive. In both of his works The Sun Also Rises and In Our Times, the “Indian Camp,” he recruits one protagonist in each story; Jake Barnes in The Sun Also Rises and Nick Adams in the “Indian Camp”. And through these protagonists’ acts, Hemingway shows us the hidden theme of violence. In Hemingway’s novels, the world of violence are impossible to escape. Thus, the heroes’ notions are formed by their view of violence. Hemingway suggests that violence of various kinds such as war, pain, illness, death, masculinity or emasculation, unsuccessful relationships and the ‘lost generation,” are the way one cannot but just accepts and lives to survive.
Violence theme emerges strongly in Hemingway’s novels and short stories; from killing in bullfights to haunting, fishing, boxing and war. In Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises, violent masculinity is portrayed through the hero Jake Barnes. He is a World War I veteran who has suffered an injury in his genitals; this injury makes him emasculated. He becomes impotent and is unable to intercourse. This injury makes it impossible for him to have a sexual relationship with Brett, the woman who he loves. Jake’s injury made him feel “less masculine” and that he has to accept Brett’s refusal of entering a relationship with him. Jake’s wound left him destroyed emotionally and anxious over his masculine performance. Jake is also a member of the lost generations where people after War World I have lost their faith, values and morality; life for them now seems to be meaningless. However, Jake does not care about all these seemingly lost values: “I did not care what it was all about. All I wanted to know was how to live in it” (152). He is only interested in how to live with it now, in a place where the war has left him damaged both physically and psychologically.
Another kind of violence Hemingway holds in this story is unsuccessful relationships. Brett is a woman that Hemingway chooses to portray as the independent mature woman. Brett is a target for every male in this novel to achieve and have a relationship with. However, each male fails to win Brett’s love and as soon as they manage to succeed, a problem steps on their way, and Brett is no longer their own. For Jake as we know he is impotent and Brett’s love for him cannot win the fact that she can never have any sexual relationship with Jake; Brett cannot stand a platonic affair with Jake. And for Pedro Romero, Brett choses to leave him because she cannot ruin his life. And finally, for Bill, Mike and Robert Cohn they could not find Brett’s love strong.
Seek of masculinity which every male in life needs lead male characters in the novel participate in violence. Hemingway does not state this directly but he portrays it through the act of the characters in his novel. Such violence can be depicted in Robert Cohn’s boxing fights engaged with fighting Jake, Mike and Romero and thus violating his ethics in order to gain his masculinity back after he has lost it in following Brett around; moreover, Pedro Romero’s bullfights engaged in killing the bulls in a bloody violent unmerciful battle in order that he can portray his masculinity to the audience. And as for the rest they seek masculinity in targeting Cohn as he behaves unmanly by following Brett around. It is sarcastic to note that while Hemingway reveals the characters appear to be uncertain about their masculinity, he portrays Brett as manlier than the men. Brett acts like men and refers to herself as a chap, plus her hair is short and her name is masculine. This portray of gander disorder also violates the harmony and order in the novel, shaping it as violent to gender rules.
In Our Times “Indian Camp”, Nick Adams the hero watches his father delivering a baby to a woman. The woman seems having a strong pain. Meanwhile her husband is in the top bunk, slits his throat and bleeds to death. Having Nick watching all these extremely bloody painful birth is linked with the suicidal violent death of the husband who could not stand seeing his wife giving birth. This story depicts birth and death (the circle of human’s life) as bloody, painful and violent. Similarly how Hemingway portrays life as violent in The Sun Also Rises for the hero, he portrays it again in the “Indian Camp”. And as he grows up in the next chapters of In Our Time, we see him becoming violent to his girls, society and girlfriend by acting careless towards them.
In the other hand, we have Nathanael West and his way of handling the theme of violence. In one of his works in Miss Lonelyhearts, the descriptions are constantly scripted in violence; for example, in the “Deadpan” chapter: “He entered the park at the North Gate and swallowed mouthfuls of the heavy shade that curtained its arch. He walked into the shadow of a lamp-post that lay on the path like a spear. It pierced him like a spear. (4)” West clearly covers the lines with violent words, and when we read this, we cannot help but instantly see these violent images in our heads.
Moreover, it is not just the surface of his work or the descriptions of images are covered with signs of violence, but it is also the realistic events or elements in the novel are literally violent. In “Miss Lonelyhearts and the Lamb” Miss Lonelyhearts decides to put the lamb out of its misery but when he finds the lamb, “He crushed its head with a stone and left the carcass to the flies that swarmed around the bloody altar flowers” (10). Similarly, in “Miss Lonelyhears and the Clean Old Man,” when Miss Lonelyhearts twists the old man’s arm the old man “began to scream. Somebody hit Miss Lonelyhearts from behind with a chair” (18). Every episode in Miss Lonelyhears almost erupts in violence and chaos. And if we cannot escape the deep world of violence in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises and “Indian Camp,” we cannot also escape the surface world of violence in Nathanael West’s Miss Lonelyhearts. West just like Hemingway, also suggests a world of violence, chaos disorder and disruption in Miss Lonelyhears. It is clearly that we cannot escape disorder even in the letters that Miss Lonelyhearts receives, they are run-on ungrammatical letters. They are images of disorder and chaos, just like the world they live in.
The letters Miss Lonelyhearts receives, that his function are simply to “help” the people who wrote them, are a description of violent acts and events. We encounter the first letter of a woman demanding on killing herself. Despite of her kidney disorder that makes her pregnancy unbearably painful, her Catholic husbands insists on her to keep having children for twelve years constantly. In the second letter, we encounter a girl who is also demanding a suicide because of her disfiguring birth defect. And the third letter is from a boy on behalf of his deaf dumb sister who was raped, mocked and viciously beaten. The letters thus, suggest violence and cruel images involving physical force resulting in hurting, damaging and killing. As far as Miss Lonelyhears encounters all these letters he is namely sent to help these victims from violence, but as far as he wants to help he falls as a target for violence. Thus, Miss Lonelyhearts’s life is shaped by his view of violence.
But why does violence loom so large in the modernist imagination? The modern world has brought with it a new images; some of these images were war, disorder and violence. The horror and brutal reality and experiences of the war had a huge terrifying impacts on the people of that time. Modernist indeed seem to be deeply interested in the theme of war and violence and explore the damaging impact of violence through their characters. And that because they write as they rebel against social, moral, cultural and traditional conventions that they have seen in the modern world, especially after World War I. The concern of the natural existence of the individual in the modern world makes each modernist writer take his novel’s hero as alienated from life; thus, they fight a battle that they will eventually lose and the question of how they can end it, is just by violence. Meanwhile, the hero lives a struggle to accept the norms in which modern life gives him and he chooses to survive.
To conclude, this essay works on the compare and contrast between Earnest Hemingway and Nathanael West on how each of them handle the theme of violence in their novels. Both suggest a protagonist in each of their novels, and the hero copes with life through violence of different kinds. But the difference here, is that each novelist holds a different style in recruiting violence theme in his work. For Nathanael West’s Miss Lonelyheart, violence is conceived in its verbal form, its way of being on the surface of the work. It is not only a subjective basis. It has set above the surface of the work. Violent events and descriptions can be depicted clearly and constantly in almost every episode of the novel. However, for Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises and the “Indian Camp,” violence theme is inscribed beneath the surface of the work. Because, Hemingway has his own style of the iceberg theory. I hope I succeed in bringing analysis by making compare and contrast, and further research might be done.
Hemingway’s Style in The Sun Also Rises
“Fiesta; The Sun Also Rises” was published in 1926 by Ernest Hemingway. Hemmingway was around 25 when the book was published and being a part of the generation who were a part of World War One, he is associated with the “Lost Generation”. The Lost Generation is a generation who is morally and psychologically lost. They are often associated with drinking, dancing and going through life blindly. In addition is Hemingway’s way of writing, compared to an iceberg. There is only little information on the written lines, but there are much more behind them. This is one of the things that makes his style of writing being a part of the modernism movement.
“Fiesta; The Sun Also Rises” takes the reader through a man’s head, that desires a woman he can’t have. Through a man, is the reader introduced to life after war, and how people find meaning in alcohol, sex and parties.
Through the narrator in “Fiesta; The Sun Also Rises”, is the reader presented to the main character, Jake Barnes. Jake Barnes is both the narrator and the protagonist of the story, which means that the reader experiences the story though his desires and thoughts. The foundation of Jake Barnes is built before the events in the book. Jake Barnes way of describing his story, is simple, yet it leaves many questions. He hints at things, especially when it is about his life before the war. The representation of the lost generation is shown through how he and his companions go from bar to bar drinking and the endless wandering around. “You can’t get away from yourself by moving from one place to another.” (P. 10 l.10-11). This shows Barnes inner struggle with his place in life. Barnes became injured doing World War One and is now incapable of performing sexually. This prevents him to be with the love of his life, Lady Brett Ashley. The way Brett Ashley is presented makes her a siren. She is a woman who longer after independence. She affects the friendships between the men in the story and the way Hemingway presents Bret Ashley, is through lying and flirting.
Sex and bullfighting play a significance role in the story, and have symbolism behind it. The bulls themselves symbolise passion and freedom, which is shown when the bulls interact with the bull-fighters. The interaction between the animal and the fighter, is a pure act that ends up symbolising sex.
“She saw how Romero avoided every brusque movement and saved his bulls for last when wanted them, not winded and discomposed but smoothly worn down.” (P. 145 l. 24-26). This shows that just in the simplest act, is Barnes a passionate man. For him, each bullfight equals seduction, power and manipulation. Since he can’t have sex himself, is bullfighting an outlet to experience passion without having to perform it himself. He also mentions the bull-fighters in the begging of the book, “Nobody ever live their life all the way up except bull-fighters.” (P. 9 l.7-8) This shows that he is fascinated by them from the beginning and idolize them.
From the first chapter to the last, is there a big contrast. From the first chapter is the reader introduced to Robert Cohn. The first chapter has its focus on Robert Cohn which gives Barnes the opportunity to disappear into the background.
The turning point in the story, is when the fiesta starts. Barnes writes how things during the fiesta is unreal, and how it seemed out of place to think about consequences. “The things that happened could only have happened during a fiesta.” (P. 134 l. 15-16) This is where drinking, dancing and loving is in the air at every moment. This is the place where the friend group mix up and fights begin. This is the place in the book, where the characters say and do what their hearts wants.
The last chapter shows the reader what is left of the fiesta. As the fiesta ends, does Pamplona not gave a purpose, and it becomes clear for the characters that they no longer belong. Without the distraction a fiesta can provide, do they have to return to their lives, which include that money becomes the defining characteristics in their relationships. During the story return Jake to one of his old hotel rooms, but it doesn’t look or feel the same. This shows how the fiesta have changed him.
“Fiesta The Sun Also Rises” is Hemingway’s way to show how his generation coped with the post war life. Hemingway’s way of writing with gaps, everyday language and leaving things up to the imagination, is a classic representation of his modernism style. The way the lost generation is presented seems so simple, but behind the façade is there more to come after. Previous morals and traditions regarding the ethical aspects of life no longer applied. Virginia Woolf once stated, “sometime on or after December 1910 human character changed.”
Ernest Hemingway’s Favorite Place and Yours Too
Steeped in history dating back to the Romans Andalucía’s largest white town sits proudly El Tajo gorge a huge cut in the mountains shaped by the Río Guadalevín. Hugely popular with tourists and a very doable day trip from the resorts on the Costa del Sol Ronda is a comparatively small town that can be explored on foot. Other than the Puente Nuevo and the Bullring, Rhonda does not have any must-see sights or famous museums, yet is special in a way you can only appreciate if you see it for yourself. American author Ernest Hemingway spent his summers in Ronda as did Hollywood actor and director Orson Wells both aficionados of the uniquely Spanish tradition of Bullfighting. In fact, Wells loved Ronda so much he is buried on a friend’s private family estate and is famous for saying: “A man does not belong to the place he was born in, but to the place he chooses to die.” To fall in love with Ronda you need to stay overnight in the town as once the tourist buses leave and the wrought iron street lamps light up the narrow streets it’s a magical place that you will remember forever. Puente Nuevo Completed after 40years of construction in 1793 the Puente Nuevo has made Ronda the third most-visited town in southern Spain. Spanning the El Tajo gorge 120 metres above the rocky floor, the bridge offers amazing views and is best photographed from the Parador Hotel or Cuenca gardens.
Bullring Known as the home of modern bullfighting, it was in Ronda where local bullfighter Francisco Romero first battled bulls on foot rather than on horseback setting a precedent for the bullfighting we see today. Already banned in some parts of Spain and now probably just a matter of time before it is gone altogether, a trip to Ronda’s 18th-century bullring and museum allows you to learn about the sport and its famous matadors. Arab Baths Once a popular Ronda attraction the Moorish Arab baths are unfortunately closed due to the torrential storms of late 2018. Now awash with mud the ruins will have to undergo a large scale rebuilding before they can be open again to the public. Bandits Museum The only museum of its kind in Spain the Ronda bandit’s museum pays tribute to the local highwayman who preyed on wealthy visitors throughout the 19th century. These bandits were such a problem for the authorities that a special Guardia Civil unit was formed in order to wipe them out. Where to eat Like most places in Andalucia, you get a free tapa along with each drink so it’s easy to fill up on food while out and about exploring the town.
The touristy places in the Plaza de España tend to be overpriced so make a detour for the new part of town where you can not only experience traditional Andalucían tapas but a three-course menu del dia for between 10€-15€. If you feel like splurging head to Bodega San Francisco in the southern part of town and try the rabo de toro a slow-cooked bull tail stew cooked in red wine. Where to stay One of the items that Ronda has in abundance is hotels and pensions with competitively-priced accommodation. If you are travelling on a budget good 2-star pensions like the Hotel Royal and Hostal Ronda Sol are clean, safe and reasonably priced while those with a little more money can stay at the Hotel Montelirio and its stunning views of the gorge.
The Old Man And The Sea By Ernest Hemingway: a Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated
The movie Little Boy directed by Alejandro Monteverde in 2015 is about a small child whose father leaves to war, which leaves the little boy to fend for himself. When his father is gone he gets bullied and continues to worry about his father and wanting him to come back. However, the boy does not let what anybody, including his own brother, says get to him. He continues to have faith and hope which keeps him strong until finally, the good news arrives. In Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea, published in 1952 is a story about an old man named Santiago who continues to get destroyed but never defeated. With his salao, spending time with the Marlin, and facing hardships Santiago is able to build himself up.
Firstly, when Santiago states that “a man can be destroyed but not defeated” he refers to his salao. Throughout the novella Santiago experiences major amounts of this, especially before his fishing trip. For instance, when Santiago and Manolin sat on the Terrace many of the fishermen “made fun of the old man” however, he “was not angry”. The old man does not let anybody get to him no matter what they have to say. In addition to his salao, Santiago is also very poor. While the boy and the old man walked “to the old man’s shack” it was evident that his income was not good. When they walked in Santiago had a mast wrapped up against the wall and it was “nearly as long as the one room of the shack” which shows how small his space was. However, this is mainly due to not catching a fish in the past eighty-four days, and fishing is his only income. Santiago does not let his poverty get the worst of him. Despite all his “salao” Santiago does not give up on fishing which is his life. He is a determined and avid fisherman and he refuses to give up. In order to not be defeated, Santiago ignores the truth to keep himself strong. He caught a massive Marlin who was nearly an equal match for Santiago. But Santiago was bound to never give up. Santiago refuses to lose hope. He is just out at sea only focusing on this big fish he’s been waiting to catch. He feels a connection to this fish. This connection is the feeling of being brothers because of their strength, inner power, and loneliness. Even when he was tired while fighting the sharks he felt very weak and tired. In his fight, he killed 3 sharks. Even though the fight was unfair because he could not see he decided to remain mentally strong. In the end, he won the fight because his mental strength overcame his physical weakness.
In addition to when Santiago states that “a man can be destroyed but not defeated” he refers to his hardships. Santiago has faith, but despite all the hardships he goes through he does not lose hope. Even though the other fisherman do not believe in him, and the boy does not go with him he still goes fishing by himself. Santiago has a significant amount of inner strength and confidence. He decides to go fishing again, even though he is physically challenged, and his inner strength is as strong as ever. By paying attention to the birds he was able to follow them which lead him to find this great fish. He quickly made sure that his line was set and really hoped that this fish would take a bite. The moment he knew he had this great fish hooked he attempted to bring it in, but the fish did not budge. Instead, the fish just went on its course which left Santiago sitting there calmly. One of the biggest forms of saloa that Santiago experiences is his loneliness. Throughout the novella, Santiago remains lonely. However, in the beginning, is the most important part. Santiago even has a picture of his wife to make him feel that he even has the slightest amount of company. The entire town thought he was dead, and even if he was alive he would have come back with nothing. Everybody failed to see his inside instead of his outside. Manolin, who was the only person who believed in him, was the first to rush to him and see if he was ok.
From the very first pages of the story Santiago is a humble man with little worldly success to show for his many years. “Everything about him was old except his eyes, ” says the narrator. As blue as the sea, they were “cheerful and undefeated”. His humility is not a sign of resignation; not “disgraceful, ”