Romeo and Juliet
Franco Zeffirelli: “Romeo and Juliet” Adaptation – Essay
William Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet was first published in 1597. The play tells the story of two young lovers, Romeo and Juliet, whose families are feuding, and therefore despite their love, they are both caught up in the ensuing conflict. Both Romeo and Juliet end up dead at the end of the play following a series of misunderstandings occasioned by the continued fights between their families (The Literature Network Para. 7). Romeo belongs to the Montague family while Juliet is born of the Capulet family.
There have been several film adaptations of the play but the film adaptation referred to here was produced in 1968, under the direction of Franco Zeffirelli. The film, going by the name “Romeo and Juliet” just like the play, starred Leonard Whiting as Romeo Montague, and Olivia Hussey as Juliet Capulet.
This film adaptation, unlike most of the others which were produced in later years, depicts the families, lifestyle, practices, and acts as portrayed in the play, and does not adopt a ‘modern’ version of events as many of the subsequent films want to do (Rothwell 326). The director makes every effort to depict an era similar to that intended by Shakespeare.
In most cases, the written text of a play has variations from any movie adaptation. The written texts of any play contain stage directions that serve as a guide for the reader. Although stage directions in the text of a play tend to give the reader a clearer and better understanding of the setting, they can also be interruptive for the reader.
As the plot of the play develops and the reader gets more involved in the reading of the play, the constant need to read the stage directions has a disruptive effect on the reader’s interaction with the play. Film adaptations of plays, as is the case of this particular film adaptation by Franco Zeffirelli, eliminate the part of stage directions, and the viewer is able to enjoy an uninterrupted revelation of the plot of the play.
In this film version of Romeo and Juliet by Franco Zeffirelli, the director has altered, removed, or re-created several scenes. In the play, when Paris faces up Romeo outside the tomb, he executes Paris. The film version does not however portray this part and the entire scene in Act 5 of the play is conspicuously missing in the film.
Since Romeo is the one that kills Paris in an effort to get to his ‘dead’ wife Juliet, the murder of Paris casts him in bad light, and may deny him the sympathy of the viewer. The film thus omits this act of murder so that Romeo may experience the full sympathy of the viewer of the film.
The series of actions preceding Juliet’s swallowing of the sleeping potion has also been altered in the film. In the play, Juliet delivers a long monologue prior to taking the sleeping potion, communicating her fears, her hopes, and her love for Romeo to the audience. However, in the film, Juliet simply swallows the sleeping potion without much ado, simply asking for strength in love before taking the portion.
The film version reduces Juliet’s monologue because of several purposes. Since she proceeds to take the potion anyway, the need for a long speech beforehand may have seemed unnecessary in the eyes of the director. Therefore, there is an element of directive license in this instance. Secondly, in the film, the single sentence by Juliet comes across as very powerful and memorable; the phrase by Juliet asking for strength from love is memorable and is more poignant, and the viewer’s emotional connection with the character/actor is enhanced.
A similar directorial edit occurs in the scenes of the play concerning Romeo’s acquisition of the poison that he takes and finally dies after believing Juliet to be dead. In the text of the play, Romeo purchases the deadly poison from an apothecary, and proceeds to insert it in his pockets. In the film, the scene where Romeo acquires the poison is entirely missing. Therefore, when Romeo is distraught by his lover Juliet’s side, and believes her to be dead, he appears to unleash the poison from his pockets and drinking it with ease.
The element of surprise and a need to create suspense informs the director’s deletion of the scene of Romeo acquiring the poison. In the play, when Romeo buys the poison, the reader can predict, to a certain extent, his next cause of action since he believes that Juliet is dead. Since he has already bought the poison, his devastation at seeing his ‘dead’ wife can easily lead him to take the poison and commit suicide.
In the film, the audience does not see Romeo buy the toxicant; therefore, the audience remains in suspense, not knowing what Romeo would do next. The viewer is unsure of Romeo’s next course of action after his wrong perception of Juliet’s death. The deletion of the scene that shows Romeo purchasing the poison thus enhances the suspense in the film version of the play to the very end.
Additionally, in the text of the play, Romeo’s friend Mercutio dies away from Romeo’s presence, but in the film he dies in the presence of Romeo. Mercutio here plays a role of a very loyal friend, because he dies while defending the honor of his friend, Romeo.
Romeo cannot accept the challenge of Tybalt, Juliet’s cousin, because unknown to Tybalt, Romeo has just married Juliet. Romeo thus has his reservations on dueling with his wife’s cousin. Mercutio, ever a loyal friend, steps in on behalf of his friend, but he unfortunately dies in the ensuing battle.
In the play, another friend, Benvolio, leads Mercutio out of the stage, thus he dies out of Romeo’s sight. In the film however, he dies in the presence of Romeo and the scene is quite powerful as Romeo mourns the death. The reason for altering this scene in the film to make Mercutio die in the presence of Romeo is thus to powerfully project the sense of sacrifice of Mercutio, and to convey Romeo’s grief more powerfully.
Various characters in the play are dead or are said to be dead, but are alive in similar circumstances in the film. In the play, Romeo’s mother dies from the shock of her son’s excommunication from the city, but in the film, she does not die and even attends the funeral of her son and Juliet.
Rosaline, an earlier love interest of Romeo, comes up in the film even though she does not appear anywhere in the play. Giving Rosaline a face settles the curiosity of the viewer, since she spurns the interest of Romeo, and thus her character and looks are important for the viewer.
In conclusion, the decision to adopt a play into film always carries the burden of the level of creative license the director should employ. The film should also allow the reader to make his or her own conclusions (Halio 323).
The film should ultimately tell a similar story to the play, but should also incorporate elements that will make the entire efforts worthwhile and enriching. Franco Zeffirelli’s film provides a different angle to one of Shakespeare’s most famous plays, Romeo and Juliet, thus enriching the viewer’s sense of understanding of the play, even for those who may have previously read/watched the play.
Halio, Jay. “Zeffirelli’s Romeo and Juliet: The Camera versus the Text.” Literature Film Quarterly 5.4 (1977): 322-326.
Rothwell, Kenneth. “Zeffirelli’s Romeo and Juliet: Words into Picture and Music.” Literature Film Quarterly 5.4 (1977): 326-331.
The Literature Network. Romeo and Juliet, 2011. Web. <http://www.online-literature.com/shakespeare/romeo_and_juliet/27/>
The Saga as Old as Time: Romeo and Juliet, Vampire Style Essay
Love conquers all, an old byword says, and the recent novel adaptation, the famous Twilight Saga is a perfect proof for the fact that true love cannot be defeated. Rendering a number of ideas and topics, the movie offers a plethora of food for thoughts and provides a detailed description of a completely different world – the world of vampires.
Even though the movie balances between a fairytale and a real-life story, there can be no possible doubt that the Twilight Saga offers a modern interpretation of the famous Shakespearean play; however, taking less time, timeless classics proves to be doubtlessly deeper and more complex.
Basing partially on the plot of Romeo and Juliet story and partially on the problems that modern teenagers face, The Twilight Saga offers a number of issues that are quite topical nowadays, such as the hardships of being different, and dwells upon the great Everlasting Love and the famous Happily Ever After, yet is seemingly shallow in dealing with each of the issues.
The movie sends the audience into a typical American setting, where a typical American teenage girl meets a mysterious young man of her age. The latter turns out to be a vampire, yet belonging to the family of “vegetarian” ones, consuming the blood of animals only. Naturally, the young people fall in love, yet the gang of “bad” cannibal vampires arrive to kill Bella and her family. However, the young people save the day, and the movie ends with the couple dancing and one of the enemy vampire girls casts an envious look at Bella.
Telling the story of the touching relationships between a young girl, Bella, and her new acquaintance, mysterious Edward, who further on proves to be an incarnation of Count Dracula, a dreadful vampire, is quite enticing.
However, one must admit that the idea of mixing the incompatible beings into a love story is already dead at the arrival, since the idea of comprising the incompatible presupposes certain element of motion and activity, which the movie lacks, thus, making the plot more narrowed.
Does being a vampire presuppose being a dawdling silent dummy? Edward is suffering, but he does nothing. Bella is suffering, but she does nothing. Edward’s family sees the threat that the main characters are facing – but they do nothing. It seems that the movie will reach its climax as the entire world follows the lead characters and will be sitting twiddling their thumbs.
Despite the numerous flaws in showing the development of the characters, it is impossible to deny the obvious advantages of the movie. One of the major points about the simple and rather sentimental story is the fact that it deals with the detailed descriptions of the daily life of teenagers.
The scene involving the bullies is, sadly enough, quite a widespread situation that any child studying in public educational establishments has to face sooner or later. In addition, the portrayal of Bella’s and Edward’s falling in love for the first time in their life arrests the attention of the teenagers who have faced the same complexities – or, would it be better to say, moments of happiness?
In addition, the movie touches upon the issue that troubles most young people as they are about to cross the threshold between the childhood and the adult life, which is the problem of being different; however, the issues are mentioned far too briefly.
Though the problem could have been told in a more subtle way, depicting the hardships and the ordeals of being a vampire – moreover, a vegetarian vampire! – comes quite close to discussing the problems of being an outcast among the classmates, or any other social group which teenagers are so dependent on.
You are a vampire, and that is what makes you different. You are a vampire, and that makes you guilty. You are a vampire, and you do not deserve to be a part of the society. No matter how hard you will be lurking in the shadow, people will see you. You see, people do not like those who are different from the rest. The movie captures the very essence of the problem and develops it until it becomes grotesquely huge.
With the two topic intertwined, the movie cannot help causing contradictory reactions; however, the romantic relationships between a girl and a vampire, as well as the problem of being different, are never considered close enough.
The story of Romeo and Juliet, sugared with the grotesquely happy ending, is intertwined with the fears of an average teenager, which makes the movie attractive for the latter. This is a seemingly sweet sentimental story with several subplots, simple and strange. Altogether, these features make the movie enticing for the target audience.
The plot of the story is quite complex; however, the charming chant of cheerful angels at the end of each episode of the saga seems somewhat out of place, which makes the story less cohesive.
In addition, the attempt to break the plot of the Shakespearean tragedy seems quite forced, which makes the movie weaker and less credible. Though the meaningful look that one of the vampire girls casts on the leading characters dancing in complete delight does send shivers down the spectators’ spines, there is still a tangible lack of the thrill in the way the movie ends.
Allowing people to feel the atmosphere of the fairytale come true for a change, the movie, thus, obtains an unrealistic hue, which distorts the overall impression. However, it should be marked that there can hardly be anything realistic about a movie that tells the story of a vampire.
Offering a peculiar interpretation of Romeo and Juliet Story and incorporating the elements of the Count Dracula, the movie still follows its own, teenager-friendly topics, which makes it genuine and new, yet makes the movie linger between drama and fantasy. Though Twilight Saga cannot be considered as classic read, read classic Romeo and Juliet, and you will feel that the interpretation is worth taking a look at.
Analysis of the play ‘Romeo and Juliet’ Essay
My experience watching the theatre show about ‘Romeo and Juliet’ was wonderful judging from the relevancy of the show with the original written script. Generally, the play was interesting with a performance of above average rating. Furthermore, it exhibited the most important aspects of a true Romeo and Juliet narrative.
Apart from the entire production, I was impressed with the script since it presented all the major themes in a typical Romeo and Juliet volume. Some of the vital themes from the author’s narrative include the theme of fate. A perfect example of fate from the play was when lord Capulet’s servant tried to find an intellectual who possibly will read the guest list to him. In that exact moment, Benvolio and Romeo enter the room, and Romeo declared his reading ability. This unplanned meeting highlights the weight of destiny in the show.
Another interesting scene of the production that makes it real understanding of the authors work is the casting of the romantic love between Romeo and Juliet, the physical love of the nurse and the contractual love by Paris.
Lastly, the film displayed the actual meaning of gender and social disparity. A perfect example from the film (that communicated the real meaning of the author’s narrative) is Mercutio who proposed dissimilarity among people depending on ranking or social class.
The direction of the film was excellent, for the fact that the director casting choice was perfect. This aspect added taste to the entire play and made it appear real as narrated in the novel.
The setting of the show was perfect, with a fitting decoration of traditional English background. The set was up to my expectation, and it accommodated the various locations required for the story. Also the set added the traditional English value to the production.
Could I see everything? Perfectly well, the use of black and white lighting heightened the whole experience because they added visual interest, suggested relevant atmosphere and above all distinguished between foreground and background of the stage. I could tell from the varying shapes of light on the stage that gobos lighting was employed. This gave the production a high standard ancient-like production.
The costumes were appropriate for the characters and the period which the original event took place in ancient England. From the show, it was observed that various colors symbolized different status in ancient England. Another observation about the costume of the characters is the use of shield or guard. The dressing code in the film helped me to identify the different social classes that I would not have identified.
The props suited the occasion because old traditional furniture occupied the stage and this enhanced relevancy and similarity with the original ancient setting. This enabled me to connect with the story in a realistic way.
The sound was quite disruptive at some point due to a technical hitch; this rather diverted my attention from the flow of the play for a while. Generally, the sound was audible and it produced a fair performance apart from the technical hitch.
Generally, the film was an excellent production, all the characters were represented in the play and this made the play consistent. Besides, Romeo and Juliet performance enhanced the play and improved the production with original feature. In summary, the whole performance of the play was interesting and enhanced better knowledge of Romeo and Juliet actual narrative.
The Life And Work Of William Shakespeare: His Contribution To The Contemporary Theater Research Paper
Though his active dates now approach nearly five hundred years in the past, William Shakespeare remains one of the most prominent playwrights in the world. Countless festivals, theater training institutes, and theatrical seasons continue to produce William Shakespeare’s major works for the theater year after year.
In addition, the plays and sonnets of William Shakespeare continue to set the standard for the study of the English language in its dramatic context in institutes of higher learning and performance training. The ability of one playwright to sustain such popularity over centuries is equaled only by that of the Greek playwrights such as Sophocles and Aeschylus.
Truly, the impact of this one dramatist on the modern theater is staggering in its reach and tenacity. The following essay seeks to investigate the contribution of William Shakespeare’s work to contemporary theater, using the tragedy of Othello and Macbeth as its main sources. In addition, this paper will point to the impact of William Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 on the study of literature.
The theater that existed during the time when William Shakespeare lived and created his plays was qualitatively different than the modern theater. One of the main distinctions was the fact that men played all the roles, including those of the women.
In William Shakespeare’s time, it was deemed vulgar for women to perform. In fact, for many years the term actress was little more than a euphemism for prostitute (Pollard 13). Many members of polite society viewed the theater as tawdry entertainment for the masses, rife with vice and women of loose moral character, and a hotbed of lewd and lascivious behavior.
Indeed, during Shakespeare’s time, critics warned that the plays “take advantage of their verbal power and aesthetic pleasure in order to seduce viewers in vice” (Pollard 20). Women in particular were cautioned about the “sexual depravity of plays and the threats theatergoing poses to chastity, painting a lurid picture of a world of inescapable erotic temptations” (Pollard 20).
Despite these puritanical limitations, William Shakespeare created some of the most compelling female characters of the theater – full-blooded, three dimensional female characters such as Portia and Desdemona. Therefore, the impact of his works on the contemporary theater exists largely in the contribution his female characters made to cultural liberation of women beyond their roles.
The most obvious example is Lady Macbeth. In contemporary theater, Lady Macbeth remains one of the most fascinating and complex female characters of the theatrical canon – an unabashedly power hungry, ambitious female that set the context for women to be viewed as having individual desire and individual will related to power that not only transcended their commitment to their husbands but also their fear of social reprisal.
Lady Macbeth’s manipulation of her husband is one of the earliest examples of this, and her machinations and viciousness are surpassed only by those of Clytemnestra.
Shakespeare and his plays contribute to the modern theater by means of the influential formation of story, a great deal of plot twists, and gripping and complicated story arcs in which intertwined characters created love triangles, murder plots, and revenge schemes.
In addition, the modern theater still looks to William Shakespeare’s plays as the role model of poetic wording, the eloquent expression of the inner thoughts and motivations of characters, and unique, forceful language.
The tragedy of Othello belongs to the latter period of William Shakespeare’s plays, during which the plays ceased to be imitative and took on a uniqueness and richness equaled only by their darkness. If the earlier pieces of William Shakespeare’s writing were more humorous, the latter plays became more significantly more pessimistic (Kiefer 109).
The latter period of William Shakespeare’s works is populated by deeply personal, depressive perceptions of power, family, and love. Thus, the mood on the stage changed as well. The problems of death, jealousy, infidelity, and betrayal rampant in these latter tragedies, particularly Othello, revealed a dark side of the playwright.
William Shakespeare was one of the first playwrights to genuinely move his audience to tears. Remembering his tragedies, such as Romeo and Juliet or Othello, it is possible to state that Shakespeare made the characters alive, added dramatic plotting, realistic human situations, and encouraged the audience to not simply watch the story but to feel it.
Barber and Greenblatt say that William Shakespeare managed to present and transform plot materials as well as he could borrow “plot involved negative behavior on the basis of romantic absolutes which was not changed” (8).
Othello stands apart from the other tragedies on account of its social issue theme – one of the earliest treatments of racism in the theater. This is the drama which makes people excited with the feelings and deep love, then, the audience is worried because of betrayal and distrust and finally, people are shocked and despaired with the final scene of the play.
The plot and the genre are important as watching the play people should understand what they are to wait for, but the performer should still impress them with the stream of emotions they are unable to hide. Similarly, in Othello, a new treatment of both character and character relationships on stage exists.
As Bradbook explains, Othello’s “function of reason itself is destroyed when he loses faith in Desdemona” (178). Iago’s plot reveals the essential insecurity and fragility of the Moor, and as Bradbook notes, the murder of Desdemona heralds a “new concept of identity” (178).
In essence, when Othello murders his wife, he murders himself. Since he and Desdemona close to marry against the social norms of the time, they “become utterly dependent on each other. They live in an enclosed universe of two, and the price of their free choice is vulnerability” (Bradbook 178).
As Desdemona admits, “That I did love the Moor to live with him, / My downright violence and storm of fortunes / May trumpet to the world” (Shakespeare 26). Thus, the devastation wreaked by Iago pales in comparison to the destruction of the core sense of self witnessed in the character of Othello.
The play contributes a deep and painful study of the weakness of the lone, defiant personality amid overwhelming social censure, a theme that has been echoed many times since in contemporary theater from Samuel Beckett to Sarah Kane.
The language, expressions and words used in William Shakespeare’s plays impacted the theater development in the past and contributed to the contemporary development of the sphere. Many scholars agree that the choice of the words and word combinations in William Shakespeare’s sonnets also provide the culture of communication that continues to influence generations.
Considering the sonnets William Shakespeare wrote, specifically Sonnet 18, this works “affirms the value of poetry itself and [William Shakespeare’s] own ability to write poetry which will last and which will convey the beauty of his lover to future generations” (Woolway 2).
Sonnet 18 reveals the powerful and impressive tone and language choice. “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? / Thou art more lovely and more temperate:/ Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, / And summer’s lease hath all too short a date” (Shakespeare and Atkins 68).
In addition, the sonnet points to feeling of love expressed simply and honestly, outside of the confines of courtly love prevalent at that time. Sonnet 18 is “both idealistic and yet familiar. The poet is speaking to someone with whom he feels comfortable and is clearly intimate… This is not the distant woman of some Petrarchan love poems” (Woolway 2).
The carefully selected words in Sonnet 18 locate the reader in a frame of mind. Not only does the reader feel the melody of phrases and enjoy them, they live them in their romantic relationships. Sonnet 18 is an example of a piece of literature that perfectly personifies the feeling of love, which may explain why it continues to be quoted regularly, nearly five hundred years after it was written.
The contribution that William Shakespeare made to contemporary theater therefore spans multiple areas. In addition, the power and immediacy of feelings and emotions reflected in William Shakespeare’s works on stage were some of the earliest honest portrayals of pain, love and vengeance.
The playwright opened up the treatment of character, revealed the power of language, and dramatized difficult human themes. Much of the contemporary theater remains rooted in the character, plot and thematic innovation that William Shakespeare created.
Barber, C. L. and Stephen Greenblatt. Shakespeare’s Festive Comedy: A Study of Dramatic Form and Its Relation to Social Custom. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011. Print.
Bradbook, Muriel Clara. Shakespeare: The Poet in his World. London: Routledge, 2005. Print.
Kiefer, Frederick. Shakespeare’s Visual Theatre: Staging the Personified Characters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. Print.
Pollard, Tanya. Shakespeare’s Theater: A Sourcebook. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004. Print.
Shakespeare, William and Carl D. Atkins. Shakespeare’s Sonnets: With Three Hundred Years of Commentary. New York: Associated University Press, 2007. Print.
Shakespeare, William. Othello. New York: Cricket House Books LLC, 2010. Print.
Woolway, Joanne. “An Overview of Sonnet 18.” Poetry for Students. Detroit: Gale, 2001. 1-2. Print.
Romeo and Juliet Essay
Romeo and Juliet is one of the greatest love stories of all time. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by Shakespeare and it is thought to have been written in 1595 or 1596. The play is set in the city of Verona. It is a tragic love story and the love between Romeo and Juliet eventually killed them in the end. Romeo and Juliet were responsible for their own destiny and from the start to the end they their love remains strong.
The young lovers Romeo and Juliet are both from families who hated each other for centuries. Their love causes many tragic events to occur as they are from a family of Capulet and Montague. Romeo and Juliet is a tragic story of a forbidden love due to their families’ strong objection to their love. The two young lovers’ untimely death ultimately united their feuding families.
“William Shakespeare was born allegedly on April 23, 1564 in Stratford- Upon-Avon. The church records of Holy Trinity show that he was baptized on April 26th, 1564. In reality” (Shakespeare’s Birth para. 1) the actual date of Shakespeare’s birthday is unknown. William Shakespeare father was John Shakespeare who was a Glover and leather merchant. His mother was Mary Aden who was a landed local heiress. According to the church register of Holy trinity, William Shakespeare was the third of eight children.
Little is known about Shakespeare’s education and it is alleged that he probably attended the endowed grammar school of Stratford where he learned “little Latin and less Greek” as referred by Ben Johnson. In 1582, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years his senior. In 1587, Shakespeare left his family to pursue his dreams in London where joined Burbage’s company of players. Shakespeare poems marked the beginning of his success.
His poem “Venus and Adonis” became immensely popular in London. After this he wrote a succession of wonderful plays, – Merchant of Venice, As you like it, twelfth night, Julius Ceaser , Hamlet, Mac Beth, Othello, King Lear, Antony and Cleopatra etc. “At the time of Shakespeare’s death twenty- one plays existed in manuscripts in various theaters” (William).
There are many controversies as to when exactly Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Apart from this, many historians are claiming that the works of Shakespeare are really the work of Edward de Vere. “Many Oxfordians believe that the true author of Shakespeare’s plays was an aristocrat named Edward De Vere” (History of Doubts Surrounding the Authorship of Shakespeare’s Works). Edward de Vere was the 17th Earl of Oxford and was born in 1550. He graduated from Cambridge University at a tender age of 14.
The theories that the work of Shakespeare’s was that of Edward de Vere was based on the upbringing , knowledge , education and many of the similarities of works between the two writer. Many historians believed that the Edward De Vere wrote plays and sonnets under the pseudonym of Shakespeare. Despite all these allegations and theories, there is no concrete proof to that Edward de Vere was the real author of Shakespeare’s plays as many of Shakespeare’s plays were written after the death of Edward De Vere.
In Romeo and Juliet, the development of characters eventually led to the tragedy of the main characters. The characters developed throughout the story. In the beginning of the story, we are introduced to a young girl Juliet. Juliet is the daughter of Capulet and Lady Capulet. The development of Juliet in the play is the most dynamic as she undergoes a huge transformation in terms of love, loyalty and maturity. At the beginning of the play Juliet is a carefree and innocent girl who is not ready to settle down in life.
When her nurse jokes about the sexual life of marriage to Juliet, Juliet goes on to tell the nurse that ‘It is an honor that I have not dreamt of’ “(Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5). From this we can see that Juliet is not ready to marry yet and has not taken the responsibility of settling down in life. Juliet in the beginning shows no intention of marrying and has not taken the responsibility of fulfilling her parents wish.
Juliet rapidly evolves into a mature young lady and transforms into a determined, sober-minded woman in the four day span in the play. Her sense of loyalty to her parents is shown in her dutiful determination to try to love Paris, her fiancée, “I’ll look to like, if looking liking move” (Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5). She is an obedient who is respectfully to her mother and sensible towards her parents need, “Madam, I am here, / what is your will?” (Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5).
Juliet rapidly transform from a carefree young girl to a lady after she falls in love with Romeo. She no longer feels the need to comply her parents wish or the need to sacrifice her happiness for her parents. She revolts against her parents by and stands by her decision to die rather than marry a person whom she does not love: “If all else fail, myself have power to die”(Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5 244). Her love for Romeo makes her defy her parents wish.
In her relationship with Romeo, Juliet gives her all and is loving, faithful and strong. She is the one who suggests that they get married even without their parents’ approval. Often times, Romeo is rash in decision, but Juliet always seems to be clear headed. Her maturity is seen in the balcony scene of Act 11, scene 2, when she comments about the rashness of their love “It is too rash, too unadvis’d, too sudden.”
Juliet lives under the control of a patriarch. She has very little freedom and is completely dependent on her father. However, she is prepared to leave everything dear to her life and marry her lover Romeo. She matures throughout the play and abandons her family to be with Romeo.
Juliet bravery is noteworthy as she is a mere child of 14 years old. She makes logical decision and does not rush to anything. Even when Romeo kills Tybalt in his rash decision, Juliet takes time to think about her decision to marry Romeo. She does not blindly follow Romeo when she makes a decision that her guiding priorities should be her true love, Romeo.
After a lot of thinking and reflecting, she finally awakes from her prior social life – the nurse, her parents as well as her social standing in Verona to reunite with her lover. When Juliet wakes from her sleep in the tomb to find her husband dead, she stabs herself with a dagger out of the intensity of her love for Romeo. Juliet development from an innocent, naïve girl to a strong, independent woman is one of Shakespeare triumph in characterization.
The love of Romeo and Juliet is a remarkable love as they have to undergo many obstacles to be united. Many good things come out of their love as their death finally united the family of Capulet and Montague. It is a tragedy that their families have to find out through the death of the young lovers that love always triumphs. The death of Romeo and Juliet finally end the bitter feud between the Capulet and Montague. The Chorus also reminds us that “their death [will] bury their parents’ strife,” (Shakespeare & Pearce 204).
History of Doubts Surrounding the Authorship of Shakespeare’s Works. Oxford Society. 1995. Web.
Pearce, Joseph. Romeo and Juliet: William Shakespeare. Lgnatius Press. San Francisco. 2011. Web.
Romeo and Juliet: Act 3, Scene 5. Shakespeare Navigator. n.d. Web.
Shakespeare’s Birth. Amanda Mabillard. 1999. Web.
William, J. Long. English literature: Its History and Significance. BiblioBazaar, 2007. Print.
Breaking the rules: Romeo and Juliet’s quest for independence Essay
Romeo and Juliet is a famous play by the great playwright William Shakespeare. People who read the play or watched films that adopted its plot feel the touch of this tragic love story of Romeo and Juliet. With regards to this play, people hold different opinions and interpretations. Some feel sorry about their eventual death while others think that their final death reconciled their feuding families and united the two lovers.
This essay will argue that by breaking the rules, Romeo and Juliet finally attain success and independence. This argument stands on the fact that even though both Juliet and Romeo died through committing suicide, they attain success in the form of unity between the Montagues and the Capulets.
Their death helped their families go through a recognition stage. They unanimously throw away their feud after seeing the consequences it brought. At least there is hope for independence for future members of these two families.
Romeo and Juliet are star-crossed lovers who come from two feuding families, the Montague and Capulet, who live in Verona. Their families are in an endless conflict with each other. The two lovers ought not to show their love to each other because of this long standing feud. Both families disapprove of such an affair.
However, in spite of the feud between their families, Romeo and Juliet assert their independence but end up in a tragic predicament.
The Balcony scene is the first indication of Romeo and Juliet’s readiness to break social rules and have independent wills. Even though Juliet is well aware of her family’s hatred of the Montague, she falls in love with Romeo and goes ahead to organize for a marriage with him the next day. In the “balcony scene”, Juliet tells the following lines “O Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?
Deny thy father and refuse thy name, Or if thou will not, be but sworn my love, And I will no longer be a Capulet” (Act 2, Scene 1, Lines 74-78). These lines reveal Juliet’s willingness to deny her own family name just to marry Romeo. She asks Romeo to deny his family name so that they can fall in love without the disapproval from their families.
When Juliet utters these lines, she stands in sharp contrast with her rigid family rules and wishes to be an independent person capable of pursuing her own love rather than staying in the trap of her family name. This shows that Juliet is already proving her ability to think independently. However, her wishes cannot be accomplished as things stand.
This is because of the feud between their families. It is this quest for independence that leads to the death of both Juliet and Romeo. Juliet meets her death when she takes a drug that would help her run away from marrying Paris. When she feigns death, Romeo thinks that she is indeed dead. He takes poison and kills himself. Upon realizing that Romeo is dead, she stabs herself and genuinely dies.
Romeo also shows his independent spirit by falling in love with a daughter of the Capulet. He is in love with Rosaline, a relative of the Capulet and Benvolio advises him to end the affair. He ends it but commits a bigger crime when he falls in love with Juliet, a real daughter of the Capulet. His readiness to break the rules and attend the ball at the Capulet portrays his quest for independence.
As the son of the Montague, Romeo is not welcome. However, he attends the ball and comes to the balcony of Juliet after her beauty attracts him. When Romeo attends the ball and follows Juliet to the balcony, he proves that just like Juliet, the social and family rules do not confine him. He is instead ready to pursue his own desires and make his own decisions about his own love affairs.
Romeo bravely makes himself known to Juliet and they agree to organize a secret marriage. The society cannot tolerate their love because their families are in a long held feud, and society knows the repercussions this marriage would yield. In spite of the definite family disapproval and numerous obstacles, Romeo and Juliet marry.
The bravery, independent spirit and defiance against their feuding families are what touch the audience the most. This hurrying into marriage shows how the two lovers yearn for freedom from the chains of the feud between their families. They even wish to drop their family names because they are curtailing their freedom of choice and association.
However, as it has already been mentioned in the previous part, the union of Romeo and Juliet will not only fail to win the blessings of their families, but will also face restrictions from them. In their quest to overcome this opposition from their families, they go through so many hardships including death. Juliet tries to run away from a marriage partner, Count Paris, just to marry Romeo.
She feigns death by taking a sleeping potion, and this brings a lot of trouble to them. Romeo on his part has to go to exile and almost kills himself while there. On coming back, Paris confronts him for a fight, and he kills Paris. He finally kills himself because he thinks Juliet is dead. Juliet also kills herself with Romeo’s dagger when she realizes that he is dead.
They go through all these hardships because of their yearning for freedom and independence. The two lovers refuse to surrender to the wills of their families, but instead they try every possible way to safeguard their love and fight against the rules.
The statement “From forth the fatal loins of these two foes, a pair of star-crossed lovers take their life” (Shakespeare, 2012, Prologue, Lines 5-8) shows that Romeo and Juliet prefer death to adhering to the rules and wills set by their feuding families.
Finally, the death of Romeo and Juliet puts an end to their love and is powerful enough to reconcile their feuding families. In another sense, the two lovers rise high above their mortal death and become perfectly united with each other spiritually.
In a world, they are not able to make their independent choices and be together based on their own desires, but their death enables them not to pay attention to social rules and assert the supremacy of their love over the feud and rules of their families. Furthermore, their death reminds their feuding families of the foolishness and irrationality of their long-held conflict. The two families reconcile at last.
Romeo and Juliet elevate themselves to heroes by violating the socially accepted norms and bravely fighting for their own independence and freedom. Thus, Romeo and Juliet attain success over their families despite the feud and stringent orders that guide the way the two families relate.
This success may seem to be irrelevant to them, but at least it makes sense to their families at the end. They die before accomplishing the independence and the freedom they searched for a long time. Their families, however, make peace with each other after realizing what their feud is capable of causing.
A conclusion can be comfortably drawn that by breaking the rigid rules regulating their behaviors, Romeo and Juliet finally attain their independence. They break loose from these rules, and they finally attain their freedom in their death. This freedom is not only theirs, but for all other family members.
Members of the two families who remain behind will enjoy this freedom that Romeo and Juliet looked for using all their tactics. Their families are now at peace with each other, and his means no restrictions will be there in dealing with members of the former enemy family.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet, Ed. René Weis. London: Arden, 2012.
William Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet” and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” Essay
William Shakespeare in “Romeo and Juliet” and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” present tragic love stories. Although these two plays tell the stories of profound love, immense pain and suffering seems to be customary. In “Romeo and Juliet” there is an unending row between two families, Montague and Capulet (Shakespeare 5).
The main plot of the play concerns Romeo and Juliet whose love defies all odds. Romeo comes from the Montague family while Juliet is a Capulet. Their love is passionate and intense, but their family feud is a barrier. The tragic end in this story demonstrates how love is a cause of misery.
In “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” the plot is centered on the deep love between Theseus and Hippolyta who are about to wed. During their wedding preparations, the plot reveals the affections of other characters like Hermia and Lysander, Helena and Demetrius, King Oberon and Queen Titania. They find themselves in fairyland where they interact with magic. These characters find themselves in circumstances that trigger pain and suffering because of their love for one another.
The story is full of dreams and magical events, which makes it fantastical. In addition, the play has a humorous tone that underplays the ordeals and hardship faced by people in love. The difference between “Romeo and Juliet” and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” is in their endings. “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” has a happy ending while “Romeo and Juliet” ends in tragedy. Both stories depict a dichotomy between profound love and suffering.
This paper examines romantic love as the source of joy and fulfillment in “Romeo and Juliet” and “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”. It also examines how love contributes to pain and suffering in both stories.
Love as a source of joy and satisfaction in “Romeo and Juliet”
The love between Romeo and Juliet is powerful. Romeo is attracted to Juliet immediately after meeting her. The two of them are happy and express their affections for each other (Shakespeare 48). After seeing Juliet, Romeo realizes his feelings for her are different. Although their families are at war, their love is powerful.
Romeo is beyond himself with joy because now; he loves someone who also loves him. When the nurse informs Juliet about the identity of Romeo, she has no desire to end their relationship. Instead, she says, “My only love sprung from my only hate” (Shakespeare 52). Later, when they meet, she tells Romeo it is only a name that makes them enemies. This revelation gives Romeo confidence to fight for her. Juliet’s affection is a source of joy to Romeo.
He confesses if Juliet calls him love then; he will be a new man. As their conversation continues, Juliet asks Romeo what will bring him satisfaction. Romeo tells Juliet that marrying her is his only desire. Their love is a source of satisfaction. Her feelings for Romeo are so strong she is prepared to give up her name and her birthright.
Love as a source of pain and suffering in “Romeo and Juliet”
As the plot begins, Romeo is lonely and miserable because he loves Rosaline but, she does not share the same feelings. He makes his room dark during the day because he believes love is associated with light (Shakespeare 16). He barely does anything other than moan for a love which is unreciprocated. Romeo’s friend, Mercutio scoffs at his feelings for Rosaline when he shares his misery. However, Romeo likens his sadness to madness.
When he asks Romeo what makes him sad, Romeo replies “Ay me! Sad hours seem long” (Shakespeare 17). His days are bleak without love. This scene illustrates how love causes suffering. Romeo’s pain causes him to go to a Capulet feast even, though, the two families are fighting. After meeting Juliet, Friar Laurence asks about Romeo and Rosaline.
Romeo answers by saying “I have forgotten that name, and that name’s woe” (Shakespeare 26). This statement depicts how deeply Romeo is wounded following Rosaline’s rejection. Friar Lawrence then wonders how Romeo can forsake his love for Rosaline so quickly. Romeo explains his affections for Rosaline were childish.
In “Romeo and Juliet”, love is a vicious and powerful feeling. Romeo and Juliet contemplate suicide whenever they think of being separated. Romeo tries to kill himself in the presence of Friar Lawrence after he is banned from Verona for killing Tybalt (Shakespeare 65). Similarly, When Juliet finds out about the ban she is desolate. She equates their separation with death. Furthermore, Juliet threatens to end her life when she is forced to marry Paris.
She tells her mother she would rather have the wedding in the graveside (Shakespeare 70). Towards the end of the play, Juliet feigns death in order to stop her upcoming wedding. Friar Lawrence is the mastermind of this plot but, he fails to inform Romeo. He gives Juliet a sleeping pill to induce her into a deep sleep.
In the morning, when the nurse finds Juliet, she thinks Juliet is dead. Juliet’s family also believes the facade and mourns for her. Romeo kills himself when he finds Juliet because he also thinks she is dead. Juliet then wakes up and finds Romeo dead; she takes a dagger and stabs herself. The tragic in this story is the ultimate sacrifice of love.
Love as a source of joy and satisfaction in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”
Love is a source of joy in this plot. The story begins with wedding preparation. Theseus confesses he won her love through a sword, but he will love her differently (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 3). Because of his happiness, Theseus orders the commoners to stage a play for entertainment (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 3).
His joy and satisfactions causes him to give Hermia enough time to think about her actions instead of judging harshly. Hermia and Lysander are happy just loving each other. When Lysander discloses a possibility of leaving Athens, Hermia gets excited. Although their plan does not run smoothly, Hermia and Lysander enjoy a happy ending. In addition, Demetrius learns to love Helena and the people of Athens witness three weddings. King Oberon after tricking Titania and the four lovers with a love spells finds fulfillment in Titania.
Love as a source of pain and suffering in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”
Love is the source of pain and suffering in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”. As the story begins, King Oberon and Queen Titania love is the source of their suffering. (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 20) The two parties are at war because Titania refuses to release the Indian boy to Oberon. She is disgusted with him for coercing her to comply. She declares “I have forsworn his bed and company” (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 20).
Consequently, Oberon sends one of his attendants, Puck to find a flower known as love-in- idleness. If this flower is rubbed on a person’s eyelids, the person will fall in love with the first living creature he sets his eyes on. Oberon intends to use this flower on Titania because she refuses to comply with his wishes. It is clear in this story love causes suffering because Oberon loves Titania yet, he desires to seek revenge over an Indian boy. His desire to have a knight outweighs his affections for Titania to a point he harms her.
Similarly, Hermia and Lysander are suffering because of their love for each other. Hermia desires to marry Lysander but Hermia’s father; Egeus forbids the union (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 5). According to the law of the land, the father has a right to choose a spouse for his daughter.
The penalty for non compliance is death or confinement to a nunnery for life. In this story, Egeus believes his daughter has been bewitched by Lysander into selecting him for a husband. He accuses her before Thesius and demands for her punishment if she continues to disobey.
Love is the source of suffering for Hermia who wishes to be with Lysander but, is being forced to marry Demetrius. Hermia declares Athens was paradise before she met Lysander and she wonders what grace Lysander has “that he hath turn’d a heaven unto hell” (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 10). On the other hand, Demetrius claims to love Hermia even though he is ready to see her executed for choosing Lysander.
Another source of disharmony in a love is relationship is portrayed in the romantic situation between Helena and Demetrius (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 10). Helena feels affection for Demetrius, and Demetrius is attracted to Hermia. This means the two men are fighting for the affection Hermia, while Helena is lonely. Helena’s love for Demetrius brings unhappiness because he rejects her. Helena is constantly complaining about his rejection.
She says “the more I love, the more he hateth me” (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 10). As Hermia and Lysander are planning to elope, they see Helena complaining about her affections for Demetrius and confide in her. They hope that she will be happy with Hermia out of the picture (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 14). However, Helena’s affections for Demetrius cause her to betray Hermia and Lysander by revealing their plans to elope. Helena hopes her show of loyalty will make Demetrius fall in love with her again.
In this story, the love is confusing. This confusion brings potent pain and suffering. Initially, Demetrius is attracted to Helena but, after she meets Hermia her affection change. Helena feels dejected by this turn of events. Later, as Lysander and Hermia try to escape, Puck makes a mistake and places the magic juice on Lysander’s eyelids. The first person Lysander sees when he wakes up is Helena, and he falls in love with her (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 55).
Instead of eloping, Lysander turns his attention on Helena. Lysander’s lack of interest hurts Hermia. She holds Demetrius responsible for Lysander’s departure. On realizing that Punk made a mistake, Oberon squeezes the magic portion on Demetrius. Upon waking up, Demetrius falls in love with Helena. Now both men try to win Helena’s heart. Hermia is distressed by the sudden change in Lysander. Similarly, Helena is hurt because she believes the two men are tricking her.
Hermia attacks Helena and blames her for her suffering (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 65). The confusion that arises because of the magic spell stirs up rage in this story. After witnessing the suffering of the lovers, Oberon corrects his mistake, and the love story ends happily. In this story, the course of love faces trials and temptation. Lysander says “the course of true love never did run smoothly” (A Midsummer Night’s Dream 8).
Shakespeare, William. Romeo & Juliet. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958. Print.
— A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Sydney: HowYouWant.com, 2008. Print.
Different Types of Love Portrayed in Skespeare’s Romeo and Juliet Term Paper
Romeo and Juliet is really an overwhelming play by William Shakespeare. Romeo and Juliet has been categorized as a tragedy by William Shakespeare which has been ranked above most of his other plays. The play revolves around two young star-crosses lovers, Romeo and Juliet whose deaths ultimately fasten together their feuding families.
Romeo and Juliet is a fascinating and interesting story among Shakespeare’s most popular archetypal stories. Shakespeare has addressed the issue of love among teenage and long lovers. The relationship of young lovers has been of great focus in Romeo and Juliet. The play is rated highly among other tragic romantic plays of traditional times. Across the play, the issue of love has been manifested.
It is with no doubt that love is the main theme addressed by Shakespeare in Romeo and Juliet. Various forms of love have been evident across the play. This is evident from the relationships between the various characters in the play. In this paper, the different types of love portrayed in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet will be discussed.
Different types of Love
The concept of love has been identified as one of the most misconceived elements in human relationships. This is in relation to the different types of love among people. Basically, love refers to an emotion of strong affection which leads to personal attachment. Love can be identified as a virtue which represents human compassion, kindness, and affection. Love is unselfish and loyal concern for other.
It is imperative noting that love can be identified as the actions towards other people which are based on compassion. Actions to other people based on affection and kindness also signify love.
On the other hand, attitudes, states, feelings, and interpersonal attractions contributing to pleasure are also referred to as love1. As noted in the play “Romeo and Juliet”, the concept of love has been outstanding. This is demonstrated by the interactions between the various characters and more specifically Romeo and Juliet.
There are different types of love in the human society. Some of the commonly known forms of love are romantic love, platonic love, and religious love. Romantic love is the passionate attraction or intimacy between two people basically driven by sexual love of eros. Platonic love on the other hand refers to familial love or emotional closeness to people within a person’s family members or close friends.
Religious love is the form of love explained by the desire for devotion and oneness2. Other forms of love include eros love, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania and agape love. To begin with, Eros love refers to passionate or romantic love. This is a form of love which is driven by ideal or physical beauty for intimacy. Ludus love on the other hand refers to relationship based on deceit and un-commitment.
Storge is a friendship-based love whereby the parties engage in a long-term relationship in which sex is not very passionate or intense. Pragma refers to practical, pragmatic or mutually beneficial relationship which is not basically romantic.
Mania is also a key form of love whereby the parties are possessive or obsessive to one another. Extreme, crazy and jealous behaviors are commonly expressed by people in mania love. Agape love on the other hand is a caring, gentle, brotherly and giving type of love3.
Different Types of Love in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet
In Shakespeare’s perspective, the concept of romantic love has been adopted to explain love between the characters. In the entire play, the characters are overwhelmed by romance. Romeo and Juliet are key characters in the play who have been identified with a high sense of intimacy between the two. The relationship between Romeo and Juliet is very romantic thus characterizing the entire story as a love play.
Both Romeo and Juliet are intimately in love with one another. This is evident by the strong passion and compassion for one another. It is worth noting that the two characters has down looked all other factors surrounding them and fell in love. The concept of sex, romance and intimacy overwhelms their relationship. This scenario definitely demonstrates the sense of romantic love between Romeo and Juliet4.
Pure or agape love can also been identified in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. The play revolves around two hormone-driven teenagers, Romeo and Juliet who down looks their families’ long-standing feud. They decided to risk everything together. The point whereby Romeo and Juliet enter into a relationship in contrary to their families’ feud is a manifestation of true love.
The two characters went contrary with their families’ disputes to execute their objectives. It is worth noting that true love is unconditional and honest and is not hindered by personal differences. This is very evident between Romeo and Juliet who enter into an unconditional love. Romeo and Juliet is categorized as the greatest love story. This is based on its high regard on the issues of love between the characters.
The relationship between Romeo and Juliet in contrary to their parents’ objection is a bold move which can only be explained by true love. It is only true love that can lead to people with different backgrounds together. With this in mind, the aspect of true love is evident in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet5.
Ludus love which entails deceit and un-commitment is also evident in the play. As observed in the story of Romeo and Juliet, Romeo was in great desire to enter into a romantic affair with Juliet. He was much driven by his sexual desires and wanted to have Juliet’s virginity. Through the use of metaphors and polite language, Romeo was in much love with the young girl and was after seeking pleasure from her virginity.
This is an aspect of Ludus love which is based on un-commitment and lies to benefit someone. Despite that Romeo was committed to marry and move on with the relationship, the desire to have sex overwhelmed him. This is a key manifestation of Ludus love. This was not a mutual relationship but rather a relationship driven by hormones and sexual desire. Romeo was a key player in the relationship and looked forward to satisfy his ego6.
The concept of romantic love is clearly evident across the play. From the first meeting, the two characters demonstrate a sense of passion and romance between them. The use of metaphor by Romeo and Juliet in their communication was aimed at enhancing intimacy between them.
Romeo was after testing Juliet’s feelings by using metaphors. This is a polite and non threatening communication which enhances romance. By using metaphors, a man will be able to invite and create attention to a lady with little or no harm. Pretence by a woman not to understand will also not cause any harm to a man. With this in mind, the sense of romance is magnified between Romeo and Juliet.
It is worth noting that the communication between Romeo and Juliet clearly demonstrated romance. This is enhanced by Juliet’s response who also uses metaphors. Juliet uses the metaphors of pilgrim, shrine and saint to respond to Romeo. In regards to this communication, the issue of romantic love between Romeo and Juliet is highlighted7.
The play by Shakespeare has clearly highlighted the concept of romantic love. This is based on the playwright’s ability to go contrary to rules of normal sequence of courtship. Shakespeare has clearly highlighted the interactions and communication between Romeo and Juliet in their first days. In this case, Shakespeare highlights how Romeo overheard Juliet’s Soliloquy.
Shakespeare brings Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop thus breaking the sequence of courtship. This is a clear demonstration of romantic love which goes beyond the traditional sequence of courtship. The aspects of shyness and modest which were required of a women were not demonstrated by Juliet. It is imperative that the shyness and modest of a woman was a vital aspect to ensure that the man was sincere.
This element of courtship was overcome in the play thus speeding up the plot and illustrating romantic relationships. People in romantic love like Juliet and Romeo are able to skip the length part of wooing and proceed to the plain talk of their relationship.
Romeo and Juliet are a key example of partners who are overwhelmed by romance and go contrary to the normal courtship sequence. It is interesting to note that Romeo and Juliet jump to make agreements on their marriage only after one night thus illustrating the strength of romantic love8.
The timing of the relationship between Romeo and Juliet is a manifestation of how young people are infatuated by one another. The entire relationship between the teenagers can not be attributed to true love but rather mania love. Mania love is a form of love which is highly possessive and obsessive.
This occurs instantly and with little or no consultations or reasoning. The kind of love or relationship between Romeo and Juliet can be attributed to this from of Love. Meeting only in a ball and agreeing to marry the same night raises questions on the authenticity of their love.
The two teenagers are only driven by crazy feelings and infatuation rather than true love. It is worrying to note that Romeo instantly fell in love with Juliet and moved on to discuss on their wedding. The quick invitation of Friar Laurence to oversee their wedding is also unreasoned.
It is imperative to note that the decisions by the two teenagers are crazy, unreasoned and childish. Romeo and Juliet should have been patient with their feelings and even take time to consult their parents. However, this never happened and they continued to their wedding. Based on this scenario, mania love is manifested9.
The relationship of Mercutio a friend to Romeo and Tybalt who is Juliet’s cousin is also a sign of teenage infatuation. This engagement also happened in the day of the ball organized by Capulet family. This is a special manifestation of mania love which is not properly thought. The issues of romance and sexual passions are the main drivers of this form of love.
Being a friend to Romeo, Mercutio should have informed his friend of the engagement. After spotting Tybalt, Mercutio should have taken time to think of her and follow the normal courtship sequence. It is unfortunate that Mercutio only rushed to satisfy his feelings by engaging to Tybalt. This scenario signifies mania and romantic love which is not properly thought of (McKeown 36).
The death of Mercutio who was killed by Tybalt also explains the absence of true love in their relationship. It is unfortunate that Tybalt killed her fiancée Mercutio. This is really an unfortunate scenario which signifies the absence of agape love between the two characters. Tybalt could not control her anger and thus goes forward to execute her emotions. This only led to more grief to herself.
This form of relationship can be identified to be based on Ludus love which is based on un-commitment and deceit between the partners. If TyBalt really loved Mercutio, she could not have thought of killing him. True love is patient, caring, kind and honest.
By having true love, Tybalt could have engaged Mercutio into a discussion which would have helped in solving their issues. Alongside having a relationship based on true love, Tybalt as an individual should have love within her. By so doing, she should not have executed her to other people and not going to the extent of killing Mercutio10.
Romeo has also characterized himself as uncaring and intolerable. This is based on his emotions and actions by slaying Tybalt who had killed his friend. This is an action of hate and lack of love. Romeo should have been tolerable to some extent in resolving the case of Tybalt and his friend Mercutio rather than killing her. This demonstrates an aspect of mania love whereby Romeo acted in a silly manner.
Nevertheless, Romeo and Mercutio had real love. This is evident through the actions of Romeo who could do anything to save and fight for his friend. With this in mind, the issue of true love between Romeo and mercutio is demonstrated11.
The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet is a great work which has demonstrated Shakespeare’s expertise in playwriting. The play has been classified as the greatest love story based on the playwright’s high concern on the issue of love. The highlight on the different forms of love across the play is of great importance in ranking the story.
Romeo and Juliet is unmatched based on the playwright’s ability to bring together various scenes addressing the issues of love. The play has positioned Shakespeare among other playwrights. In the world’s literature, Romeo and Juliet has also taken a good position among the world’s population. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet is a vision of uncompromising mutual love which perishes of its own intensity and idealism.
The time frame of courtship and the life of the love between the characters are raising a lot of issues. This scenario manifests the issues entailing love and more specifically teenage lovers who have less concern on what happens beyond the relationship12.
Romeo and Juliet has a fancy Pedigree and can be considered Shakespeare’s most accessible work. This is in comparison to other heroes such as Othello, Hamlet, or Macbeth. The Tragedy of Macbeth has been famous for addressing the commitment of man to power as contrasted to Romeo and Juliet which revolves around love. In this play, the relationship between kingship, tyranny, cruelty, masculinity and violence has been demonstrated.
The Tragedy of hamlet and that of Othello have also demonstrated the commitment of man to what one loves. In the tragedy of hamlet, the issue of revenge is demonstrated thus illustrating the strong conviction in human actions. In relation to Romeo and Juliet, these plays manifest the expertise of Shakespeare in literature writing. Romeo Juliet has however remained the most outstanding as far as love is concerned13.
Romeo and Juliet has impacted significantly on world literature. It is worth noting that it is typically the first of Shakespeare plays to be studied by western students. The adoption of this play in western literature introduces the children to the convections of Elizabeth Theater.
The play is also rich and appealing in its style, tone, and characters. This makes it offer a healthy dose of love poetry to students. The peppers and insights by Shakespeare are felt across the play, Romeo and Juliet. With this in mind, the authenticity and significance of Romeo and Juliet in world literature is demonstrated14.
Nevertheless, the play, Romeo and Juliet has also faced a lot of criticism. Some critics like Samuel Pepys, who is a seventeenth century journaler has classified the play as Shakespeare’s trashy blockbuster. In his arguments, Samuel Pepys categorizes Romeo and Juliet as the worst acted ever. The countless performance of the play by renowned theater companies has also led to fading of the play.
It is however notable that Romeo and Juliet remains an audience favorite across the globe. It has also been identified as one of the most adapted plays in the contemporary society. The theme of love which has been magnified in the play has made it appealing to many people. This is a universal theme and has yielded the play unprecedented fame15.
Romeo and Juliet has clearly explained the real nature of love. The play demonstrates how young people are infatuated by love. Shakespeare explains how getting what one want from young love is not what it is made to be. This is manifested by Romeo and Juliet who instantly fall into love and proceeded to get married. The story has a lot of moral teaching to its audience.
Firstly, the play enlightens the audience that many times love is doomed to fail. In this case, people falling into love should be fully prepared for any outcome.
Full confidence in success of a love affair will ultimately lead to frustrations. From the play, it can be learned that failure in a relationship or love can occur at any age or time. This is a real moral lesson from the story which calls upon young people entering into relationships to be cautious16.
The story by Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is a cautionary tale to people who are ever in love. By being in love and breaking up, an individual will definitely expect the same from other couples. This is however not the same, since the forms of love are different. An individual should not really expect much from young love.
Shakespeare outlined that an individual should not kill himself simply because love has not worked out. Many young people are hereby cautioned to reason properly and take their time when thing of love.
A key aspect of strong relationships and marriage is love. In the play, Shakespeare reminds people that communicating through church representatives or lack of communication between couples definitely leads to troubled situation like suicide17.
Analysis of Romeo and Juliet demonstrates that it is tragedy rather than romance. The two teens, Romeo and Juliet are hit by love and go own acting rashly which end up costing their lives. It is sad to note that the relationship between the two teens can not be said to be based on love rather than infatuation. This has led them to live fraught with tension and no point of resolution.
The high opposition from the odds around them challenges the existence of love in their affair. Romeo and Juliet is a special lesson that love can not conquer all. The failures and loss experienced by Romeo and Juliet as well as their friends Tybalt and Mercutio is a clear evident of the weaknesses of love. The play is a lesson to all individuals and more specifically the youth who think that love can solve every problem.
The issues of poignant speeches, great sex, and good strategizing should not be viewed as what is entailed in love. In regards to the play, the various types of love have been noted. These include romantic love, true love, erotic love, love, ludus love, mania love and eros love.
In the case of Romeo and Juliet, romantic, mania and eros love have been evident. The concept of true love is no where to be seen in Romeo and Juliet’s relationship. In summary, the analysis of the play of Romeo and Juliet shows that the play is a tragedy rather than romance.
Baer, Greg. Real Love: The Truth about Finding Unconditional Love and Fulfilling Relationships. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2004, Print.
Beal, Duncan. Romeo and Juliet. London: Routldge, 2003, Print.
Granville-Barker, Harley. Romeo and Juliet. New York: Prentice Hall, 2003, Print.
Lamb, Mary et al. Romeo and Juliet. London: Routldge, 2003, Print.
Lewis, Clive. The Four Loves. London: Routledge, 2001, Print.
Masuccio, Salernitano. Romeo and Juliet: Original Text of Masuccio Salernitano, Luigi Da Porto, Matteo Bandello, William Shakespeare. New York: Prentice Hall, 1992, Print.
McKeown, Adam. And Fiore, Peter. Romeo and Juliet. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2004, Print.
Shakespeare, William and Furnass, Horace. Romeo and Juliet. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009.
Shakespeare, William. The works of Shakespeare: The Text Carefully Restored According to the first editions. London: Prentice hall, 1999, Print.
Singer, Irving. The nature of Lover: Plato to Luther. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009, Print.
1 Baer, Greg. Real Love: The Truth about Finding Unconditional Love and Fulfilling Relationships. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2004, Print.
2 Lewis, Clive. The Four Loves. London: Routledge, 2001, Print.
3 Singer, Irving. The nature of Lover: Plato to Luther. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009, Print.
4 Shakespeare, William and Furnass, Horace. Romeo and Juliet. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009.
5 Masuccio, Salernitano. Romeo and Juliet: Original Text of Masuccio Salernitano, Luigi Da Porto, Matteo Bandello, William Shakespeare. New York: Prentice Hall, 1992, Print.
6 Shakespeare, William. The works of Shakespeare: The Text Carefully Restored According to the first editions. London: Prentice hall, 1999, Print.
7 Baer, Greg. Real Love: The Truth about Finding Unconditional Love and Fulfilling Relationships. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2004, Print.
8 Masuccio, Salernitano. Romeo and Juliet: Original Text of Masuccio Salernitano, Luigi Da Porto, Matteo Bandello, William Shakespeare. New York: Prentice Hall, 1992, Print.
9 Shakespeare, William. The works of Shakespeare: The Text Carefully Restored According to the first editions. London: Prentice hall, 1999, Print.
10 Beal, Duncan. Romeo and Juliet. London: Routldge, 2003, Print.
11 McKeown, Adam. And Fiore, Peter. Romeo and Juliet. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2004, Print.
12 Lamb, Mary et al. Romeo and Juliet. London: Routldge, 2003, Print.
13 McKeown, Adam. And Fiore, Peter. Romeo and Juliet. New Jersey: McGraw Hill, 2004, Print.
14 Beal, Duncan. Romeo and Juliet. London: Routldge, 2003, Print.
15 Granville-Barker, Harley. Romeo and Juliet. New York: Prentice Hall, 2003, Print.
16 Lamb, Mary et al. Romeo and Juliet. London: Routldge, 2003, Print.
17 Shakespeare, William and Furnass, Horace. Romeo and Juliet. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009.
Teaching Middle- and High-School Students Using Literature Essay
The book entitled Teaching Middle- and High-School Students Using Literature begins with an informative Preface that points out the premise of this work, the intended audience, author’s position, and his/her credentials. Then, the ideas of how to use this book and why this book is worthy of attention are presented.
The Table of Contents illustrates the main issues for discussion in this book, and an Introduction underlines the values of this work to the reader. The Outline under consideration will present the major issues from this book and provide chapter-by-chapter description of the ideas, covered in this book. There are 5 chapters, and 5 subcategories for each chapter, which properly describe the material:
Importance of Teaching to Use Literature for Students of Middle- and High-School Students
Goals for Teaching Literature and Learning Activities at Middle- and High-Schools
Essence of teaching literature; lessons for life by means of literary sources; effectiveness of teaching literature at middle- and high-schools; proper introduction to the class; acquaintance with the class; brief examination of each student; creation of a journal; attention to students’ responses; proper criticisms of students’ work; fighting with own anxiety (Showalter, 2003); evaluation of own abilities and development of teaching literature; communication to students: being a friend, a tutor, a mentor.
Understanding of Students Individuality at Middle- and High-Schools
Game as a form of teacher’s introduction and first meeting with students; making notes about each student to comprehend his/her individuality; students’ desire to learn literature at middle- and high-schools; reading personal information about a student; students’ attitude to literature; teacher’s reading aloud and students reactions; independent reading by students at classes and their attitudes to a task; evaluation of students’ understanding of the material within a short period of time; activities to check students’ short-term memory and long-term memory.
Selections from Literature, which May Help to Analyze Students’ Understanding of the Course
Evaluation of literature that is appropriate for middle- and high-school students; analysis of English in the books; The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (Twain, 2006) as an easyread story for children of middle schools; The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet (Shakespeare, 2007) as a story that teaches justice and care; Gulliver’s Travels (Swift, 2006) as a story about human nature and a person’s attitude to different situations.
Choosing of One Language for Studying Literature at Middle- and High-Schools
English as an international language; improvement of English by means of reading literature; communication with the help of English to encourage each student talks correctly; training at posing questions about the literary work in a proper way; development of English from Old to Modern in literature; attention to level of English acquisition of each student; memorizing the difficulties, students face while speaking English.
Attention to the Students with Special Needs at Middle- and High-Schools
Good impression is an excellent step to take; talking to each student is obligatory to comprehend his/her abilities; meetings with parents as an integral part of teaching; suggestions for parents to help students with special needs at home; importance of developing reading and listening skills from the very beginning; attention to attitude of students with special needs to completing assignments.
Helpful Hints for Teachers to Start Their Courses at Middle- and High-Schools, Win the Students, and Use Literature
Creation of Examples from Literary Pieces of Art
Scientific literature as a source about smart people and their achievements; Thomas Jefferson and the United States Declaration of Independence; fictions for children to teach how to become a worthwhile part of this world;
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz as a guide about human best and worse qualities; The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe and its characters as the best examples of how to make friends and as the description of the outcomes of betrayal.
Students’ Participation in Classroom Activities
Reading aloud by teachers; reading aloud by students one by one; reading literature independently at classes and at home; collective analysis of the material that is read; evaluation of pros and cons of the literature chosen; personal judgment of the work without punishment and criticism; appreciation of students’ thoughts about literature; invitation of students with special needs to participate in discussions; warning to all students not to be judgmental; mutual assistance.
Communication with Parents and Parents’ Presence in Students’ Educational Life and Promotion of Literature
Meetings with parents at the beginning of course; parents’ awareness about the literature that is used at classes; cooperation of parents and teachers; cooperation of students and parents; parents’ examples promote students’ active participation; literature at home is an obligatory point to consider; restrictions, which are provided by parents; use of literature examples at home by parents; discussions with students about parents’ preferences of literature; students’ descriptions of parents in comparison to literary characters.
Awarding and Punishment of Students at Middle- and High-Schools
Creation of assessment system; students’ awareness of the system; principles of awarding; unexpected awarding; grounds of punishment; punishment and possibilities to change the mistakes; literature examples of awards and punishment;
Macbeth as an example of how certain award leads to tragic punishment; meeting the deadlines is important for middle- and high-school students; explanations of reasons for punishments and awards; ways to award or punish; significance of proper awarding and punishment.
Casting at Classes Attracts Students Attention
Analysis of students’ abilities; division of the class into groups; assistance for students with special needs; competitions between groups; exchange of the roles between students; casting in literature and casting in classrooms; preferable characters and proper performance; the role of imagination; duration of performance; explanation that chosen roles are inherent to the particular classes; public performance as a final test for students’ comprehension of the material; evaluation of students’ performance, remarks, suggestions, and warnings; student’s understanding of the chosen character.
Literature Reading and Writing Activities for Middle- and High-School Students
How to Read the Necessary Material in a Proper Way
Differences between reading aloud and reading to yourself; how to point out the main issues; writing down is the best way not to forget; making notes in notebooks and in heads but not in books; to read much does not mean to know much; the role of analysis of the material read; proper choice of literature is the main assignment for educators; criteria for choosing literature for middle- and high-school students.
Writing about the Literature Read Is Helpful for Students Development
Organization of lessons; writing tests helps to check students’ awareness of the material; writing essays aims at evaluation of students’ writing skills and attitudes to the literary works; modern English as a means to express thoughts on paper; writing about favorite characters as the way to check student’s nature and attitude to the world; rhetorical writing; becoming a literacy researcher as a goal to achieve (Garrett-Petts, 2000); interviews as a form of writing about literature.
Peculiarities of Writing for Students with Special Needs
Time for completing assignments; explanation of the assignment in various forms and check student’s comprehension of the task; creation of a helpful outline; attention to mistakes: contextual, spelling, punctuation; writing about what students think; writing on the obligatory topics; attention to requirements and students’ attempts to meet all the demands; analysis of the barriers, students face while writing their assignment; presentation of writing guides to help students improve own writing; attention to plagiarism: words, ideas, structure.
Evaluation of Students’ Skills while Writing at Middle- and High-Schools
Gathering of works; structure of a work; explanation of a topic; evaluation of the approaches, which are used to cover a topic; student’s attitude to work’s realization; student’s communication with a teacher; proper use of literature by a student of middle- and high-schools; explanation of student’s choice of literature; style of writing and its choice; student’s worry about the grade.
Activities to Improve Writing about the Studied Material
Collective analysis of mistakes vs. eye-to-eye analysis; explanation of rules by means of students’ own words; making a list of common mistakes and the ways to fight against them, which are developed by a teacher and students collectively; mistakes, done by the great people, and their outcomes; playing games is funny, captivating, and educative; visual memory vs. hearing memory: individual approaches for students to analyze mistakes and avoid them in future; mistakes are not for embarrassment but for improving students’ skills and a reason to maintain perfection.
Literature Helps Students of Middle- and High-Schools to Comprehend This Life Better
Connection of Literature, Used at Classes, with Life
Why use of literature is important; selection of literary works, which suite students’ interests; evaluation of characters’ actions; activities for students: if your were (a character) what would you do in this situation or if (a character) was alive, what he/she would do nowadays; King Arthur and his philosophy; Iliad as an example of close connections of wars, love, betrayal, and respect; attention to students’ ideas and preferences of literature characters.
Best Representatives of Literature from Different Centuries
Literature as the main guide of life; Aeneas: belief in gods and attainment of power; Robin Hood: abilities to cope with challenges and not to lose own personality; Hitler: singled minded and ruthless person as an example of glory and tragic outcomes; Victor Frankenstein: power of mind and lack of analysis; Princess Diana: help and reliability as the best qualities of a person; students choice and analysis of the characters.
How to Use Literature in Every Day Life
Analysis of a literature works as an integral part of any lesson; connection of science and politics to literature and art; imaginary confusion of roles:
Hitler as a fiction writer, Shakespeare as a politician, Homer as a researcher, and Mark Twain as a musician; ideas of great philosophers and writers to use in every day life: Machiavelli and possible development of ideas in modern world; Jack London and his vision of future under current conditions.
Discussions of Literature outside Middle- and High-Schools
Parents and their role of students’ perception of literature; using literature at middle and high schools: proper choice and availability of sources; necessity of parents awareness of the material, discussed at classes; reading aloud by parents vs reading aloud by parents; watching TV vs reading books: parents role as a controller; teachers’ abilities to provide using of literature outside classrooms: voluntary participation in study groups, school theaters and plays by the great writers, visiting public places, which provide students to learn more about literature.
Negative Impact of Literature on Middle- and High-School Students
Literature that may harm students; current literature destroys child perception of the reality: comic books and unreal but powerful characters promote violence and pain; students’ wrong interpretation of book’s content as a serious mistake by a teacher; abilities antagonists in comparison to protagonists; attention to the outcomes, which are caused by wrong actions.
Classroom Activities for Middle- and High-School Students
Use of Legends to Underline the Main Thing
Essence of legends; comparison of legends to other literary works; main characters of legends, their peculiarities, and abilities; King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table: mutual decision making process, desire to achieve the same purpose, help and respect, courage and valor; Robin Hood: necessity of help, truth and heroism; competitions between the groups of students: how to evaluate student’s approaches to evaluation legends properly; proper awarding for classroom activities.
Remember Information and Share It with the Others
Students’ division into groups in accordance with their skills, imagination, and abilities; choice of a topic for a game: awareness of each student plays a very important role; improvement of memory: use of notes and teachers hints; development of student’s vision of the situation; wrong perception of information and consequences, punishment and awarding at the end of the activity; reliable pieces of advice have to presented to any student.
Battles to Analyze Different Points of View in Literature
Presentation of a situation: main characters, events, dates, and consequences; division of a class into groups: gender, level of knowledge, attitude to a course, and desire to cooperate; explanation of the rules in a clear ways both in oral and written forms; picking out themes with similar conditions; how to point out a leader of a group and not to offense the others; the ways of how to evaluate the results of the battles.
Heroes in Our Every Day Life
Analysis of characteristics, which have to be inherent to any hero; attention to students’ points of view of who can be a hero; current political leaders, pop stars, or literature characters and their activities; examination of student’s choice; comparison of the chosen hero to personal characteristics of a student; clear explanation of why this or that character can or cannot be a real hero.
Evaluation of Literature and Its Use on TV
Adaptation of literary works on TV as an integral part of every day life; the ways how literature pieces of art are reproduced on screen; what influence the choice of works; students’ ideas of what fiction to adapt next; students’ vision of the main characters’ appearance; writing essays on the best adaptation: clear reasons, person judgment, and impressions; comparison of adaptations for one and the same novel/fiction/play/etc.
Resources for Teachers
Anderson, N. A. (2006). Entering the World of Children’s Literature. Elementary Children’s Literature. New Jersey: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Tomlinson, C. (2006). Essentials of Young Adult Literature. New Jersey: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Garrett-Petts, W. F. (2000). Writing about Literature: A Guide for the Student Critic. New York: Broadview Press Ltd.
Shakespeare, W. (2007). The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Middlesex: Echo Library.
Showalter, E. (2003). Teaching Literature. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Swift, J. (2006). Gulliver’s Travels [Easyread Large Edition]. ReadHowYouWant.com. Retrieved from <https://www.readhowyouwant.com/>
Twain, M. (2006). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Easyread Large Edition. ReadHowYouWant.com. Retrieved from <https://www.readhowyouwant.com/>
Romeo and Juliet: The Twentieth Century Essay
The play is set in the spring of 1946. The city of Verona slowly recovers from the effects the Civil War which engulfed the entire country for nearly two years. Although, the armed violence has been stopped nearly seven months ago, former hostilities have not completely disappeared. The scene opens with a quarrel between Montague and Capulet who are almost mortal enemies.
It should be mentioned that Montague is a former supporter of Italian Social Republic ruled by Benito Mussolini while Capulet was an active member of the Italian Resistance Movement. Both characters cannot stand each other even though in the past they were trade partners.
The fistfight is about to break out between them but it is stopped by the police officer called Escalus. He urges them to end their confrontation; otherwise both of them will be arrested. This is the first scene of the play. It is supposed to give viewers background knowledge of the events.
In the meantime, the viewers can see the conversation between two cousins Benvolio and Romeo, both of them are high-school students. Romeo is seventeen. He admits that he struggles with depression because he cannot win Rosaline’s love. One should bear in mind that Rosaline is also a distant relative of Montague. Benvolio suggests that Romeo should attend a party given at the house of Capulet.
Romeo follows this advice. He meets Juliet who has reached the age of 18. He cannot pluck up his courage to talk to her, but this encounter produces a strong impression on him.
To a great extent, this event makes him forget about Rosaline. After the party, Romeo takes his father’s car and drives to Juliet’s house and hears her confession. Juliet’s soliloquy should not deviate from the original text which. Overall, this is the moment when Romeo and Juliet understand that they are predestined to one another.
Meanwhile, Tybalt, who is a Juliet’s cousin, learns that Romeo visited the house of Capulet. He becomes infuriated with this thought. Tybalt and his sidekicks attack Romeo and Mercuti at school. In the course of the fight, Tybalt is accidentally injured by Romeo. When the ambulance arrives, Tybalt is still unconscious, and Romeo understands that he might have killed his opponent. He is placed under house arrest by the police.
In the mean time, Capulet learns that Juliet has fallen in love with Romeo, and he is infuriated with the behavior of her daughter. He accuses Juliet of betraying him. Moreover, Capulet threatens to send Juliet away from Verona and arrange the marriage with Paris who is also in love with Juliet. This possibility shocks Juliet because she understands that she will never be Paris’ joyful bride.
With the help of servant she arranges a meeting with Romeo, even despite the prohibition of her father. They enter into a marriage in Basilica of San Zeno which is one of the best famous cathedrals in Verona. The lovers intend to leave the city not to be involved in the hostilities between the two families.
This scene has to symbolize the absolute bliss of both characters. They believe that there is nothing that can threaten their happiness and love. This is one of the most important scenes in the play since it has to highlight the relations between the two characters.
However, the lovers are tracked down by Paris who begins to suspect that Juliet may not love another man. It becomes crystal clear to him that Juliet will never be his wife. In a moment of desperation, he shoots Juliet. Romeo attacks him, but Paris commits suicide. In the final scene, Romeo lies near the body of dying Juliet who confesses that Romeo has made her life worth living.
As the curtain begins to fall, the spectators can hear the sound of a gunshot. However, they do not know whether Romeo really committed suicide or not. There will be no scene describing the reconciliation between the two families because it is not essential for the development of the plot.
These are the main events of the plot. Overall, this interpretation can show how Shakespeare’s play can be incorporated into a different social and historical period. This is the main benefit of this approach. This narrative contains some deviations from Shakespeare’s original plot because it was necessary to make some important adaptations in order to make the text more realistic.
For instance, Friar Laurence gives Juliet a drug that can put her into a coma. It is not likely that she can obtain such a drug from any physician in the middle of the twentieth century. Furthermore, it was important to change the age of the main characters.
For instance, Shakespeare’s Juliet is only 13, and this may not be acceptable for the modern audience. Apart from that, the duel between Tybalt and Romeo could not be possible in any European country after World War II. This is why it was necessary to deviate from the original narrative.