Romantic Literature

186

Romanticism. Hawthorne’s “My Kinsman, Major Molineux” Essay

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Jun 15th, 2021

Introduction

Nathaniel Hawthorne’s literary works are examples of the romantic period in American literature, which started in the early 1800s. One of the most typical traits of romantic literature is the prevalence of emotions, setting the natural world above the created world, and the most important, freedom of an individual. Therefore, most of the main characters of romantic literature are rebels who contrast themselves with the rest of the world. Moreover, the characters in the romantic literature often strive for supernatural or divine powers, paying attention to the purity of their souls and a clear conscience.

Romanticism in Hawthorne’s My Kinsman, Major Molineux

One of the examples of romantic literature is the story by Hawthorne My Kinsman, Major Molineux, with its specific traits, which make it be an excellent example of American romanticism. The main character of the story, Robin, encounters many new aspects of the new life when he travels to Boston, and all of them bring Robin a feeling of danger and strangeness. When the young man arrives at the new environment, he can feel that he is strikingly different from the Bostonians, whose clothes, manners, and behavior contradict Robin’s. Due to his difference from others, Robin is surrounded by social pressure and has to make his own decisions individually.

In spite of being an emotional and passionate young man, Robin tries to avoid conflicts with the locals, either verbal or physical. Robin’s psychological state and the descriptions of the environment around him also refer to the features of the romantic literature. The description of the scenes, where the author emphasizes the presence of dim light, the dreamlike atmosphere, the mention of the weapons of the knights, and kings from the Middle Ages add to romantic elements of this story.

Conclusion

To conclude, all the features such as the desire for personal freedom, the backgrounds, and the inner conflicts of the main character prove that this story belongs to the romantic period of American Literature. Moreover, Robin’s rebellion against the rest of the world makes him a representative of the romantic character. Although the inner contradictions complicate the life of the main character, he has the strength to endure everything, which makes him a typical romantic character.




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102

Gift-Giving in “Gifts” by Nuruddin Farah Essay (Critical Writing)

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Feb 3rd, 2021

How does Nuruddin Farah correlate such discussed fundaments of the idea of gift-giving as dependence and reciprocity with many other significant concepts of obligation, hostility, obedience, and gratitude, which are presented in the novel Gifts as the possible reaction to multiple situations of gift-giving?

This question is formulated as a result of rethinking the ideas presented by Peter Singer in his book in the context of Nuruddin Farah’s novel and messages. Singer discusses the people’s motives to spend or not money in order to help those persons who are really in need and who suffer from hunger and poverty (Singer 5). That is why it is important to focus on the motives influential for the process of gif giving and givers and receivers’ emotions and feelings associated with the procedure. According to the ideas presented in Farah’s book, “every gift has a personality – that of its giver” (Farah 197). This opinion can be compared with Singer’s ideas in order to correlate the concepts of dependence and reciprocity with feelings of obligation, hostility, obedience, and gratitude, which can be experienced by a receiver as the reaction to the giver’s emotions and motives.

Many different variants of gift-giving situations are discussed in the novel in order to present the moral complexity of the situation, which can be related not only to personal issues but also to social and political events. The extremes of the people’s reactions to gift-giving can be analyzed with references to Farah’s ideas. From this point, much attention is paid to the individual approach to the idea of gift-giving as the exchange of services and feedbacks because any gift provokes a certain reaction, which can be positive or negative depending on the context of the situation and the gift itself.

Why does Duniya discuss gifts only as of the statement of the person’s dependence on the other people and, as a result, demonstrate independence and freedom in relation to deciding about receiving gifts and paying for them as donations?

Duniya is the protagonist of Nuruddin Farah’s novel Gifts. The young woman’s reaction to gift-giving is interesting because the discussion of this reaction can add to Peter Singer’s vision of the necessity to be generous in relation to the people of the Third World (Singer 5-7). What emotions are experienced by those people who receive assistance? To describe Duniya’s attitude, Farah uses such concepts as “unasked-for generosity” and “a labyrinth of dependence” (Farah 22). Duniya supports the specific view in relation to the idea of gift-giving. The young woman is inclined to forbid her children to receive any gifts presented by other people (Farah 129-131). It is possible to state that Duniya’s attitude to gift-giving is typical for those persons who suffered from definite types of dependence caused by the situation, and it is important to determine the facts and situations from Duniya’s personal life which affect her approach to gift-giving and focus on prudence and independence.

How do Nuruddin Farah’s novel Gifts present the concept of gift-giving not only in relation to the persons’ communication and relationships but also through the lens of the social and political situations in Somalia during the period of the 1980s-1990s and with references to the associated international political issues?

This question needs further detailed discussion because the social and political background is necessary to examine the problem of gift-giving in Somalia during the late 1980s and early 1990s. According to Peter Singer, everyone can contribute to reducing poverty or making more people happy without affecting the personal income significantly, and gift-giving of that type is important in order not to feel guilty while observing the sufferings of the other people (Singer xiv). This question comes into mind while referring to the problematic social and political situation in Somalia during the discussed period because of focusing on the developed civil war actions and the attempts of the international community to influence the process. Singer discusses the motives of people to reduce poverty in developing countries and claims to concentrate on positive and fair motives to act. From this point, it is important to analyze the motives of the foreign forces to assist the Somali people during the civil war of 1991, which contributed to spreading terror and tragedy in Somalia.

Nevertheless, the idea of gift-giving is connected with all the aspects of the novel’s plot. That is why the controversial social and political in the country work only as of the background for depicting the story of the young woman Duniya who has to fight for creating better living conditions for her children. Duniya can be characterized by the specific attitude to the situation and process of gift-giving, and this vision is accentuated by the novel’s author in order to be also reflected in the situation of the political relations of Somalia with the other countries. As a result, it is necessary to identify the techniques and approaches with the help of which Nuruddin Farah is inclined to associate the concept of gift-giving related to the personal life of the Somali with the idea of gift-giving in the larger social and political context.

Works Cited

Farah, Nuruddin. Gifts. USA: Arcade Publishing, 1993. Print.

Singer, Peter. The Life You Can Save. New York, NY: Random House, 2009. Print.




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50

The Secret by Rhoda Byrne Report

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Jul 3rd, 2019

In her book The Secret, Rhoda Byrn and her team of contributors did a brilliant job of pulling together fragments of the great law that has been tucked away in oral traditions, literature, and in religions and philosophies throughout the ages. They give us a life transforming glance at this ancient truth. This book is based on the law of attraction.

This is based on the premise that anything or anyone who comes to you does so as a consequence of thinking (Byrne). Essentially, this book has been considered to be popular to such an extent that it has gained a cult like following. This book begins with introducing and explaining the different mechanisms in which or through which the law of attraction can be applied.

This is made relevant through the historical analysis in which it takes the reader through. Through the introduction, the reader gets the notion that the law of attraction is a powerful magnetic force which works in life. This is based on the premise that thoughts are live power transmitters which send signals to the universe and receives responses based on the type of transmissions that one sends.

It is worth noting that there are several aspects of this book which are worth pointing out. First, the book is based on the premise that what we have and what we focus our strength on becomes tangible. Secondly, when you ask for what you want, you will certainly receive it. This implies that one should create their day before it comes in order to ensure that their day will be fulfilled in accordance to their expectations.

Thirdly, there is the aspect of visualizing of what you want to be realized (Byrne). This is based on the premise that when one focuses on what he/she wants, then chances are rather high that he/she will get it. The fourth premise of this book is the principle of giving and gaining. That is, when you give more, then you will receive more. When you want money, focus on wealth creation.

The fifth premise is based on the fact that self care should come before one begins to take care of others. There is a need to take care of yourself first so that you have something to offer. The sixth premise is based on the fact that diseases in the body are results of human thoughts.

The seventh premise says: when one is afraid of something or tries to resist something, he/she simply attracts the undesirable events to his/her life simply because one is focused on them emotionally. And lastly, the only thing that is important for us is to feel good at all times and especially now.

There are certain aspects which are good. For instance, when one focuses on a positive attitude, the good thinks are likely to happen to the person. In the contrary, when focusing on bad things, we attract them with a great forth.

This is because one does or should not expect good things to happen to them when they are feeling bad. The other aspect which is good is based on the fact that getting people to develop a long plan is a step in the right direction.

There are aspects which can be rated as not so good, for instance, the fact that positive attitude and positive thinking are fundamental aspects which are essential for success. This book tends to mislead the readers that when you focus on positive thinking and meditating on the positive things then you are bound to progress.

It is worth noting that focusing on positive thinking is not enough. This is because it brings to the fore the fact that action is fundamental to back up great plans and visions.

This book has however caused some controversy in the scholarly world. For instance, there is a school of thoughts among people who hold the belief that there is a major conflict with the religious views, especially among the Christian arm. In addition, there are others who feel that it tackles issues of life within a contemporary and complementary approach.

This book pays much attention to how to use the law of attraction in order to gain the material things which are expensive, for instance, a car.

There’s also been criticism of the idea that we create our own difficult circumstances in life; the obvious examples of children born into abuse or millions of people born into extreme poverty don’t seem to fit well with that explanation of reality. The Law of Attraction itself can be controversial, as it’s not a scientifically proven ‘law’, but more of an anecdotally observed phenomenon.

The main point which I can call to is the point of concern with this law that was clearly presented in this book: people may mistake themselves with the premise that they are the ones who creates their reality and, at the same time, blame themselves for things that they could not achieve and control. These are such activities as some accidents or natural disasters (Byrne). This can have a major impact on how people view their lives.

Thus, this law can be accredited for many positive things which it can be associated with, however there are some aspects in which it cannot be accredited with, especially in cases where there is negativity.

It is worth noting that challenges are good and living with them helps one to be able to reach out to the wider world. However, it does not help one to complain and blame themselves over aspects of their lives which they could not or cannot be able to change.

The bottom life of this book is that there are principles which are necessary for one to be able to match the challenges of life. Furthermore, it has got principles which many people can use to deal with the stresses of life. This is because one will be able to attain a higher level of internal locus of control, gain more positive attitude towards life and clarify of one’s goals.

This is important as one works through the challenges of life to create a life plan. It is worth noting that life is based on what one is able to become.

This is not just based on what one seriously meditates upon, but rather, it is based on what one gets out and actualizes through actions. Planning is the essence when it comes to the pursuit of excellence. It is true that visualization is important, however, action is equally important in these pursuits.

In conclusion, I would recommend this book to any reader however, I would do so based on several aspects. These aspects include the point that The Secret does not shed light on the real secrets of life. Essentially, this leads to the conclusion that it completely misses three points which are critical in nature.

First and foremost, it is worth noting that it requires high levels of discipline so that someone can be able to control their consciousness and then direct one’s personal reality. Secondly, life is not all about getting the things we want, we are here for a divine purpose and reason in this life.

This is based on the fact we are here to learn and, at times, we are likely to learn the hard way in a manner that one cannot equate to progressive or pleasurable. Lastly, some of the greatest people whose history has branded as great and who are associated with great works of genius lived a life which can be regarded as hardship and want.

Based on their lives, it is quite clear that none of them sat somewhere attracting power, they simply made the most of the opportunities which they had and went out and worked, thus they managed to become who they are today, that is, icons of history.

It is on this basis that one should view some of the premises which have been lauded within the book. That is, one should strive to be the better regardless of the circumstances, rather, their life should be based on the direction which God has called us to walk in.

Works Cited

Byrne, Rhonda. The secret. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.




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130

“The Cave of Salamanca” by Miguel de Cervantes Critical Essay

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Jul 2nd, 2019

The Cave of Salamanca by Miguel de Cervantes is focused on one specific family with its peculiarities, but considering the situation, it is possible to state that the problems and sins which occur in the family under discussion are inherent to the whole society.

Discussing the plot the central events and the cases of deception are going to be highlighted. Thorough analysis of the situations and the cases of lying help the reader to understand the level of social deformity and depravity.

The plot of the story is focused on Pancracio, his wife Leonarda, their maid Cristina, Pancracio’s friend Leoniso and a student who appeared in the house accidentally. He just needed to stay somewhere for a night not to sleep in the street.

Having come to the place, he asked to have a sleep in the stable trying to sound as polite as he could, “I expected a more generous and gracious reception from such lovely and sweet ladies; particularly since I ask no arms, only a corner in the stable or a bit of straw for protection against of the darkness heavens, for the celestial sphere is threatening this sinful earth with the greatest severity” (Cervantes 90).

Even though the reception of a student was not that great as he expected, due to his inner ability to communicate with people, keep secrets, feel what they want to hear and tell them this, Carraolani manages to stay at the house. Student’s arrival coincides with the departure of Pancracio, Leonarda’s husband which says that she is extremely sorry for this and promises to wait.

However, she knows that Leoniso is going to come to her and one more man to her maid for having fun. However, the whole situation is ruined as Leonarda’s husband returns home and two men have nothing to do but to hide in the coal cellar. The situation seems rather complicated but thanks to wit and smart of the student, two men are able to leave safe.

Reading the novel, much deception may be met. The first situation where husband informs his wife about departure is full of lie. Leonarda says that she is very disappointed with his departure, “I shall control my uncontrollable grief and spend the lonely hours of your absence thinking of you” (Cervantes 88).

All these words are considered as lie because as soon as Pancracio leaves, Leonarda says to her maid to invite Leoniso to entertain her. Another deception is the way how the men get into the house and bring a basket of products making everybody think that it is a basket of linen. It seems that each word said by the characters is a lie, that each particular gesture is just the may to make sure that hey lie is strong.

One of the most impressive lies in the story is student’s discussion of the cave of Salamanca, his visit there and possession of the specific powers given to those who attend the cave. Trying to save two men from exposure, a student tells a story to Pancracio about his ability to communicate with the evil.

He says that he is offered such a gift because he attended the courses in the cave of Salamanca. An affective appearance of black men from the coal cellar impresses Pancracio greatly and he cannot even think about deception.

Looking at the situation which happens in the family and referring to the legend about the cave of Salamanca, it is important to state that the legend plays an inevitable part in the whole situation.

Being the central deception, the legend about the cave of Salamanca symbolizes the beliefs of the society which is ready to think in something incredible rather than accept personal naught. The role of the central deception is rather impressive as it points as the illness of the whole society.

The society in the story is characterized as deceptive one without any intentions for desire to live better. The institution of marriage and the very idea of fidelity are criticized in The Cave of Salamanca. Introducing the theme of the deceived husband, the author reveals the social problem of marriage and the attitude of people to this early sacred ceremony.

Moreover, the story also shows the domination of women under men even though it is universally accepted that women are to be subjected to their husbands. Jealous and the desire to capture a wife is shown from the husband’s side, while the wife is trying to hide her profligacy. In conclusion, it may be stated that the whole institution of family is criticized in a sarcastic manner.

The whole story is a show for one, for husband. Reading it, the impression is created that the whole life is the theater which performs particular plays for specific people and the society makes all possible to support that play, deceptive and mockery for one, but pleasant and impressive for others.

Works Cited

Cervantes, Miguel. “The Cave Of Salamanca.” World Drama: Italy, Spain, France, Germany, Denmark, Russia, Norway. Ed. Barrett H. Clark. New York: Courier Dover Publications, 1956. 88-95. Print.




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72

“The Ocean” by George Gordon Byron Critical Essay

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Jun 26th, 2019

Lord George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) was as famous poet in his lifetime; this is because of his personality cult and for his poetry. Byron is mostly known for his creation of the idea of the ‘Byronic hero’ – this is a, “glum young man, growing on some mysterious, unforgettable event in his past” (Watkins, p. 35).

Byron’s has a great influence on the European poetry, literacy writing, music and art. He had been immense, although some of his poems were widely condemned on moral grounds by his critics. However, Byron still remains a great poet even in these times with his poems being published in several poetry books.

Byron was celebrated in his life for his general life excesses including huge debt and several love affairs, rumors of a shocking incestuous connection with his half-sister, and self-imposed exile (Watkins, p. 36).

However, he remained famous and was described by Lady Caroline Lamb as “mad, bad and dangerous to know” (Watkins, p. 36). Other people said that he also suffered from bipolar disorder, or manic depression.

Byron remained a much controversial man and even participated in the war against the Ottoman Empire during the Greek War of Independence; this has since seen Greeks revere him as a national hero (Watkins, p. 38).

Lord Byron died at a tender age of 36 years after succumbing from a fever he contracted while in Missolonghi in Greece (Watkins, p. 38). Bryon lived to write many romantic poems in his life and was fond of using women and love affection in his works.

He was a good poet and was able to compose poems that combined different poetic devises like rhyme, metaphors, simile, alteration and, sometimes, songs. He was also a great composer of music songs, which were of a romantic nature.

One of his works is called the “The Ocean”. It is one of the common poems by this writer. The poem has been translated to many languages, and several poets have drawn several themes from this poem.

The poem uses several features of nature and the general environment as part of its style in sending the message to the audience.

In this poem, “the ocean”, George Gordon employs several poetic devices in realizing the theme in the poem. As usual, Lord Gordon has employed some romance and a sense of affection in his poem, which is a character associate in most of his poems.

This poetic period in itself was a revolution that was greater than other writing works. While the earlier era was based on order, rules, and logic, the poetic period was based on other foundation (Sprague, p. 66).

This poetic period was inspired by early emotions and passion, nova art and wild feelings earlier to this; poetry was so much in vigor was considered as heresy of literature work. Other areas affected were music and art, but poetry was the largest affected by the revolution (Sprague, p. 67).

Unlike in the previous poems by this poet, he had followed strict rule of poetry for the composition of this work. The poem is written in the era when music was majorly used in the poems and other literacy works like opera and plays. In this poem, the poet uses rhyming as one of the stylistic devices.

The rhyming scheme in this poem is like the one used by William Shakespeare in his sense of iambic pentameter accompanied with repetitive rhyme methods (Sprague, p. 67).

The poet used poetry to idolize his sense and thinking and employed this rhyming scheme to create the much needed musical sensation in his poem.

For example, in the first stanza, the poet uses rhymes like, steal, feel, roar, shore, to bring the musical feeling and drive the intended message to the audience. In this poem, the poet insists on sending a message of love.

In this poem, the poet has used imagery to narrate his poem and depict the theme; a lot of imagery has been used in the entire poem from the first stanza to the last one. For example, the poet compares the joy of the ocean to that of a youthful boy. He combines both rhyme and simile in this line to describe his joy.

Following the use of imagery in the poem, Lord Byron focuses the story in the poem by exclaiming some wild emotions to the ocean. He writes as if he was really talking to a real woman who he sorely loved or desired.

In the first four stanzas of this poem, the poet differentiates and finds similarities between the images of the Earth and the ocean. Byron often used epic scenery as one of the fundamental parts of his major poetry works.

In line fifth line of the poem, the writer shows an enormous size in exasperation on the subject of love (Sprague, p. 67). A good example of figurative work is seen, whereby the poet is referring to the large ocean. From stanza 10 to 13, the poem uses personification in reference to various things he discusses.

The poet uses the words “The Invincible Armada” to mean a specific Armada which actually existed (Sprague, p. 67). During his earlier life, a large Spanish fleet of over 130 left the city Corunna in 1858 and attacked the English ships, however, they were defeated (Sprague, p. 67). Surprisingly, the sailor was Lord Gordon himself.

The poet also goes further to talk of a man challenging the powers of the Earth and ocean. Byron once again shows his source of poetic passions and love. Byron also uses the metaphor in stanza 30 – 35 referring to a sea struggle. In this part, Byron indirectly acknowledges the Spanish Armada once again.

In Lines 36 – 38, Byron uses imagery to refer to ancient cities of power. These cities include Carthage Greece, Rome, Assyria and Rome. These were cities which had great influence in the early years in the world, and specifically Europe. The cities were leaders during pinnacles of ancient civilizations of their time.

Interestingly, all of them collapsed due to several inner turmoil caused by several factors like corruption and greed. In lines 44 down to line 47, Byron creates an image of reflection. In these lines, Byron uses water ice, and wind. All of these things symbolize mirror properties.

Byron also used other environmental and nature features like the ocean, desert, winds and earth. He gives these features images and sensory appeals. Byron uses the characteristics of wind, fire, water, and earth, in the poem. This is a poetry technique commonly used in Japanese poetry.

In lines 48 through 52, the poet uses a form of finalization in the characteristic portion of the poetry piece. For example, in Line 48, he talks of ” Dark-heaving; – boundless, endless, and sublime” these words show one images of immortality.

They also bring out the theme of life after death (eternal life) (Watkins, p. 37). The poet uses things that cannot be forgotten to depict his themes.

In the last stanzas, the poet tries to conclude his message. For example, in line 53, the poet uses imagery to draw his attention. In this line, he refers to the ocean as an inanimate object that is referred to as if it were a woman.

In normal circumstances, a woman is associated with emotions which are attributed to the ocean in this case. In this stanza, the ocean has been given all of the qualities every man can desire from a woman. He uses metaphor to represent these qualities in aquatic terms.

In conclusion, this poem is about a woman. However, Lord Byron does not write exactly about one woman in particular. He even does not talk of a real woman sometimes, but he uses imagery and poetic techniques to drive his message and composed this poem with the emotions of a real man to a real woman.

He gives this poem life and uses the features of nature to inspire the readers and have the picture of the poem in their mind. Although Byron was believed to have many love affairs, in real life, he had nothing to do with it in this poem. He exhibited a good character and was able to differentiate two worlds.

Byron was able to oddly enough keep a well secluded character in his life. Indeed, Byron was a romantic. This gave him the passion to write about love and ardent passion, however, most of his characters were fictitious, even his targets were fictitious, and the women never existed.

Works Cited

Sprague, Henry. A guide to Romantic Period Poetry. Glascow, Scotland: Lochstone Publications, 2002. Print.

Watkins, Daniel P. Violence, Class Consciousness. And Ideology in Byron’s History Plays: John Willy Inc. 1981. Poetic Analysis. (By National Speech Arts Association). Boston Massachusetts: Dunlan – Co. 1893.




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121

“The Golden Ass” by Lucius Apuleius Essay

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Jun 4th, 2019

Love is a concept that has been a center of humanity for a very long time. Ancient philosophers have stipulated on the significance and meaning of love for many years and it still stays the subject of much contemplation today. Lucius Apuleius describes love from several perspectives in “The Golden Ass” and shows how it can be wanted and needed but at the same time, mean harm and evil.

Many things in the world depend on personal views and opinions but also, on the qualities and circumstances, as one thing can be seen differently by a number of people. Love takes up a large part in “The Golden Ass” and it is shown to be pure and evil.

For example, when Apuleius talks to Fotis, it is evident that love is divine and meant to bring peace and comfort into his life. The deepness of the feeling is very evident and also, the qualities that accompany love are given. At one point, Apuleius’ emotions are made evident:

“But I pray you tell me how have you been the cause and mean of my trouble and sorrow? For I dare sweare by the love that I beare unto you, and I will not be perswaded, though you your selfe should endeavor the same, that ever you went to trouble or harm me: perhaps sometimes you imagined an evil thought in your mind, which afterwards you revoked, but that is not bee deemed as a crime” (Apuleius 94).

There are several truths discussed here and the most obvious one is that Apuleius has great feelings towards Fotis. They are not burdened by any doubts or selfish motives in their evil sense, his love is pure and he expects the same in return. This is a clear sign that love was meant to be shown as pure and divine. Apuleius asks Fotis to explain how particularly she has been the cause of his distress.

This shows that his feelings are most sincere and he does not blame others for his misfortunes. Usually, people take advantage of those they love, as the person closest, be it a relative, friend or romantic partner, will be able to withstand criticism and hurt. The person using the relationship knows that the connection is much deeper and the quarrel will not separate the two people.

This shows trust and guarantees that a person has within themselves. But in this case, Apuleius does not take advantage of the way Fotis feels about him, he does not use her love and his feelings to lose control and even hint any guilt of hers (Lindner 14). It is possible to assume that even in case she was at fault, he would not mention that or completely deny it altogether.

This sort of affection and connection to another person is representative of the whole positive side of love in “The Golden Ass”, as it represents the highest moral understanding and affection towards another person. Furthermore, Apuleius says that his love should be the proof of his thoughts and actions or vice versa. Usually, the feeling comes first and then, a person acts on the feelings with words and actions.

It is directly and undeniably shown that Apuleius is fully consumed by his love, so his actions and words are all dictated by his feeling and its purity. And when he states that she should be able to understand it herself, means that he expects the same understanding and emotion from her, as it would be a fair and appropriate response to his own love.

Also, Apuleius shows that he has sufficient understanding of love and how people treat it, when he acknowledges that sometimes people might think something bad or allow doubt to take over but as long as these thoughts are not acted upon, the person should not be thought of as guilty of ill will. Not only is Apuleius full of feeling, he is also morally correct and truthful to himself.

He knows that people can sometimes hurt others or think something negative, even if they fully love a person. This means that he either knows human nature very well through others, or he was able to analyze his own feelings and judge himself. “The Golden Ass” is an example of truths and love which can be discovered by a person.

Another great analysis of love and feelings that accompany affection is “Socrates’ Second Speech”. It can be seen as a separate entity in relation to his previous reasoning, as it distinctly talks about love and the unique qualities that it exhibits. His line of thinking is very evident here, as he logically examines the qualities that love has and what they lead to.

As people do not produce love consciously, they are met with the fact that it exists and that they have it inside them. This leaves one option—contemplation and logical reasoning about the feeling that one possesses and what sort of characteristics it entails. Socrates makes a link between love and “madness” (Nichols 106). As both are so unordinary, there is a connection between them and it is not necessarily a negative one.

Socrates confirms that very many things in the world take their origin in the said madness and what comes out is often great and divine. This supposes that love is not a human creation but people are given a chance to experience it. As this concept is so enormous and overtaking of everything else, Socrates allows for a certain length of discussion, as to clearly express what he thinks and feels about it.

In reality, almost all, if not everything in life is ordered and framed by love. It might be love towards an object, a concept or a person. People tend to do things they like and receive pleasure from, and love and affection are based on these characteristics. Thus, Socrates says that love must be pure and people should cherish the fact that they have it.

It is not a toy that can be played with but at the same time, it is not a self functioning mechanism that can be left without care and development. When one has love, it must be treated with respect and honor. If two people give into evil urges and lose track of the divine nature of love, taking it to the side of evil, it will become a destructive and negative force.

It is a fact that Socrates was a great philosopher and by the way he reasons about love, it is possible to see that he based his thoughts and actions of the feeling that came from his character and unique individuality. A person, who does not know love, never experienced it and did not feel the pleasure and often pain, cannot speak about love and tell others what it is.

When Socrates aligns love with madness, he wants to demonstrate that the feeling is so unusual and overtaking that it must be given time to be properly understood and acted upon.

Both Socrates and Apuleius describe love in very similar terms from several angles. For Socrates, it is feelings that can drive one mad and possibly turn them into a maniac, which sometimes does happen in the world. For Apuleius, it is a flower that must be cherished and should not be hurt. Their opinions describe the same concept and unite in the fact that love must be taken seriously and not meddled with.

Socrates reiterates that in order for love to be pure and real people must have self control and understanding of what specifically is taking place. When one gets lost in themselves, chaos takes over and love becomes an evil that cannot be compared to anything else more negative. The same is true when Apuleius talks about love towards Fotis.

The depth and sincere nature of love are shown as the pinnacle of human emotions and it is contrasted with those who do not take care of love (Belfiore 9). “The Golden Ass” is filled with examples of people who participate in forbidden love, adultery and other kinds of love that are not permitted. This is made specifically obvious, so that the audience sees the contrast between the two kinds of love.

Thus, Socrates and Apuleius see love very similarly, as they explain the process and circumstances, as well as consequences of pure and evil love. Pure love is that of goodness while evil, “…that most filthy, brutal, and base love is not engendered from the nature of things, but from disease and corporeal infirmity…” (Taylor 357).

This goes to show that one must see the clear difference between the two and make sure evil does not overpower goodness. There is another major theme that connects both thinkers in their views and it is the unexplained nature of love. Socrates and Apuleius speak extensively about the divine qualities of love and the direct connection to Gods.

Here, Gods are representative of something unexplained and not of the Earth. People have known love throughout existence but its origins are unknown. Humanity is not the one that created love; people are simply the receivers and givers. Usually, something that cannot be specifically and scientifically explained is attributed to higher forces and Gods (Cristaudo 130).

Love is described to be exactly that—an attribute of something Gods would do, as “madness”, sending it upon people. Those who are not ready to treat it and take care of it will face consequences of evil and bad fortune.

According to such conception, love must not be questioned by its origins, as it is more important how to treat it, instead of spend time figuring out where it came from. The two perspectives of proper and improper love are made visible, as people often indulge in activities that make love an extreme evil.

In conclusion, it has been shown that love is an entity that is closely tied with humans, yet is somehow separate in its origins. One thing stays fixed in any possibility is that it must be treated with honesty and respect because any diversion from morality or truth will destroy love and make it into an evil of the worst kind.

Works Cited

Apuleius, Lucius. The Golden Ass: The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius. Auckland, New Zealand. The Floating Press, 2009. Print.

Belfiore, Elizabeth. Socrates’ Daimonic Art: Love for Wisdom in Four Platonic Dialogues. New York, United States: Cambridge University Press, 2012. Print.

Cristaudo, Wayne. A Philosophical History of Love. Piscataway, Untied States: Transaction Publishers, 2012. Print.

Lindner, Matthias. What is love – Are love and romance nothing but socially constructed? Munich, Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2005. Print.

Nichols, Mary. Socrates on Friendship and Community. New York, United States: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.

Taylor, Thomas. The Metamorphosis Or, Golden Ass: And Philosophical Works of Apuleius. Whitefish, United States: Kessinger Publishing, 1992. Print.




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100

Analysis of Don Quixote’s Over-Romanticised Chivalric Acts and Beliefs Report

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: May 16th, 2019

Don Quixote ultimately believes in the ideals of a bygone era – that of chivalry, knighthood, and honour. He thus insulates himself from the realities of his present world, choosing to believe in magic; imaginary knighthood quests for undiscovered kingdoms and even mistakes of windmills for giants that want to do battle with him. However, Don Quixote’s knight-errant, Sancho Panza, has a more realistic approach to the world and life, and acts as Don Quixote’s voice of reason and has a stabilising effect on the maniacal Quixote.

Don Quixote’s view of life is heavily influenced by chivalric romances. Due to this predisposition, his actions and his general perception of life is far removed from reality.

For instance, after his books are spirited way and burned because of concern by his relatives and associates that the books were driving him to insanity, he quickly believes the explanation by the housekeeper and his niece that the books were taken away by a magician (as per the housekeeper’s explanation).

His niece, on the other hand, tells him that the devil was the one that took away his books, and he accepts such outrageous claims (De Cervantes Chapt. 7 Par. 8). Don Quixote, due to his belief in the chivalrous mission he has set for himself, goes further than accepting these obviously false explanations. He holds that the alleged magician-devil was his well-known adversary (he even gives him the name ‘Friston’) whom he desired to fend off in his deluded quest for knighthood glory.

Additionally, Don Quixote begins a self-declared and fairy tale journey intended to conquer foreign islands and Kingdoms. Intensely influenced by the conquests of real knights of a past era, he recruits his peasant neighbour Sancho Panza as his knight-errant. Don Quixote then sets off on his mission with Sancho Panza, believing himself to be a knight out to conquer evil and restore goodness to humanity.

Because Don Quixote’s view on life is based on fantasies, his journey is easily crippled by his maniacal tendency of viewing nearly all things as either his enemies, or as an evil force out to fight him and thus stop his ‘noble quest’ (Williamson 838). He promises his knight –errant Sancho Panza that he was going to make him governor of the lands that he was set to conquer, a practice done by conquering knights of old, whom he read about in books and now wanted to emulate.

Don Quixote’s romanticized view of life shows when, during this journey, he perceives windmills as giant enemies (De Cervantes Chapt. 8 Para. 1). His subsequent attempt at fighting these stationary apparatuses leaves him and his horse hurt, and his knight-errant shocked and surprised at his master’s actions.

Sancho Panza has a realistic view on life. He acts as Don Quixote’s voice of reason, and many times, he attempts to dissuade Don from undertaking delusional acts in the name of chivalry.

Although he exhibits similar predispositions to his master by believing in Don Quixote’s quest for conquering imaginary foreign lands, (believing that Don Quixote would make him governor of these lands), he is nonetheless sober, and his actions are practical and unhinged on utopia, unlike his master. Sancho Panza correctly sees the windmills for what they are, unlike his master who believed they were giant enemies (De Cervantes Chapt. 8 Para 2).

Don Quixote farcical chivalric acts are born of a desire to emulate the characters he has come across in the books he read. He is an old man, and looking back at his life, he may have regrets of not having done much right, and his current fantasy-tinged attempts at correcting his past are the cause of his present maniacal behaviour (Worden 18).

On the other hand, Sancho Panza has a more realistic worldview because, as a poor peasant, he has experienced the vagaries of life first hand. Panza has experienced hunger, poverty, and want. His life experiences do not afford him the leisure of fantasy and dreamy beliefs like his master. Additionally, having never read romanticism literature that his master had, he is less inclined to believe in the chivalrous notions that Don Quixote swears by.

Works Cited

De Cervantes, Miguel. Don Quixote. Web.

Williamson, Edwin. “The Power-Struggle between Don Quixote and Sancho: Four Crises in the Development of the Narrative.” Bulletin of Spanish Studies 84.7 (2007): 837-858.

Worden, William. “Cervantes, Sancho Panza, and the literary world of don quixote.” Hispanofila 144 (2005): 17-31.




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116

The Ramayana Epic Essay

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Dec 2nd, 2019

Ideal couple

The Ramayana is an epic Indian tale about the Indian life. It offers an example of dharma. The protagonists Rama and his wife Sita are an ideal couple who lived their lives according to dharma. They are an example of how married couples should be as Rama was an ideal husband to his wife and she was a faithful wife to him. For many years, the epic has been passed down from one generation to another and young Indians told to emulate Rama and Sita.

Sita’s capture

After marrying Rama, he was banished to live in the forest for fourteen years by his father at his stepmother’s word who wanted her real son to inherit the throne. Sita refused to remain behind in the palace and became adamant about following her husband to the forest as she said that a wife’s place is by husband’s side. Unfortunately, she was captured by the demon king Ravana. Later, Rama and Lakshmana rescued her.

However, Rama was in doubt of his wife’s faithfulness and purity because she had lived under King Ravana for a year. She had to go through fire to proof her purity and she was found to be innocent. The treatment that Rama gave his wife after her rescue is questionable because he is supposed to be a man of dharma hence of good thought. However, he doubts his wife and makes her go through fire, which she accepts (Hess 2).

Sita’s innocence

Rama knew his wife was innocent but demanded for a proof for the sake of his subjects. In the second instance, he knew she was innocent because she had already passed the first purity test. However, he gave in to rumours about his wife’s impurity after hearing people question his taking back of Sita after she had been with King Ravana.

The culture of the Rhaghu Dynasty did not allow a man to live with an infidel wife and many people in the kingdom were wondering if Sita was faithful after living with King Ravana. Tradition demanded banishment of such a woman. He banished his wife because he felt he had a bigger duty towards his subjects than his personal life (Duiker and Spielvogel 62).

Sita’s anger

Sita was angry at her husband’s treatment concerning her purity. She wept and rebuked him for behaving like an ordinary man and treating her as an ordinary women yet she had already proved her purity (Hess 6). She felt betrayed because during all the time she was in captivity her mind was with her husband constantly. Her anger and humiliation made her request mother Earth to swallow her to find some peace.

Lakshmana’s Death

The two sons of Rama Lava and Kush injured their uncle Lakshmana in battle of the horse not knowing they were related. Fortunately, he did not succumb to the injuries as he was revived using a certain herb. He died later after being expelled by his brother Rama and God Indra took him to heaven.

Works Cited

Duiker, William and Jackson Spielvogel. World History Volume 1. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.

Hess, Linda. “Rejecting Sita: Indian Responses to the Ideal Man’s Cruel Treatment of His Ideal Wife.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 67.1 (1999): 1-32




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61

“Araby” by James Joyce Essay

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Jun 18th, 2019

The story is based on North Richmond Street. This Street is used metaphorically to give readers an overview about the writer’s world. The writer lives with his uncle in the city. The setting of the house in which he lives is an old building which was formally inhabited by a late priest .It is surrounded with newspaper litter. He complains that it was always cold to stay indoors and more often he would join other children outside and play till darkness fell.

Mangan’s sister would come out to call his brother and rays of light from inside the house would light their way. The writer claims that the girl had a good and admirable figure and that even his brother would tease her. Her brown figure had attracted him and he would stare at her as long as she was not watching.

According to the story, it was common for the writer’s aunt to go to the market on Saturday’s and every time he accompanied her. After repeatedly seeing the girl, the writer says that he felt love for her and always wanted to talk to her although it proved difficult for him.

The writer is talking about love and how it springs forth on someone’s heart. The description of the city shows that there was romance all over and even the cold in the city could not hold the love for her back. The writer effectively delivers love message by use of various styles. Firstly, the story is developed in a cold setting. This is drawn from the explanation, “…When the short days of winter came, dusk fell before we had well eaten our dinners.

When we met in the street the houses had grown somber.…..” (Joyce para. 3). He continues to say, “……….Her image accompanied me even in places most hostile to romance…….It was a dark rainy evening and there was no sound in the house. Through one of the broken panes I heard the rain impinge upon the earth, the fine incessant needles of water playing in the sodden beds…… Murmuring: ‘O love! O love!‘ many times” (Joyce para.5-6). This shows his love feelings were flared by the romantic setting in the house.

The writer puts it clear that the noises in the street made him think about his love girl, “…. noises converged in a single sensation of life for me: I imagined that I bore my chalice safely through a throng of foes”. The sky was violet, an indicator of love. According to the author, “the nasal chanting of street-singers, who sang a come-all-you about O’Donovan Rossa, or …..” proved love music upon the writer’s ears (Joyce para.5).

From the above excerpts, it is clear that the message was effectively delivered to the readers. In this story, the writer also engages the reader’s mind by letting them get love meaning in certain incidents. The story ends on a sad note showing that all the writer’s efforts to get his love bird were in vain.

Contrary to this, the writer ought to have had some success or a turning point if all his efforts failed. The writer was also successful in developing the story with suspension to make his readers continue reading to the very end. He keeps to himself the idea of whether he managed convincing or explains his feelings of love to the girl. This is an effective writing style that the writer fully utilizes.

Works Cited

Joyce, James. Araby.2010. Web.




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92

Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and the Culture of the Igbo Term Paper

July 16, 2021 by Essay Writer

Updated: Nov 26th, 2019

Introduction

In Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo is a wrestling champion who also acts as a leader in Umuofia, a village occupied by the Igbo ethnic entity. He is portrayed as a servant of the tribal dictates who is ready to do everything, even to kill, for the sake of his tribe, its laws, customs and traditions. The book focuses on how Okonkwo treats his children and three wives and how the Christian missionaries impact on the Igbo ethnic community in the late 19th century.

Okonkwo is not a reckless man who cannot show any weakness or reveal his true feelings. He is revered in the entire village for his courage and power. This prompts the village elders to put Ikemefuna, a boy taken as a prisoner for purposes of peace settlement, into his custody. Ikemefuna’s father, who hails from another village, has killed an Umuofian, that is why Ikemefuna is to be given away to the people of Umuofia to make peace between the two tribes.

Ikemefuna grows in Okonkwo’s household, and Okonkwo becomes very fond of him (Achebe, pp. 28). However, when the oracle instructs that Ikemefuna is to be killed, Okonkwo severs his head with a machete even despite the fact that he is warned by the elder that he did not need to deal with this case, the murder of the boy, because it could be hard for him as he should consider Ikemefuna as his son.

Okonkwo does not pay attention to this permission because he thinks that it could make him feminine and weak. Things begin to ‘fall apart’ for Okonkwo after the murder of Ikemefuna when he is exiled for seven years for accidental killing of a man when his gun explodes.

While Okonkwo is in exile, European colonizers come to Umuofia and try to convert the villagers to Christianity. Soon, a new government is introduced. Achebe’s literary work espouses many cultural issues about Igbo’s way of life that are raised in the late 19th century. This essay seeks to highlight the cultural peculiarities that Achebe exhibits carefully in the book.

A Patriarchal Society Dominated by Men

Many pundits consider the Igbo a patriarchal society because men literally dominate every aspect of the tribal life. Achebe particularly wrote Things Fall Apart to counter Joyce Carry’s Mister Johnson that tried to portray the Africans as people without motives, forethought, and knowledge on other issues apart from environments where they live.

The colonialists have a perception that the African population are uncontrollable, chaotic, unattainable, and evil. Achebe wants to prove the incorrectness of such an image by portraying the Igbo as an ethnic group with definitive and intricate social systems, values, and traditions (Carry, pp. 1). Achebe depicts the Igbo, or better to say, the Umuofians, as an ancient civilization when he reveals some forms of governance and law that exist in that society.

Okonkwo is shown as a traditional hero who would do anything to achieve his goals. He contributes to his own downfall, thus the white men cannot be blamed. While he is in exile, the Whites’ religion and rule are introduced.

This literary piece is written in English, the language of the white men who came to colonize Umuofia. However, this does not deter Achebe’s work from being authentically African. Achebe expresses his African experience in English while still preserving African authenticity. The actions of the characters in the book represent a culture that undergoes a slow transition.

Cultural practices that can be only perceived to be awful to the foreigners are ordinarily accepted within. This is exemplified when members of the Igbo community, especially women, seek for refuge in a Christian church for being accused in having multiple births and giving birth to albinos. In the Igbo cultural setting, those females are to be punished. Fearing for harsh consequences, they hide within the Christian church premises (Obiechina, pp. 57).

Role of Women in the Igbo society

Ekwefi, Okonkwo’s second wife, is a character used by Achebe to portray the role of women in the society where this novel is set. Through her, it is shown that women should be only child bearers and helpmates for their husbands. Women are to produce many male children.

In fact, Ekwefi is considered to be cursed because out of the ten births she gave, only one daughter managed to survive. Ekwefi is a very bitter woman because of the loss many children. As a result, she has hard feelings that oppress her because being Okonkwo’s first wife, she cannot bear a male child.

This implies that Ekwefi cannot be a part of the Okonkwo family lineage because she has not given birth to male children. Menfolk are the reference point of this culture while the womenfolk’s role is reduced to ensuring the survival of tradition. Because Okonkwo is afraid of the survival of his family tree when Ekwefi loses her second child, he takes it upon himself to go and consult Dibia, Dibia is believed to have powers to tell the source about Ekwefi’s misfortunes.

When Ekwefi loses her third child, Okonkwo decides to consult another Dibia because of the frustrations arising from the fact that there will be no one to be the head of the family after his demise (Palmer, pp. 40). He blames Ekwefi for this because it is the women who are supposed to provide their husbands with male progenies too carry on the family name, and specifically the father’s name.

Ekwefi has to endure the pain of losing her child as well as watch helplessly as the Dibia mutilates her child, drags him through the streets by his ankles, and finally buries him in the evil forest where obanje children and other outcasts are laid to rest (Palmer, pp. 41). No one bothers to console Ekwefi after all this traumatizing ordeals. Because of cultural intuition, Okonkwo believes that Dibias have the solutions to all the problems that he has.

The Igbo have a tradition of wife beating exemplified by the suffering of Ekwefi who has to endure Okonkwo’s manhandling. When a banana tree is killed, Okonkwo beats his wife, and she makes no complaints regarding this treatment. Later, the attention of the reader is drawn to an instance when Okonkwo threatens his wife with a gun after hearing her murmur under her breath.

Everybody else is quiet about this heinous act (Culler, pp. 45). This is a culture where women are supposed to be submissive and do not show any sign of rebellion. Indeed, Ekwefi has an undying love for Okonkwo because she even left her former husband to be with him. However, the reward she receives for her loyalty to her husband is regular beatings.

The fact that Okonkwo believes that wives are to be beaten is not limited to Ekwefi. This also applies to his youngest wife, Ojiugo, whom he constantly flogs. There is a public outcry not because of what Okonkwo does to her, but because he breaches the dictates of The Week for Peace, which is considered a great evil according to the Igbo.

The Igbo men are portrayed to be only concerned with preserving the patriarchy as opposed to protecting the physical safety of the women. Elders are not particularly concerned about Ojiugo’s woes and are assertive that this is her own fault. The other wives cannot condemn Okonkwo for the flogging that Ojiugo goes through. Ekwefi is beaten one week after the Week of Peace, and this does not raise any concern because to them, this is normal.

The women, especially Ekwefi, is disturbed about the fate that belies the woman who decides that the winner of the next wrestling duel will be her man (Palmer, pp. 42). Okonkwo’s inhuman treatment of his wives, especially Ojiugo, does not even bother the gods of the tribe who only reprimand him to pay a compensation for breaching the requirements of the Week of Peace by battering his wife Ojiugo.

Okonkwo loves his daughter Enzinma, but he is saddened by the fact that she is just a girl. Okonkwo reckons that he would be happier if Enzinma were a boy. This treatment points out a low position held by females extending to the rest of the womenfolk in Umuofia.

Okonkwo’s treatment of his wives and male children are a representation of how the Umuofians treat their female children. However, all this must be stressed that such a treatment of females forms a part of the culture of the Igbo since everyone, including the females themselves, rarely complains for the current way of life.

Works Cited

Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Anchor, 1994. Print.

Carry, Joyce. Mister Johnson. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1989. Print.

Culler, Jonathan. On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982. Print.

Obiechina, Emmanuel N. Language and Theme: Essays on African Literature. Washington, DC: Howard UP, 1990. Print.

Palmer, Eustace. African Literature Today. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1983. Print.




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