Propaganda and Mass Media: Obstacles and Best Conditions for Propagandist Essay
In the modern, commercial world, propaganda has undoubtedly infiltrated the mass media in phenomenal leaps that are reminiscent of the cold war era where the technique was employed by the US and Russia to neutralize each others’ political, military and economic influence.
Today, more than ever before, propaganda is increasingly been used in the public arena to settle a multiplicity of competing and conflicting factors and aspirations (Barsamian & Chomsky 32). Governments continue to use mass media to peddle propaganda in times of conflicts with other governments, and politicians continue to bankroll media personalities and outlets during electioneering period to peddle political propaganda.
In the same vein, companies and media houses continue to heavily rely on propaganda to gain an upper hand over their competitors through subjective marketing and advertising strategies. It is the purpose of this essay to evaluate the obstacles faced by a propagandist and conditions that allow a propagandist to thrive successfully.
According to Linebarger, “propaganda consists of the planned use of any form of public or mass-produced communication designed to affect the minds and emotions of a given group for a specific purpose, whether military, economic, or political” (39).
Propaganda in mass media occurs when information is systematically biased, distorted, exaggerated, fabricated, or subjectively and inaccurately reported with the aim of receiving support, goodwill and a sense of legitimacy from the target audience (Shah para. 1). Propaganda is used to rally individuals behind a cause by exaggerating, misdirecting, cheating or misrepresenting the actual issues to garner support.
In mass media, propaganda is exhibited when agents charged with the responsibility of objectively reporting information use selective stories and partial facts to present the information (Barsamian & Chomsky 18). Also, propaganda in mass media takes place when the agents use one-sided sources of information, demonize the perceived enemy, use narrow range of discourse or engage in pre-emptive assumptions, false balances and framings (Shah para. 2).
The propagandist undergoes a multiplicity of obstacles and challenges to ensure that the message is received by the target audience. The first obstacle is to comprehensively understand the nature of the target audience that the propagandist wants to modify through the use of propaganda (Ellul 26).
It is the function of the propagandist to learn the social, cultural, economic, and psychological orientations of the target audience, a scenario that can present some challenges. A good knowledge of these orientations will assist the propagandist to devise techniques of psychological manipulation and social pressure aimed at influencing the thought systems and ideological convictions of the target audience.
Another obstacle comes in the form of propagandist’s ability to convince the target audience to follow a particular line of thinking. The Propagandist is known to use techniques such as assertions, bandwagon, card stacking and glittering generalities to win over the hearts of the target audience (Propaganda Techniques para. 1).
But this is unachievable if the propagandist lacks or has inadequate ability or capacity to convince the target audience. For example, a propagandist may use assertions especially in advertisement and marketing to present some enthusiastic statements as facts. To be successful, the propagandist must have the capability and capacity to convince the target audience that such statements reflect the truth without providing evidence to back up the claims.
Bandwagon technique is often used to compel the public to join in doing a certain activity because others have joined (Propaganda Techniques para. 2). Effective convincing techniques are needed to compel the target audience to join in since others have already joined. In many cases, the propagandist may lack these requisite techniques.
Lack of naturalness is yet another obstacle that propagandists face when trying to pass information across to the target audience (Carl para. 3). Propagandists are known to use vernacular, dialect, and homey words that have a wide appeal to the target audience. Studies have revealed that effective propaganda must utilize the latest vernacular of the particular target audience, including idioms, folklores, belief systems, idioms and jokes (Wilkins & Christians 139).
Also, an effective propagandist must be able to use the native dialect of the target audience in a perfect way. It is against this backdrop that the propagandist faces obstacles and challenges when trying to pass the information across to the target audience due to failure to use the audience’s vernacular and dialect in a natural way.
The propagandist can use homey words that are known to the target audience since such words have the capacity to elicit nostalgia, bringing the audience closer to the message. Lack of naturalness on the part of the propagandist may cause an adverse backlash from the target audience as it tries to begrudge what it considers efforts by the propagandist to mock it, its language, its people and its ways.
A multitude of factors and conditions influence the propagandist’s opportunities of success in passing the information across to the target audience. The conditions needed to make a propagandist more effective and successful are many and varied.
A successful propagandist must effectively master the speech, writing, dialect, cultural orientations and other aspects of life of the target audience (Linebarger 53). According to Linebarger, the ability to control information is a requisite condition for any propagandist who wishes to be successful.
The propagandist should have the capability to manipulate information that reaches the mainstream media or the target audience. For example, in conditions of war and civil strive, the military is able to control and manipulate information trickling in from the battlefields by organizing daily press briefings, planting stories, or providing tightly controlled access to warzones. This type of control ensures that the right kind of message goes through to the right audience (McQuail 530).
An individual can be successful in spreading propaganda through the use of euphoric environments. Indeed, propagandists are known to thrive perfectly well in conditions that trigger a lot of anxiety or happiness within the target audience (Johnstone & Bauer 52). For example, propaganda is known to fill the airwaves and other mediums of communication such as the print media and internet during political electioneering periods as propagandists try to outdo each other in the political landscape.
According to Johnstone & Bauer, “…it appears that the most effective propaganda does not play on public emotions, but provide the public with selective facts and allows them to come to their own conclusions” (63). In political campaigns, rivals present half-truth and subjective statements about their competitors to win support from the masses. Studies have revealed that propagandists who utilize such conditions are usually successful.
Social and economic strife have also been known to serve as successful breeding ground for propaganda. Indeed, under social conditions of information manipulation, monopoly and ruthless ethnic or racial conflicts, propagandists have tended to use and control the media as a tool to foster hatred and assemble populations to violence (McQuail 530).
Propagandists continue to utilize the disparaging social and economic conditions in less developed countries to cause havoc to the general populations. It should also be noted that individuals undergoing social and economic difficulties are vulnerable to so many manipulations, including propaganda. It is on this basis that propagandists utilize social economic difficulties facing a target audience to successfully pass their message across.
All in all, propagandists continue to utilize the above mentioned conditions to alter the world views, beliefs, and thought systems of their target audiences. In recent times, the US has incessantly used the available mass media channels to clean up its act in Iraq and Afghanistan (Wilkins & Christians 182).
The fact that the mass media is presently regarded as a requisite tool and strategy for propaganda peddling can no longer be denied. Indeed, the propagandists love to use the mass media as their default channels for passing propaganda since they reach a wider number of individuals and are regarded as trustworthy (McQuail 530)
Barsamian, D., & Chomsky, N. Propaganda and the Public Mood, 1st Ed. South End Press. 2001. ISBN: 9780896086340
Carl, D. Propaganda Techniques. 1996. Web.
Ellul, J. The Obstacles to Communication arising from Propaganda Habits. (n.d.). Web.
Johnstone, G., & Bauer, K.G.C. Sociology and Canadian Society. Emond Montgomery Publication. 2004.
Linebarger, P.M.A. Psychological Warfare. Washington: Combat Forces Press. 1954.
McQuail, D. McQuial’s Mass communication Theory. SAGE 2005.
Propaganda Techniques. (n.d.). Web.
Shah, A. War, Propaganda and the Media. 2005. Web.
Wilkins, L. & Christians, C.G. The Handbook of Mass Media Ethics. Taylor and Francis. 2008.
Media Propaganda Essay
Media Propaganda refers to a message that aims at changing people’s opinion on issues by providing only one side of an argument. Propaganda is widespread in the media especially in advertisements and magazines (Baran and Davis 76). In this paper, we will consider a poster advertisement.
This poster contains an advertisement for a body spray, Axe. In the advertisement, there is a couple walking down the street along window displays. The advertisement shows a man cut into two halves, the lower half and the upper half. The lower half of the man’s body is lagging behind, standing by a window display with a female mannequin dressed in lingerie.
On the other hand, the upper half continues walking alongside the woman. In addition, the poster contains a written message at the bottom of the page. This message reads, “Part Good. Part Bad. That’s Man’s Essence.” Further, at the lower right corner, the poster has a picture of the spray under consideration and the name of the spray: “New Axe Essence”. This message appeals to the audience to use Axe body spray.
The audience of this advertisement is men. This advertisement is simply appealing to men, especially from teenage upwards. Men relate to this idea of walking together with a woman while at the same time admiring other women. This makes them feel integrated (Bhasin 1).
The message contained in this poster appears to be appealing to men to use this body spray to get a double deal. It implies that axe gives men an advantage of attracting women who are sexually appealing and at the same time keep their girlfriends. Men have added integrated egos when they attract such beautiful women and seem to have successful relationships. This will translate to the men being content and happy.
The man in the poster looks comfortable and confident. Further, the woman in the advertisement seems impressed, happy, and relaxed. The advert makes it appear that the man is the one making the woman happy. Therefore, this implies that men who use axe appear relaxed and composed manage to impress their girlfriends.
These influence choices of men who want to impress their girlfriends and make them happy. In addition, the poster portrays the given location as luxurious with lovely shop displays without people. This implies the unique and distinct nature of Axe. Obviously, the properties given to the spray add class to it and allow the spray to select rich and classy men as prospective buyers.
This advertisement portrays Axe body spray as being appropriate for use at any time. For instance, for casual time, at work or anywhere, the casually dressed couple in the advertisement seems to be admiring shop displays’ probably on their way to a casual meeting after work.
The man used in the poster is young emphasizing that axe body spray is convenient for young men. He is young and needs to feel happy and successful. The smile of the man in the poster portrays his happiness probably because of his youth. This contentment associates with the audience’s needs and attract their attention.
Additionally, the poster uses tranquil and non-screaming colors. Advertisers use blue and grey colors on the spray and the background respectively. These colors are passionate, serene, welcoming and can accommodate diverse moods and occasions. These colors attract the audience and encourage them to use the spray.
This advertisement is exceptionally convincing and can attract many people. However, ideological analysis of this advertisement reveals the presence of unintended cultural messages dotted all over the poster (Sproule 130). Cultural aspects that come out can discourage prospective users of Axe spray if they paid deeper attention to the advertisement.
This advertisement suggests that a man who uses axe essence will have more than one woman at his disposal. It assumes that men are happy when they have multiple women. Further, the advertisement stereotypes men as being sex oriented. The lower part of the man’s body staring at the mannequin shows this stereotype.
One would wonder why the lower and not the upper half of the body was staring the mannequin considering that it is the one with eyes. What does the lower half of the man’s body use to see the mannequin? Clearly, the body part that substitutes the man’s eye is his phallus. This shows that men view women as objects for their sexual desire, which is not completely true.
The message and pictures in the advertisement pose another cultural controversy. The picture indicates that the lower half of the man remains behind while the upper half continues walking together with the woman. The girlfriend does not seem to notice that her boyfriend’s lower part is lagging behind staring at other feminine figures.
The man continues walking as if nothing is happening. This brands men as cheaters and unfaithful spouses. The advertisers seem to know this when they write that man is partly good and partly bad. However, they dismiss it referring it to as man’s essence. This is against cultural norms, which advocates for fidelity among spouses.
This advertisement for axe body spray portrays women as sex figures. The lower part of the man’s body lagging behind to admire the mannequin proves this. This act emphasizes on extreme sexuality of women and the power those feminine figures posses to the extent of splitting a man into two.
This is obvious in the lower part of the man’s body admiring a displayed mannequin wearing red lingerie. This shows that men prefer women who dress skimpily to casually dressed women. These women appear to be extra sexually appealing and attract men. Consequently, this advertisement perceives women as sexual objects and displays women in a negative way.
This advertisement is not completely true. For instance, the street appears to be vacant allowing the couple quality time alone. There are shops as shown by the displayed mannequin wearing lingerie. However, we know that shops need clients to keep them functional. The poster neglects this fact and creates an illusion that Axe body spray allows people to be completely alone in the street. The advertisers use this fallacy to create emotion and influence buyers.
In conclusion, we are justified to say that this advertisement is effective. The poster effectively uses graphic display and words to convey the intended media message (Jowett and O’ Donell 280). They achieve this by using physically attractive people, using a quiet and serene setting.
Further, the advertiser’s choice of colors and creativity help them to attract a larger audience. The advertisers capture audience’s attention well and consider their needs. They conform to the audience’s need of being happy, having integrated ego and using distinguished products. Therefore, the use of media propaganda assists the advertisers to achieve their goal.
Baran, Stanley and Dennis Davis. Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future 6th ed. London: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Bhasin, Kim. How Axe Became The Top-Selling Deodorant By Targeting Nerdy Losers. 2011. Web.
Jowett, Garth and Victoria O’ Donell. Propaganda and Persuasion 4th ed. London: Sage Publications, 2005. Print.
Sproule, Michael. Propaganda and Democracy:The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Print.
Chomsky/Herman propaganda model Essay
The propaganda model which was developed by Herman and Chomsky puts special emphasis upon the role of the mass media propaganda in manufacturing biases in the public consciousness for preventing the resistance of the masses and achieving certain goals of the privileged minority.
Implementing Madisonian framework for explaining the main principle of democratic states, Chomsky collects evidence for illustrating the instances of propaganda and offering a practical solution for Orwell’s problem of voluntary censorship and intentional confusion of the majority.
Chomsky stated that Madisonian framework was often misinterpreted because of its vague formulations. According to Madison, the main concerns of the government include the rights of persons and the rights of property, while the emphasis should be put upon the latter parameter.
The main priority of the state should be the protection of the rights of property because the majority can endanger them by overusing the power they possess in a democracy. In Chomsky’s opinion, the conclusion that the tyranny of the majority can threaten the rights of persons, including the rights for freedom of speech and conscience, was the result of confusion caused by the vague formulations (Chomsky, “Powers and Prospects” 171).
Thus, Chomsky admitted that Madison’s concern is much more restricted and focuses mostly on the protection of the rights of the opulent minority, while the comparison of the rights of persons and rights of property is merely inappropriate. Theoretically, according to Madisonian framework, there are rights shared by all and there are additional rights that are assigned only to a certain group of persons which always would be a minority and need to be protected by the state.
According to Madisonian constitutional order, the Senate which represents not only the wealth but also the intellectual elite of the nation, understands the importance of protecting the rights of the opulent minority (Chomsky “Hopes and Prospects” 233). Thus, Chomsky points out at the vague formulations and confusion in the following discussion as the main reasons for which Madisonian framework was misinterpreted.
Analyzing the experience of the past generations and the current social and economic modes, a sociologist can make predictions concerning the future tendencies in the world development.
The first tool which is required for making the reliable predictions is consideration of the actual national course as opposed to the analysis of historical records. “Realist scholars explain that appeal to the historical record confounds the abuse of reality with reality itself” (Chomsky “Powers and prospects”146). The national identity and the corresponding functioning of the state institutions and the foreign policy course need to be taken into account for outlining the future prospects.
Thus, along with the analysis of the past achievements and mistakes, a comprehensive understanding of the shifts in the society, the ongoing processes and their main underlying causes is important for making certain forecasts. Thus, evaluating the historical records critically and giving serious consideration to the national values, the traditional sense of national identity reflected in the national course, Chomsky makes predictions, and most of them appear to be correct.
One of the main Chomsky’s predictions was his assumption concerning the escalation of the cycle of violence. Analyzing the level of the American state terror and the chosen course of the foreign policy justified with the peacemaking mission of the USA, Chomsky concluded that the proclaimed war on terror after the events of 9/11 will intensify the violence circle.
Providing evidence that the war on terror is pursued for the reasons which differ from the announced objectives, the scholar claims that the military actions taken by America along with the terrorist attacks create endless circle violence and the urgent measures are required for changing the current situation.
If Madison with his theory of democratic society that was discussed above was sincerely astonished at the fact that the government can overuse its power, at present Chomsky concluded that the tyranny of the privileged ruling class is obvious even notwithstanding their limited public accountability which does not allow estimating the extent of their power abuse.
The American attacks in Pakistan are treated as an example of the military actions of the United Sates which are justified with noble goals of peacemaking or protecting the Israel’s rights for self-defense in this particular case.
The fact that the issues of Pakistan and Afghanistan were omitted in Obama’s election campaign clearly demonstrates the limitations of the public accountability and the lack of the public awareness on the state foreign policies (Chomsky “Hopes and Prospects” 249).
Thus, giving special consideration to the US national identity as the world’s peacemaker and recognizing the hidden goals for continuing the so-called war on terror, Chomsky used his expertise on the US foreign policy and particular military campaigns for predicting the escalation of the circle of violence.
The continuing military conflicts and the dominating mood of desperation and anxiety can be regarded as the evidence that Chomsky’s predictions on the escalation of the violence circle were correct.
The scholar’s assumption that if the traditional strategies of the US government do not change, it can result in long-term consequences of extreme violence and destruction is compliant with the available data on the ongoing military operations in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Moreover, the lack of the public accountability and the use of propaganda for distorting the public views and justifying the implemented measures have become effective instruments used by the US administration for pursuing their goals.
The propaganda and mass media played an important role in creating the so-called Orwell’s problem, the term implying the measures which are imposed by the government for hiding their true motives by distorting the public perceptions of reality. Orwell is known for discussing the voluntary censorship as the pattern used by the ruling minority for treating the information at their discretion, either mentioning a certain fact or concealing it.
Thus, possessing the power for making decision what information and in what key should be presented to the masses, the minority group can not only foster the desirable biases but also manipulate and control the masses. The phrases national interest and peace processes can be regarded as typical Orwellisms (Chomsky “Powers and Prospects” 192).
In other words, proclaiming the war on terror for justifying their military operations, the US government justifies its actions and makes attempts to prevent the public resistance to their policies by hiding the truth and emphasizing the fictional noble goals. Along with the excuse of self-defense, the labels of peacemaking can be assigned to certain military operations for the purpose of concealing the true underlying causes and distorting the public opinion. Thus, the means of propaganda are widely used by the US government and played a significant role in the intensification of Orwell’s problem in the American society.
In Chomsky’s opinion, Orwell’s problem requires practical solution, while the construction of a profound scientific theory would be inappropriate. The scholar suggests the practical program of intellectual self-defense for settling the issue of biased mass media and overwhelming propaganda strategies implemented by the government for hiding the underlying causes of the ongoing processes and their political decisions.
Taking into account that the problem is rooted deep in the public consciousness, Chomsky concludes that it cannot be solved through removal of the conventional Orwellisms, such as the terms national interest and peacemaking. The practical solution requires active involvement of the masses.
The program consists of the three main components, including the collection of the information which was distorted by the mass media for complying with the government’s demands. The second stage presupposes exploration of the main motives of the privileged minority to make certain decisions and conceal them from the community.
The third component is the practical implementation of the acquired skills and knowledge in evaluating the TV news and other means of public propaganda. Enabling the masses to become rational observers by providing them with the necessary information is the practical solution which was offered by Chomsky for handling the Orwell’s problem in a democratic society.
The propaganda model developed by Herman and Chomsky can be used for explaining the patterns which allow the privileged minority to control masses in democratic societies. Collecting evidence on illusions and biases constructed by the mass media and explaining the true underlying causes of these strategies, Chomsky makes correct predictions concerning the escalation of the violence circle and offers intellectual self-defense as the practical solution for the problem of propaganda.
Chomsky, Noam. Hopes and Prospects. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2010. Print.
– – – Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social Order. London: Pluto Press Ltd, 1999. PrernaLal.com. Web.
Propaganda in Pro-slavery Arguments and Douglass’s Narrative Expository Essay
Propaganda refers to the form of communication that is meant to influence the feelings and attitudes of individual to believe or support a certain viewpoint. The aim of the propagandist is to ensure that an individual backs his or her position by simply presenting one side of the story.
Studies show that propaganda statements might be either true or false. Since the major objective is to change the minds of many people as possible, propaganda statements are often repeated and are distributed through a number of media in order to reach many individuals (Cunningham 78).
In some instances, propaganda information present facts selectively in order to support a particular synthesis and in other cases, it makes use of loaded messages to incite people’s emotions instead of encouraging individuals to judge information rationally.
Propaganda is used to influence people’s political, spiritual, and business-related views. Throughout the US history, it has been used effectively to support particular positions. During slavery, advocates of slavery system used it to justify their position while Douglass employed it to influence people’s minds against slavery. This paper looks at various aspects of propaganda, including its techniques, as well the way pro-slavery advocates and opponents, including Douglass, employed it.
Classification of Propaganda
In the modern society, propaganda is a term that no one would want to be associated with because of its wrong usage in Germany. In reality, propaganda is a neutral term that can be utilized in educating people to change their views towards a better future.
In fact, propaganda messages could be employed effectively to encourage individuals to participate in community programs, engage in health improving practices, take part in important events, such as census and elections, and encourage citizens to support the law enforcing agencies as far as reporting of crimes is concerned.
During slavery in the United States, advocates, such as James Henry Hammond, John Calhoun, and William Joseph Harper, utilized propaganda to justify the existence of the two classes in society since they argued that it would spur economic development.
Hammond drafted a speech, commonly referred to as Mudsill Speech of 1858, which was purely a propaganda statement encouraging individuals to be contented with the existing production system. To pro-slavery advocates, the change of the production system would destabilize society, as it would cause conflicts between the upper and the lower classes. This would be a great threat to democracy, the economy, the government, and the society in general.
The campaigners of slavery further observed that the lower class had always existed in history, as it served a major purpose of cushioning the ruling class. Hammond used the term mudsill in his speech to claim that the lower class was a foundation of society, as it engaged in nation building through provision of labor (Tindall and Shi 56). In his view, this would encourage the whites to move civilization forward and any attempt to bring radical changes would impede socio-economic and political development.
The views of pro-slavery advocates were not factual, but instead they were propaganda statements that aimed at justifying the existing mode of production at the time. Hammond encouraged slaves to continue offering free labor, as they were the important people in the production system. However, the reality was that slaves were never incorporated into the economic system and the few who participated in economic matters were incorporated as underdogs.
Slavery advocates insisted that the system eliminated barriers placed upon individuals that prevented them from enjoying their rights as American citizens. Hammond cautioned other rich individuals in the country who supported the rights of slaves that it was dangerous to involve the landless in political matters, such as voting and presenting their candidature during elections (Finkelman 27).
Involving slaves in political processes would lead to the tyranny of the multitude hence the best option was to enslave them, as they would not have the chance of changing the status quo. In the views of slavery supporters, the system was effective since it protected the interests of masters, slaves, and the entire society.
Democracy suggests that each individual should be allowed to enjoy his or her rights in society, including the right to take part in economic and political matters without interference. Therefore, slavery campaigners advanced a theory that was defective implying that their claims were simply propaganda statements aimed at subjugating and discriminating against slaves who were mostly blacks.
Douglass’s narrative presents some of the problems that slavery brought to the blacks in the south. Even though his ideas are mainly considered as propaganda, he presents information that would help slaves to realize their potentials in society. First, he criticizes slavery by observing that it has a damaging effect to the slaveholders, as well as the slaves.
The slavery system encourages a dishonest and reckless behavior among slaveholders to an extent that it damages their honored status. Based on this, he recommended that slavery was unnatural to all parties involved. For instance, slave owners were engaged in adultery and rape, which was a great threat to the wellbeing of slaves and their families. Douglass uses Sophia Auld as an example of an individual who had high moral standards, but slaveholding converted her to a demon.
Therefore, the view of Douglass on slavery is that it was an invalid system of production, which had affected the moral wellbeing of slave owners (Douglass 112). This implies that he was trying to convince slave owners to abandon the system, as it was affecting them as well. In trying to persuade slaveholders to abandon slavery, Douglass reinterpreted Christianity, terming the true religion as the Christianity of Christ while the kind of religion that slave owners practiced as the Christianity of the land.
Slave owners had immoral behavior and violent actions that were inconsistent with the provisions of Christianity (Tindall and Shi 93). Through this, he was trying to convince slaveholders to quit slavery and adopt a more acceptable system of production that would suit the tenets of Christianity.
The Objective of Propaganda
The main goal of any propaganda statement is to shape public opinion and change people’s views as regards to a particular subject or topic. During slavery in the United States, the views of southern plantation owners played a major role in advancing slavery in the country in the sense that many farmers believed abandoning it would be equivalent to giving blacks an undue advantage in the economy.
Additionally, many slave owners were convinced that giving the landless the right to vote would be detrimental to democracy. Several techniques of propaganda exist, but slavery supporters chose to employ two of these methods, one of them being half-truth and the other is deception.
Douglass supported the claims that slavery was degrading the culture of blacks. He noted that slave owners ensured the landless remained ignorant, as this would facilitate the maintenance of the status quo. However, he suggested that acquisition of knowledge is a step towards abandonment and resistance of slavery. Unlike pro-slavery advocates, Douglass used different techniques of propaganda, including operant conditioning and testimonials.
Cunningham, Stanley. The Idea of Propaganda: A Reconstruction. Westport: Praeger, 2002. Print.
Douglass, Fredrick. The Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass. New York: Cricket House Books, 2012. Print.
Finkelman, Paul. Slavery & the Law. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. Print.
Tindall, George, and Shi, David. America: A Narrative History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 2013. Print.
Hezbollah’s Propaganda Research Paper
Globally, western forces define Hezbollah as a terrorist organization (Peate 1). However, in some sections of the Muslim world, people consider Hezbollah as a resistance movement that protects Muslims against the “excesses” of the western world. The group’s main base of operation is in Lebanon. Its popularity in Lebanon, and some parts of the Muslim world, stems from its role in resisting Israeli aggression in Lebanon.
Iran and Syria are the primary supporters of Hezbollah because Syria provides logistical support for the organization, while Iran provides financial support (IDF 4). A key goal of the Hezbollah movement is the complete “destruction” of Israel. Hezbollah has also affirmed its commitment to Islamic rule and the elimination of any imperialist power in Lebanon.
The sheer size and influence of Hezbollah in Lebanon has caused many observers to fear that the movement’s influence and powers surpass the Lebanese army (Barnard 11). However, this has not been the case. Hezbollah started as a small resistance army of young men willing to fight and risk their lives for the protection of Lebanon (Horowitz 5).
Quickly, the movement gained support in the country (especially among Shi’a Muslims) and today exists in many aspects of the Lebanese political, social, and economic spaces (Horowitz 1). For example, Hezbollah has representatives in the Lebanese government and media. Its ability to mobilize thousands of people to demonstrate against political and social issues in Lebanon demonstrates its power and influence in Lebanon. A key pillar of Hezbollah’s success has been propaganda.
Propaganda is Hezbollah’s auxiliary strategy (besides military combat) to advance its ideologies. Most of its propaganda war aims to undermine Israel and western powers. Particularly, Hezbollah has published thousands of news articles and produced many videos that contain hateful messages about Israel and America.
The same campaigns support and preach the importance of Jihad and martyrdom in the Middle East (Lyon 5). Interestingly, little propaganda refers to Lebanon (which the movement alleges to protect). This paper examines Hezbollah’s propaganda strategies by highlighting notable strategies of Hezbollah’s propaganda campaign.
These strategies include the construction of a propaganda theme park, the establishment of a Hezbollah television station (Al-Manar), the development of anti-Israeli video games, and the production of varied merchandise that promote Hezbollah’s ideas and values.
Hezbollah has built a theme park on top of a mountain, overlooking South Lebanon, as part of its campaign to celebrate its victories over Israel. The theme park provides its visitors a fun-filled day for all family members, as they learn about Hezbollah’s victories and successes in their anti-western campaign.
Dozens of buses filled with school children drive into the park daily to learn about Hezbollah’s activities (Duffy 1). Some anti-western campaigners have also visited the site to popularize it. To depict Hezbollah’s radical nature, the organizers allow everybody from all over the world except Israelites to visit the site.
A trip to the theme park starts by highlighting the history of Hezbollah. One section of the park shows a part of the combat history of Hezbollah with a display of weapons and open footprints to symbolize the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon. The organization also displays its military intelligence by displaying a map of Israeli’s military structure in one museum at the park (Duffy 4).
In the same section of the museum, Hezbollah displays its technological sophistication by showing its sophisticated military arsenal. In contrast, outside the museum (at the site of an exploded Israeli bomb), Hezbollah has preserved a damaged military tank (belonging to Israeli forces).
Lyon (12) says this site represents the organization’s triumph over Israel. At the same site, real-life depictions of Hezbollah fighters exist in a forest. Some fighters fire rockets, while others take cover. The site is a dramatic representation of Hezbollah warfare. NOW (5) says because many people come to visit the museum, annually, plans are underway to build hotels and modernize transport within the park (Lyon 7).
Overall, Hezbollah aims to let everybody learn its history and achievements at the park. However, the organization has carefully designed its messages to omit its misgivings to the society. Notably, the Hezbollah theme park only strives to highlight Hezbollah’s success without informing its audiences about its “ugly” side. For example, the organization does not highlight several airplane hijackings that it has conducted.
Moreover, there are no evidences of the organization’s participation in suicide bombings around the Middle East and other parts of the world. Certainly, although hijackings and suicide bombings characterize a significant part of Hezbollah’s history and growth, the audience does not have an opportunity to learn about this.
For example, Hezbollah’s invasion in Beirut in 2008 forms a significant part of Hezbollah’s history, but there is no evidence of such information in the theme park (Lyon 7). Mass murders in Argentina and Saudi Arabia also form part of Hezbollah’s history, but such information is conspicuously absent at the theme park. Referring to the deliberate attempt by Hezbollah to “whitewash” its “ugly” history, Totten (17) says,
“Visitors are not told about the kidnapping, torture, and murder of Americans in the 1980s. A real Hezbollah museum would have a wax figure of a journalist chained to a radiator. No history of Hezbollah is complete without noting that the Party of God kidnapped the CIA’s Beirut station chief William Buckley and tortured him to death, but Hezbollah wants everyone to forget about that” (Totten 17).
To paint a clearer picture of the atrocities committed by Hezbollah, it is also important to point out Hezbollah’s failure to include its destruction of American and French bases in Beirut.
Since Hezbollah has failed to include the most significant parts of its history in the theme park, it is correct to say, the organization aims to manipulate its audience by forcing them to believe Hezbollah is a peaceful movement. Totten (16) also says they understand that what they have done may not appeal to many people and therefore they do not highlight it in their propaganda campaign. Indeed, like other terrorist groups around the world, they seek legitimacy and popularity.
Hezbollah’s strategy to control how the world sees it has replicated in other events where the organization interacts with the media. For example, in one visit to a Hezbollah-controlled neighborhood by CNN’s Cooper (1), Hezbollah prevented the journalist from talking with people in one neighborhood. However, it permitted him to talk to other people in another neighborhood. This incident shows how Hezbollah controls information outflow by dictating where the source of information should be.
The same strategy replicates when Cooper (8) and another journalist film outside “acceptable zones” of doing so. Hezbollah men took their cameras, perused the films and later allowed them to proceed with their journey, after ascertaining that they did not film what they should not (Cooper 8). Broadly, these incidents show that Hezbollah wants to present a biased understanding of its activities by denying journalists their independence when reporting.
Chomsky (11) believes that the quest to control a media source is an attempt by organizations to subvert the spirit of democracy. To understand this statement, Chomsky (5) first embarks on explaining democracy as, “One in which the public has the means to participate in some useful way in the management of their own affairs and the meaning of information is open and free” (5).
Hezbollah’s control of information subverts the meaning of democracy because it uses this strategy to “manufacture” consent and manipulate people to believe their ideas. Chomsky (11) equates this attempt to “a revolution in the art of democracy.” He also equates this attempt to a strategy of “manufacturing” consent because it forces people to agree with some issues that they are not a part of (Chomsky 12).
An interesting observation about Hezbollah’s campaign strategy is its failure to target western people as the main audience because it still struggles to achieve local support. Totten (16) says Hezbollah’s strategy to sell itself as a patriotic militia group in Lebanon is a vital strategy for its survival because many people are starting to think of the organization as a foreign-backed militia with a biased representation of Muslims.
Moreover, many people are starting to see the organization as a bully that disrespects other groups. Such negative sentiments come from the view that Hezbollah has created many unnecessary internal conflicts. So far, its involvement in the Syrian war is threatening Lebanese peace as well because its participation in the war may have a spillover effect in the country (Barnard 10). Such recent activities by Hezbollah show that the organization may be equally monstrous In Lebanon as it is in other parts of the world.
Hezbollah Television (Al-Manar)
IDF (1) believes that Hezbollah’s presence in television media would not suffice if it were not for the funding received from Iran. In return, Hezbollah promotes many Iranian ideologies in its media stations. For example, Hezbollah has supported the Iranian revolution. It also emphasizes Iran’s ideologies in the largely Shi’a Lebanese country. So far, its television media propaganda campaign has been largely successful in creating a negative perception of Israel and America.
One strategy that the organization has used to achieve this objective is “demonizing” its enemies. For example, Al-Manar often refers to Israel as a “Zionist entity” to dehumanize it among Muslim followers (IDF 3). Using the same strategy, Hezbollah refers to America as the “enemy of Islam”, thereby hoping to reinforce the idea that the US is against Islamic beliefs. The same strategy aims to reinforce the idea that the US is the main source of all global evil.
The station also camouflages extreme terrorist actions, such as suicide bombings, by using more Islam-friendly words (like Jihad) to speak to its audience. The station also creates a positive spin to terrorism by using Islamic words, like Shahadah (IDF 3). For example, the television station often reinforces the belief that suicide bombers that dedicate their lives for the achievement of Jihad goals get a reward in heaven.
The station also commits itself to glorifying Jihad activities, such as suicide bombings. For example, in 2001, the station praised Muhammad Mahmoud Bakker Nasr for blowing himself in a restaurant and injuring dozens of people (because they wanted its audience to understand that such an action was a noble activity that warrants praise) (IDF 4).
Tactfully, the station conveys these messages to specific demographics (audiences), depending on the nature of their audiences. Mainly, Al-Manar tailors its propaganda to appeal to Arab audiences, western audiences, and Lebanese audiences.
The main message conveyed by Al-Manar to Lebanese audiences is that it is Lebanon’s main defender against calculating forces (Israel and the US). IDF (3) believes most of the messages presented by this media outfit aim to make the Lebanese audience believe that the terror outfit is independent and nationalistic.
Although the television station aims to make its people believe these falsehoods, it mainly fosters the ideas of Hezbollah’s leader, Hassan Nasrallah through the station. IDF (3) associates the ideas of this leader to the creation of the state-of-the-art theme park in South Lebanon, as a direct way for Hezbollah to teach people its ideas and beliefs.
Many observers believe the perception of the terror outfit as a nationalistic movement is a clever cover-up by Hezbollah’s leadership to conceal its main activities (terror). IDF (4) dissects this truth by saying Hezbollah’s existence does not stem from the support it gets in Lebanon, but the financial support it gets from Iran and the political support it gets from Syria.
The organization therefore uses the Lebanese people as a shield to gain legitimacy and undertake its terrorist activities. For example, the IDF (4) reports that the organization has used the Lebanese people as human shields during combat.
Unfortunately, Hezbollah’s propaganda movement does not spare young and innocent Lebanese children because it inculcates them into a culture of terror and intolerance to diverse views as well. The creation of Iman Al-Mahdi scout movement is one example that shows Hezbollah’s initiative to recruit young boys into its movement. Besides the Lebanese audience, Al-Manar also aims to appeal to a wider Arab audience.
To appeal to Arab audiences, Hezbollah often strives to associate its goals to the Arab contempt for the western world. The hatred for Jews, Israel, and America are therefore common denominators that Hezbollah exploits when interacting with Arab audiences. A common message that has appeared in Hezbollah’s television station is the comparison between Israel and Nazis. Here, Al-Manar advocates the view that Israel is worse than the Nazis.
The television station has also run a television series that conveys the same message. For example, Al-Manar ran an anti-Semitic television series titled, Al-Shatat, which conveys an anti-western idea of global politics (IDF 4). Usually, such series run during Ramadhan and aim to create intolerance towards Jews and America. This way, Hezbollah strives to appeal to a wider Arab audience by exploiting their anti-Western sentiments. However, when appealing to Western audiences, Hezbollah uses a different strategy.
Unlike its Middle Eastern audience, Hezbollah adopts a different tone of broadcast whenever it addresses a western audience. The main message conveyed to this audience is that of reconciliation and understanding. Hezbollah strives to achieve this objective by justifying its terrorist acts to its western audience by highlighting Israel’s shortcomings.
At the center of this messaging is the portrayal of the Lebanese people as victims of Israeli aggression. Sometimes, Al-Manar uses photographs of injured, or dead, Lebanese people (mostly women and children) to show how Israeli forces cause harm to Lebanon.
Hezbollah’s propaganda campaign draws significant similarities with the American propaganda machinery during the Woodrow Wilson administration. In 1916, Woodrow Wilson was committed to engage in World War II, but the reluctance of the American public to engage in a European war dampened the hope of participating in the war (Chomsky 7). The government thereafter established the Creel Commission, which engaged in widespread propaganda to change public opinion regarding the war.
This commission engaged in Hezbollah-like campaigns of demonizing Germans (similar to the way Hezbollah demonizes Israel). In a few months, public opinion regarding America’s involvement in the war changed and many Americans supported its government’s commitment to participate in the war.
Chomsky (8) says that the British government also participated in the same propaganda campaign by persuading American intellectuals to disseminate the same propaganda to its citizens. This campaign worked very well to involve both countries in the war.
Courtesy of the constant supply of money from Iran, Hezbollah has reached many western audiences because of the expanded coverage of Al-Manar beyond the Middle East. For example, the IDF (4) says, Al-Manar broadcasts in many European countries. Many of these countries have successfully shut down Hezbollah broadcasts in their region, but the organization still reaches thousands of people in the western world, through the internet and unregulated broadcasts.
Overall, Hezbollah uses Al-Manar and other media broadcasts to advance its goals in Lebanon, Middle East, and the rest of the world. Based on the contents of its broadcasts, it is also important to point out that Hezbollah’s media does not hesitate to use horrific imagery to manipulate its viewers to support, or legitimize, its activities.
Efficacy of TV propaganda
Hezbollah’s propaganda war stems from different elements of television viewership that influence human behavior. At the center of this understanding is the spread of consumerism among audiences who consume television messages.
Miller (327) says this process occurs subconsciously because even as people struggle not to have pre-conceived ideas, or prejudices, regarding other people, they live up to the standards set out in television messages (subconsciously). This explanation explains why Hezbollah’s television campaign has been effective.
Hezbollah’s propaganda campaign has transcended media and political campaigns to venture into the production of merchandise. Most of these merchandises aim to popularize the organization’s leadership. Particularly, the face of Hezbollah’s Secretary General, Hassan Nasrallah, appears in many types of merchandise produced by Hezbollah.
For example, Utz (1) says, “Step into any shop in Dahiya, the Hezbollah-controlled suburb of Beirut, and you are bound to find a variety of peculiar souvenirs portraying the face of Hezbollah’s Secretary General, Hassan Nasrallah” (Utz 1). Some of these merchandise includes cups, air fresheners, stamps, key chains, lighters, colognes, door bells, rings, and keys (Utz 1). These types of merchandises have the picture of Hezbollah’s leadership.
Utz (1) says the organization has effectively used this strategy to popularize the movement, as it does not differ from the political strategy used by politicians in America (or any other part of the world) to popularize their parties. By having different types of merchandise, Hezbollah is everywhere. People see Hezbollah in their homes, schools, streets, cars, and similar places. It is therefore difficult to ignore its existence in the region.
A deeper analysis into Hezbollah’s merchandising campaign shows that the organization’s key messages (that it is a nationalistic movement fighting for the freedom of Lebanon) are false. Propaganda is the best way to explain this misinformation because Hezbollah’s activities in the last three decades show that the outfit has only helped to further Iranian interests in the Middle East.
Al-Rashed (7) paints a more accurate picture of this view by saying Hezbollah’s activities have eased Iran’s struggles with Lebanon, Israel, and the wider Arab world. Notably, Hezbollah and Iran have successfully destroyed Palestinian and Lebanese national powers by eroding the legitimacy of existing powers and replacing them with ad-hoc authorities.
Observers say Hezbollah has carved out an image of a winner in Israeli-Arab conflicts by distorting facts and playing with people’s psychology (Al-Rashed 7). For example, in 1985, Hezbollah fought alongside Iranian forces to destroy Palestine (Al-Rashed 8). Instead of Arab media calling the war a massacre, it supported Hezbollah and Iran, as they committed widespread human atrocities on Palestinian camps.
Hezbollah also used propaganda in the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in the early 1990s (Al-Rashed 8). Although Arab media reported that Hezbollah won the war, facts show that the two warring factions reached a truce by signing a peace agreement (distortion of facts) (Al-Rashed 8). The same propaganda emerged in the Israeli withdrawal from South Lebanon in the early 2000s because Hezbollah claimed to play a significant role in this withdrawal, but it had nothing to do with Israel’s actions (Al-Rashed 8).
Hezbollah has also used propaganda to misinform the Lebanese public about its intentions for having weapons. However, history shows that instead of protecting the Lebanese people, Hezbollah has used most of these resistance arms in Lebanon. Proof of this fact exists in the widespread assassinations and violence that preceded the collapse of several Lebanese parties.
For example, Hezbollah used its weapons to assassinate Hariri and other notable political leaders in Lebanon (Al-Rashed 8). A broader analysis of this action shows that instead of protecting the Lebanese people, Hezbollah has used propaganda to foster Iranian interests in the region (notably, the domination of Lebanon).
Anti-Israeli Video Game
Alongside its theme park strategy of teaching young children the principles of Jihad and propagating ideological wars against Israel, Hezbollah introduced anti-Israeli video games for children to play with. These video games exist in one Hezbollah website where simulations of jihad missions exist. Using real-life missions (that Hezbollah has participated in) Hezbollah aims to foster a culture of resistance among young children, through the games.
For example, the organization has created virtual simulations of its 1982, 1986, 1996, and 2000 wars against Israel and other enemies (MLK 3). The video games provide a virtual exposure of young children to weapons. For example, the Anti-Defamation League (3) says the anti-Israeli games have only three levels of conquest.
Each level requires a player to use advanced and sophisticated weapons to fight. The games also require the players to disable their enemies by knowing how to slip under their radar and kill them. For example, the Anti-Defamation League (4) says, “In the 1986 game, players advance on a fortified hill to an outpost using a variety of weapons until they are able to kill all the Israeli soldiers, take control of the outpost and seize ammunition and equipment” (Anti-Defamation League 4).
Al-Manar television station has played a key role in developing these games because most of them feature videos produced by the television station. Overall, the production of such a video game is not an alien concept because the organization has produced several video games since 2003 (Anti-Defamation League 4).
The most popular games are special force one and special force two, which depict Israel as the enemy. The organization reported more than 10,000 sales of these games (Anti-Defamation League 4). It says its key markets are Middle East, Australia, Germany and Canada (Anti-Defamation League 4).
Type of Propaganda
Based on the evidences provided above, it is important to point out that Hezbollah uses social propaganda. Social propaganda mainly aims to unify a group of people behind a specific cause/issue. Unlike political propaganda, which aims to achieve a political goal, social propaganda wars aim to achieve a social goal (Ellul 63). The main similarity between Hezbollah’s propaganda and a social propaganda war is the organization’s effort to impose it on other people.
This paper already shows the strategies used by the organization to do so. For example, its nationalistic call is a strategy used by Hezbollah to rally the Lebanese people around a nationalistic goal of protecting the country from Israeli aggression. The spread of Christian propaganda in the middle age provides one example of this type of propaganda, because Hezbollah also uses Islamic undertones to rally its people behind its goals (Ellul 63).
Unlike other types of propaganda, a social propaganda war is often complex and multifaceted. However, distinctively, it differs from other types of propaganda because it supports specific ideological components, from a sociological perspective.
Social propaganda wars operate from a reverse psychology point of view because, as opposed to other types of propaganda, which use medial channels to convey a message, it uses sociological elements like (religion) to make people accept ideologies (Ellul 63). Such ideologies prompt people to act, or support an idea.
Effects of the Propaganda
Ellul (162) believes the greatest impact of a propaganda campaign is psychological crystallization. He says propaganda wars make the vague and unclear elements of an issue become important. Essentially, such campaigns reduce any objection that a person may have towards an issue, thereby aligning his thoughts to reflect a pre-determined system. This outcome is especially true of the series of campaigns propagated by Hezbollah against Israel and America.
Few researchers dispute the fact that these campaigns have reinforced prejudices against Israel and America (more so, in Lebanon). Ellul (162) investigates this phenomenon and says such an outcome is a common occurrence. Furthermore, research shows that the stronger the conflict, the stronger the prejudice that exists between the warring factions (Ellul 162).
Unfortunately, when propaganda proves to be successful and crystallizes people’s thoughts and opinions about an enemy, it becomes difficult for a person to reduce his animosities. The chance of realizing any compromise or tolerance also significantly reduces. A deeper analysis of this fact shows that propaganda wars provide people with a set of assumptions and judgments about people, which make it impossible to convince someone that what he believes is false.
Such convictions prepare people to experience anything. To sum the effects of propaganda on people, Ellul (163) says, “Propaganda standardizes current ideas, hardens prevailing stereotypes, and furnishes thought patterns in all areas” (Ellul 163). Overall, these are the effects caused by Hezbollah’s propaganda campaign.
Comparison to Soviet Union Propaganda War
Hezbollah’s propaganda war draws sharp comparisons with the propaganda wars of the Soviet Union in the early 1940s (at the height of communism). One notable similarity between the Soviet Union and Hezbollah propaganda war is the quest to undermine the west. The Soviet Union however undermined the west because of capitalism and its antecedents. Hezbollah undermines the west because of its affiliation to Israel and its support for Israeli wars.
The Soviet Union propaganda aimed to exploit America’s defeat in the Vietnam War (against communist North Vietnam). It also sought to exploit the defeats of other western powers in Africa (uprisings in Kenya) and Asia (Malaysia). At the same time, the French had failed to cement its rule in Algeria and South Vietnam. The Soviet Union propaganda war therefore aimed to exploit the failure of these capitalist powers by providing an alternative model of governance (communism).
Taylor (255) says the Soviet Union campaign machinery was elaborate because it included almost all types of media. Communist propaganda existed in the print media, television, and radio. Unlike the Hezbollah propaganda machinery, Taylor (255) says the Soviet Union propaganda machinery used words as a powerful tool for advancing communist ideologies.
He says Soviet Union used words to define peace, disarmament, independence, and liberation because these concepts largely differentiated the communist and capitalist systems. Taylor (255) also says the Soviet Union propaganda war led to the start of the cold war because America sought to erode the new boldness of communism by imposing capitalistic principles around the world. The main objective was to influence the international political system by setting the agenda for international discourse.
The Soviet Union propaganda machinery aimed to advance its objectives by creating fear about the west. The main target audience was third world countries because the Soviet Union perceived these nations to be most vulnerable to western influences. Moscow strived to have different countries supporting communism (independently), as opposed to the Soviet Union’s speaking for these nations. One fear used by Moscow in its propaganda war was the exaggeration of a possibility of nuclear wars by the west.
Taylor (255) says such propaganda wars aimed to exaggerate the military capabilities of the west and underplay the same capabilities in the Soviet Union. The same machinery aimed to exploit the influence that independent voices in the west would have in undermining capitalistic principles. For example, academicians and journalists participated in the propaganda war to provide internal resistance to capitalism in western countries.
The above strategy mirrors Hezbollah’s strategy of creating internal resistance in America by appealing to Western audiences through its official television station. As explained in earlier sections of this report, Hezbollah tailors some of its news to appeal to Western audiences by highlighting Israel’s “excesses.” They therefore strive to create sympathy for the organization by creating internal resistance in western countries.
The Soviet Union used this strategy well, as a “divide and rule” tactic for concealing its real intentions (changing international discourse in its favor). This campaign was elaborate because independent estimates show that the Soviet Union used about $2 billion, yearly, to sustain this campaign (Taylor 256).
America and other western powers countered the Soviet Union’s propaganda campaign by developing military, economic, and political power, to demonstrate to the free world that capitalism worked. The US therefore tried to instill faith in the capitalistic system by underplaying the doubts expressed by the Soviet Union (about capitalism and usefulness to the world). Overall, although Soviet Union’s propaganda war was global, it shares many similarities with Hezbollah’s propaganda war against the west.
After weighing the findings of this paper, Hezbollah’s propaganda war emerges as an elaborate campaign to influence Lebanese and global citizens to support the organization’s activities. Its dynamic campaign has spread through television, online gaming, merchandise production, and theme park development.
These campaign channels are the most vivid representations of Hezbollah’s strategy. However, other campaigns supporting the same objective also exist. A broader analysis of Hezbollah’s propaganda machinery depicts significant similarities with Soviet Union’s propaganda machinery during the cold war. Both protagonists share anti-western rhetoric.
Although Hezbollah’s venture into online gaming and theme park development is unconventional, both factions have realized tremendous success in their propaganda war. Resistance is the main goal that Hezbollah wants to inculcate among its followers. However, based on the organization’s activities and its affiliation to Iran and Syria, evidence to show that the organization fights for the rights of the Lebanese people is non-existent. However, its propaganda machinery serves to portray the organization as a nationalistic movement.
Al-Rashed, Abdulrahman. Hezbollah, a Product of Arab Media Propaganda. 2013. Web.
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Propaganda, Persuasion and Public Relations Essay
Propaganda is a method of communication which is used to influence the attitudes of specific groups of individuals towards a particular cause or position (Propaganda, 2010).
In essence, instead of a sense of impartiality propaganda actually presents information in such a way so as to influence an audience through selective dissemination of information in order to create an emotional rather than a rational response to certain issues (Propaganda, 2010).
For example in the case of the Australia’s cancellation of the Fuel Watch program Senator Xenaphon utilized propaganda stating that Fuel Watch was not an effective means of helping consumers stating the need to tackle the big four oil companies using another method, what most people fail to notice is that he omits the details the successes the Fuel Watch program actually had which indicates possible ulterior motives on his part (Battersby, 2008).
His actions resulted in the end of the National Fuel Watch scheme which to an extent could be considered a step back from giving consumers more control over how they purchase gasoline (VACC, 2008). What must be understood is that propaganda utilizes elements such as loaded questions, partial synthesis or even lying by omission in order to gain the desired response (Wilcox & Cameron 2009).
One use of effective propaganda can be seen in the online article “Cultural Cringe where the writer selectively introduces facts which lambasts and derides the Australian video presentation for its World Cup 2022 bid (Hunter, 2010).
Throughout the article there is little mention of the creativity that went into the video, the unique approach that Australia took or the overwhelming positive response viewers had for the commercial, rather, what is mentioned is nothing more than a continuous tirade focused against commercial itself (Hunter, 2010).
It must be noted though the use of the term propaganda, as stated by Wilcox, has been connected to falsehoods, lies and deception (Wilcox & Cameron, 2009). It is true though that propaganda used by various PR departments have been utilized in various political campaigns as a form of political warfare where detrimental facts on rival candidates are released to the general public (Propaganda, 2010).
On the other hand propaganda is also used in various public information campaigns by governments for positive effects such as the Australian governments fight against illegal downloads connoting their use with stealing and its use by the U.S. during the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq as a supposed “war on terror”. In essence the use of propaganda and its effects can be associated with the ethical reasoning behind its usage.
The ethics of persuasion
Wilcox states “perception is interpreted as being used in the following manner: to change or neutralize hostile opinions, to crystallize latent opinions and positive attitudes, and finally to conserve favorable opinions” (Wilcox & Cameron, 2009). As such the importance of persuasion to successful contemporary public relations all boils down to its ability to influence individuals towards a certain train of thought.
As such it can be stated that persuasion shapes perceptions and thus the way people interpret and accept information. As seen in the examples related to propaganda, persuasion should always attempt to follow a certain ethical guideline when used in Public Relations.
The concept of corporate social responsibility should be considered an integral part of most PR practices due to its ability to sway public opinion either in favor for or against a particular company (Berenbeim, 2006). For PR departments what should be considered good for the company should also be directly proportional to what is beneficial for consumers.
In such cases where the good of the company is put above that of the consumer that in itself is in direct violation of the ethical guidelines of persuasion (Messina, 2007). One example of honest and effective persuasion can be seen in the Bowen article summarizing the necessity for the fuel watch scheme and outlining exactly what it entails (Bowen, 2008).
On the other hand an example in Australia of the ethical violation of persuasion is the production and sale of vitamin water by Glacéau in which the company states that the water being sold has been “enriched” with vitamins in order to aid people attain a healthy lifestyle (Adam, 2008).
Far from actually contributing to a person’s health and well being vitamin water and its additives could potentially cause health problems in the future, especially if the product is consumed on a regular basis as a replacement for water (Glaceau lands Coke in deep water, 2010).
On average a single bottle of vitamin water produced by Glacéau contains 32 grams of crystalline fructose which is nothing more than a derivative of high fructose corn syrup which numerous scholarly articles and independent journals have linked to the rapid onset of obesity in various populations.
In this case not only is the company marketing drinks with vitamins which might not even be absorbed but the amount of sugars present in each drink is actually detrimental for the future health of a person especially if they replace ordinary water with vitamin drinks.
This example is a clear case of what not to use persuasion for, not only is it in direct violation of corporate social responsibility but convincing people to think that a drink is healthy when in fact it could cause health is problems is highly unethical by most standards.
Persuasion should be done when either trying to establish an idea, state relevant facts or modes of thought, it should not be used to directly lie to an audience and convince them to do something which could possibly endanger their well being (Messina, 2007).
Based on the information presented it can be stated without question that effective persuasion truly does shape perceptions and thus the way people interpret and accept information which makes it an important tool in contemporary public relations. It must be noted though that just because a persuasive argument is effective does not make it ethical.
Examples such as the case of vitamin water show that at times persuasive arguments are used in such a way that their results are actually detrimental towards people. It is up to people taking PR whether to discern through proper ethical reasoning whether what they use persuasive skills for will result in either beneficial or detrimental results.
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Battersby, L. 2008, Senate kills off FuelWatch, The Age, p. 1. Web.
Berenbeim, R. E. 2006, ‘Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility’, Vital Speeches of the Day, 72, 16/17, pp. 501-504, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost.
Bowen, C. (MP) 2008, A national fuelwatch scheme, joint media release with Hon. Kevin Rudd MP, Australian Government Treasury, p. 1. Web.
Glaceau lands Coke in deep water 2010, Marketing Week (01419285), 33, 31, p. 12, Vocational and Career Collection, EBSCOhost.
Hunter, T. 2010, Cultural cringe: World Cup roo has critics hopping mad, The Age Online, p. 1. Web.
Messina, A. 2007, ‘Public relations, the public interest and persuasion: an ethical approach’, Journal of Communication Management, 11, 1, pp. 29-52, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost.
Propaganda 2010, Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, p. 1, Literary Reference Center, EBSCOhost.
VACC 2008, VAAC welcomes the end of the national Fuelwatch Scheme, media release, p. 1. Web.
Wilcox, D. L. & Cameron, G. T. 2009, Public relations: strategies and tactics, 9th edn, p. 229 – 242,(international edn), Pearson Education, Boston, Massachusetts.
The Marlboro Ads as a Propaganda Advertising Argumentative Essay
Propaganda advertising refers to the process of advertising, which is aimed at influencing consumers towards the consumption of products through the presentation of one side of an argument. Advertisers cautiously select information to present to the public by omitting counterproductive information.
As such, the target of information presented is to alter the attitudes of consumers towards the interests of the advert sponsors. This practice has led to the creation of manipulative adverts, which do not convey the features of actual products being advertised due to exaggeration (Moon 97).
Consequently, consumers become the victims of propaganda advertising since they cannot receive the expected utility from products acquired based on adverts.
The Marlboro ads are examples of propaganda adverts. In this regard, the adverts are used to promote consumption of cigarettes by using a great cowboy. Leo Burnett represents a skillful cowboy with the capability to perform extraordinary activities.
The cowboy can undertake extremely difficult tasks, which cannot be achieved by common people. In essence, consumers are directed away from the product being advertised to the skills of the cowboy. This is attributed to the small proportion of space covered by the marketed product in the whole advert.
The intention of placing a skillful cowboy in the advert is to depict that smoking cigarettes has magnificent effects. Through this initiative, consumers are triggered to consume the product in order to achieve extraordinary heights.
For this reason, consumers would not view the product as being harmful but essential for their survival. At the same time, consumers are not shown the harmful effects of the tobacco smoking making potential individuals smoke while the smokers continue to smoke.
Although the product is known to have reasonable health hazards, no such information is covered appropriately in the advert. The advert does not present such information with emphasis since this would be counterproductive to the initiative.
This implies that one side of the issue is portrayed to consumers, which is manipulative and misleading. In addition, the intention of the advert is to market cigarettes, and for that reason, consumers have to be lured with unrealistic achievements in the usage of the product.
The consideration of outsourcing of activities from third-world countries demands the adoption of ethical practices. In this regard, it is vital to ensure that organizations hire third-world labor provided that the jobs are better than any other options they might have, they are treated decently, and they are provided with opportunities to improve their lives.
This implies that the US firms would be motivated to incorporate the labor contribution from the third world countries. For this reason, the third-world countries would be offered opportunities that are ideal with respect to their skills and knowledge (Moon 145).
As a result, they would have decent opportunities, which ensure that they are treated appropriately as other workers. Furthermore, the provision of opportunities would be critical in ensuring that they earn a living. Through the rewards they receive from the international organizations, they would improve their standards of livings.
Following these initiatives, it is possible to motivate organizations to consider third world labor and promote the standards of living in the countries.
Integrity refers to the consistency, truthfulness, honesty and accuracy of the activities that are undertaken by an individual or an organization. This implies that information is presented in the actual of way of existence regardless of the consequences.
In such cases, integrity would cost an individual’s character or organization image, but it is essential for the interests of the society. Through such a value, transparency and accountability are promoted.
Moon, Chris. Business ethics. London: Economist, 2001. Print.
Propaganda Movement in Mass Media Synthesis Essay
Through the perspective of Chomsky and Herman, it can be seen that the propaganda model helps to create an explanation behind the power of mass media within the current capitalist economy of the United States.
The propaganda model presents the notion that the content produced by mass media outlets is invariably aligned with the inherent interests of the political and economic elites in that the produced content supports the current sociological and ideological biases that this specific sector of the population espouses.
Through such support, this in turn impacts the perception of viewers who rely on the media as a means of information regarding daily events around them. Through the study of Gimenez et al. (2013), it was seen that the correlation between the propaganda model and the power of the media can be summarized on the impact of irrational exuberance as a means of influencing the behavior of a media outlet’s audience.
Irrational exuberance can be defined as the means of by which an individual molds their behavior on the actions of other people. It is defined as being “irrational” since some individuals tend to take things at face value resulting in their opinion being swayed by outside media without necessarily considering the other side of the issue.
One example of this can be seen in the recent case involving Trayvon Martin, an African American teen that was shot by George Zimmerman in an act of supposed self-defense. The coverage of the media involving this particular case continuously focused on the issue of race as being the prime factor behind the shooting with the media portraying Zimmerman as being racist towards African Americans.
What was “neglected” to be mentioned was that Zimmerman had in fact helped an African American family in the past and was not known to be overly racist. Furthermore, the photo of Trayvon Martin that was utilized by the media as a means of showing the face of the victim was not in fact a recent photo of him.
Rather, the photo was several years out of date and it can be assumed that a younger looking photo was utilized as a means of creating public anger at Zimmerman for shooting an innocent boy with a promising future ahead of him.
However, it should be noted that Martin was considered by his school as a “high risk” student due to him being involved in various violent fights and dubious undertakings that were rarely mentioned by the mass media.
The end result though were numerous rallies and protests regarding the verdict of the trial where Zimmerman was found innocent, yet, those rallying were clearly impacted by irrational exuberance since they did not take into consideration the views of the school regarding Martin and the possibility that he may have been violent instead of the “saint like” portrayal that the protesters were rallying behind.
By placing the case of Trayvon Martin and the lack of sufficient coverage of both aspects of his life through the lens of the propaganda model, it can be seen that the issue was in part used as a means of furthering the cause of gun control advocacy. President Obama himself used the issue as a means of furthering stricter gun controls measures which at this particular point time was a “hot button” issue so to speak.
This shows how the mass media as it is known today has its own inherent biases in portrayal and presentation which are impacted by the powers that be (i.e. government and corporations) wherein issues are edited and presented based on what they want people to think and how irrational exuberance can set in to impact the decisions of viewers.
Usefulness of Understanding the Power of the Media: Media Ethos and the propaganda model
In their analysis of the mass media within the U.S. Jackson & Stanfield (2004) attempts to simplify the assertions made by Chomsky and Herman by correlating the ownership of mass media outlets and the means by which such institutions function (i.e. through advertising and news sources) as a method by which media content is controlled.
This level of control as described by Klaehn (2003) is not limited to the content of the media that is being presented; rather, it also encapsulates the type of ethos that such media abides by.
Media ethos refers to the way in which the media shows itself to the general public, in a sense; it is a method in which the mass media present an “image” to their viewers so that their opinions coincide with what those of the media on the basis of the media being an expert in portraying factual news.
This particular “image” refers to the media’s “character” in the sense that media is attempting to persuade a group of viewers of the righteousness of their statements based on their inherent character (i.e. as a supposedly unbiased presenter of news).
In the case of the mass media ethos this takes the form of the media attempting to convince other people of the “righteousness” or “validity” of their statements and what they present on the basis of the image that they are portraying, namely, as individuals that have a great deal of experience and knowledge regarding news and current events (Klaehn 2002, p. 147).
It is this argument on the basis of a projected image that is a cause for concern since basing it on a person’s/media company’s knowledge and experience alone does not justify the action itself.
This is an important aspect in understanding the why the propaganda model is useful in understanding the power of the media since it shows that it is possible for the media to utilize its image as a purveyor of unbiased news to actually portray biased news with the general public believing otherwise.
For example, a person may argue for the righteousness of a cause on the basis of their knowledge of the event yet this attempt at persuasion may in itself be self-serving for the person/company that is attempting to persuade other individuals.
Through an understanding of the propaganda model, the impact of media power becomes clearer since the model shows how media ethos is actually self-serving towards the media corporations themselves since it justifies their actions under the basis of a righteous cause yet in the end is more beneficial to them than to other individuals (i.e. presenting an edited and manufactured version of the news to appease advertisers and government officials rather than present the news as it actually is).
In the case of media ethos, what must be understood is that through the propaganda model it can be seen that they type of ethos it espouses is a type of “artifice”, meaning that is created, manufactured, made, constructed etc. It can be considered a type of surface image which may in fact have an entirely fictitious relationship to what is actually true (Goodwin 1994, p. 101).
This aspect is exemplified by the four main aspects of the propaganda model namely: funding, ownership, sourcing and flak. In the case of media ethos, what must be understood is that the way which an idea or concept is “packaged” drastically changes the perception of the audience towards accepting the idea itself or the validity of its statements.
The Chomsky and Herman assertions regarding the impact of the 4 factors of the propaganda model, when boiled down to its very essence, says the following: ” the media is controlled by outside forces who can influence what you read and in turn how you think”.
It is in the way that such a concept is packaged and presented to the public that changes the perception of the public to the idea that what they receive is an edited version of the news (Goodwin 1994, p. 101).
It is not outright explained that the news is based on the interests of currently established powers (i.e. corporations and the government), rather, the mass media presents itself as unbiased despite what the propaganda model shows is a situation where bias is actual aspect of its operations.
An examination of the historical nature of media ethos has shown that in one way or another, despite its apparent ethical appearance, there is always an underlying reason behind its creation which does in fact create a beneficial effect for the individuals that created it.
As it was stated earlier, ethos is not something that is inherent but rather something that has been created and manufactured with a surface image in order to fulfill a particular purpose.
It is often utilized as a method of convincing people or justifying a particular set of actions and as such it is crafted in such a way so as to be convincing, believable and thus adaptable. The propaganda model thus helps us see the underlying ethos behind the content created by mass media and to what ends they serve.
Gimenez, M, Revelli, J, Lama, M, Lopez, J, & Wio, H 2013, ‘Interplay between social debate and propaganda in an opinion formation model’, Physica A, vol. 392, no. 1, pp. 278-286
Goodwin, J 1994, ‘What’s Right (and Wrong) About Left Media Criticism? Herman and Chomsky’s Propaganda Model’, Sociological Forum, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 101
Jackson, P, & Stanfield, J 2004, ‘The Role of the Press in a Democracy: Heterodox Economics and the Propaganda Model’, Journal Of Economic Issues (Association For Evolutionary Economics), vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 475-482
Klaehn, J 2002, ‘A Critical Review and Assessment of Herman and Chomsky’s ‘Propaganda Model”, European Journal Of Communication, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 147
Klaehn, J 2003, ‘Behind the Invisible Curtain of Scholarly Criticism: revisiting the propaganda model’, Journalism Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, p. 359
Influence of Propaganda Politics Essay
The propaganda memo in the sticker was projected to influence the response to essential wishes and desires in marching with stylish tendencies in outlook and feelings. A number of researches conducted to set up what would motivate the targeted addressees. The message was intended to raise people’s self-esteem to participate vigorously in celebrating but it was not genuine.
The politicians employ propaganda to strength their political grip, just like the way the business community use it to widen profitability.1 The national flag was used to create trust since the flag is considered a unifying factor. The organizers of the event were well conversant with the impact of the flag to the message; it created credibility and believability among the members of the public.2
Since time in memorial, it is eminent that the activities of independence and happiness are extended by propaganda and usually accompanied by suppression and brutality of the authority. This is a brilliant reason for presenting with uncertainty the newest political and economic systems that are offered by individuals with pressure to get their points across as saving humanity.3 Propaganda is dependable on furtive arrangement of its information.
The work of the propagandist is premeditating on the expectations of the viewers and who and what the viewers resolve and stumble on as realistic, and then acclimatizes the information the way it should be.4 The modern world is multifaceted since issues are simply subordinated to the anxiety of competence and preservation or advancement of political power.
It appears incontrovertible that propaganda has thrown in tremendously to a number of the nastiest tribulations of our time, which seems to be lacking control that does not require concession with the suggestion of independence and self-development.5
In the olden times of ethics, deceitfulness has usually been perceived with disapproval. Kant disputed that untruthfulness is wicked with no exclusions even though with unstable amount of assessment to the lie.6 There are a lot of other theorists who disagree that dishonest may perhaps be the correct and still the ethically compulsory path of action to obtain in excellent situations.7
A few consider that dishonesty is erroneous just to individuals who accuracy is payable and they preserve that not every person is permitted to the accuracy as of an extra personality.8 Additionally in the current years, David Nyberg disputed that dishonest is an element of daily practice and that it is often and not merely extreme, the exact item to do.
The theorist favors a bottom-up orientation to the issue of dishonest that is to state an examination spawned by contemplation of real-life incidents and tries to find out invention of policies through knowledge. The information in the flag can be assessed in two broadways by first referring to it as a dangerous propaganda.
The information does not have the interest of the audience at heart instead, it is meant to popularize something else. The message can be harmless propaganda because it simply requests people to join hands in celebrating the event.9
Mill provides an exemption to his opinion in the situation of agitation where the harm is direct.10 Given that his viewpoint is supported with the reward of investigation of diverse areas in doubtful dogma, the payback simply occur in situations where occasion authorizes configuration of an unbiased ruling.11
On the other hand, he identifies that there are circumstances in which confrontational comments can elicit rancid destructive deeds and he creates exclusion for such incidences. Mill demonstrates his position by an account of corn-dealers who paid taxes hence elevating the value of granules for the British people since he argues.12
This is a vital limit on his opinion and it instantly hoists queries such as ‘just how instantaneous should the risk be to the existence of the corn-dealer?, Is it any issue if the result of the provocation is experienced immediately or in its place an outcome in not many days afterward in demise by furtiveness? Does it create some differentiation whether what is alleged is factual or bogus?13
The message in the flag triggers an emotional feeling of some kind since the audience is left with some questions pertaining to the ceremony. It can be disputed that bogus allegations in excess of an occasion, in a circumstance where the audiences are not capable of locating the reality can result to logical tribulations against an individual or faction.14
Aquinas, St. Thomas. Summa Theologica, Trans-Fathers of the English Dominican Province, New York: Benziger Brothers Inc., 1947.
Barendt, Eric. Freedom of Speech, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
Ellul, Jacques. FLN Propaganda in FranceDuring the Algerian War. Trans. Randal Marlin, Ottawa: By Books, 1982.
Kant, Immanuel. Fundamental Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, trans. H.J.Paton, New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torch books, 1964.
Klemperer, Victor. I Will Bear Witness, 1933-1941, New York: Modern Library, 1999.
Mill, Stuart. On Liberty, Currin V. Shields, 1859. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956.
Nyberg, David. The Varnished Truth. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Randal, Marlin, Propaganda and the ethics of persuasion, Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2002.
Raz, Joseph. Free Expression and Personal Identification, Free Expression: Essays in Law and Philosophy, ed. W.J. Waluchow, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
Sington, Derrick and Weidenfeld Arthur. The Goebbels Experiment, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1943.
Sisella, Bok. Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.
1 Marlin, Randal. Propaganda and the ethics of persuasion, Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2002. P. 175.
2 Derrick, Sington and Weidenfeld Arthur. The Goebbels Experiment, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1943.
3 St. Thomas, Aquinas. Summa Theologica, Trans-Fathers of the English Dominican Province, New York: Benziger Brothers Inc., 1947.
4 Marlin, Randal. Propaganda and the ethics of persuasion, Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2002. p. 88.
5 Ibid. p. 89
6 Victor, Klemperer. I Will Bear Witness, 1933-1941, New York: Modern Library, 1999.
7 Bok, Sisella. Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.
8 Jacques, Ellul. FLN Propaganda in FranceDuring the Algerian War. Trans. Randal Marlin, Ottawa: By Books, 1982.
9 Joseph, Raz. Free Expression and Personal Identification, Free Expression: Essays in Law and Philosophy, ed. W.J. Waluchow, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
10 Stuart, Mill. On Liberty, ed. Currin V. Shields, 1859; Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1956, p. 69.
11 David, Nyberg. The Varnished Truth. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
12 Eric, Barendt,. Freedom of Speech, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
13 Immanuel, Kant. Fundamental Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, trans. H.J.Paton, New York: Harper and Row, Harper Torch books, 1964.
14 Marlin, Randal. Propaganda and the ethics of persuasion, Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2002.
Propaganda in the Democratic Society Response Essay
Propaganda in the Democratic Society is an article written by Aldous Huxley. The article focuses on the effects of propaganda on the democracy (Huxley 133). Huxley classifies propaganda into two categories. The categories are rational and non-rational propaganda. Rational propaganda concurs with the perceptions of those who generate it and their addressees.
With respect to rational propaganda, its generators and addressees stand to benefit. On the other hand, non-rational propaganda does not concur with the perceptions of its generators and addressees. The author asserts that non-rational propaganda is dictated by fervor.
He asserts that this form of propaganda is appropriate for the democratic societies. Huxley believes that the media plays a major role in enhancing democracy. He states, “The press is indispensable to the survival of democracy.”
Alex S. Jones wrote the article Media and Democracy. In the article, he focuses on his experiences in the media industry with respect to the past and the present news (Jones 28). He believes that the fundamental part of the news, which should be handled by proficient journalists, is now at risk from new financial models.
According to him, the American democracy has been shaped and molded in the past by high-quality journalism. He states, “Without high-quality journalism, American democracy would be hugely diminished.” He concludes by noting that in the future there would be an increase in the freedom of speech at the expense of the death of traditional journalism.
As Huxley asserts, I believe that most propaganda in the western countries fall under non-rational propaganda. To understand the effect of this propaganda on individuals, Huxley’s assumptions would be useful during the analysis. For instance, I believe that most advertisements related to junk food are non-rational propaganda. As such, their effects on individuals depend on their passions.
Equally, I believe that Jones’ statement on how the modern American democracy has been diminished with reduction in traditional journalism is of importance. In this regard, more research should be undertaken to identify the effects of the current unprofessional journalism on our democracy. It is worth noting that the two authors equally agree that the media industry has a huge role in shaping a nation’s democracy.
In the film Thank You for Not Smoking, the main character asserts that even though it is a common fact that smoking affects the users’ health, the manufacturers should not include the danger signs in the tobacco packages (Thank you for smoking).
He argues that in a democratic society, individuals are free to make their personal choices. In this regard, he believes that any individual who decides to be a smoker should be allowed to come up with his or her choices. The film’s main character is so eloquent that he manages to cover myths as facts. I believe that the movie scriptwriter was satirically denouncing the propaganda fueled by the media through tobacco advertisements.
Figure: Image of a food advert
The above image is an example of a poster claiming that busy individuals should eat Dunkin Donuts. The poster claims that if you are a busy individual and fail to eat Dunkin Donuts you are not feeding on real food. If you eat these donuts, there is no certainty that you are feeding on real foods.
Equally, if you eat these donuts it does not mean that you are a busy individual. To identify if the above advert is propaganda, you should ask yourself the below questions (Shabo 3). Does the advert persuade its audience? Does the advert target sizable audience? Does the advert use emotion appeal?
Huxley, Alduous. “Propaganda in a Democratic Society.” 75 arguments: an anthology. Ed. Alan Ainsworth. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2008. 132-138. Print.
Jones, Alex S. Losing the news: the future of the news that feeds democracy, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Print.
Shabo, Magedah E. Techniques of propaganda and persuasion, DE.: Prestwick House, Inc., 2008. Print.
Thank you for smoking. Dir. Aaron Eckhart. Perf. Aaron Eckhart, Cameron Bright, and Katie Holmes. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006. Film.