Plot

Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina: Plot Overview

May 5, 2021 by Essay Writer

Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina is a multifaceted novel, which uses complex symbols those run parallel to the main plot and adds as a concentration of the whole storyline. The Steeplechase has got critical researches for its multipurpose approach to the psychology of Tolstoy’s theme. The Steeplechase: a public event that sets the climax of the early part of Anna Karenina. T.G.S. Cain asserts that Tolstoy’s depiction of this horse race is both “the most obvious and the most controversial of the symbolic episodes” of the novel. Edward Wasiolek remarks that the passage “begs to be dismantled”. Through this Tolstoy brings about vast changes in the fortunes and mind-set of three major characters: Vronsky, Anna, and Karenin. This scene is so amenable to different interpretations that the spectrum of informed opinion is broad too. Barbara Hardy refutes such speculation about the race. She observes “the mare does not stand for Anna or Vronsky’s mistake for his failure in love”. Dmitry Merezhkovsky asks whether Vronsky did not “destroy Anna in a cruel game,” just as he killed his priced mare Frou-Frou. R.P. Blackmur considers Vronsky’s attitude toward both the horse and Anna as “reckless pastime”. On a figurative approach, Frou-Frou is clearly a symbol of Anna, or Vronsky’s relationship with her, as the horse appears in the novel soon after Vronsky’s illicit love affair with Anna becomes serious and dangerous for their social reputation both of which are ultimately destroyed. The implications of the steeplechase episode remain prominent from the beginning to the end of the novel. Tolstoy also suggests through the symbol of the horse that upon the occasion of Anna’s first sexual infidelity with Vronsky, she sustains a kind of metaphorical broken back that is analogous to the broken back of the mare in the race. This symbolic horse image implies much about the power dynamics between Anna and Vronsky. On the surface level, the gripping description of a horse race in an aristocratic Russian setting is a realistic tour de force. The author also demonstrates Vronsky’s central deficiency from which all other inadequacies flows his awkwardness or inability to keep pace and preludes Anna’s tragic death. Tolstoy portrays that Ideal love beyond marriage is a race. Anna didn’t perish right after her “broken back”, but limps through the rest of the novel until the psychological burden of adultery finally compels to kill her. The name Frou-Frou came from a popular French play by Henry Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy titled by the same name, in which the heroine Frou-Frou, abandons her husband and son for a lover. Significantly, a more particular analogy is both the horse and Anna are feverish and trembling uncontrollably before the race. Moreover, Vronsky straightens “a lock of mane that had got on the wrong side of her sharply-defined withers, a lock reminiscent of Anna’s “wilful ringlets”. Later, Vronsky breaks his mount’s back; the horse struggled like “a wounded fluttering bird”. Meanwhile in the stands, Anna also “began to flutter like a captive bird”. The event of steeplechase also places a psychological stringency on the two male characters. Karenin never recovers entirely from his wife’s open confession of her love for Vronsky and her hatred for him, which comes just after the race when Vronsky is injured. For Vronsky, he knew for the first time “the cruellest, most bitter memory of his life”. Therefore the death of the mare is also a kind of symbolic death for the three main characters, none of whom ever recovers completely after this incident. It is of great interest to evaluate that a dead horse becomes a prominent symbol, for adultery, which is a kind of a murder-suicide. Anna’s passion is rapturous and exalted but also fatal. Illicit sex for Anna makes the author reveal that at this juncture human loose contact with god just as in Dostoevsky’s Crime and Punishment.

The association between Karenin and the horse Gladiator is to be examined in the light of the scene where Anna arrives in Petersburg following her reconciliation of Dolly with Stiva. Her first thought on catching sight of Karenin is “what happened to his ears?” They pressed “against the rim of his hat” and were “gristly”. Vronsky observes Karenin’s “slightly rounded back”, “the swinging of his thighs”, each of these features links Karenin to Gladiator. Vronsky on his way to Frou-Frou sees Gladiator “with his ears looking enormous”. Vronsky is offended by Gladiator’s “wonderful hindquarters”, for he appears to sense Gladiator as his rival Karenin. But, why Karenin is attested with another horse symbol? Vronsky just before the race came to know about Anna’s pregnancy with his child and according to Vronsky’s code as an officer of the Imperial Guard, an offended husband has the right to demand a duel. Feeling duplicitous Vronsky races Gladiator, one who duels and at least metaphorically battles his enemy, Karenin. Thus Karenin runs in the steeplechase as Gladiator, as well as throughout the novel in a perilous race against Anna’s lover.

It is reasonable to imagine that Anna, Karenin, and Serezha are the subconscious human referents for the horses in the contest: Frou-Frou, Gladiator (the powerful duelist) and Makhotin (the small but distressing impediment). By implications, to the steeplechase, the race can truly be called the novel’s central allegorical image. Infidelities of high society reverberate throughout this novel. The six themes seen clearly in the steeplechase are:

  1. Initially, Anna is hesitant about whether to submit to Vronsky; he is not in control of the situation.
  2. Vronsky and Anna soon achieve relatively easy success; Vronsky establishes more control.
  3. They surmount a serious societal obstacle, although a presage of danger accompanies this success.
  4. They surmount a serious obstacle from her family, but the family continues to “pursue” them.
  5. They conquer a serious obstacle within their relationship, but a hint of mutual lack of confidence and a threat of violence accompanies this success.
  6. They fail to surmount a relatively minor obstacle; Anna perishes and Vronsky again loses control.
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Double Indemnity: Summary of the Film Plot

May 5, 2021 by Essay Writer

Double Indemnity 1994

Summary of the Plot

Double Indemnity is a film that narrates an exciting tale of seduction, greed, murder, and betrayal. In the movie, an insurance salesman attempts to assist a young woman to murder her husband to obtain insurance money. The insurance salesman is having an affair with the young woman who intends to kill her husband. Upon the death of the young woman’s husband, the insurance salesman’s best friend, and an insurance analyst suspects that the murder could have been planned by the young woman. The film ends when the young woman is also shot dead and the insurance salesman wounded in a confrontation. The insurance salesman confesses their plans to his old friend before he collapses and dies before fleeing to Mexico (Double Indemnity, 1994).

The Characters

The main casts in the movie are Walter Neff, who is the insurance salesman that plans to get insurance money by murdering a young woman’s husband. Phyllis Dietrichson is the young woman who plans the murder together with Neff. Barton Keyes is Walter’s old friend whom he dictates to his confession about the murder of Mr. Dietrichson (Double Indemnity, 1994).

Film Techniques

Double Indemnity is a brought out as a thriller film as depicted by the thrilling scenes of a well-handled murder and those of suspense that fills the tale. Suspense is used in the movie at the scene where Neff is hiding in the back of the car. Again, the scene when the gateway car is unable to start is also almost unbearable. Additionally, the scenes on the train create a lot of suspense to the viewers of the film.

Double indemnity is well sculpted by light as opposed to some black and white films. The general tone of the movie is set by the opening sequence and the credits. The lighting techniques used in the film give room for Walter’s shadow to take an unusual and meaningful space within the frame; thus acting as a menace. The shadow represents Walter’s guilty consciousness that follows him in his entire life.

Themes

Just as the title of the film goes, “Double Indemnity” is based on themes that reflect the true meaning of the movie’s name. The themes of betrayal and murder reflect a double loss that Mr. Dietrichson experiences in one setting. The theme of betrayal can be noted in the film when Phyllis Dietrichson is having an affair with the insurance agent. Again, the theme of betrayal is evident when the young woman agrees to murder her husband so that they can get the insurance money.

The double indemnity is also reflected when both Mrs. and Mrs.Dietrichson ends up dying because of the betrayal of one unfaithful partner. The murder of Mr. Dietrichson leads to a confrontation that sees Phyllis shot dead despite having completed her mission. Moreover, the insurance salesman dies after making a confession to his old friend about the incidence (Double Indemnity, 1994).

Analysis of Important Parts of the Film

The murder of the husband to Phyllis would bring the young woman a double indemnity insurance compensation. The actual events in the movie bring out the film as a homicidal melodrama that is based on sexual insinuations. The director of the film, through his careful planning and well pacing of events, with some scenes of dark humor and suspense, produced a rational crime accomplishment (Double Indemnity, 1994).

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Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God: Plot, Themes, Characters, Structure, and Personal Opinion

May 5, 2021 by Essay Writer

Their Eyes Were Watching God

Summary

Throughout the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston, the readers observe the development of a young African American woman as she chases after her dreams. The novel commences by introducing a middle aged lady, named Janie, as she walks towards her house. As she is doing so, the other residents in town gossip about her personal affairs, such as her decision to marry and to abscond with a poor young man named Tea Cake. Based on the dirty overalls she wears, they also assume that he has stolen most of her fortune. Soon after, Janie discloses her entire life story to her inquiring companion named Pheoby.

When she was young, she and her grandmother occupied a small house that was located in a white woman’s backyard. Eventually, the odd family moved into a tiny cottage of their own. Immediately upon turning sixteen, Janie began to desire the love portrayed by the bees and the blooms on the trees in her backyard. When Janie’s grandmother discovered her kissing a man, she decided it was time to marry Janie off. The grandmother chose a man called Logan Killicks, mainly because of his advanced social status and his ability to supply Janie with the protection that she could no longer provide. Months after they were married, Logan began to treat Janie harshly, such as forcing her to complete unladylike tasks.

One day, while Janie was working a rich confident man ambled by and started to act flirtatious towards her. After two weeks of secretly conversing with the man, named Jody Starks, he asked Janie to travel with him to a new black community in Florida. The next day, she deserted Logan and married Jody, and they subsequently traveled to the town. Within hours of their arrival, the couple rented a house and Jody resolved to purchase two hundred acres of land to contribute to the community. Much to the astonishment of the citizens, he successfully built a store, a post office, and constructed roads for public use. Jody soon acquired a profit, despite his contributions to the community, mainly by selling the plots of land that he had bought when he had first arrived. Later on, he was elected mayor of the town, called Eatonville, by an informal vote at a public gathering. Soon after, Janie began to feel the jealousy of the other townswomen and noticed the way in which the other men cowered before Jody, probably because of his many possessions.

Even so, the residents questioned how Janie was able to endure her husband’s mistreatment towards her. Jody prevented her from conversing on the store’s porch, and forced her to cover her beautiful hair with a rag. After spending years in these conditions, Janie internalized her thoughts and learned to hold her tongue. She realized that Jody was not the true bees to her blossoming tree, and she began to conserve herself for another man. Later on, Janie noticed how old her husband had become. Hence, when Jody began to ridicule Janie’s aging body one day, she in turn indicated to his crumbling appearance before the entire store. Janie’s spouse then retaliated by moving his belongings into another room downstairs. Later on, Jody’s health began to deteriorate, which caused Janie to send for a doctor. After the physician informed her that her husband’s death was inevitable, she delivered the news to Jody. Janie then communicated all of her unexpressed emotions to her husband, and he died moments later.

Promptly following this event, she began to express her new found freedom by uncovering her hair and participating in conversations on the store’s porch. Without delay, suitors started to travel considerable distances to flirt with her, though only one man, named Tea Cake, captured her attention. In due time, Janie began to fall in love with him, even though she feared that he only wanted her for her money. One day, the couple traveled to a town picnic in a lemon car that Tea Cake had bought just for that occasion. As a result, the new lovers became the center of much conversation. These discussions prompted Pheoby to express her fear that Janie would be taken advantage of. Janie rebuffed this statement and told of her plans to leave town, so that she could live a new life based solely on her love for her boyfriend. Shortly afterwards, the couple abandoned the community and traveled to Jacksonville, where they were married. About a week later, Tea Cake took Janie’s money and deserted her, which caused her to assume that she had been deceived. Surprisingly, her husband soon returned, using his gambling skills to earn back the money he had previously spent on a guitar and a party.

In due time, the couple moved to the Everglades before the other employees arrived, so that they could obtain a house. Once migrant work became available, Tea Cake would tend the fields while Janie remained at home. This plan turned out to be short lived, because he became so lonely that she elected to aid him in his work. As time elapsed, Janie reveled in her new freedoms and felt pity for the status obsessed citizens of her previous town. After the harvesting period was over, the newlyweds resolved to remain in the Everglades during the off season. During their time off, the couple was able to socialize and enjoy their marriage, though the new working period eventually began.

As the days passed, a large amount of people decided to evacuate the swamps because of an impending hurricane. The lovers elected to stay, though they were soon forced onto a dangerous journey because of flooding. During their trek, Tea Cake defended Janie from an attacking dog and was bitten during the struggle. The couple ultimately found a safe area and returned to their house after the cyclone. A month after this occurred, Tea Cake arrived home with a headache, though he was also having trouble eating and drinking. A doctor diagnosed him with rabies and ordered the necessary medication, though he believed that it was too late to save him. Hours later, Janie discovered a pistol under her husband’s pillow and set the gun so that it would require three pulls of the trigger to reach the ammunition. This action gave her time to act when he eventually attempted to murder her. When Tea Cake, in his paranoid state, tried to slaughter her with the weapon, she was forced to kill him to save herself. After a brief trial, Janie was acquitted of murder and was finally able to grieve over her spouse’s death. She resolved to spend her fortune on an amazing funeral for her deceased husband, and eventually returned to Eatonville.

Finished with her story, Janie tells Pheoby that she is now content to live in her previous town, since Tea Cake has fulfilled her dreams of true love. Later in bed, Janie reflects on the peace that her late husband has given her.

Themes

While examining the novel Their Eyes Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston, the contrasting themes of love and security become apparent. In the beginning of the story, Janie’s grandmother demands that she marry Logan, mainly because of a need for protection as well as social status. Janie agrees to the arrangement, even if she only longs for the love that the bees and the trees represent. Here, one can see the contrasting values between Janie and her grandmother. Janie desires the romance marriage should provide, while her grandmother, a former slave, hopes that her granddaughter will have the protection she never had. Later on, she deserts Logan and marries Jody for the material goods and protection he can provide her with. Without even realizing it, Janie herself has chosen another husband based on her grandmother’s values, based on the security he is able to provide. Thus, through every marriage the clashing ideals of passion and protection are present.

Another topic present throughout Janie’s adventure is the idea of social status, which is mainly viewed between the African Americans in their own communities. On several occasions, Jody has forbidden Janie from participating in an activity because of her advanced social status. One instance of this is the conversations on the store porch. This concept is even present during the very beginning of the novel, where the citizens of Eatonville are shocked by Janie’s overalls. Moreover, the other migrant workers are surprised that someone of Janie’s wealth would toil with people that are so below her level. Thus, social status is present in most societies, which is illustrated through Janie’s many encounters with the upper and lower classes. By analyzing Hurston’s novel, the topics of security, love, and social status become extremely discernible.

Characters

Janie- Probably the most dynamic character of the story, Janie’s journey changes her personality as well as her values. In the beginning of the novel, she is a relatively quiet child dependent on her grandmother financially and for guidance. When Janie is first wed to Logan, she still believes in her grandmother’s promises of romance coming after marriage. She eventually loses faith in her grandmother’s assurances and hopes that Jody will fulfill Janie’s dreams. As Janie performs her role as a mayor’s wife, she soon becomes extremely lonely and isolated from the rest of society. She eventually submits to her husband’s every wish, and loses her already quiet voice in the process. After Jody’s death, Janie again finds her voice and does as she pleases. After going through so much hardship, Janie seems weary of a new relationship. However, once she becomes Tea Cake’s wife, she feels the joy and fulfillment she has always desired. She becomes a hardworking and mature person that will overcome severe hardship for herself, as well as her husband. When Tea Cake eventually attempts to kill Janie, she now has enough confidence and independence to save herself. As a result of her journey, Janie truly becomes the individualistic yet loving person she is meant to be.

Tea Cake- Though he is only with Janie for a relatively short amount of time, Tea Cake’s loving and adventurous nature is all Janie hopes for in a man. Tea Cake proves himself to be a persistent person when he first meets her, since he continues to act lovingly towards her, despite her declaration that they are just friends. He treats Janie as an equal and teaches her many skills, such as how to play checkers. He is also hardworking, since instead of living off of Janie’s vast wealth, he toils in the field to support them. Janie’s spouse eventually makes the ultimate sacrifice by saving her from a rabid dog and unknowingly contaminates himself in the process.

Jody- When Jody is first introduced, he appears to be an ambitious business man that will fulfill Janie’s dreams of romance. Although, as time continues on, Jody illustrates his need for power by trading his private life for authority. He seems to be partially driven to action by his insecurities. During one such instance of this, Jody begins to mention Janie’s old age in an attempt to hide his own flaws. Though power crazed and unconfident, Jody does seem to genuinely love Janie. At times, he does attempt to make her happy, such as when he saves a mule for her approval. In trying to hide his old age, Jody refuses to see an actual doctor, which makes a simple kidney problem fatal.

Structure

As a person analyzes Their Eyes Were Watching God, unique plot structures and varying dialect become apparent to the reader. Based on the education of the character speaking, the amount of slang or grammar used differs. If one were to compare Janie’s speech abilities to that of the prosecutor’s speaking capacity during her murder trial, the differences would be extremely apparent. The prosecutor adheres to the rules of Standard English, which is evident when saying “We are handling this case. Another word out of you…”. On the other hand, Janie misuses her sentence structures and pronunciation, which is evident when she says “Ah guess standin’ in uh store do make…”. Through this tactic, the audience is able to grasp some of a character’s background through only a sentence of speech. Despite this fact, Janie utilizes proper English during her internal monologue and narration. This incredible variation is most likely used so as to not confuse the readers and to create a clearer description than only slang can provide.

Hurston also manipulates the amount of communication between Janie and the other characters, based on the events that occur. During the time that she spends with Jody, she barely converses with anyone besides her husband. However, she begins to talk with Pheoby, among other people, after his death. In this way, Hurston is able to use speech as a method of hinting at Jody’s influence over Janie, since he prevents her from speaking with the other residents. After her spouse’s death, she once again has the freedom to converse with the other characters. Because of the way in which the dialogue is used, communication seems to become a symbol of the amount of freedom Janie has at a given time.

Moreover, Janie recounts her story after she returns from her adventures with Tea Cake. This means that the readers understand the results of her journey, but not the reasons and events behind it. This can be seen as a cliffhanger, which creates suspense for the audience and prompts them to continue to read. Overall, Hurston’s use of different types of dialect, her manipulation on the amount of dialogue, and use of an original plot structure further enhances her story.

Opinion

While reading Zora Neale Hurston’s novel, one is able to view the development of an innocent girl into an independent woman. Despite this, it can occasionally become difficult to immerse oneself into the story. Occasionally, the reader is tempted to reread the conversation a character is having, because of the harsh dialect used. Though this improper grammar and spelling portrays the education of the speaker, such garbled speech can become distracting as well as confusing. Also, Hurston’s relatively simple plot can become rather tedious. Janie’s entire life is based upon the relationships she has with men, so that none of the other hardships or personality qualities she has are explored. This novel is about a woman’s relations and nothing more, which creates a one sided account of Janie’s life. Furthermore, it seems as if Janie only thinks about her relationships with one man or another, so that she never portrays any deep thinking that would have made the novel interesting. In addition, at the end of the novel, Janie claims to have been to “the horizon and back”, though she has experienced very few of the enjoyments in life. She has never longed to have a child, and thus has never enjoyed that experience. Janie’s simplistic drive to meet her soul mate causes her to lack the ability to truly enjoy the beauties of life. Because of the overly harsh dialect, simple plot, and shallow main character, some readers may not enjoy Hurston’s novel.

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Plots and Twists in Homer’s Odyssey

May 5, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Man of Twists and Turns

Throughout The Odyssey, Odysseus is on his journey for a duration of 20 years, logically leading readers to expect that the main character undergoes some sort of major transition. Although Odysseus endures many trials and tribulations, evidence of actual character development can be difficult to pinpoint. Major character development is not made abundantly obvious, thus Homer makes us thoroughly examine all aspects of Odysseus’ personality in order to be able to deem him a static or a dynamic character. While Odysseus does exhibit some behavior that would indicate a change of heart, he also falls prey to many of the same character weaknesses after he returns home, that he did while on his perilous journey. In most of Homer’s works, the characters are viewed unanimously as static. However, if Odysseus does in fact undergo change, he would be considered the only exception to Homer’s traditional way of character development, or lack thereof. Some say that by looking at Homer’s usual characters, along with the unchanged characteristics of Odysseus in both the beginning and end of the epic, Odysseus is yet another static Homeric character. Although some aspects of Odysseus remain the same, I would consider those unchanging, foundational aspects of his personality, and that Odysseus exhibits enough change to be considered a dynamic character.

Throughout the course of the epic, Odysseus becomes increasingly more capable of recognizing the importance of humility and temperance in certain situations. In the start of his journey home, Odysseus fails miserably, such as in the case of his encounter with the Cyclops. After barely escaping death by Cyclops, as Odysseys sails away he boastfully taunts, “Cyclops – if any man of the face of the earth should ask you who blinded you, shamed you so – say Odysseus, raider of cities, he gouged out your eye, Laertes’ son who makes his home in Ithaca!” (227.558-562), which irritates Poseidon, who in turn places a curse upon Odysseus and his crew. However, Odysseus appears to have learned from his foolishness when he patiently waits to reveal his identity to the king and queen of Scheria, and by the time he reaches home in Ithaca, he is even capable of waiting days before revealing himself. Odysseus’ encounter with the Cyclops reveals his struggles with not just patience, but pride as well. However, in this characteristic he has clearly changed because by the time he gets home, he is not only not revealing his identity, but even assuming a different identity, of a humble beggar at that, making his dampening of pride that much more noticeable.

Odysseus’ primary desire to return to Ithaca also makes a transition throughout the epic, shifting from primarily kleos to almost solely nostos. Odysseus makes many stops throughout his journey, seeing that it did last for 20 years, but his enjoyment of each stop lessened substantially as his desire to just be back home in Ithaca grew. In the beginning of the epic, when he and his crew stopped at Circe’s island, Odysseus’ focus on returning home all but diminished, in favor of Circe’s temptations. Although his crew’s foolishness is what forced Odysseus to venture onto the island in the first place, it was Odysseus that decided he enjoyed the island’s pleasures so much so that they should spend an entire year on the island. However, his transition form kleos to nostos is made clear by noting the drastic difference in the way he behaved while shipwrecked onto Calypso’s island, where he spends ten years, but spends them all weeping on the shore. Odysseus even tells Calypso that although Penelope, “falls far short of you, your beauty, stature… Nevertheless I long – I pine, all my days – to travel home and see the dawn of my return” (159.239-243). Odysseus’ kleos was achieved after defeating Troy, but it would not be completed without homecoming. However, it is clear from his encounter with Calypso, and after over twenty years of being away, he simply wants to arrive back to Ithaca because it is his home.

Odysseus displays impetuousness throughout the epic, and though he displays this character flaw again in Ithaca, I believe it is due to a circumstance that requires special attention. Towards the beginning of the novel, as Circe is informing Odysseus of how to escape the perils he will soon encounter, he interrupts her to ask if it would be possible to just fight Scylla instead, using his sheer power to keep Scylla from snatching six men, to which Circe responds by vehemently scolding his characteristic hotheadedness and arrogance. When Odysseus and his crew finally do reach Scylla, although he does follow instructions and command his men to row faster, he has a lapse in judgment and falls back into character by putting on his armor in preparation for a fight, which Circe explicitly instructed him not to do. Once Odysseus reaches Ithaca, some say that evidence of change would be clear if Odysseus had just taken control of his estate and has the suitors leave. He instead slays every last one, which some say provides evidence of his lack of change. However, it is important to note that the suitors’ grisly fate was determined by Athena. It is unclear whether or not Odysseus would have chosen this fate without her, but, according to the text, Odysseus does realize the good in Amphinomus. However, “even then Athena had bound [Amphinomus] fast to death at the hands of Prince Telemachus and his spear” (18.178-179), along with all the other suitors. Thus, we cannot undoubtably say whether or not Odysseus’ hotheadedness has cooled because Athena sealed the suitors’ gruesome fate, so Odysseus was not able to decide for himself to exhibit more temperance. However, judging by the vast improvements he makes in his other weaknesses, it is possible that Odysseus is a stronger, wiser man, even in his overzealous willingness to fight, the area for which he is famed.

Throughout the epic, Odysseus makes impressive strides in his weakest areas of pride, patience, impetuousness, and even transitions his motivation to return home to Ithaca. In regards to pride and patience, the increasing length of time Odysseus takes to reveal his identity is proof of great change, thus indicating that he realizes life is not all about exulting one’s accomplishments. Likewise, on Calypso’s island, he spends ten years pining for Ithaca and his wife, which is completely opposite from his indulgent behavior on Circe’s island, showing proof of a wiser, more rational Odysseus. Furthermore, when looking at the characteristic of impetuousness, it is impossible to unquestionably tell what actions Odysseus would have taken had Athena not chosen the more violent route for him. But by acknowledging his improved track record, we can deduce that it is probable he would have at least given more thought to who he would have slayed and who would have spared, seeing as though he realizes Amphinomus’ goodness. It is important to realize Odysseus’ change of heart because it allows us to deepen our understanding of The Odyssey, as well as distinguish this epic from Homer’s other works. Homeric pieces are generally centered around a static main character, which vastly differs from characters in more modern works. However, if we decide that Odysseus does, in fact, break the Homeric mold, this is of great importance, especially since the legitimacy of Homer and the historical events in The Odyssey are already questionable. Thus, if The Odyssey is Homer’s curveball in regards to his typical style of character development, it is important to know why, as well as whether or not a dynamic Odysseus has larger implications for the historicity and legitimacy of the work as a whole. Therefore, understanding the changing aspects of Odysseus could be a key to providing clarity to a fuzzy, but infinitely significant period in human history.

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