Pablo Neruda Poems
Internal Struggle in “El Viento en La Ilsa” (“The Wind on the Island”): How Can We Choose?
In the poem, “El Viento en La Isla,” Pablo Neruda develops the theme of internal struggle by using vocabulary and images of nature and love. This allows him to illustrate, rather than simply tell of, his own inner struggle: to stay with his lover, or to pursue his political career as a socialist. Throughout the poem, he also writes with rhetorical figures, such as metaphors and personification, to show the strong influence that the two choices have on him.
To develop the theme of internal struggle, Neruda uses short stanzas to have an effect of urgency and frankness. He does not have long or verbose sentences. Rather, he delivers his message in a clear and concise manner, but a manner that is still very powerful. The vocabulary in the poem at first glance seems ordinary and every day. For example, Pablo Neruda uses words related to nature such as “horse,” “sea,” “rain,” “wind,” “foam,” “shadow,” and “the lone night.” He also uses words related to the body such as “arms,” ”mouth,” “front,” “bodies,” and “big eyes.” These words are not very elaborate or complex, but when looking closer, it becomes evident that these simple and basic words can still have very deep effects and evoke strong emotions. The vocabulary related to nature and the body make his themes more clear and concrete, as they represent and symbolize his two different options. The body represents his infatuation and relationship with his lover. This love is comfortable and normal. In contrast, nature represents his pull to working in politics, the unknown, discomfort, and being isolated from his lover. Overall, Neruda uses the vocabulary of nature and the body of a lover to create contrast between his two different options. This effect is very powerful, because the message of the internal struggle is much more understandable when the reader can imagine the world as the author sees it.
Neruda also uses many rhetorical figures in his poem to help develop the theme of internal struggle. First, he uses the wind as a symbol of political work, and this choice is very important and effective. He does not simply say that he feels pressured to work in the political world with the socialists. Rather, he uses the wind, and its connotations as unpredictable and strong, as a symbol of this. It is important because the connotations with wind add a lot to Neruda’s purpose in writing this poem. Another rhetorical figure he employs is metaphors, which are equally interesting and purposeful. When Neruda writes, “The wind is a horse,” he does not describe the wind as a horse, but it says it is a horse. This metaphor helps the reader understand Neruda’s pressure to work in politics, and emphasizes his internal struggle. Lastly, Neruda uses personification when he says “Let the wind … call me and seek me galloping in the shade.” The personifications of the wind highlights the internal struggle that pursues Neruda; it does not only exist, but “runs” and “calls” and “looks.” Neruda gives life and power to the wind. Finally, Neruda uses hyperbole when he says “[the] love that burns us.” When Neruda exaggerates the feeling of love, it shows his difficulty in leaving his lover, as the wind, representing the pull of his political work, drags him away from her.
At the end of the poem, Neruda uses imagery of the wind running and galloping and him and resting with his lover. It shows his final inner struggle, between work and love, and the two dragging him in different directions. The final paradoxical image attracts the attention of many readers world wide, because like in his other poems and pieces of writing, Neruda is able to write about something relatable and global: in this case, internal struggle. Many of us know the feeling of being drawn to different experiences and opportunities, yet not wanting to leave the comfortable and known, whether it be our job, our families, or our hometown. It is amazing that through his symbolism and rhetorical figures, Neruda is able to put these feelings into words in his poem. It is interesting that in the end, Neruda does not have an obvious or definitive solution, as much as the reader might expect his struggles to be resolved. Again, as in many of his poems, he represents the humanity and the imperfection in us all. Many times, the answer is unclear, like Neruda shows in this poem, but he does get us thinking about how to ultimately make these difficult decisions.
Neruda and Impure Poetry
“Wheels that have crossed long, dusty distances with their mineral and vegetable burdens, sacks from the coal bins, barrels, and baskets, handles and hafts for the carpenter’s tool chest. From them flow the contacts of man with the earth, like a text for all troubled lyricists. . . . In them one sees the confused impurity of the human condition . . . A poetry impure as the clothing we wear, or our bodies . . . the deep penetration of things in the transports of love, a consummate poetry soiled by the pigeon’s claw, ice-marked and tooth-marked, bitten delicately with our sweatdrops and usage . . . Melancholy, old mawkishness impure and unflawed, fruits of a fabulous species lost to the memory . . . surely that is the poet’s concern, essential and absolute.” (Neruda)Pablo Neruda delineates his poetic doctrine in Toward an Impure Poetry, as a tacit reactionary statement against accusations of banality and morbidity. Therein, he justifies his work as that of a contemporary poet, emphasizing upon relevance and purpose. For unlike the stereotypical hermetic poet, Neruda was a politically conscious artist, who refused to be content with detached aestheticism and introversion. He deemed such traditional poetic notions as escapism in the twentieth century, a time fraught with conflict and disparity; when each institution of faith was crumbling, leading to a general atmosphere of confusion and uncertainty, further compounded by capitalistic, jingoistic, and industrial trends. As Ajanta Dutt explains, “poetry must be discovered through a perception of that which appears grim and destroyed, and appears from the hidden recesses of human consciousness” (xxxvi).Thus, in the modern scenario, Neruda believed it was necessary to portray these imperfections, as demonstrated by the peculiar juxtapositions in his imagery, regarding which, Dutt opines that Neruda “deliberately juxtaposes the crude against the beautiful to shock a reader out of complacency” (xxxv). For instance, in Ars Poetica: “Between shadow and space, young girls and garrisons, / saddled with a strange heart, with funereal dreams”, or “a stench of clothes scattered on the floor / and a yearning for flowers” (Dutt 7), which reflects the contradiction between the harshness of reality and the desire to surpass it. In this same poem, Neruda employs a subtle but powerful image that conveys the idea of impure poetry: “a bell cracked a little” (Dutt 7), i.e. the poetic voice cracked from hardship, releasing distorted tones of suffering and truth.Neruda asserted that contemporary poetry must be colloquial and topical instead of adhering to distant ideals; it must be rooted to the reality from which it arises. As he claimed in Ordinance of Wine, “I speak to things that exist. Heaven forbid / that I should invent things when I am singing” (Dutt 80). Therefore, he vouched for poetry which transcends personal boundaries to reflect upon the universal from an individual perspective. The poet must seek to cure the world he inhabits, and thus, he can no longer afford to immure himself in fancies. He must feel an obligation to share his visions with his readers, as articulated in Ars Poetica: “the morning’s rumours afire with sacrifice / now beg of me this prophecy I have” (Dutt 7). The poet must seek to purge the universal anguish through the power of association, and educate through his verse, so the readers may make a tangible effort to bring about the much-needed change. For “the verse falls to the soul like dew to the pasture” (Dutt 6). Though this line is quoted out of context from Tonight I can Write . . . , it embodies Neruda’s idea of poetry and its motives.Such altruism identifies Neruda with visionaries like Tagore, Brecht, and Dario Fo, and this concern continued to grow with his age, as reflected by his corpus and his inclusion into the Communist Party in 1939.“Arise to birth with me, my brothergive me your hand out of the profounddepth of your disseminated sorrows” (Dutt 30)“Show me: your blood and your furrow;say to me; here I was scourgedbecause a gem was dull or because the earthfailed to give on time its tithe of corn or stone” (Dutt 46)Neruda’s Marxist sentiment is more than evident in these lines from Canto General. He understood his role as the voice of an oppressed people, “give me all the pain of everyone, / I am going to transform it / into hope” (Dutt 66). He felt a genuine empathy towards the tormented masses, and implored them to unite and overcome their misery—this was Neruda’s constant endeavour, his message of hope for the proletariat. For as he symbolically emphasized in Ode to Autumn, their strength lay in their numbers:“It is difficult to take downall the leaves fromall the trees ofall the countries” (Dutt 65)Moreover, in the lines: “proletariat of petals and bullets, / alone alive, somnolent, resounding” (Dutt 8), one finds the same hope in explicit poetic candour. The future lies with the proletariat, they must realize their latent potential—the glorious heritage behind them—and buckle up against the horrors of the present. In such lines, Neruda posits his typical Communist optimism.* * *Brought up in postcolonial Chile, Neruda witnessed the implicit dichotomies and contradictions of the Latin American milieu, and strived to depict them in his work. For example, in Discoverers of Chile: “Shadows of thorns, shadow of thistle and wax, / the Spaniard meeting with his dry figure, / watching the sombre strategies of the terrain” (Dutt 9). In this barren imagery, Neruda captures the complexity of perceptions between the two civilizations. The natives, through the ‘shadow’ motif, are seen as simple and uncivilized in contrast to the Spanish ‘discoverers’. Also, “all silence lies in its long line” (Dutt 9); silence remains a constant motif in Neruda’s poetry; here, it denotes the ravaged aspect of colonized Chile. Therefore, Enrico Mario Santi describes Neruda as “fiercely anti-intellectual, a political militant . . . the embodiment of the Latin American Poet” (70). A sentiment shared by the Swedish Academy while awarding Neruda the 1971 Nobel Prize and recognizing him as “the poet of violated human dignity,” who “brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams” (Santi 70). Apropos of this, a parallel may be drawn to the growth of ‘magical realism’ in Latin American literature, for its proponents too were driven by a socio-political consciousness, and the genre allowed them to express their discontentment with their circumstances in the guise of fantastical fiction.The Spanish Civil War played a significant role in formulating Neruda’s activism, as he strived to voice his resentment against the horrors of fascism in his adopted country. Susnigdha Dey explains, “In such a situation, poetry cannot remain as a specimen of belles lettres. It cannot remain any more as pure” (Chilean Poetry 29). For art reflects life, and so the aware artist could no longer lose himself in ‘art for art’s sake’ when everything around him was being torn apart. Owing to such sinister preoccupations, Jon M. Tolman points out a distinctive trait of Neruda’s poetry with regard to his conception of time: “each moment as it passes emerges into a silent, slowly accumulating menace that fills his environment, oppressive in its weight. Time grows like a parasitic plant, eating away at life. In this way, the time symbol serves as a bridge between the related themes of death and of solitude” (Dey, Pablo Neruda 40). Herein, one sees the effect Neruda wished to create: to portray the pervading despair as a mundane quotidian reality. Again, one might recall similar themes inherent in ‘magical realism’, as elaborated upon by Gabriel García Márquez in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech.Neruda on Residence on the Earth: “These poems should not be read by the youth of our country. They are poems which are soaked by a pessimism and a terrible anxiety. They do not help to live, they help to die” (Dey, Pablo Neruda 41). These lines betray the young poet’s hesitation and uncertainty; understandably, Neruda, at least at the onset, was sceptical about the ramifications of his work. He had an immense but unsure concern for his compatriots, who were still “learning to build and to read” (Dey, Pablo Neruda 46). Nonetheless, his convictions had matured by the time he wrote Third Residence (1947), where “he held out a promise of uniting the lone wolf’s walk with the walk of man” (Dey, Pablo Neruda 42). Subsequently, he strived for a political purpose beyond pure aesthetics (Agosin 89), and post-Canto General, he finally completed the difficult transition from obscurity to clarity for the sake of his readers (Dey, Pablo Neruda 46-47). As Dutt elaborates, “His purpose is to strip his writings of any distorted or complex factors that may impede the understanding of the reader. His tone is optimistic and positive” (xxxix). Canto General reflects Neruda’s concern for the individual, it speaks of “‘invisible men,’ so that the poem becomes the collective chronicle of a people. Neruda, like Walt Whitman, is a minstrel who transmits as well as transforms the history of his continent” (Agosin 92). In the poet’s own words: “Poetry is like bread, and it must be shared by everyone” (Dutt 65). Thus, the poet must disseminate his ideals so they may be emulated, such as the one claimed in The Way Spain Was: “How in the depths of me / grows the lost flower of your villages” (Dutt 8).* * *In the essay, Pure and Impure Poetry, Robert Penn Warren traces the dogma of pure poetry through various sources ranging from Sidney to Poe. However, he avers, “Poetry wants to be pure, but poems do not” (229). In realizing this individuality of a literary work and its relation to the circumstances of creation, Warren further quotes George Santayana to justify the intrusion of ‘impure’ aspects into a poem: “Philosophy, when a poet is not mindless, enters inevitably into his poetry, since it has entered into his life. . . . Poetry is an attenuation, a rehandling, an echo of crude experience; it is itself a theoretic vision of things at arm’s length” (249-50).Thereafter, Warren presents his own view of poetry: “the good poem must, in some way, involve the resistances; it must carry something of the context of its own creation . . . a good poem involves the participation of the reader; it must, as Coleridge puts it, make the reader into ‘an active creative being’” (251). These ideas correspond to those of Neruda, and in fact, one might be tempted to say that Neruda took them a step further due to his impassioned dedication.Works ConsultedAgosin, Marjorie. Canto General: The Word and the Song of America. Neruda, Walcott and Atwood: Poets of the Americas. Ed. Ajanta Dutt. Delhi: Worldview-Book Land, 2010. 87-95. Print.Ajanta Dutt, ed. Neruda, Walcott and Atwood: Poets of the Americas. Delhi: Worldview-Book Land, 2010. Print. All quotations are taken from this edition.Bowers, Maggie Ann. Magic(al) Realism. London: Routledge-Taylor, 2007. Print.Dey, Susnigdha. Chilean Poetry: From the Epic to the Mundane. Neruda, Walcott and Atwood: Poets of the Americas. Ed. Ajanta Dutt. Delhi: Worldview-Book Land, 2010. 24-31. Print.—. Pablo Neruda: The Poet. Neruda, Walcott and Atwood: Poets of the Americas. Ed. Ajanta Dutt. Delhi: Worldview-Book Land, 2010. 36-48. Print.Márquez, Gabriel García. Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech. 1982. Trans. Marina Castaneda. Background Prose Readings. Comp. Ajay Malhotra. Delhi: Worldview-Bookland, 2002. 181-86. Print.Neruda, Pablo. Toward an Impure Poetry. 1935. Web. 12 Oct. 2011.
Nature’s Heartache and Despair in Neruda’s “Girl Lithe and Tawny”
Pablo Neruda’s “Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair” use nature as a common motif to express his feelings of love towards a woman and the loneliness he feels being with her. An example of such work is found in his poem, “Girl Lithe and Tawny”. In each stanza, Neruda uses stylistic imagery of nature and its powerful beauty to help express his love and appreciation for an absent woman that he loves.Beauty in the world can often be seen in nature, which is both powerfully dark and frightening, yet at the same time also pleasant and lovely. The natural world is beautiful simply because it is natural; it has existed before the beginnings of human kind and does not follow the ways of humanity, but instead influences and affects man. It has the ability to captivate humanity by its stunning beauty, but at the same time it is also able to destroy. It is an all-powerful force that can occasionally, by its own will, take the lives of human beings, destroy surroundings, and evoke feelings of pain and despair. In his poetry, Neruda combines these seemingly opposite perspectives of nature to symbolically express the feelings he has towards his lover, who brings him joy and adoration, yet at the same time causes him pain and sadness.In the first stanza of the poem “Girl Lithe and Tawny”, Neruda says “and your mouth has the smile of the water”. Neruda compares the woman’s smile to “the water” symbolically in order to help the reader understand the depth of the woman’s beauty in his eyes. In this case, he is comparing her smile to water, which is vast, deep and powerful. Water is also essential to the human body, which helps Neruda explain the extent of his love for her in the fact that he needs her smile like the human body needs water. On the other hand, water can easily also be deadly in many different ways to humankind, bringing pain and anguish. By comparing the “girl” of the poem and her smile to water, Neruda is exposing both sides of his lover: both the beauty and depth of her smile that he adores, but also the deep despair and pain it brings him.In the second stanza, Neruda again uses a powerful image of nature to express the opposing combination of love and pain he feels, this time comparing his lover to a black sun; “a black yearning sun is braided into the strands of your black mane, when you stretch your arms”. Neruda takes an object of nature that is cheery and bright, and makes it dark and mysterious. A sun is usually perceived to be pleasant and warm, which Neruda uses to express the beauty of her “black mane.” At the same time, however, the girl has taken a sun and made it black, a color of darkness and death. Using such a melancholy color as black for an object so radiant as the sun helps Neruda express the seemingly contradictory feelings of joy and sadness he feels for his lover. The fact that the sun is extremely powerful as the universal source of life for human beings helps Neruda explain the depth of influence this woman and her beauty have on him. She is capable, through her beauty (in this case, her black hair), of influencing him and bringing life to him. She is so significantly powerful in his life, however, that she is also capable of virtually destroying him.In the third stanza, Neruda compares the woman of the poem to “the frenzied youth of the bee”. A bee is significant in the existence of nature; it helps flowers bloom and grow. A bee is responsible for making the flowers and plants around it successfully bloom, making the natural world thrive beautifully. In this sense, Neruda is saying that his lover is like a bee to him; her presence helps him thrive, grow and survive. A bee, however, is also dangerous; it is easily capable of inflicting pain when it feels threatened in any way. By comparing the girl of the poem to a bee, he is saying that he is livened through the presence she has in his life, but that she also brings him pain and anguish, a recurring theme Neruda uses in the poem in his images of nature.In the final stanza, Neruda uses another seemingly contradictory natural image to express the various feelings he has towards his beloved. In the third line, he states “dark butterfly, sweet and definitive…” A common perception of a butterfly is a pleasant and beautiful little creature that lightly decorates nature with its presence. It does not, in any way, bring harm or pain to anyone by its presence. Neruda, however, brings a variation to this common perception by describing his lover as a “dark butterfly”. By using the word “dark,” Neruda immediately adds a feeling of mystery and dread to a creature of sweet beauty. The word “dark” inflicts a sense of sadness and hopelessness, an emotion which Neruda seems to imply throughout the poem in talking about his lover. Although he believes the woman of the poem to be sweet and beautiful like a butterfly, he is hindered in his joy with a feeling of sadness, the darkness that brings him pain even in his love.Neruda’s use of nature as a poetic expression of the coexisting feelings of love and sadness he feels towards his lover are profound in the understanding of the poem. By relating his lover to seemingly contradictory images such as “dark butterfly” and “black yearning sun,” he is able to explain the depths of his emotion for the mentioned woman. His indirect symbolic imagery leaves the interpretation up to the reader, but the feelings he expresses are obvious and powerful and strongly convey Neruda’s passion for the woman he loves and the deep heartache he suffers.
A Battle between Love and Despair: “Tonight I Can Write” by Pablo Neruda
Love and despair do not look alike at first, someone could think that when you are in love you do not feel despair and when you feel desperation is because you may have lost the one you loved. Although for Pablo Neruda, love and despair go together, love can drive someone madness and despair can strengthen the love you felt. Neruda’s most famous work Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair (1924), collides two huge feelings that all lovers have felt once throughout time. This verse collection is composed of twenty love poems and one song of despair that unites all common themes of the previous poems. Throughout the twenty poems, it can be seen a changed in theme as it began describing the sensuality and passion towards one of the author’s lovers and towards the last poems it changes to a melancholy tone, feeling regret and loneliness, and to close “A Song of Despair”, is bitter and hopeless as the poetic voice has a constant reminder of the loss of his lover.
Poem XX, “Tonight I Can Write”, joins love and despair as the poetic voice goes through an internal battle about his current feelings towards his lover while he realizes she is gone. “Tonight I Can Write”, brings out all the past romantic feelings from the previous poems, realizing that the poetic voice is alone with only memories of what his lover once was. The scenario of the poem is a cold and clear night, where the sky is full of stars and nothing can listen but the poetic voice laments, “Tonight I can write the saddest lines. / Write, for example, ‘The night is shattered / and the blue stars shiver in the distance.’”(1-3), the first three lines introduces the readers to a melancholy mood, as the poetic voice begins saying “Tonight I can write the saddest lines” (1), stating that he is no longer with his lover, and that even the night is broken because she has left and the small hope left is starting to dispel as the blue stars in the distance, with this two lines the reader can have a vivid image of the place the speaker is in, realizing everything is arrange for the speaker to have a constant reminder of the love he has lost, as the blue stars bring coldness and sadness to the line and the fact he sees the stars shivering in the distance he may be hallucinating due to the pain he feels (Saunders). There is a repetition of the first line (“Tonight I can write the saddest lines” (5)), keeping the sorrow the speaker feels as he realizes how lonely his life has become with the absence of his lover. In line 6 after the repetition, the speaker declares how much he loved the unnamed woman but he still feels heartbroken as he would never know if she loved him back as much as he did. The night described by the poetic voice is later going to be compared by the time the speaker was with his lover, “Through nights like this one I held her in my arms / I kissed her again and again under the endless sky.” (7-8), now the sky seems as infinity where time does not fly only because he is with his lover, but once she left, the night is a constant reminder of his loneliness and emptiness (lines 2-3). From line 1-10, the speaker makes the first comparison between having his lover with him and not being with her, “How could one not have loved her great still eyes.” (10), exposing how lonely and bleak he feels without her, and only having his memories to survive. Along these lines, Neruda expose the constant relation of love and despair, as he still loves his beloved which made him be in constant madness knowing she is not coming back.
According to Saunders, Neruda finds his way to express in the most sincere and direct way how his heart cries for his beloved, using unadorned simplicity of expressions, in contrast to the poems before, Poem XX is meant to be direct and implicit, sending a direct message to the reader of the broken soul of the poetic voice.“ Tonight I can write the saddest lines./ To think that I do not have her. To feel that I have lost her.” (11-12), again in line 11, there is a repetition of the opening line, which turns into a plaintive refrain, stating afterward his despair of not being with her, seeing the night immense and the loneliness even more. Line 14 has a simile “And the verse falls to the soul like dew to the pasture.” (14), comparing the nature to his pain, the speaker enhances his pain and does not let go the departure of his beloved, the speaker uses the verses to express all the love he feels and how each time it increases as he realizes she is not coming back. Along the verses Neruda is going through the process of understanding and accepting slowly that he would never be with his lover again, for this he compares repetitively himself to nature, as “The night is [shattered] starry and she is not with me.” (16), bringing darkness and sorrow and later introducing the emptiness of his soul. Throughout this poem the speaker finds himself tied to his lover as he permanently states he cannot believe she is not there, “My soul is not satisfied that it has lost her.” (18), driving himself insane which only intensifies his melancholy and love towards her. Neruda uses nature to compare his pain or passion in his poems, in Poem XX nature is a constant reminder of darkness and loneliness, as he describes a cold clear night sky where his only companions are the stars that even start to fade off.
The poetic voice is going through a process of acceptance of his loneliness, as he still looks for her without any success, from line 19-21 Neruda add the speaker sense and the reader can start feeling the desperation once again as it says “My sight tries to find her as though to bring her closer. / My heart looks for her, and she is not with me.” (20-21), the poetic voice goes in circles trying to catch her when he knows she is not there, he is slowly surrendering to the fact he lost her but before he would try to bring her back with all he remembers about her. He tries to keep normality as he compares his memories to the night, seeing everything keeps the same but his soul. Slowly he is letting her go, freeing himself of the pain and letting the pain go, “I no longer love her, that’s certain, but how I loved her.” (24). So close of letting go the speaker contradicts himself again as saying he still loves her but it would take a lot to forget her. Every time a similar scenario as the lonely night comes by (“Because through nights like this one I held her in my arms / my sould is not satisfied that it has lost her.” (31-32)), he would remember her and he would go through all the pain and love again just to find out she will not come back. The speaker would go through a cycle of love, pain, and contradiction to survive the loneliness he lives in. After he has admitted he misses her and nature has heard his sorrows, the only person he cares about and needs to hear him is her beloved that would never know how much he misses her (Saunders), “My voice tried to find the wind to touch her hearing.” (25), that is his only request and need, that her lover hears him. The last two lines conclude all the pain Neruda has expressed from the first to the last line, he states he would let her go only to free himself of the pain only to know that he would continue suffering every lonely night.
Neruda goes through passion and sensuality from the first poems to feeling sorrow and pain for the same lover leaving him behind. This last poem before the song of despair joins all the feeling towards her lover to say goodbye to her, but before letting her go he feels every kind of pain as he compares his nowadays life to what he lived with her. Poem XX is the goodbye to sadness an attachment as Neruda last wrote: “Though this is the last pain that she makes me suffer / and these the last verses that I write for her.” (33-34), he would leave behind his melancholy to free himself of a broken heart. his will was that his lover heard his verses to feel his sadness but instead every reader felt how his loud love drove him insane and how moments of despair remembered him how much he loved her. “Tonight I Can Write” is a constant contradiction of letting go but fearing to forget the true love he once had.
Neruda, Pablo. Twenty Poems of Love and a Song of Despair. Penguin, 1924. Saunders, Cliff. “Critical Essay on ‘Tonight I Can Write’.” Poetry for Students, edited by Elizabeth Thomason, vol. 11, Gale, 2001. Literature Resource Center, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/H1420035975/LitRC?u=morg77564&sid=LitRC&xid =7aee52e3. Accessed 11 Nov. 2018.