Malcolm Gladwell’s Outlier: Analyzing The Theme Of Success
“If you work hard enough and assert yourself, and use your mind and imagination, you can shape the world to your desires.” In the world of Malcolm Gladwell’s Outliers, however, this isn’t always the case. In his book, Malcolm believes that we look at the wrong factors when considering an outlier’s success, like their intelligence. Instead of the factors that we see face to face, he believes that we should take a closer look at the environment the outlier was first in; introducing new factors that challenge the above quote and how we think about these successful people in the first place.
Malcolm Gladwell starts off by showing the reader a roster of a hockey team, asking us if there is anything peculiar or strange about the list. Admittedly, I did not see any oddities at first glance. The author then introduces Roger Barnsley, the psychologist who discovered the initially unseen phenomenon: Many of the team’s players were born in the first months of the year. The pattern remained the same no matter where Roger looked. Roger found that 10 percent of the world’s best were born in the last three months of a year, in comparison to 40 percent being born in the first three months of the year (Gladwell 23).
The reason for this oddity was quite simple: “…the eligibility cutoff for age-class hockey is January 1.” (Gladwell 24). As a result, it can result in an 11-month difference between someone who is born in January and someone who is born in December. Therefore, those born earlier in the year are more physically and mentally mature than those born later, making them more likely to be chosen for the rep squad. The rep squad gives you a better experience in every way: Better coaching, better teammates, and more practice. The small advantage a January kid had in his age has grown to having better conditions in his environment, making him more likely to reach the big leagues. This head start can discourage those who were not born early, discouraging them from participating. The same effect is seen in other sports teams (save basketball), and even in a school environment. Unfortunately, according to Malcolm, this cutoff phenomenon is a result of how we as a society “think about success”. He lists the solutions needed if these cutoff dates were acknowledged, like separating by birth month. He soon realizes that his solutions are useless, as our society still clings to the idea that success is based on the individual, and not about “the rules we choose to write as a society.” (Gladwell 33).
In the next chapter, Malcolm introduces the 10,000 Hour Rule, a theme that reoccurs throughout the book. Citing several examples and instances throughout the chapter, Malcolm believes that 10,000 hours is required to reach a world-class expertise in anything. This point alone qualifies the first part of his assertion, but as we later find out, there is still some luck to achieving the success these people had found. He begins with Bill Joy, who was interested in math and engineering before walking into “the happiest of accidents”.
Bill Joy had stumbled into the University of Michigan’s Computer Center by accident in 1971, and he was hooked. The university was one of the first to use time-sharing, which was a huge improvement over its predecessors. It got rid of the punch cards used previously and replaced them with terminals, allowing multiple people to program at once. When interviewed about these computers later on, Bill even said that it made programming “fun”. This was the lucky opportunity that Bill Joy had when he attended the University of Michigan, and he made the most of it. Bill would program for such a long time that he would spend “more time in the Computer Center than on my classes” (Gladwell 45). He even made use of a bug that allowed him to bypass the normal time limits the school gave him. Because of his lucky chain of occurrences, Bill Joy was able to rewrite a better UNIX and create Sun Microsystems with ease.
To support his 10,000 Hour Rule, Malcolm uses the origin stories of The Beatles and Bill Gates. He notes that The Beatles are who they are today because of Hamburg, Germany. In 1940, the high school rock band was invited to play in Hamburg. They played every day for 270 days, giving them the ten thousand hour practice they needed to breakout in the United States. Bill Gates’ story is similar to Bill Joy, even though his initial upbringings are different. Bill Gates was born into a wealthy family, which gave him some advantages that are explained later on. Because of the school’s Mothers’ Club, Bill started programming with a time-share computer in 1968, three years before Bill Joy. When the money ran out, Bill Gates continued programming at the Computer Center Corporation offices until they went bankrupt. After that, Bill and his friends worked at Information Sciences Inc., getting free computer time to program in exchange for working on an automating program. In a seven-month period, Bill and his group clocked 1,575 hours or an average of eight hours a day. Bill still managed to receive opportunities to practice despite crashing the main system, meaning he was luckier than Bill Joy.
The author makes it clear to the reader that the environment an outlier is raised in can mean everything. His next topic is about Chris Langan, considered by the media to be the smartest man in the world. Chris has proven his intellect multiple times throughout his life, including on the game show 1 vs. 100. He had a vigorous summer routine during high school, studying various topics every day. Because of his smarts, he would only attend school when necessary. As we later find out, however, Chris’ life wasn’t always this way. Chris’ family was very poor, often wearing tattered clothing and having little food. He has had multiple dads, three of them dying on separate occasions. His fourth dad was abusive, only leaving the family when Chris had managed to physically knock him out. At Reed, his first college, Chris’ mother forgot to fill out their family’s financial statement. At Montana State, his car broke down and prevented him from attending his early morning classes. When he tried to get it fixed, his adviser denied Chris due to his previous performance at Reed. Both experiences ultimately discouraged him from pursuing an academic career altogether. To his brother Mark, it made “absolutely no sense to me when he left that” (Gladwell 95). Even though he was very intelligent and put in a lot of work, an unfortunate chain of events prevented him from making the most of his academic potential.
Malcolm notes that Chris’ life story is a parallel to Robert Oppenheimer, who was also considered a genius when he was a kid. When Robert attended Cambridge University, his tutor forced him into experimental physics instead of theoretical physics. This eventually pushed him to poison his tutor with chemicals. Instead of being criminally charged or expelled from the school, Robert was strangely put on probation. This was the same person who directed the Manhattan Project with Leslie Groves, so what was the difference? The reason was found in a recent study done by Annette Lareau. After following the daily lives of twelve families, Annette found that the rich and the poor raised their children differently. The study showed that the wealthier parents were more involved in their children’s lives than those who were poor, often asking questions about their teachers and classmates. Wealthy parents would intervene in their children’s education if something felt wrong to them, while poor parents did nothing and practically expected the teacher to do their job. This causes their children to act similarly to their parents when faced with people in authority. This was the reason for Oppenheimer’s success as a genius: He was born in the wealthiest neighborhoods of Manhattan and was the child of successful people. At 12 years old, he was able to talk to a crowd of older geologists and rock collectors. Because of the environment he was raised in, Oppenheimer was able to take on life’s challenges successfully. The same could not be said for Chris and his brothers. According to Mark, their abusive dad is the reason for their “true resentment of authority” (Gladwell 110). He did not have a parent who helped him communicate with people of authority. Without a community to prepare him for the outside world, his mind couldn’t make an impact on the world.
In conclusion, Outliers presents a new take on what it means to be an outlier, to be a success. Outliers tells us that success is not guaranteed even if we work hard enough. There is luck involved in reaching success, and most of that luck is determined as soon as you are born.
David And Goliath By Malcolm Gladwell: The Idea Of “The Beaten Dog In A Fight”
How many time do we try to dress up just to put ourselves become someone we are not familiar? People would like to hear stories about the underdog, but rather than that, everyone loves to be a top dog! But it is unrealistic because not everyone is the same. The story “David and Goliath,” written by Malcolm Gladwell, introducing a new idea of being an underdog by a true story from history. Each chapter I have read so far reflected a lot of specific examples of how things do not happen in the way people want to be. And also, this book challenges the readers to look at things in another perspective ways that we rarely thought of before.
The story “David and Goliath” itself is an example, which reflects the idea behind “the beaten dog in a fight” (The Shorter Oxford Dictionary, Third Edition, 1983). The book begins with a story between David and Goliath, the outsider against the insider. It is where the new word underdog brings out its metaphor. So what is exactly the meaning of an underdog? In short, an underdog is a person in the society, who popularly expected to lose. Whereas, the individual expected to win is called a top dog. The story digs into the ideas which are entered the reader’s languages for a metaphor as a victory by a weak party over the strong one. From the beginning, no one put the fate into David, a shepherd boy who volunteered to beat the Giant Goliath, even King Saul and the Israelites make the same mistakes. They don’t realize the real power can come from the invisible forms of all kinds. The giant makes fun, criticizes and even threatens, but it does not stop David from moving up and killing Goliath. Facing the difficulty odds help us empower the greatness in our inner strength. ” David refused to engage Goliath in close quarters, where he would surely lose” (Gladwell 28).
The willingness to try hard, to go through difficulty has defined the loser and winner. It’s happened the same to David when he uses the unconventional method to defeat the Giant. He refuses to come closer to Goliath, ignores to fight in the way the stronger wants, and win the battle in another wiser way. David is a shepherd boy, who always work in the dirty, dangerous place. But it taught him many skills the deal with the world through being a shepherd. When King Saul wants to dress David with full body armor, he refused to do so. Instead, he only uses his leather to be the weapon. That is because he has enough self-knowledge and self-confident to assure he does right. I have been an underdog numerous times in my life. It used to have some negative influences on me, which leads to low self-esteem, inferiority complex and loss of motivation. Gladwell’s idea of using the biggest weakness to identify one’s strength has affected my life a lot. I was born and lived as an underdog in a corrupt country. I spent my school years to absorb a bad and communist-influenced education, which prevent me from reaching my goal. In my earlier memory when I was a child, money was the only measure that people judged each other. Everything swings around cash. Unfortunately, I was naturally born to be poor. Nevertheless, facing the difficulty odds produce the greatness, and being an underdog produces changes on me. Being poor has shaped me into the person I am now. It teaches me to manage to live with a little amount of money.
Moreover, I have a home, a family with parents and an older brother, supporting me not only financial but also in mental, give me many changes to success in life. The misunderstanding of our disadvantages makes us easily give up or follow our challenges. Gladwell brings the idea of exploring our limitation as well as our opponent’s. Who could take such a courageous action in the fearful circumstances? The fight between David and Goliath has guided us the way to face the challenges: As long as we know our advantages and disadvantages, we can do whatever we want. For example, I am an immigrant from Vietnam two years ago. At that moment, I could not speak or understand English. I lost my self-confidence whenever I try to communicate with people.
However, I have a family who always believes in me, encourage me to face these difficulties. I use my biggest disadvantage to push me to learn and practice English frequency; and since I registered Mission College, my English has improved a lot. The perseverance to adapt difficulty makes me identify my strength. Being underdogs has changed the perspectives that we rarely appreciate the disadvantages and advantages. As long as we can be ourselves, we can face through difficulties and achieve success. If people judge you, that is their problem, not yours! We owe no one an explanation. Just do the best in life and stop overwhelm yourself. It is very tough to meet other people’s expectations, and we should not strive to do that. A starting from bottom gives us a unique perspective about how it takes to move our platforms to the next level. And the ability to be humble, empathetic are skills that make us stand out from the crowd!
Review Of Malcolm Gladwell`S Book “Outliers”
In the general view today, a predominant piece of society have come to envision that the building blocks of accomplishment are inside the personality and character of the individual. On the contrary to this conviction, Malcolm Gladwell certifies in his top of the line unquestionable book Outliers that accomplishment is shaped by external powers in which certain individuals are yielded correct openings and inclinations that only one out of every odd individual is given by predetermination. Regardless of the way that his condition passes on strong affirmation to the extent these distinctive forces of date of birth, family establishment, and altogether blessed openings; helping clear the road for gaining ground, Gladwell undeniably avoids the estimation of industrious work and confirmation. Gladwell’s theory of achieving accomplishment holds some authenticity, yet he deliberately precludes the middle essence of individual effort inside his examinations. The center of advance is inside the individual’s ability to persist through inconveniences and disasters as opposed to it only including people abusing diverse outside forces.
In his first segment, Gladwell looks at the birth dates of tip top Canadian hockey players fighting in the last club facilitate. In his examination, clearly an astonishing predominant piece of the players, around 70 percent, are considered inside the underlying three months of the year. Gladwell raises, “It’s fundamentally that in Canada the capability cutoff for age-class hockey is January initial” (24). Gladwell presumes that the basic favored point of view of physical improvement prompts the kids being detached into two social events; the “ordinary” and the “unprecedented,” or more decisively communicated, the “more energetic players” and the “more settled players.” This division gives those more prepared players the benefit of better teaching and wide practice hours in their starter athletic interests. Regardless of the way that his presentation is sensible, it undermines individuals who intentionally make windows of chance by virtue of their constant character. An exceptional case that showcases such productive responsibility and valor is the record of Oscar Pistorius. Pistorius is a paraplegic that battle physically fit enemies in the London 2012 Olympics in both the 4×400 exchange and the 400M dash, making astonishing history regardless of the troublesome are had no single great position to help him on the way, anyway in spite of apparently unrealistic resistance, he fanatically arranged to meet up and no more tip top wearing event on the planet. The nature of Pistorius’ consistency and responsibility give bottomless verification in how individual will can challenge all doubts and leave a mark on the world.
In the second section of Outliers, entitled “The 10,000 Hour Rule,” Gladwell underlines this specific measure of time while deciding the distinction amongst experts and beginners. In help of this rule, Gladwell gives his perusers stories of The Beatles, Bill Gates, and Bill Joy in their individual adventures toward riches and notoriety. While portraying The Beatles early days, Gladwell notices their aggregate measure of exhibitions in Hamburg, “The Beatles wound up heading out to Hamburg five times in the vicinity of 1960 and the finish of 1962. On the primary outing, they played 106 evenings, at least five hours every night… All told, they performed for 270 evenings in a little more than 18 months” (49-50). It surely bodes well that stretched out long stretches of training liken to higher effectiveness in any territory of expertise, however Gladwell’s fundamental contention is that the inceptive chance to play such long shows for a few evenings amid the week is the thing that gave The Beatles the likelihood of turning into a capable band, and accordingly exceptionally fruitful in their melodic vocation. In spite of the fact that the Hamburg opportunity gave The Beatles an unprecedented measure of time to build up their aptitudes, Gladwell presents this data in a way that ruins the essentialness of individuals who shape their own thriving. The virtuosic guitarist Steve Vai substantiates this subject of vigorous assurance without the requirement for a “brilliant opportunity.” One may contend that he had a chance to wind up an incredible artist since his folks got him his first guitar and upheld his enthusiasm. Anyway the essential distinction is that a great many people are special with occurrences of chance that others may never experience, however the rule is that some surpassed ordinariness due to their yearning character, along these lines extending their window of chance through cognizant exertion. Mr. Vai emerges among the rest; he earned a Ph.D in music from the esteemed Berklee College of Music and is viewed as a performer that altered the style of playing guitar. To put it plainly, Mr. Vai is confirmation of not just achieving your fantasies and thriving with progress, however he epitomizes the way towards authority through quality of character.
Following Diversity In Malcolm Gladwell’s Book Outliers
Malcolm Gladwell’s Outliers is somewhat over-reaching in his attempts to ascribe success to practice and special opportunities, but, with reservations, I agree with his message. In the section, Gladwell describes the rise of prominent people in the computer science field- Bill Joy and Bill Gates, tying their huge success- Bill Joy’s version of UNIX and Gates’ work on DOS and founding of Microsoft- to the huge amount of preparation and work they were able to accomplish in relatively short periods of time. Though his chosen qualifier, 10,000 hours of practice, he details the opportunities that, when combined with huge amounts of work, allowed them to become masters of their field.
Malcolm Gladwell, somewhat repetitively, ties excellence in a field to the “10,000 hours” number, describing scenarios such as the practice utilized by aspiring musicians, comparing the hours spent in practice to their later successes. Although I hesitate to so easily compare a numerical value to success, his choices do meet the mark. Picking and choosing studies is a common practice in both the natural sciences and American politics, two fields which I hold great interest in, but Gladwell’s wonderful writing style and earnest zeal for the material tend to hold my cynicism at bay. Adding to this, too, is the introspective style Gladwell adopts in Outliers, particularly later in the book, leading me to more easily take him at his word.
Although Gladwell’s theory- nurture over nature, practice over innate skill, holds up in my opinion, I, particularly as a contrarian, like to think that those who lead themselves to more varied practices and pursuits can find success as well. The book is rather inward-aimed for a non-fiction work, and at points seems like an inner argument within Gladwell, as though he is seeking to justify his own life. As I maintain a wide variety of interests and hobbies, his arguments towards specialization being tied to success hold some merit, but, well, I find solace in the potential successes to be had from the other end of the spectrum. Gladwell’s numerous reminders of the importance of situational aids ring true, in my mind. For example, Gladwell’s continual reminders of the special benefits and opportunities had by Joy, Gates and Steve Jobs serves as an important piece of the puzzle, so to speak. Thankfully, the author does not seek a one-dimensional, singular strategy to quantify success; he introduces a myriad of factors such as innate talent, practice and opportunities to create a believable hypothesis. As such, though the central argument of the chapter- that huge amounts of work, 10,000 hours as an estimation, are required for excellence- is a bit too precise to be completely believable, I greatly appreciate the more reasoned method by which Malcolm Gladwell breaks down success into its components.
Outliers is somewhat of a difficult book for me to judge in the context of my own life; Through my own pursuits, I have aimed towards diversity, in both my schooling (Biology and Political Science majors, Computer Science minor) and hobbies (Orchestra, Debate, computers, etc). I prefer to think that a wide variety of interests and practices lends itself better to an enjoyable life, and, as well, successes in the field of my choosing. Simply put, I dislike anything that will force me to be overly specialized at the expense of a diverse, fulfilling life.
The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell
Outliers: The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell explains with the cultural and social forces that give rise to opportunistic individuals. Through a series of investigations, Gladwell insists that successful people are not self-made but; instead, defines them as an outlier as a person, “who doesn’t fit into our normal understanding of achievement.” According to Gladwell, great people consist of collaboration, specialization, place, time, and culture. An outlier’s method for success is not intellect but a blend of opportunity, time, and place. The first case study presented in book starts out by describing the reasons why most Canadian hockey players were born early in the year. The book then moves on to looking into the 10,000-Hour Rule, which states that 10,000 hours of practice will lead to mastery and prosperity in ones field; the Beatles and Bill Gates are given as noteworthy examples. Gladwell then goes on to compares two people of equivalent intelligence, Christopher Langan, a remarkable man with a high IQ and extraordinary learning aptitudes, Langan never obtained a college degree or achieved any professional recognition, and Robert Oppenheimer, a celebrated physicist who became the lead reacher responsible of the atomic bomb designed in the Manhattan Project. He explains how Oppenheimer’s influence and social standing made him a more likable and employable person. Outliers ends with an assessment of components such as national origin and education that make a person an Outlier.
Things I learned
- Opportunity– Being at the right place at the right time. Mostly luck (Samiullah).
- Timing – Vital to success in a given field.
- Upbringing leads to opportunity – The characteristics of a child’s upbringing prove to be a key factor to determine future success even more than IQ.
- 10,000 hours – It usually takes 10,000 hours to master and excel at a task. People with opportunity have the chance to do the 10,000 hours to become a master in their field. By watching the Ted Talk: The first 20 hours — how to learn anything by Josh Kaufman, I realized that their is a misconception on the 10,000 Hours Rule by saying the originator of the rule Dr. K. Anders Ericsson conducted the research and found that it takes 10,000 hours “to get to the top of an ultra competitive field in a very narrow subject”. According to Kaufman, once Outliers was released the 10,000 Hour rule was everywhere and the definition of the rule drastically changed. Originally it was it takes 10,000 hours to get to the top of an ultra competitive field, it became it takes 10,000 hours to become an expert at something, which became, it takes 10,000 hours to be good at something, then soon, it became, it became 10,000 hours to learn something(Kaufman). Which is completely false as we learn new things everyday and Kaufmann proves, “with just 20 hours of focused, deliberate practice, you can go from knowing absolutely nothing to performing noticeably well.” The book Outliers has had a very powerful impact culture and society.
- Meaningful work – If you feel there is genuine purpose to your work, it is more likely that you will work hard and find the task more enjoyable.
- Legacy – Our family values influence our behavior. Values are often passed down from generation to generation.
Success is the book’s primary theme. Much of Gladwell’s analysis involves examining intelligent, passionate, or at least aspiring individuals with great potential, often with a goal of determining the ingredients that make these individuals successful. However, Gladwell is also clearly describes what does not result in success. He states measures of intelligence such as IQ cannot be firmly linked to outstanding success, whereas hard work, opportunities, and support evidently help an individual to succeed (Samiullah).
Gladwell argues throughout Outliers that IQ, ingenuity, and place of origin may not be as important in determining success as compared to practice (Samiullah). Opportunity can take many manifestations, from access to a large number of practice hours (10,000) to the advantages provided by a high income family as proved by the example of Oppenheimer(Kaufman). Essentially, though, opportunity can be created even for those who have clear disadvantages.
In the book Gladwell explores the popular “10,000-hours rule,” which states that “10,000 hours spent practicing and refining a skill will lead to mastery of that skill.” Using many examples, Gladwell shows how extremely successful people needed access to constant practice in order to refine their abilities, irrespective of their discipline. These individuals had the opportunity and time to polish their abilities. Some of the other individuals discussed like corporate lawyers or hockey players required equivalently diligent practice in order to accomplish true expertise.
The Hill To Success In “Outliers” By Malcolm Gladwell
In the book Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell the author exclaims, “In Outliers, I want to convince you that these kinds of personal explanations of success don’t work. People don’t rise from nothing”. This demonstrates Gladwell’s purpose which is to change the world’s mind on how success does not happen overnight, it requires effort, opportunity, and help. Towards the end of the book, Gladwell begins talking about his own success that emerges from the hidden advantages and multiple opportunities that his parents and grandparents received, which is where his purpose for the book really begins. Moreover, Gladwell’s strategic organizational choice for Outliers is set by various examples. In each chapter, there are different reasons why people become successful. By choosing this organization, Gladwell makes it easy for the reader to acknowledge what he is saying. Malcolm Gladwell mentioning his own family story provides more reasoning on his purpose since it is based on a true story.
To begin with, Gladwell’s purpose of the book, Outliers is that one has to be given opportunities, be born at the right time, have the right cultural background, and have the help from others in order to become successful. An example that Gladwell states is one of the successful geniuses well known, Bill Gates who was given opportunities in order to accomplish his discovery of computer programming. As discussed in Outliers, Gates was not made successful himself. After school, he would go to an office to work on programming, but after they went bankrupt, Gates and his friends started going to the University of Washington’s library. The number of hours that Bill Gates and his friends stayed at the library accumulated to more than 10,000 hours of experience, but then again, he was not alone. Gates had his friends, parents, and the school’s help to become very successful. Moreover, Gladwell mentioning his family story towards the end of the book, it makes his purpose for the book more realistic to the reader since it contains real-life experience. In the excerpt, “A Jamaican Story,” it talks about a major civil strife in Jamaica as a possible contributor to his own current success. In addition, Gladwell describes the success of his own family as a series of lucky breaks that were not clearly designed to reach the current state. All the way from his great-great-great grandmother picking sugarcane in the plantations of Jamaica to his mother being a successful writer in Canada. This just shows how one can come from a tough background, yet receive an opportunity that can make one succeed even with those challenges, which is Gladwell’s point.
Next, throughout Outliers, Gladwell uses a specific structural organization. For each point Gladwell makes, he offers a story about success and follows it with a breakdown of the factors that caused such a fortune. An example of this use of organization is when Gladwell begins discussing The Beatles. Gladwell mentions where The Beatles originated which were full of strip clubs and bars, so they always had interesting gigs because their city lacked rock’n’roll bars. After a few years, they were sent to Hamburg, Germany and that is where George Harrison and Ringo Starr met John Lennon and Paul McCartney, who formerly had a tiny “band” themselves. They discovered each other’s dreams of becoming a rock band and created The Beatles and with more practice, they became very popular. Moreover, they would not have achieved the dreams that they wanted if it was not for the club gigs and their selection to perform in Hamburg. They had each other and the club owners supporting them. The reason why Gladwell’s family story helps this example is because Gladwell’s fate relied on a white man who had raped his great-great-great grandmother repeatedly, causing her to have a Mulatto son enough for him to avoid slavery. The riots based on racism in Jamaica allowed his mother to pursue the aspiration of education. Also, the courtesy of Mr. Chance lending her money for the University had helped shape the success in the family. Gladwell states “It takes no small degree of humility for him to look back on his life and say, ‘I was very lucky’”. This demonstrates how Gladwell and his family were very lucky to accept such great opportunities along their way. It was the dedication and the luck that granted Gladwell’s family to success, similar to the Beatles.
In addition, there are various principles represented to the reader. The “10,000-Hour Rule” is very important during the book since it is the most common ways people get the most successful at what they do. Gladwell discusses the success story of Bill Joy who went to the University of Michigan in 1971. Joy happened to come across the newly added computer center that had the most advanced systems installed and he was “hooked”. Moreover, the fact that Michigan was one of the very few that had time-sharing system computers and made it available 24/7, Joy was able to practice programming all day and night which enabled him to practice a lot more than most people in that time. Gladwell goes on to explain that no matter how talented one is and if they do not put enough practice in, they will not excel in their field. The “10,000-Hour Rule” really spoke to me in various ways. For example, during 5th grade, I started playing the clarinet. At just 12 years old, I was already joining in many extracellular activities. Since I never played an instrument before, I was very hesitant about even joining the school band thinking I was going to be awful no matter how much I practiced. Eventually, the school band teacher made me realize that I should practice a lot and even gave me some sheet music so I can achieve being a good clarinet player.
Malcolm Gladwell’s Hypothesis Of Achievement In The Outliers
Malcolm Gladwell’s Outliers: The story of success, details the inconceivable reasonings behind individuals being significantly more successful than others. Malcolm Gladwell clarifies this by dividing the book into subsections of opportunity and legacy. Malcolm Gladwell’s theory of success has shown that opportunities arise from timing, socioeconomic factors, and cultural legacies, which ultimately play a compelling role in an individual’s accomplishments. In the Outliers composed by Malcolm Gladwell which he contends that achievement isn’t brought into the world with anyone and it’s just earned by the various variables that are called The Matthew effect. Individuals study the character, knowledge, and way of life of those effective individuals, which were put into the world with those gifts that persuaded them to be fruitful. Gladwell states, “But what truly distinguishes their histories is not their extraordinary talent but their extraordinary opportunities”. Gladwell utilized his technique to demonstrate that achievement takes a great deal of training and it additionally relies upon variables, for example, age, opportunity and the perfect time. Besides, age assumes a major job as Gladwell portrayed; for example, sports and training. In hockey most players that were conceived in the early year months (January and February) would no doubt have better opportunity to be picked that the players than the ones that are conceived toward the end time of the year because of the additional season of training that they had by being brought into the world right around a year ahead as Gladwell expressed. In conclusion, Gladwell shows how age plays a primary factor in sports however he likewise shows how age assumes a major job in instruction.
Gladwell also mentions opportunities that arise from socioeconomic contributors that impact one’s success. Malcolm, at last, finds that uncommon triumphs are grounded in complex systems of conditions and legacies, asserting that cultural and network factors assume a lot bigger job in these accounts than we accept. Particularly intriguing and important is Gladwell’s exchange on scholarly accomplishment aberrations between understudies from low-, medium-, and high-salary families. Looking at the aftereffects of academic inclination tests given to New York grade-school understudies in June and August, Gladwell finds both how much understudies learn over the school year and how much understudies learn over the mid-year. Gladwell states, “Over the course of five years of elementary school, poor kids ‘out- learn” the wealthiest kids 189 points to 184 points. They lag behind the middle-class kids by only a modest amount, and, in fact, in one year, second grade, they learn more than the middle- or upper- class kids”. The outcomes are astonishing. Low-pay understudies adapt more than high-pay understudies through the span of the school year, however, high-pay understudies keep learning over the mid-year while low-salary understudies don’t. Gladwell ascribes this to the different exercises (for example day camp, exceptional classes, and so forth) that kids from increasingly favored foundations can bear, and the slight instruction support higher-pay understudies get over summer aggregates throughout the years. Gladwell along these lines distinguishes the primary issue in financial instruction aberrations as not an element of lacking assets, yet rather a distinction in the measure of learning time. To summarize, Gladwell analyzed contextual investigations that exemplified that the chances and social inheritances of the people were, in reality, the characterizing variables of progress. Malcolm Gladwell’s hypothesis of achievement has indicated that open doors emerge from timing, financial variables, and social inheritances, which eventually assume a convincing job on a person’s achievements. The creators’ contention essentially expresses that numerous variables can add to the achievement of an individual, even though open doors are the base everything being equal. Achievement is described contrastingly to everyone and by and large, effective results are expansive and endless.
The Factors That Make Opportunistic Individuals In The Outliers By Malcolm Gladwell
In the book, Outliers: The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell focuses on a person’s ability to affect change in society. This book deals with the cultural and social forces that give rise to opportunistic individuals. At the beginning of the book, Gladwell says an Outlier is as a person ‘who doesn’t fit into our normal understanding of achievement.’ Gladwell says ‘people don’t rise from nothing,’ and that ‘we do owe something to parentage and patronage.’ He is correct. We do owe something to parentage and patronage. We also owe something to all the opportunities we have had had throughout our life. In Outliers, The lives of people who have accomplished something outstanding into our world today are told, while finding out what steps along the way made them different than everyone else.
The first part of Outliers is about opportunities. Gladwell’s main statements are that success results come from many different types of things. He wants to show us, readers, that these kinds of ‘personal explanations of success don’t work,’ or to prove that there is more to a person’s success story than just their talent. At the beginning of the book, Gladwell talks about Canadian hockey player’s date of births. He tells us, readers, that 40% of the best players ‘will have been born between January and March.’ The players who are born in these months get ‘better coaching, play in the majority of the games, practice twice as much,’ and also have better teammates. He provides facts and evidence to prove that random factors, such as one’s date of birth, can be needed to succeed Czech and Canadian national sports teams. No one born after September 1 was on the team. Since the ‘late-born prodigy’ does not get chosen, he does not get the extra practice. Without that extra practice, ‘he does not have a chance at hitting ten thousand hours by the time the professional hockey teams start looking for players.’ Without the 10,000-hour rule, there is no way anyone could master the skills they would want to achieve. Gladwell states that you alone cannot complete the 10,000-hour rule. This is where parentage comes into play. A person benefits from ‘parents who encourage you and support you.’ Gladwell then provides the readers with an example of the Beatles to show that the 10,000-hour rule is an example of success. By the time they had their first burst of success, ‘they had performed live an estimated twelve thousand times.’ The ‘Hamburg crucible’ is the thing made the Beatles different from all of the others. Without having the Hamburg crucible, they would not have learned ‘stamina.’ The band was not ‘disciplined’ onstage before. The Hamburg crucible helped the band be guided into a way that changes their ways. It gave them multiple opportunities.
In Part Two of Outliers, Gladwell talks about legacy and heritage. Gladwell explains that the ‘culture of honor’ says that it matters where a person is from, as he states ‘where your great-grandparents grew up…’. He also claims that ‘cultural legacies’ turn out to be more different and more powerful than professionals are ever expected to be. Two psychologists, Dov Choen and Richard Nisbett, decided to conduct an experiment on the ‘culture of honor.’ They wanted to see if it was possible to find ‘remnants’ of the culture of honor in the language modern era. They tested the word ‘asshole’ on young men from the south. This experiment concluded that if you call a southerner an ‘asshole,’ he is ‘itching for a fight.’ Dov and Richard were seeing that the ‘culture of honor’ came into action. The southerners were reacting like Wix Howard when Little Bob Turner accused him of cheating. This started a controversy between those two southern families. “Cultural legacies” are very powerful forces. They have ‘deep roots’ and ‘long lives.’ Gladwell claims that cultural legacies play a role in ‘directing attitudes and behavior that we cannot make sense of our world without them.’ Success arises out of the steady advantages shown in this book: ‘when and where you are born,’ and ‘what your parents did for a living.’
Gladwell uses a variety of examples to prove that people do not ‘rise from nothing’ and that we do owe something to ‘parentage and patronage.’ He mentions that we are so caught up in the myths of the ‘best and brightest and the self-made that we think outliers spring naturally from the earth.’ That is not the case. We need to replace the ‘arbitrary advantages’ with a society that provides opportunities for all of us. All throughout the book, the person reading this could understand the point Gladwell is trying to make. As the book comes to an end, Gladwell tells his whole story of his success which has to do with his great-great-great- grandmother’s lighter skin color gave her son the privilege of a ‘skin color that spared him the life of slavery.’ Our culture, heritage, legacies, and opportunities are what guide us into becoming as successful as we are to this day.
The Secrets To Success In The Outliers By Malcolm Gladwell
The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell, he redefines the secrets to success. Gladwell states that while an individual’s success can be achieved through innate talent and determination, it is mostly the result of a combination of external factors such as provided opportunities, enough practice, born privileges, and cultural norms. He incorporates evaluations of the Matthew Effect, the 10,000-Hour Rule, the backstory behind geniuses, and cultural legacies to support his concrete argument.
The Matthew Effect talks about the role of opportunity in determining the success of athletes. In order to explain this phenomenon, Gladwell includes the player roster of the 2007 Medicine Hat Tigers (a Canadian ice hockey team) that includes their birth dates and noticed an unusual pattern about 68% of the athletes were born in the first four months of the year. This is not merely a coincidence, since the cause of this phenomenon is that the Canadian eligibility cutoff is January 1. Those who are born later than the cutoff are at a physical advantage over the rest of the players. Therefore, future coaches prefer the players who are at the physical advantage to be in the “rep teams,” and these select few athletes receive higher quality coaching and more practice. Since they possess the opportunity of an earlier birth, Gladwell utilizes this source to prove that it influences their chances of success as an athlete. The athletes who are the most successful in the industry are the ones born during the early months, because they receive better treatment and opportunities. In summary, being successful does not necessarily mean that it is developed through innate talent and determination, but also through the opportunities that are found.
The 10,000-Hour Rule explains that success is determined through an immense amount of practice. Available and accessible resources must support these hours of practice. Gladwell uses the personal example of Bill Joy to delve into this section of his argument. Gladwell begins to explain Joy’s personal story and the success he received later in life; he was granted various opportunities and the time to further his craft. When Joy was asked in an interview about how much time he spent on software development, he said: “ten thousand hours”. Using this source, Gladwell demonstrates the perception that spending 10,000 hours on a specific task increases one’s chances of success. Since Joy was given opportunities, and he was able to spend a significant amount of time on his work, he was able to fulfill the 10,000 hours he needed to perfect his occupation.
The trouble behind geniuses delves into the problem with those who are innately a genius their success is only possible with more than just their “gifts.” In order to develop this point of view, Gladwell provides a source from a famous experiment driven by Lewis Terman. Terman was invested in seeking out “young geniuses” (called Termites in this study) who had an IQ around 150 or above, and he decided to track them throughout their lives, listing their achievements, careers, and lives into adulthood. When the Termites reached adulthood, Terman went on to measure their success, filtering these “young geniuses” into three groups. The first group was called the “A” group, and they were the ones that went on to be truly successful in life the lawyers and doctors. The second group was the “B” group, and they were the middle group, doing “satisfactory.” The last group was called the “C” group, and they were unsuccessful laying at home on their couches, often unemployed. These results from the Terman experiment went on to explain the reasoning behind Gladwell’s theory; even those who are born “geniuses” do not go on to live successful lives, success is not measured through intelligence alone.
Within The Outliers, Gladwell explains that cultural legacy is an essential factor in achieving success. Our cultural legacy determines the relationship between individual people, such as how they address one another. When examining these different cultural legacies, it is easier to determine what leads to success. To further this concept, Gladwell inserts a source that pertains to Korean Air. This source is a flight recorder transcript (last 30 minutes) that refers to the Korean Air flight 801 crash in Guam. It describes the consequences of cultural norms on emergencies such as the one experienced on this flight. Although there were a variety of other factors that caused this accident, one of the most prominent was the cultural norm of honorifics used in South Korea. The pilot was unable to interpret the situation as an emergency because the lower officials were more focused on following the social custom of honorifics. In the transcript, there was an incident in which the first officer had to tell the pilot about the tragic consequences when flying in the weather, and instead of emphasizing the urgency, all he says is, “Don’t you think it rains more? In this area, here?”. He is only able to hint at the danger because that is the extent, culturally, in which he can speak to his superior, the pilot. The only solution for Korean Air’s eventual success was to discard the honorifics between the superiors and lower officers, and this solution was proven correct when David Greenberg introduced English as the language for communication, which improved communication. As a result, Korean Airlines were successful in preventing future crashes. About Gladwell’s argument, the cultural norm within South Korea determined how successful Korean Air became.
Each specific source had some aspect of opportunity related to it. Both the Matthew Effect and 10,000 Hour Rule mentioned the addition of opportunities that furthered an individual’s success. When exploring the relationship between success and innate talent, an individual had to be presented with opportunities such as working for a well-known company in order to grow their success. The example of the Korean Airlines presented a different point of view in which cultural norms and societal structures presented an influence over the success of a company. Although, when mentioning successes that are singular such as Bill Joy’s, it provides a close look at the various factors that worked to grow his success. Overall, these sources were all connected to the influence that each factor had on success. They were all able to sum up the different factors that place an influence over the possibilities of success. It is not just about the innate talent and drive one has; it carries exceptional opportunities, more than 10,000 hours of practice, and cultural legacies.
Essay About The Definition Of Success In Gladwell’s Outliers
Success is something many people strive for while becoming the person they want to be. Success is not just an equation that can be put into a calculator. To get to what an individual calls “success” there are many complex paths to get to the destination. But what exactly is the definition of success? Malcolm Galdwell, the author of Outliers: The Story of Success, never actually defines his own version of success. After taking time to analyse the book, I came to see what Gladwell’s version of success really is. From what I gathered, Gladwell’s definition is that success is a combination of opportunity and cultural legacy that leads to wealth or power. Gladwell thinks success is anything but simple. Outliers only tell the stories of people and companies who came into money, power, or built an empire. Many of the people used as examples in Outliers, such as The Beatles and Steve Jobs, would be considered great men by most of the world. What about the typical Joe? How does he define success? Not all people want money and power. Some just strive for a family and a place to live. So what is the difference between a great man, such as Steve Jobs, and a good man like all of us? Their legacy is what sets them apart. So the real question I hope to solve in this essay is, is it better to be a good man or a great man?
Malcolm speaks constantly about the opportunities that many of the men in his book got that led them to change the world. A good example of this is the 10,000 hour rule, which states that one must practice for 10,000 hours to master that specific task. One way to understand the 10,000 hour rule is that success is not necessarily about talent but about hard work. An illustration to support Gladwell’s claim is “… couldn’t find any ‘naturals,’ musicians who floated effortlessly to the top while practicing a fraction of the time their peers did” (Gladwell 39). The thing that makes great men great is the opportunity to put in those 10,000 hours. Without 10,000 hours of practice we would not have some of today’s popular musicians such as The Beatles, and even Billie Eilish. The way great men got the opportunity to put in their hours was normally stumbled upon. It was a matter of coincidence and timing. The practice time is what makes them “great”, but without it many of the people we know as successful would not even be known at all.
Gladwell speaks about how people don’t take opportunities that come their way. Did he ever consider that maybe they are not practicing the things that can be tracked by hours. A good man impacts the people around them. They practice loving and helping others their entire life because they chose to take that opportunity. While someone who is defined as successful may be helping the general world they are not truly felt by the ones around them. A good scenario is Bill Gates. Bill Gates has 3 kids but is also known for being very devoted to his work. His entire world revolves around his work. They may not be the main focus of his life. He loves his kids very much but he is not always there for them because of his busy work schedule. That consequently leads to him overlooking his kids and family much more than a good man would. He never had a choice between greatness or just being good. Great men are loved by many people which forces them to please everyone. Good men have a silent legacy which is why they make more of an impact on the people around them. Good men are focused on what they want to be because they aren’t doing what everyone wants them to do. They practice loving the ones around them every chance they can. They do not stumble upon the opportunity. They get to choose if they want to take it or not.
Now we must answer the question about if being a good or a great man is better. A great man is a creator, genius, and a hard worker. At the same time, a good man can show all of these characteristics but never get the opportunities that a great man has gotten. I feel as though good men get an even better gift. What is bestowed upon a good man is something that many people never get. The gift of being so selfless that they are willing to give up the opportunities in front of them for the people they love. A good man sees the value in family and where they come from. Bill Gates may carry on his cultural legacy but, as I said before, great men are inventors and creators. While Gates may not be able to change his legacy, he will add to it. A good man understands where he comes from and embraces his cultural identity. The importance of family is why they are so selfless. Do our dreams of becoming pop stars when we were little still persuade us or does the reward or reciprocating love seem like a better prize?
Gladwell is defining success as a complicated road to becoming rich and famous. I feel that if one takes the simple path towards being a good man and completes the task, they have become one of the most successful people in the world. A good man is forgotten over a few generations. A great man is glorified and his stories and legends live long into the future. The legacy of a great man is spoken of. The legacy of a good man is felt for even longer than the stories of the great man are told. A great man transforms the world around them, but a good man impacts the lives of people creating a quiet legacy. A great man conquers and a good man cultivates. A great man changes and a good man invests. I hope to be a good man one day like so many before me. I have felt the touch of a good man and I know that it is the meaning of true success.