Need for Lesson Plan in Teaching Essay
Effective lesson pacing is important because it determines how well students grasp new information. Information takes time to be processed at any level of learning process. Therefore, it is essential for the teacher to present new information at a pace that will not leave any student behind the lesson. This calls for the teacher to come up with a lesson plan that will be able to actively involve all students in every lesson activity.
Need for Lesson Plan
A lesson plan is a comprehensive description of the course of instructions for a lesson. Teachers develop lesson plans for everyday teaching. The content of a lesson plan varies depending on the needs of the students and subject taught. The school may lay down rules on how to prepare the lesson plan. A good lesson plan must cover the interest of the students.
Pacing the lesson plan is necessary so as to ensure that the presentation of the lesson helps the students understand the material despite differences in their abilities and interests (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2004). A teacher needs a lesson plan so as to individualize the teaching.
Individualizing a lesson plan ensures that no student is left behind and also, no student will be bored. In a class environment, there are some students who are able to grasp materials and solve challenging tasks faster than others.
Individualizing the lesson is necessary so as to move each student from the level where he/she is currently to the next, more advanced level. The reading level of students in a class may vary according to the ability and interest of the students. Therefore, they all do not need the same focus for skills and concepts (Echevarria et al, 2004).
Pacing for a Class that includes English Language Learner
It is necessary for teachers to know the strength and weaknesses of each student in the class; this will enable the teacher to plan effective lessons. Effective teaching plans help in keeping the students interest on the subject. It also gives room for independent development of each student (Jones, & Jones, 2004).
A student who is learning English as a second language will require more time to grasp the conceptions. This is because; such students may have to think in their native language and then try to interpret their thoughts in English. A teacher in such a class has to slow the material and give the students time to catch up with it.
ELL students may require that the teacher breaks down the concept and presents the material gradually. A teacher must consider slowing the pace of lesson if the class consists of ELL students. However, a teacher should make sure not to slow down too much so as not to distort the natural rhythm of English language. Slowing the pace of the lesson ensures EEL students are not left behind (Jones et al, 2004).
ELL students may require the teacher to involve extra activities in the lesson, and keep checking their progress regularly. If there is something that the student does not grasp as quickly as it is required, the teacher should try to present it slower or break the presented material into smaller steps.
When conducting the lesson, the teacher may include pauses, and allow students time to discuss and digest. This is because ELL students learn more from their peers than from their teacher.
This is as a result of EEL students always interacting with their peers, as opposed to their teachers. The teacher must also give the students time to ask questions. This will give the teacher an idea of what the students do not understand (Hofmeister, & Lubke, 1999).
Educators should pair up ELL student with their peers who speak English as their first language. Teachers should introduce songs. A song will boost the memory of a student and reduce the learning tension.
Music boosts the memory because it is rhythmic and learning a song comes more freely. The teacher should also encourage group reading. This way, ELL students will be able to master pronunciations.
Pacing for a Class that does not include English Language Learner
If a class consists of gifted students, the teacher will need to make the pacing faster than for ELL students with lower level of knowledge. Normally, students with exceptional learning abilities often find themselves in trouble.
This happens because the lesson is too slow for them, or it is not challenging enough. The students are left with plenty of time doing nothing. The teacher should be able to recognize the presence of gifted students in a class and increase the pace of the lesson as necessary.
Pacing a lesson plan narrows down to one thing, the students. Teachers may increase or slow the pace of their class as per individual preference, but if students are familiar with the material, or they do not understand the lesson at all, then, no matter how much the teacher may try, it will not make any difference for students.
The teachers must ensure not to relinquish the quality of the class lesson to the quantity of materials they want to cover. Effective educators must be able to adjust their lesson pacing depending on the ability of the students. They must also reflect on the lesson plan and change it according to the needs of the students.
Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D.J. (2004). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Hofmeister, A., & Lubke, M. (1999). Research into practice: Implementing effective teaching strategies (3rd ed.). Logan: Utah State University.
Jones, L., & Jones, V. (2004). Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Lesson Plan ‘The Concept of Leadership’ Report
Parallel Model Overview Lesson Plan
The parallel Overview Lesson Plan presented involves a lesson on ‘The Concept of Leadership’, suitable for pupils in grades 5 and 6.
Unit Name: The Concept of Leadership; Subject Area Concerned: Social Studies; Grade level: 5, 6
The above lesson is designed for a grade five and/or grade six classes with a mixture of students of various learning abilities. The lesson does not target gifted students, and it is recommended that students of different learning abilities should be joined together to take these lessons.
Assignments and group activities intended for reinforcing the concepts and ideas learnt in class will be used throughout the lessons. The lessons are estimated to last for about four weeks, with four one-hour lessons (4 hours) a week as the recommended maximum.
The lesson has been constructed to enable the pupils understand the concept of leadership in its broad spectrum. The lessons’ paramount aim is to inculcate in the students the concept of leadership as an act, and not a position or title – that leadership is action oriented.
The lessons will also help the students gain an understanding of leadership in the social, political, and religious spheres. The students will then analyze the concept of leadership in these contexts through various designed class activities and assignments.
Using various sources of information, students will be guided to gain an understanding on the sub-concepts of leadership – effective leadership, decisive leadership, and failed leadership. Historical accounts of leaders in the social, political, and religious sectors of American life will be analyzed with a view to helping the students discern the role of leaders in changing society for the better.
The overall aim of the lesson is to enable students to acquire leadership skills to enable them overcome different challenges in their own lives by applying the concepts and skills learnt in class.
- The parallel of Curriculum: The lessons will aid the students to acquire knowledge about leadership and its role in society, as well as its different applications in their personal lives.
- The Parallel of Identity: The students will analyze their own strengths and abilities as leaders during various situations they encounter or will encounter in life. The students will also give instances where they felt the leaders in their lives failed them by the directions they took, or the decisions they made.
- The Parallel of Connection: The students will analyze various historical crises in America and pass judgment on the social (civil), political and religious leaders involved during the particular crises.
- The parallel of Practice: Students are always involved in classes activities that involve dealing with a group of fellow schoolmates, and many of the situations that are arise in these gatherings require leadership at one point or another. The lessons will aid the students in assuming leadership roles in various settings and context, for instant in school teams, classes, clubs, neighborhoods, and family.
Standards – Program of Studies (POS) and Standards of Learning (SOL)
The students will be taught and examined within the American standards of education. National standards of education help in guiding the work of teachers (Berube, 2004, p.264)
A. History: The students will analyze the various historical accounts involving leadership crises in the social, political, and religious spheres of America. These accounts will include (but not limited to) The Bay of Pigs Fiasco (1961), The Civil War (1861-65), The Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka Ruling (1954), and the Rosa Parks Incident.
The students will also analyze various historical and current accounts involving leadership by various persons that can be termed is effective or decisive leaders.
The tutor will finally present a collection of various simulated and hypothetical situations concerning leadership, where the students will be expected to pass judgment on whether the leadership decisions taken in these hypothetical situations are effective or not.
This will be followed by presentation by the teacher of actual historical accounts involving situations similar to those hypothesized, and their real outcomes. This activity will help in improving the students’ historical analysis skills.
B. Civics: Students will be presented with various documents of importance, written, signed, or formulated by leaders in current and historical contexts, with a view to determining the leaders’ leadership skills decipherable within the writings of the documents.
These documents include (but not limited to) The Emancipation Declaration (1863), The Civil Rights Act (1964) , the Supreme Court ruling on Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), and other such documents.
C. Geography: Students will analyze the concept of leadership in various regions of the world, with a view to making the students understand the different concepts of leadership amongst different cultures in the world.
The students will learn that collectivist cultures like those found in Nordic countries like Finland abhor one-man leadership styles, while individualistic cultures like the American culture are comfortable with vesting executive powers on various leadership roles in the country, including the presidency.
Assessment of the Lessons
The lessons will be assessed by use of various assessment parameters and instruments. The use of various elements of assessment diversifies the options for the educator (Ayala et al, 2008, p.316; Mady, Arnott, & Lapkin, 2009, p.728). Assessment will be done through:
A. Observation: The teacher will assess the group based on the observable entities of class participation, level of interest, level of communication with fellow students, and attendance.
B. Role-playing: During the lessons, the students will be required to assume various roles of leaders within the context of a school setting viz. as teachers teaching students, as coaches of a school team needing motivation, as the school principal addressing students on a day when a tragic incident occurred in school, and various other role-plays.
C. Class Presentations: The students will each be required to write an essay on ‘My most favorite President’ giving cogent reasons why they regard the President as being decisive and having good leadership skills. The essays will be graded on several areas like presentation skills, suitability of arguments, and other such areas.
D. Self-assessment by students: Students will be asked to identify areas in their lives where they feel they need to improve their leadership skills, and this exercise will involve the students reviewing themselves – peer review.
D. End of Lessons assessment: Students will be given various situational leadership crises and asked to provide an opinion on resolving these crises.
Teaching Methods Used
A. Instructions: The class notes on ‘The concept of leadership’ will shared in class. Various books on the topic will also be distributed in class, with extra material for reading available in the school library indicated accordingly.
B. Debate: Students will be asked to debate the contents of various texts presented in class with an aim of facilitating better understanding of the topic.
C. Video: The students will be shown various recorded speeches, events and locations by video, to enhance the learning experience.
D. Learning Activities: Learning activities planned will include group discussions, discussions involving the whole class, and critical analysis activities.
Ayala, C., Shavelson, R. J., Araceli Ruiz-Primo, M., Brandon, P. R., Yue, Y., Furtak, E., & Tomita, M. K. (2008). From formal embedded assessments to reflective lessons: the development of formative assessment studies. Applied Measurement in Education, 21(4), 315-334.
Berube, C. T. (2004). Are standards preventing good teaching? Clearing House, 77(6), 264-267.
Mady, C., Arnott, S., & Lapkin, S. (2009). Assessing AIM: A study of grade 8 students in an Ontario School Board. Canadian Modern Language Review, 65(5), 703-729.
Lesson Plan: the School and Government Regulations Report (Assessment)
A teacher develops a detailed description of what he/she intends to offer to students. This is referred to as lesson planning. A lesson plan is meant to guide the activities of a class on daily basis. The Content of a lesson plan varies depending on the preferences of the instructor, subject matter of the course and the desires or aspirations of students.
Again, the school or government may influence the development of a lesson plan. In most cases, a lesson plan must take into consideration the objectives of the school and government regulations.
A good lesson plan attends to the problems and interests of students meaning that it aspires to offer the best in the academic field (Nunley, 2004). Lesson planning is related to how the teacher views academics, which is the reason why the instructor considers the purpose of enlightening students. Therefore, a lesson plan would have the following objectives:
To identify the major features of culturally diversified lesson plans. Students will thereafter use other resources such as internet sites and library resources to judge whether the lesson plan is effective in ensuring cultural diversity.
Students will be subjected to critical thinking to evaluate the main strengths and weaknesses of the lesson plan. Students will afterwards have an opportunity to develop their maxims or view points as regards to the lesson plan.
Students will have an opportunity to conduct an academic research to investigate the efficiency of the lesson plan. Through this, students will design individual inventions and develop various articles.
Major activities in the lesson plan would be aimed at accomplishing the objectives of the entire plan. This would entail informing students the nature of Australian society. This would enable students to establish the link between the past the present. To achieve this, the teacher would utilize diagrams and charts to elaborate clearly the relationship between the past and the present.
In History subject for instance, the lesson plan aims at describing some of the most important features of Australian history such as colonialism and fight for imperialism. In history subject, the major activity would be to allow students watch various Australian movies related to culture.
After the activity, students will have an opportunity to ask their teacher various questions as regards the Australian culture. Through this, students would be in a position to compare and contrast various cultures in the country.
Determining a program’s success and failures calls for careful scheduling. Evaluation of a lesson matrix enables the instructor to effectively measure whether the content convenes the needs of each student. Apart from observing the actions of students in class, an instructor develops an assessment plan. The lesson plan utilized in this paper would be assessed using muddiest point technique.
This is preferred because it is simple to use and generates needed information for action. Students are instructed to give their views and responses pertaining to a certain lesson in quick succession.
This type of assessment should be conducted from time to time meaning that it is a continuous process (Armstrong, Henson, & Savage, 2009). It is not advisable to continue teaching students when they do not understand the topic well.
Each student’s expectations and dreams were included in the lesson plan. This is the major reason why the lesson plan is recommended in imparting skills. This was aimed at solving ethnic and racial conflicts that exist among students. Both state and national government recommend that academic institutions must incorporate cultural expectations of various groups to the school curriculum.
Australian constitution advocates for integration instead of assimilation. This means that students are to be accepted the way they are but not requesting them to defer their cultures and adopt Australian customs. This was reflected in the lesson plan meaning that the plan must be all-inclusive. Indeed, this point should have been carefully assessed before coming up with the lesson plan (Garderen, & Whittaker, 2006).
Armstrong, D., Henson, K., & Savage, T. (2009). Teaching today: An introduction to education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Print.
Garderen, D., & Whittaker, C. (2006). Planning differentiated, multicultural instruction for secondary inclusive classrooms. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(1), 12–20.
Nunley, K. (2004). Layered Curriculum (2nd ed). Amherst, NH: Brains organization. Print.
A lesson plan for the multicultural learning of science Coursework
This is a lesson plan for the multicultural learning of science. The aim of the plan is to utilize the legend of the Mayans to depict to the students the way science evolved through the ages. The paper is directed towards students of fourth standard.
The aim of the lesson is to enhance the ability of the students to inculcate inferential learning, derivation of information from their readings, and inculcate their oral and written skills.
- How science evolved into its present forms?
- How science was practices in ancient times?
- What we know about the scientific knowledge of ancient civilizations like the Mayans?’
This lesson will show the students the historical development of science as described in the NYS standard four.
- The first idea described is the Earth and the celestial phenomenon of the planets.
- The three main elements of Earth viz. air, water, and land are described.
The key skills required for the lesson is a clear idea of how the Mayan culture and their knowledge of science can be used as a taxonomy for students to understand how science existed in ancient times.
The first thing that has to be done is to make a knowledge chart that forms into three columns. In the first column, the students enter their knowledge about the Mayans. The second will record what the students know about the Mayans and the third column shows what the students learnt during the course of the lesson.
The second material required for the study would be a world map to demonstrate where the students are and where the Mayans lived. The third material required for the class are books and literature on myths pertaining to the Mayan culture. The fourth material would be materials to develop a scrapbook that will help the students to do a project on the Mayans.
The books that are to be read for the class are Mayan and Aztec Mythology by Jim Ollhoff and Maya and Aztec Mythology Rocks! by Michael A. Schuman . The other book that will be used for the study is Three Gold Pieces .
Introduction to the Lesson
The knowledge table should be made in the first class. This will help to ascertain what the students actually know of the Mayans and what has to be taught to them. Further, this will also help the instructor to learn what the students would like to learn about the myths and legends.
What aspect the children are more interested to learn can be gauged through this exercise. The first lesson should also incorporate the world map, which would give a clear idea to the students about the whereabouts of the Mayan civilization vis-à-vis their country.
The second lesson should be about reading the Mayan myths. The main aim of the class would be study Mayan folk tales and myths that gave a glimpse into the great Mayan culture and civilization. The myths related to the creation of the moon or any other morality tale can be recounted to demonstrate how the Mayans lived.
The third day would be a discussion on the Gods of the Mayans. This would provide a glimpse into the Mayan religion to the students. A documentary about the Mayans will be shown to the students.
This lesson is a study into the scientific developments that the Mayans underwent. This will further into a discussion of the Mayan economic developments, and government’s structure followed in the ancient civilization. This lesson will also have a discussion on the Mayan art, culture, and social life.
The last day of the lesson will be a day of making projects for the students. They will have to adopt a specific aspect about the Mayans and make a small presentation about it in class. This will also have to write an essay on the specific area.
Aliki. Three Gold Pieces. New York: Harper Trophy, 1967. Print.
Ollhoff, Jim. Mayan and Aztec Mythology. Edina, MN: ABDO, 2012. Print.
Schuman, Michael A. Maya and Aztec Mythology Rocks! Guangdong, China: Enslow Publishers, Inc., 2012. Print.
Lesson Plan: Reflection and Evaluation Essay
Brief Evaluation of the Unit
A narrow-focused objective of the lesson (to examine colors and cloth in Chinese Mandarin) will be beneficial for students because it will help them memorize the concepts and vocabulary more effectively.
Due to the fact that the lesson plan is premised on using combined learning styles, including perceptual modes and psychological factors, the lesson will be efficient for the students whose visual and auditory memories the most developed (Heacox, 2002, p. 8). In addition, the first stages of lesson will also identify the students whose interest in the subject is the highest.
Discussions of the basics will provide a clear picture of students’ psychological characteristics and defines which students are reflective, analytic and impulsive. In this respect, the challenge of teacher lies in extending the learning process of students who are ready to comprehend the material and those who are just starting their exploration, which expands the degree of the lesson variety (Heacox, 2002, p. 9).
Smart Board application will be successful for visual learners as well because it provides more opportunities to visually memorize the vocabulary, particularly spelling and sentence structure. Students whose level of visual memory is poor can face complications while conceiving the new words presented in the unit.
Determining the Students Who Failed to Benefit from the Course
With regard to the above considerations, the lesson will not be sufficiently effective for students who have poor visual and auditory memories. Such students are usually more successful in manipulating and touching the material objects, which is quite difficult while studying different colors.
The lesson might turn out a failure to those who are not active and impulsive enough to interact with each other because communicative skills belong to another important condition to succeed in comprehending the lesson.
Because the lesson is built on the basis of a concrete-to-abstract scheme, students who have a more developed abstract thinking ability are less likely to grasp the main aspect of the lesson because it starts with discussing concrete notions and ends with indulging the more abstract ones (Tomlinson, 2001, p. 46).
Finally, students who have slow pace of study will benefit much from the presented lesson either because the unit is based on a number of activities that are time-sensitive. As a result, differentiation will not equally bring the information to all students in the class.
Prerequisite Skills Necessary for Successful Accomplishing the Unit
In order to successfully pass through the lessons activities, students should have a sufficient level of visual and auditory memories, great communicative and analytical skills, ability to abstract thinking and expressing thoughts in a logical way. In this respect, the discussion board at the beginning of the lesson seeks to define the most active students whose interest to the lesson is the highest one.
Further stages are designed for same purpose, but still they are oriented on a wider target audience. More importantly, the lesson is also planned for students who have background knowledge about the country which language they are studying.
Due to the fact that lesson cover wide areas of knowledge, successful accomplishment of the course is guaranteed to students with a strong interest in the subject because the lesson is based on a high-prep differentiation involving independent studies, tiered activities, interest groups, and personal agendas.
Pre-assessment Data Collection
Taken the above-presented information into the deepest consideration, certain gaps of the lesson plan should be identified. To begin with, the presented plan should be have an equal orientation on the learning styles because visual learning modes are prevalent in the unit.
Second, the lesson plan should be more organized in terms of time allocation of all assignments and exercises presented in the unit. In particular, a low-to-fast mode will be more appropriate for engaging all students irrespective of their abilities and skills (Tomlinson, 2001, p. 49). Hence, the fifth assignment should be shorter, or be placed before the third one.
Third, the project is destined on more self-guided, independent students who will be able to manage the most part of the presented activities. This is why more dependent and pass students are less likely to succeed. In order to improve the situation, the lesson should have included more tasks encouraging students express their thoughts and monitoring the extent to which the students are involved.
Aside from lesson content characteristics, particular reference should be made on the analysis of learning environment. Specifically, a teacher should be sure that each student feels comfortable and welcomed in the classroom. More importantly, the instruction should do his/her best to help a learn gain knowledge and experience.
Elements of Grouping: Perspectives for Success
The core principle of grouping should be focused on “whom we teach, where we teach and how we teach” (Tomlinson and McTighe, 2006, p. 3). These components, therefore, should be closely interrelated to create a favorable environment for a learning process. In the presented case, the grouping has been applied for the purpose of increasing students’ potential and developing their strongest skills and abilities.
Particular attention has been made to such elements as learning profiles, readiness to learn, and time allocation of the activities. All these details contribute greatly to developing a multidimensionality of the lesson unit. Arising from the above, grouping helps teachers to meet the needs of a differentiated learning environment, including the quality of curriculum and quality of instructions provided.
With all these elements combined, the teacher will succeed in creating effective guidance and tools to develop a lesson unit based on best comprehension of learning and teaching. In addition, grouping concept should heavily rely on students’ experiences and background knowledge, which will be a valuable contribution to the comprehension process.
Post-Test Analysis and Suggestions for Improvement
An in-depth analysis of the material and evidence used for presenting the lesson unit have revealed different degrees of challenges and variety for students. Specifically, the first assignment and the last two were poorly perceived by students whose independence level and motivation to learn Chinese was insignificant.
The third assignment was not accurately identified and, therefore, it has been poorly accepted by learners as well. Besides, memorizing activities should be more detailed because this is the basis of further interactions in the differentiated community.
Second assignment with color identification was the greatest success, specifically among students with high level of associative thinking because this activity was based on matching the meaning with symbol which is quite effective both for students with highly developed abstract thinking and those who is more visually oriented.
It should also be stressed that the first assignment was also effective because it has managed to provoke interest among students and engage all of them into an active participation. Arising from this, more quests should be involved into lessons as far as differentiated environment is concerned.
Complying the Lesson with Tomlinson’s Theory of Differentiation
The presented lesson plan is almost congruent with Tomlinson’s (2001) theory of differentiation suggesting “…shaking up what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn” (p. 1). At this point, the unit under consideration exposes an exhaustive algorithm of practicing and training students with various levels of skills and abilities.
In particular, the presented plan includes a great variety of options and students to overcome. The lesson does not only encourage students to demonstrate their potential, but make them fill in the gaps in the fields that seem to be the most complicated for them. What is more important is that lessons provoke students’ active participation in discussions related specifically to the topic of the identified unit.
In this respect, all assignments are highly relevant to the identified goals and provide wide opportunities for students to fulfill themselves. Oral and written representation of the learnt material is also an advantage of the given plan.
While drawing the parallel between Tomlinson’s theory of differentiation and the lessons plan under analysis, certain improvements can still have to be introduced.
First, the plan should strike the balance between theoretical and practical information where concrete examples should be directly related to theoretical foundations. Second, teacher should also be more involved into interaction with students to ensure their successful performance. In general, the plan creates relatively equal opportunities for all students.
Heacox, D. (2002). Differentiating Instruction in the Regular Classroom, Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to Differentiate in Mixed Ability Classrooms, 2nd Edition, Alexandria: Virginia, Association for Curriculum and Instruction.
Tomlinson, C.A. & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating Differentiated Instruction & Understanding by Design. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Curriculum and Instruction.
Lesson Plan for a Disabled Student Essay
This paper is about teaching for exceptionalities, and it involves the creation of a strong lesson plan for a disabled student as well as a reflective analysis of how the program impacts the educational achievement of the child.
Age & Grade: This lesson plan was targeted on Liam Carson, a seven-year-old student from Herbert Hoover Elementary. Liam is a victim of mild traumatic brain injury sustained from a fatal head injury as an infant. This condition has been very traumatizing for the young boy, especially when it comes to classroom experiences, where multiple learning complications have already been identified.
Strengths & Weaknesses: Liam has a strong passion for education, and can spell and write relatively well, regardless of his present state. However, his most significant weaknesses are in concentration and attention, memory, reading, and arithmetic reasoning.
Preferred learning modalities: Learning modalities for this Liam would be based on auditory and visual.
The most appropriate learning objective here was to help the student regain his memory ability, which is essential for a productive and successful learning experience.
Activity towards the objective
This objective can be achieved through the integration of the learning modalities in lessons targeted on the learner. For instance, visual examples can be used to support verbal explanations, to help the student memorize the concepts in the classroom.
Assessment of the activity would be conducted three times every week, whereby the memorizing capability of the student will be tested using the three learning modalities that include visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. In this regard, the learning abilities of the student would be tested using each of these modalities.
Accommodations and Modifications
- Encouraging a non-disable student to act as a guiding companion of the student in classroom affairs
- Provision of more learning time for the learner
- Stressing on key points
- Simplifying complex concepts for the student
- Applying rhyming approaches of association that can be used by the learner to remember information
- Offering a simplified planner to the learner
- Small voice recorders to help the student remember things
- Talking clock and calendar
- Word processors that the student can use to input, store, and retrieve data
Students who have been identified with exceptionalities are associated with learning difficulties that would tend to limit their educational achievements at school. In this regard, it is necessary for professionals who have a role to play in the school life of exceptional students to come up with lesson plans that would be accommodative to all their learning needs (Tom, Edward & James, 2011).
To design a strong accommodation or lesson plan for exceptional learners, teachers should, first of all, take some time to assess their behavior under various settings to determine the kind of interventions that would be more appropriate for them. As it is shown in this paper, a well-designed lesson plan for students with disabilities can be a useful teaching tool for educators in both special education classrooms and regular education classrooms.
This lesson plan was able to play a significant role in helping Liam achieve his learning objectives at school. As it would be observed, the boy’s memorizing ability was significantly enhanced using the chosen strategies and approaches. Each of the accommodations and modifications applied had provided different outcomes towards the overall learning needs of the student.
However, while some of these interventions had proved to be more effective in helping the student deal with the various learning challenges instigated by his disability, others would have less influence on his learning life. Giving the student more time to concentrate in lessons and taking extra time to simplify and rephrase difficulty concepts for him are two strategies that have proved to be more successful in helping the boy achieve his learning objectives in the classroom.
Regarding the modifications, the provision of a simplified planner and the use of a peer companion to help the learner understand classroom procedures better had also proved to be more successful.
Even though the concepts of this lesson plan had proved to be more effective in helping Liam successfully deal with the learning challenges arising from his acquired brain injury, I would not apply them again if I were to teach this lesson once more. Some many accommodations and modifications can be used to help students with brain injury disorders deal with the long-term learning complications that would tend to arise from the condition (Ponsford, 2001).
There is a likelihood that teaching the lesson, in the same manner, using the same concepts will generate just the same results as before, and this would not bring any significant impact to the learning needs of the student. In this regard, it would be necessary for other different interventions to be incorporated in the exercise, to enhance better and stronger outcomes for this particular situation.
Some various other modifications and accommodations can be applied to this student in a regular education classroom. For example, the teacher may provide the learner with the instructor’s book for him to copy the notes directly to his notebook. Moreover, the sitting arrangement can be disarranged to ensure that the exceptional student seats near the front, where it would be easier for the teacher to monitor his behavior at close range, thus responding with the most appropriate interventions.
If there is anything that exceptional students need most while in a regular education classroom, it is a learning environment which promotes self-confidence and determination. In this respect, the teacher should try to avoid any action which is likely to embarrass the student. One effective way of achieving this goal is by exempting the learner from classroom practices such as reading aloud in front of everyone, which can be more difficult for the student due to their impaired reading capabilities.
Similarly, there are numerous accommodations and modifications that a special education teacher can use upon this student. For example, the teacher can allow the student to make use of reference books such as dictionaries and encyclopedias when undertaking their lessons in the classroom.
Relevant assistive technologies such as calculators and number navigators can also be beneficial to the learner when it comes to solving math problems. Another significant approach here would be to make learning experiences easier for the student by ensuring that their assessment involves multi-choice questions rather than open-ended questions.
Apart from the teachers, other service providers can also have a crucial role to play in the life of an exceptional student. Just like the teachers, services providers can use various accommodations and modifications to impact the learning life of a student who has been identified with traumatic brain injury (Arroyos-Jurado & Savage, 2008).
For example, these people can apply mental imagery on the learner to assist him in visualizing various engagements that would be significant in helping him achieve his objectives in life. The service providers can also introduce a routine which can identify anxiety and other stressful conditions, thus addressing them in a timely fashion. More importantly, they can also make use of home-made labels to help the child remember what is required of them at different times of the day.
As it is shown in this paper, firm lesson plans can play a significant role in helping teachers administer lessons for various exceptionalities in both individual education classrooms and regular education classrooms. The lesson plan serves as a teaching guide for educators since it contains crucial information about the targeted student. More importantly, there is a concise description of the disabilities associated with the child and how these will tend to interfere with his learning capabilities.
All these are useful in helping educators understand the child better when dispensing lessons in the classroom, and treat him in the most exemplary manner. Teaching exceptional children has never been an easy task for anyone, especially for regular education classroom teachers who don’t have much experience with special education. However, a focus on the child’s academic weaknesses and strengths together with the preferred modalities of learning as they are indicated in the lesson plan, would make the work easier for the educators.
Arroyos-Jurado, E., & Savage, T. (2008). Intervention strategies for serving students with traumatic brain injury. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43(4), 252-254.
Ponsford, J., Willmott, C., Rothwell, A., Cameron, P., Ayton, G., & Nelms, R. (2001). Impact of early intervention on outcome after mild traumatic brain injury in children. Pediatrics, 108(6), 1297-1303.
Tom, E., Edward, A., & James, P. (2011). Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings (6th Ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lesson Plan Review: Effects of the War Report (Assessment)
The lesson is devoted to the effects of the American Civil War. During the lesson, students will learn about 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments and discuss their significance. Students will also learn about Booth’s plan concerning Lincoln’s kidnapping and Booth’s reasons for Lincoln’s assassination. Students will learn about reconstruction, as well.
The lesson plan is very detailed, and the lesson is quite effective. Thus, the strengths of the lesson plan are as follows. The teacher uses a PowerPoint presentation, which can help students grasp the information. It also enhances students’ attention. The teacher has several hand-outs. The activities described are engaging and creative as students do not simply learn about some facts, dates, and names.
They discuss the events and try to see them in the context of the USA of the 19th century. Hence, students learn to think critically. The lesson plan also includes assessment section. Thus, it will be possible to understand whether the lesson is effective and whether students have grasped the necessary information.
Nonetheless, the lesson plan has one downside. When discussing the Constitution and Booth’s plans, the teacher uses certain hand-outs and tells about those events. However, it could be more effective and engaging to have a short video clip to make students feel the atmosphere of the USA of that period.
Thus, to improve the lesson, the teacher should find a video or several video clips to make the lesson more expressive. This can be a part of a documentary or even a scene from a drama.
There are numerous documentaries on the Civil War and Lincoln. Such movies as The Day Lincoln Was Shot (1998), Gone with the Wind (1939), North and South (2004) can be used. The use of video could help students picture the atmosphere in the United States.
Evidence of Species Relations: Biology Lesson Plan Essay
Introduction: The topic of the lesson in Biology is “What Evidence Shows that Different Species Are Related?”. It is designed to support teachers and students through an educational process by providing clear instructions, objectives, material, and activities that can help 14-15-year-old students learn better the world of Biology and the variety of species that exist around.
Key Concepts: Evolution, a variety of species, differences and similarities, the relationship between species, fossils.
Objectives: Students should demonstrate their communicative skills and abilities to comprehend how different species can be related; students learn more about the evidence for evolution and discuss the material that has to observe; students try to share their opinions and compare them before and after new material is offered; students compare their predictions and analyze the results got.
Material: a video presentation is taken from youtube.com (11min, 21 sec); a table with a list of evidence for the connection between species; several books that are required for reading, the cards with the evidence for evolution list.
Activities, Instructions, and Expectations: The following table introduces the activities that can be offered to students.
|Welcome to Evolution: Students are introduced with a topic||Students share their thoughts about evidence for evolution, what they know about evolution, which species they can identify.||Students develop their creative skills and clarify what they know and what they want to know.|
|Differences of Species: A teacher identifies the main aspects of the topic||Students listen to the teacher and make notes about evolution and a variety of species.||Students underline the main issues that can be discussed.|
|Evidence for Evolution: Part I: Students watch a video (“What Is the Evidence for Evolution”)||Students should make some notes to remember the main points in the list of evidence for evolution||Students listen to the information carefully and learn new simple facts about evolution.|
|Evidence for Evolution: Part II: Students discuss a video||Students share their opinions about the video watched and answer simple teacher’s questions.||Students demonstrate their analytical skills and their abilities to analyze new material in groups.|
|Cards with evidence:Students work with cards about evolution evidence||A teacher divides students into several groups and asks to introduce two different animals from different epochs that can be compared and related.||Students learn how to work in groups and develop their required portion of collective skills and share their knowledge on a topic.|
|Discussion||A teacher asks what has been studied and what students want to know more. Students share their opinions and repeat the main concepts learn during the class.||Students know how to use new material and analyze the teacher’s instructions.|
|Test||Students are offered to pass a quiz to check the level of understanding of a new topic.||Students learn from their mistakes and comprehend their weak and strong points.|
Assignment Details: At the end of the class, a teacher gives clear instructions for students to be followed. Students get their homework and the assignment to read several chapters from different books. Besides, it is offered to prepare a project on the basis of the evolution topic and the differences between species and the possibility to relate them. Students are divided into groups of two and develop projects on different animals that can be related.
Outcomes: Students have to be motivated to study deeper the process of evolution. There are many animals that can be compared and related. The question of evolution is open today, and students have to contribute to this question as well. A teacher is not only a guide. He/she is a mentor and a facilitator in a learning process.
Common Core Standards: These standards are created to provide students with help on how to learn the required skills and use them properly. The current lesson plan is developed for 9th-grade students. It is possible to apply the standards that are developed by the California Department of Education in 2013. There are several standards that can be used in the plan under consideration.
- Students have to develop an explanation on the basis of evidence;
- Students should create models to illustrate the organization of interacting systems;
- Students should apply statistics and probability to support their explanations;
- Students need to create simulations with the help of which they can test their solutions and understand the impact of biodiversity.
This information is analyzed and taken from “HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity” (California Department of Education, par.4).
This example of a work sheet can be offered to students at the end of the lesson to check their level of knowledge about the topic discussed during the lesson. The answers should not be too long but informative (to demonstrate students’ understanding of a topic).
- What is evolution?
- What is the main evidence for evolution?
- What do you know about paleontologists?
- Why are fossil records necessary?
- How is it possible to prove the connection between a dinosaur and a cow, for example?
- What is natural selection? Provide an example of natural selection.
- How is it possible to change the word combination “the change over time”?
- What do you know about Darwin?
- What way do scientists prefer to use to investigate the diversity among species?
- Do species change at all?
Describe your personal opinion on the lesson and the level of knowledge you expected to get and have gotten at the end.
It is necessary to inform students that some questions can be neither right nor wrong only. These questions should help students develop their critical thinking and analytical skills. Their answers should provide a teacher with a clear picture of what students know, want to know, and do not know at all. As soon as each student offers the answers, the following lesson can be developed.
California Department of Education. NGSS for California Public Schools, K-12. 2013. Web.
DeBenedictis, Albert. Evolution or Creation?: A Comparison of the Arguments. Bloomington, IL: Xlibris Corporation, 2014. Print.
Franklin, Janet. Mapping Species Distributions: Spatial Inference and Prediction. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Smith, Andrew. Systematics and the Fossil Record: Documenting Evolutionary Patterns. Cambridge, MA: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print.
Treuting, Piper and Suzanne Dintzis. Comparative Anatomy and Histology: A Mouse and Human Atlas. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2012. Print.
What Is the Evidence for Evolution? 2014. Web.
Lesson Plan Assessment: Endangered Languages Essay (Critical Writing)
AAAS (n.d.) introduces a lesson devoted to endangered languages including Aleut, Middle Chulym, Nlu, Hawaiian, Chemehuevi (par. 2, 25-28). The goals of the lesson are the following: primarily, it introduces the science of linguistics and the concept of endangered languages to the students, but it also naturally focuses on the diversity topic and the implications of globalization. The Alberta Education (2005) Program of Social Studies is mainly concerned with the development of the “sense of self and community” that is a step towards the development of a responsible citizen attitude, which encompasses the understanding of the pluralism and inclusiveness (cohesion) of modern democratic society (para. 1-3). The lesson promotes the understanding of the diverse modern society and emphasizes the significance of the multiple cultures of the world, which makes it perfectly in line with the Program.
The transparent idea of the lesson consists in the fact that language and culture are interrelated, which means that an endangered language presupposes an endangered culture. As a result, the significance of cultural diversity becomes the “big idea.” Apart from that, the understanding of the concepts of linguistics as a science and that of the endangered language as a phenomenon are described.
The key provocative questions follow each other logically. Why is linguistics important? Why is it necessary to preserve a language? Why is it necessary to preserve a culture? Eventually, the notion of diversity and its significance will be discussed. Apart from that, the question of why languages become endangered is regarded. It will allow the students broaden their understanding of the world and globalization since the latter is among the reasons for language endangerment. As a result, the issue of positive and negative aspects of globalization will be discussed.
Knowledge and Skills
The key knowledge of the lesson includes the improved understanding of the phenomenon of diversity. The knowledge gained through the lesson is supposed to contribute to the achievement of the goals that are stated in the Alberta Education (2005) Program of Social Studies: they enhance the student’s understanding of the contemporary diverse but inclusive society. This effect is not immediately visible.
Other, similarly important information includes the concepts of linguistics and culture and their correlation. The concept of endangered languages will be thoroughly discussed, including the causes and implications of the phenomenon and the ways of preserving languages. This knowledge is also a part of the understanding and learning about the modern society. The understanding of these concepts and ideas is immediately visible through assessment.
Apart from that, the lesson is aimed at the development of a number of skills that include communication, critical thinking, metacognition, and geographic skills. These are the skills that are necessary for learning and socializing. The ability to use media and computer equipment to gain information and manipulate it (for example, e-sheet) is a technology-oriented skill set. The improvement of these skills is also a gradual process.
All the students’ activities are united with questions that define their understanding, but these questions are primarily meant to enhance it, not assess. These discussions are the opportunities for reflection and the demonstration of one’s performance. The special assessment tool for the lesson consists of three essay questions. They include the topics that had been covered in the course of the lesson (linguistics, language endangerment and its reasons, and the reasons for preserving the language). It is not stated how the feedback on the assessment should be provided, but the criterion for the performance are the information reproduced and its understanding.
The key activities of the lesson include: listening to a 90-second radio piece on the Aleut language, viewing clips and reading about four other languages and the identification of the areas where the languages are used on the map; reading an article on the process of saving an endangered language. All these activities are interlaced with the discussions. The W.H.E.R.E.T.O. the concept as defined by Wiggins (2005) can be applied to the lesson. The initial talk gives the students the overview of the lesson and helps the teacher to understand what ideas the students had had about the key concepts of the lesson. Apart from that, it incorporates “hooking” methods, for example, the introduction of the differences between languages (the lesson suggests comparing English to Korean or any other language) and the radio program that raises a number of questions.
The hooking methods of the main part of the lesson include video clips, and some of the teacher’s topics can be considered captivating (for example, the questions of children’s own experiences with languages). Naturally, the content of the lesson is equipping, and the teachers’ questions make the processes of learning and understanding easier. The opportunity the rethink and revise are offered several times throughout the lesson as the students are constantly offered to express their opinion both on the topic that was studied and the one that is being approached. The regular discussions also allow the students to evaluate their understanding (and deepen it). The lesson is highly organized but offers the possibility of modifications and customization, for example, in case the students are familiar with or speak a second language. To sum up, the lesson appears to correspond to the concept of Wiggins (2005).
Even though it is not named, the specific theory of learning that the lesson seems to use is the 21st Century Skills Framework as described by the Partnership for 21st Century Learning (2016). The subject of the lesson corresponds to the key subjects of the Framework (social studies and global awareness), the targeted skills include communication and collaboration as well as critical thinking; the media literacy skills are also developed among others.
Program of Studies
The lesson is very well aligned with the Alberta Education (2005) Program. The goals, vision, values, and knowledge are similar: the lesson raises a global issue and promotes global consciousness in the students, teaches them to value diversity and respect multiple worldviews, which corresponds to the program. The skills that are being developed are also in line, especially the cognitive ones (Alberta Education, 2005, para. 9-10). However, the Program focuses on Canadian experiences and settings; the lesson does not. This aspect, however, can be regarded as a disadvantage and an advantage: while it does not provide exclusively Canadian experiences, it offers a global view on the issue. Canadian experiences can be added if it is deemed necessary.
Also, the lesson is suitable from the point of view of the grades involved (6-8) and the general topic (social sciences).
The lesson appears to be well thought-out and organized; it is modifiable and likely to be modified due to the numerous opportunities for discussion. As children encounter, analyze, and produce knowledge, the scenario can develop. As a result, the only issue that can be noted is the problem of time. The lesson is filled with various exercises, and the time management can be difficult to control. It is a manageable issue though as, depending on the needs and possibilities of the class, the lesson can be modified, stretched into a couple of lessons, and so on. The absence of feedback instructions may also be regarded as a disadvantage, but it is also an opportunity of choosing suitable methods for the situation.
AAAS. (n.d.). Endangered Languages. Web.
Alberta Education: Studies K – Grade 12 (2005). (2005). Web.
Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2016). Framework for 21st Century Learning. Web.
Wiggins, G. (2005). Overview of Understanding by Design and the Design Template. Web.
Understanding by Design Lesson Plan Model Report (Assessment)
The role of instructional planning in the process of teaching should not be underestimated. The primary aim of the teacher is to adhere to the curriculum and employ all necessary strategies and methods to provide students with the lesson that is maximally useful. The planning is directly connected with the definition of the learning opportunities of pupils. The purpose of the instructional planning is to set the goals that should be achieved and the ways for their accomplishment. The value of instructional planning lays in the fact that every teacher should be prepared for all activities that will be conducted in the class. Although there are different types of planning, all of them have the typical essential structure.
Thus, the teacher should define the objectives of any lesson. Then, it is necessary to clarify resources and materials that will be used. The next element is the description of all class activities. The home assignment comes next. Finally, every lesson planning should end with the assessment as far as it is the significant part of the teaching process. Hunter’s model includes seven essential steps for the lesson while Common Core aligned instructional plan adapts the lesson planning to the state standards of education. Despite these facts, the understanding by design should be regarded as the most efficient instructional plan because it represents the modern approach to teaching with the emphasis on three-stage backward design.
One of the most widespread and famous models was developed by Madeline Cheek Hunter. Hunter was a teacher and psychologist. Madeline Hunter introduced hew vision of the teaching process. Thus, she considered that teachers always faced the decision-making processes. These processes concern three primary areas. The first area is content or what should be taught. The second aspect is instruction or the way content is to be taught. The third component is learning that reflects the necessary knowledge and skills that students have to acquire (Gouwens, 2009).
Hunter created a seven-step plan. Regardless of the level of education, every teacher should follow all steps. The first thing to do is to activate prior knowledge of children. Then, he or she has to define the objectives. Instructional input and modeling come next, and these are the parts where teacher represents new information and explain the ways of its demonstrating. Checking for understanding and guided practice are the following constituents of the lesson plan. The independent practice or the homework is the last step in the Hunter’s lesson plan (Madeline Hunter’s Lesson Plan n.d.).
As far as this plan was one of the first, it had undergone numerous modifications. However, it became the basis for the teaching practice for a long time. The unique element of this plan is anticipatory set. Common Core and understanding by design lessons plans do not define this significant component. The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model is present in the plan under analysis to some extent. Thus, the teacher shows the usage of new skills and knowledge. However, the guided instructions part of the model is not defined in Hunter’s model. According to it, the teacher should assist students in doing the task if they make mistakes. The work with the teacher and between students is combined in the model. The teacher should assess students on the basis of their activity at class. If they have demonstrated necessary mastery, the teacher has to give the corresponding homework. The instructional plan stimulates students’ critical thinking by their gradual involvement in the process of learning.
The New York State Educational Department aimed at modeling the lesson plan that would meet the requirements predetermined by the Common Core Standards. The Common Core is a combination of academic standards in such subjects as English language arts and literacy and Mathematics. This governmental initiative has been established to enhance the learning abilities of pupils. The aim of the Common Core is to promote the high-quality education (About the Common Core State Standards n.d.). Common Core aligned lesson plans vary due to the different approaches to teaching ELA and Mathematics. However, every teacher defines the objectives of the lesson (Common Core Aligned Lesson Plan Template n.d.). The guided practice and adjust instruction presuppose the conducting of various activities. The assessment is formative.
The distinctive element of this plan is monitoring. First, teacher controls the engagement of student while presenting new information. Second, teacher evaluates the level of understanding of pupils. Formative assessment is a tool for necessary guidance in studying (Lefrancios, 2013). This type of assessment is included in the Common Core instructional plan. The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model is presented better in this model than in the previous one. All four stages are clearly defined in the lesson plan template. As far as there are specially designed plans for different subjects and study levels, the approaches to enhancing of critical thinking vary depending on the subject.
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe have introduced understanding by design (UbD) lesson plan model. It is a modern template for lesson planning that aims at promoting students’ understanding. Besides, the model presupposes that the effective curriculum should be designed backward with the help of three stages. These steps comprise the lesson plan. The desired results are the first phase. The objectives are defined here. The second phase is the assessment evidence, and the third one — learning plan (Understanding by Design — Backwards Design Process, n.d.).
This lesson template differs from others significantly. Besides objectives, there are essential questions that should be answered in the process of studying. However, the teacher’s monitoring of all procedures is not mentioned in the plan. The Gradual Release of Responsibility Model is presented there to some extent as well. All necessary components of the model are shifted in the scheme. I should admit that the assessment is described in UbD model better than in previous models. The second stage is fully devoted to the appropriate assessment. The plan has all necessary features for the development of students’ critical thinking as well. Thus, it contains the authentic, performance-based tasks and includes informal methods of teaching.
In my opinion, the UbD — backward design lesson template is the best in comparison to Hunter’s model and Common Core aligned lesson template. The backward design represents a new vision of the lesson planning. The primary strength of the plan is the enhanced attention to the assessment evidence. Thus, the evaluation of students’ understanding is central to this planning. One way to make UbD more efficient is to use modern technologies in the process of studying. Teachers should take advantage of the fact that the current generation of students is technological. The other way of improvement is to follow the notion of “six facets” correctly (Roth, 2007). Six facets is a part of the lesson plan that presupposes that all pupils should have the ability to interpret, explain, emphasize, shift perspective, apply, and conduct self-assessment.
About the Common Core State Standards. (n.d.). Web.
Common Core Aligned Lesson Plan Template. (n.d.). Web.
Gouwens, J. (2009). Education in Crisis. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Lefrancios, G. (2013). Of Learning and Assessment. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Madeline Hunter’s Lesson Plan. (n.d.). Web.
Roth, D. (2007). Understanding by Design: A Framework for Effecting Curricular Development and Assessment. CBE-Life Science Education, 6(2), 95-97.
Understanding by Design — Backwards Design Process [Image]. (n.d.). Web.