Philosophy of Freedom by Plato and Karl Marx
Imagine this, you stand at the very edge of a beach. You can feel the sun warming your shoulders, the wind hums softly, and the ocean is so clear a school of fish is visible dancing in the waters. You take a step forward letting the ocean engulf you, finally the waters carry your body, you float, nothing but you and the ocean. That’s why I love the sea so much, it exudes a feeling of wonderment, of liberty, makes you think everything is possible like you can do anything. But that’s not really freedom, it’s just what we imagine it must feel like as gravity doesn’t bind us to the ground and we float in the water.
So, then what is freedom? According to The Institute of Ethics and Emerging Technologies, freedom … mean(s) the right to do as one pleases—to think, believe, speak, worship (or not worship), move about, gather, and generally act as you choose—but only until your choices start to infringe on another person’s freedom. (Treder). An aspect of Freedom is to express one’s ideas without fear of repercussions from others, but what does the liberty to express an opinion mean if we don’t have a way of sharing it with the rest, that is Freedom of Press. And, in a way, that’s the same kind of thinking that philosophers like Plato and Karl Marx shared. In this essay I will be going over what has become of our traditional definition of freedom of press, what did Plato and Marx thought constituted to be free, how do their theories differ from what is considered a traditional view today and how their ideas though centuries apart, coincide with one another.
Nowadays most of us live in democratic nations, and as such we tend to consider the democratic definition of freedom as our favorite to follow, this means that to most individuals freedom is, as aforementioned, when every and each of us are equally allowed by no one else but ourselves to do what we want. Straightforwardly freedom of press constitutes to project our free thoughts into a written format to then share them with the public. We’ve put so much value into this idea that it’s not only the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, but it’s written as one of our human rights, As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” (UN General Assembly art. 19). Seeing how highly we’ve place this right it’s even more strange to find just how often we overstep it. Teenage journalists being censored by their school officials for writing of protests, sexuality, and school news in their high school’s newspapers (Peiser), a judge that ordered the Los Angeles Times to delete a published article about a case that had been already on public records (Medina). And president Trump refusing to acknowledge CNN journalists while calling them “fake news” (Grynbaum) and all these happened throughout this month. With new advances the modern era gives us the option to express ourselves in many ways, technology has become a tool which has the prospect to open many doors, unfortunately it has the tools to shut them too. We like to have all these rights and privileges that protect our individualism but as soon as we feel threatened by another’s assertion of the same right we are quick to shut them down, more than a new concept this is a tradition the government in power has always practiced, philosophers like Karl Marx theorized that the bourgeoise’s blatant tyranny was the responsible for the proletariat’s economic, and as a result, journalistic oppression. To understand where Marx is coming from we need to first stablish what was freedom for him.
For Marx freedom was a goal to be attained, something to strive for as we separate from capitalism, since as we are, all of a person’s value fell upon their economic ministration to the wealth of the bourgeoise. For Marx capitalism administrated every aspect of our lives, he theorizes that the proletariat society worked tirelessly in meaningless jobs that not only dwarfed their individualism and alienated the workers from their work but “…It serves to profit the bourgeoisie, who are owners of the proletariat’s labour and deprive them of the means for self-cultivation…” (Weng). Marx believed that to be truly free people should have the option to see themselves in their work and cultivate themselves. His whole battle with the bourgeoise transfers into his ideology of freedom of press where he argues against censorship supporting the individual thought and the need to express our ideals. How does he change it from the traditional view AND what do you want to say about those changes His views on freedom in general don’t clash with todays point of view but they don’t necessarily match that much either.
We believe that in doing what we want with how we think of freedom but when we think of that it isn’t necessarily to go against the government, sure not all of us agree completely with the ones in charge and some laws but when we think of freedom it isn’t necessarily to go against the government. Now today’s views on freedom of speech, what we now consider traditional, may differ from Plato’s idea of freedom, but that doesn’t mean its completely warped.
Plato’s Freedom of Press
Plato had a low regard for what we consider “freedom” he believed that democracy was bogus and that people who had a weaker mind should be at the mercy of the people who are stronger. How does he change it from the traditional view AND what do you want to say about those changes How did their ideas coincide Citations Treder, Mike. “The Meaning of Freedom.” Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, 17 Sept. 2009,
Marxism – Key Arguments, Critique, Features
Marxism is based upon the works of philosopher Karl Marx, he didn’t actually write extensively about crime but his ideas of inequalities of a capitalist system have been applied by criminologists to explain crime and societies responses to it. The reason Marxism is part of the Victimised Actor perspective is because crime is the result of oppression upon the working class by those in power, therefore making them victims and crime is a response to this victimisation.
Context- ideas of Marx and his main ideas around class conflict
The powerful produce goods and services we all consume and do so for profit, they then employ the less powerful who sell their labour for a wage and thus are exploited because they need money to buy the goods they have made. “This results in a conflict in society between capital and labour”. The argument goes on to say that it is this fundamental unfairness that produces crime.
Introduce the main concepts/arguments and key thinkers you will discuss
The concepts I am going to discuss is how Marxism explains crime and criminal behaviour as a result of capitalist society and the interests it passes on. The key thinkers I am going to mention is this essay is Willem Bonger, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Capitalism as criminogenic
Willem Bonger argued that capitalism is criminogenic and created 6 propositions to support this, some of which are: the criminal law exists to protect the interests of the powerful, capitalism is held together by coercive exploitation rather than co-operative consensus. He also said that capitalism encourages greed and egoism, the pursuit of these pleasures lead both the powerful and powerless to turn to crime and that poverty prompts crime to the extent that it creates a desperate need for food and necessities. The emphasis on financial success and the individualised, selfish pursuit of pleasure produced a form of ‘egoism’ which increased criminal conduct.
Class conflict and struggles
Root cause of crime is the conflict created by the unequal distribution of wealth and power in society. “Victims of an unfair social and economic system may simply rationally choose offending behaviour as a way of coming to terms with a system that had failed to accommodate their interests”. The interests of both classes are in opposition due to the unequal distribution of wealth and power only within the upper class and them using this power to infringe punishment upon the poor so they can maintain this position of power. They do this by punishing those who don’t conform and defining acts of the working class as criminal. Therefore crime is a result of this demoralizing capitalist society, crime can be seen as a form of rebellion against this capitalist class. This was called Primitive Rebellion Thesis by Engles, for example stealing from the rich is an act of rebellion but in the most primitive form.
Law as a tool of oppression
According to Marxism, the law is used by the powerful as a tool of oppression against the powerless, this can be seen because ‘hardly any act is punished if it does not injure the interests of the dominant class’. Therefore, the law in capitalist society punishes the poor whilst allowing the wealthy to act in selfish and greedy ways without fear of punishment. Similarly, Edwin Sutherland in the 1930s said that major corporations were involved in activities that were ‘criminal’ but avoided being defined as such because of their economic and political status. Chambliss is a key scholar in Marxism and said that the law is simply a tool used by the powerful to control the working class.
Explaining crime and criminal behaviour
Crime defined by capitalist class to protect their interests
Marxism says that it is the rich and powerful who create the laws to infringe upon the working class in order to maintain their wealth and power and keep those beneath them poor. ‘hardly any act is punished if it does not injure the interests of the dominant class’. There is a socially uneven application of criminal labels, the working classes acts are defined as deviant, such as murder but when a large corporation is the cause of someone’s death no criminal label is applied to them. This indicates how those in power defined crime in order to protect their interests and keep control over the less powerful.
Working classes are criminalised, but the real criminals are the capitalist, egotistic class
Those in power define the working classes actions as criminal in order to create this sense of false consciousness. The government present through the media their crime tackling actions and say they are doing everything to reduce crime yet ignore any criminal activity of the powerful. They tackle street crime and divert our attention to it so that we won’t notice the criminal acts that they are committing right in front of our eyes, such as the many homeless people that die every winter because there is barely any help for them. Therefore by forcing us to focus on the acts of the working class that are defined as criminal such as street crime they are able to get away with many other harmful acts that aren’t defined as criminal.
Crime is often committed by the poor against the poor so primitive rebellion thesis isn’t really valid.
Taylor et al said that Willem Bongers work on Marxism is merely a “recitation of ‘Marxist catechism’ in an area which Marx left largely untouched”
What Is To Be Done About Law and Order says Marxism fails to offer any realistic solutions to crime other than to change the social order.
Crime is an actual real thing, not just a form of rebellion or a form of criminalisation by the capitalist class. The suggestion of this would be rejected by the public because murder, rape, domestic and child abuse have nothing really to do with those in power and offer no way to change this class conflict, therefore Marxism may not be the most adequate explanation for the causes of crime.
Ethical Dilemma College Essay
Karl Marx And His View of Class Division
In the Straits Times article titled “Dreams ripped at the seams: India’s ‘invisible’ home garment workers exploited by fashion brands” highlights the issue of the exploitation in the fashion brands industry. In order to keep up with the demand for fashion branded clothes, sweatshops have come up with a solution that will benefit them and can increase production. They have outsourced the production of garments to households, where workers can now work from home. However, the downside of working from home is that these workers will not be able to reap the benefits that workers in the factories get such as bonuses. Marx believed that work, at its best, is what makes us human. It allows us to live, be creative and flourish. However, under capitalism, he saw workers alienated from each other and the product of their labour. The situation that Ms Sekar is in, resonates clearly with Marx’s theory. She is restricted to where she works due to her having to take care of her family and the consequence, she faces is that she gets extremely exploited. Capitalists rather earn profit than only the replacement rate to pay for the cost of capital this can be seen from “the average price of wage-labour is minimum wage… the wage-labourer appropriates by the means of his labour, merely suffices to prolong and reproduce a bare existence”. Capitalists do not view workers as human beings, they are viewed as an abstract idea whose stomachs need to be filled, hence minimum wage is suffice to keep them alive and working for them. Marx’s idea in the “Manifesto of Communism” is that “the price of commodity, and therefore also of labour, is equal to its cost of production” workers do not receive the full value of their labour because capitalists view them as also a commodity of the market and hence their market value will fluctuate. Marx offers a solution to bring equality amongst the different classes in society “The distinguishing feature of Communism is …the abolition of bourgeois property.” This is significant to note as with the abolition of the bourgeois property, there will no longer be minimum wage labour Marx believes that the proletarians (workers under sweatshops) have to unite and overthrow the capitalist system and own the factors of production in order to remove the bourgeoisie class from exploiting the lower classes.
Solution According to Marx
In the 2019 new article, the issue of income inequality between the bourgeoisie class and the workers is very real. The global retailers are the bourgeoisie in this situation as they have the power to exploit workers to do their bidding. The global retailers enjoy large profits due to the inexpensive cost of the clothes material as well as the workers getting underpaid. Due to these workers having low skill levels, all they can offer is their labour. This makes the workers powerless and vulnerable to the garment industry as they will do anything to earn a living to support their families. The article states that “up to 19%” of the workers are 10-18 years old, this might count as modern-day slavery and children will be unable to reach their full potential. This shows that global retailers do not care about the welfare of their workers as children should not be working for such long hours, they should be in the school picking up skills that can aid them in the future. This agrees with Marx theory that “differences of age and sex have no longer any distinctive social validity for the working class”. As long as they are a lower class than the bourgeoisie, no matter their age, they are viewed as nothing but a means of production to the bourgeoisie. The welfare of adults working at these home-based sweatshops is also unaccounted for as homeworkers have “virtually no avenue to seek redress for abusive or unfair conditions”. The workers have basically signed their livelihood away when they join these industries. Marx brings up two different schools of thought between the bourgeois society and the communist society in terms of accumulated labour. In terms of the bourgeois society, “living labour is but a means to increase accumulated labour.” While in terms of the communist society it is to “widen, to enrich, to promote the existence of the labourer.” The problem could be better approached if the lower-class Indians where better educated. From the blog posted in 2017 by Ananye Krishna, who teaches underprivilege students, revealed that the Indian government schools are in a very poor condition. There is no electricity in 40% of the schools, 31% of the teachers are not properly qualified etc, basically there is a poor state of learning. This means that these Indians will never know how they can overwrite the exploitative system they are under unless someone starts a communist revolution for the proletarians. However, if they do try to overthrow the bourgeois supremacy by sweatshops, these Indians might lose out entirely as the sweatshops have other countries in which they can hire sweatshop workers from, some examples are Vietnam, Cambodia etc. where there are low skilled workers who would not mind low paying jobs.
In conclusion, income inequality is very apparent in such industries. These workers are ridiculously underpaid for the amount their garments are being sold at. There are actions which are being put in place to reduce the exploitation of these workers, such as giving them identification numbers such that their work can be accounted for and more benefits, as well as assistance, will be provided to home-based workers. However, this would not stop the bourgeoisie from exploiting them as the bourgeoise have relatively more power and less risk of loosing their capital and assets as compared to the low skilled worker who has no capital and only their labour to sell. Marx states that “there can no longer be any wage-labour when there is no longer any capital” hence these sweatshops and exploited Indian workers should unite and try to centralise all factors of production into the hands of the state instead of the that of the bourgeoisie.
- Marx, K. (1972). The Communist Manifesto In Robert Tucker (Ed.), The Marx-Engels Reader (pp. 331-362). NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Child labour. (2019).
- Retrieved 16 October 2019, from https://theirworld.org/explainers/child-labour Krishna, A. (2017).
- The Sorry State of Education in India. Retrieved 28 October 2019, from https://ohrh.law.ox.ac.uk/the-sorry-state-of-education-in-india/
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Marxism Theory
A German philosopher, sociologist, economist, and journalist, born on May 5th, 1818, Karl Marx was one of the nine sons of a man named Heinrich Marx and a woman named Henriette Presburg Marx.
Heinrich Marx who was a successful lawyer wanted Karl to follow in his footsteps to become a lawyer. Karl studied at the University of Bonn in October of 1835 and later transferred to the University of Berlin. This was where he discovered that his passion and interests lay more in becoming a philosopher than a lawyer.
After many years of studying at different universities, Marx settled in the University of Jena where he was later presented with his doctorate in philosophy in the year of 1843.
Marx continued his journey after university to expand and develop his knowledge and moved to Paris.
Introduced to new social theories and unconventional thinkers, Karl Marx met a man named Friedrich Engels. Marx and Engels became close friends and soon collaborated to write a book whilst in Paris called “The Communist Manifesto” in 1848.
The two authors wrote in detail information about the capitalist system and they then became two of the most well-known philosophers in history. Marx disagreed with the capitalist system and predicted that one day, the proletariats would rise up to the power that they deserved. “Let the ruling classes tremble at the communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win” (Marx & Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1843). On the 21st February 1848, the book was published and became one of the most celebrated pieces of work by the two men as their theories are still used to this day.
Marx was later sent out of Paris by the French government because of his work, they saw him as a threat towards the bourgeoisie.
At the age of 64 on March 14th, 1883 Karl Marx passed away however his work had an everlasting impact on sociology and philosophy and his legacy still lives on.
Marx came up with many ideas as a philosopher during the creation of the Marxism theory and he dedicated his life to the work that he produced. Marx believed in putting equality of society before all laws of the government and he disagreed with the exploitation of workers and how the bourgeoisie would deskill their workers making inequality in fairness across the workplace.
The theory is intertwined with labor, capitalism, and social classes and is based around the people of society, their role of work, how much they give back to society, and how much they earn in wages. Marx’s view was that whatever social class an individual belongs to, automatically has a direct influence on their life experiences.
Marx describes a “conflict theory” between the social classes due to the means of production – how much they earn and how they are treated. Marx explained “A house may be large or small; as long as the neighboring houses are likewise small, it satisfies all social requirements for a residence. Let there arise next to the little house a palace and the little house shrinks to a hut” (Karl Marx, Wage, Labour, and Capital, 1847). He created terminology to describe the three main different class types in society. The bourgeoisie – these people were at the top of the social class as they owned land, companies, and factories as well as the goods that are produced within them. The proletariat – these people owned nothing but their own labor as they were common workers who earned a wage for their families, they worked in factories and used supplies to create goods and provide services, they don’t own the means of production and did not earn a profit from the product or service that they were providing. They were often exploited by the bourgeoisie. The lumpenproletariat. – these people were ranked the lowest of the social class as they were seen as petty criminals and the outcasts of society.
Marx discovered some differences in social classes and saw that society was split due to the suppressing of the powerless in order for the bourgeoisie to control institutions. Within the manifesto, Marx stated “… Society as a whole is more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes…” (Marx & Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1843). These three specific social classes determine the character of the individual and they affect the person’s personality, actions, and their beliefs.
Capitalism took place and was then exploited by the bourgeoisie by not paying laborers enough of what they should be getting paid. This is called wage labor and those who own the businesses make a profit from the products or services that have been sold.
Marx believes that all class societies can be broken down into two other groups called the “economic base” and “superstructure”. Societies’ superstructure is always created by the economic base. Marx describes that the way society organizes the means of production is through a system of a base and the non-economic activities are organized through a structure. The primary foundation that makes up the base is things that are needed to produce factories such as land, minerals, machines, etc, and the structure is made up of education, family, religion, etc.
In terms of strengths, the Marxist theory could have a lot of positive impacts on the way individuals think and could encourage inspiration within society. His ideas could provide practical strategies and techniques in how people can change the way they live their lives.
Marx gives society the knowledge and may pass on unknown information to the proletariat about their unfair treatment within society in comparison to the bourgeoisie. Marx also gives people of lower social class confidence and hope in trying to overthrow capitalism by standing up for their human rights.
He believed in putting equality of society before all laws of the government which would include the equality of gender, social status, healthcare, education and roles in the workplace. This is seen as a positive impact of Marxism as it gives everyone in society an equal chance and opportunity for a better life. This would mean that there would no longer only be a dominant gender role within the workplace, but it would also give women an equal chance and opportunity to work the roles that males would normally do.
In terms of critiques of the Marxism theory, the solutions that Marx produced within his work could have many negative impacts on society as a whole. His work could cause verbal or physical conflict within society against the different social classes.
As Marx heavily disagreed with religion, he suggested that religion could have a deeper impact on an individual’s rights in the workplace. Within his work Marx begins to explain his thoughts: “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of the heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions…” (Marx & Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1843) Marx believed that the government was using religion in order to control the actions and happiness of society “The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is a demand for their real happiness” (Marx & Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto, 1843) therefore Marx wanted to abolish religion. This could be seen as a negative aspect of Marxism because this rule doesn’t allow individuals to live their lives freely, therefore goes against the act of human rights and contradicts the theory of Marxism.
Another idea that impacted on society negatively was to end private businesses and ownership of private property. He believed that everyone in society was equal and thus, everyone should have access to things equally depending on their individual needs. The private business gives members of society the chance to become more successful, they also can provide a feeling of motivation to want to pursue more work and enhance their business.
As a radical thinker, Marx didn’t agree with the system of society and believed that it was unfair that the proletariats would never gain profit from their hard work. They would only live to work in order to survive and eventually become poor over time. This would then rob them of their life experiences and opportunities.
Marx could be perceived as an inspiration yet a major threat at the same time as his ideas were so fundamental. They inspired many revolutionists as they longed to change the way things were in society, but he was also a threat to the government and those of a higher status and power within the social class.
Overall, with having observed the roots of the Marxist theory, although the actions behind his work were mainly good intentions, his work was extreme and unfortunately multiplies more issues within society than resolving them.
List of References:
- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1843), Book, Communist Manifesto (3rd November 2018) http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-39021
- Karl Marx, (January 2007) The communist manifesto quotes, the website from a book, Goodreads (26th November 2018) https://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/2205479-manifest-der-kommunistischen-partei
- Jennifer Angiwot, (6th December 2008) Marxism, Presentation, SlideShare, (2nd December 2018) https://www.slideshare.net/hakaray/marxism-presentation
- Jacqueline C (2nd march 2013), Comparison of functionalism and Marxism, Blog, Get revising, (29th November 2018) https://getrevising.co.uk/grids/comparison_of_marxism_and_functionalism
- Biography.com editors (2nd April 2014), Karl Marx Biography, Website, The Biography.com( 6th November 2018) https://www.biography.com/people/karl-marx-9401219
- Hobsbawm E, (28th May 2015), Marx, Karl Henrich, Website, Revolutionary and thinker (18th November 2018) http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-39021
- Cynical Marxist Club (23rd November 2015), Base and Superstructure, Online video clip, YouTube (4th December 2018) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FGyA0MtKDuA
- Crash Course (17th April 2017) Karl Marx and Conflict Theory: Crash Course Sociology #6, Online video clip, YouTube (8th December 2018) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gR3igiwaeyc&t=356s
- Ashley Crossman (24th September 2018), Understanding Conflict Theory, Blog, ThoughtCo, https://www.thoughtco.com/conflict-theory-3026622
- Lewis S. Feuer and David T. McLellan (November 22nd, 2017) Karl Marx German Philosopher, Article, Britannica (30th November 2018) https://www.britannica.com/biography/Karl-Marx
18th and 19th Century Analysis
In the late 18th and early 19th century, the upper elites of different countries had idealistic beliefs of how the country should be run. Capitalism was a way create mass production with the opening of new jobs. It bred new and innovative ways to make farming less laborious and created factories. As population grew so did the need for factory workers. This ended up reducing the demand for small business seeing as in mass production of an item was on the rise. The working conditions and wages were undesirable which lead to the workers starting a revolt. Karl Marx saw this and allowed for the new idea of Communism. Without these certain ideological thought of certain elites, the up and coming countries would have never been established to what they have become to be today.
When you look at how the Industrial Revolution came to be you can’t help but refer to Capitalism. It was the idea of privately owned companies running and regulating the factories and workers within. Mass production of agriculture was allowing people to work in factories. There was a downside to this new way of work. “Labor unrest over unsafe working conditions, strict work discipline, and periodic cycles of devastating unemployment led workers to organize.” (Duiker 2015) People started to voice their opinion on how it was unfair for a certain type of elite to have all the wealth while they worked under these unlivable conditions. This formed the idea of Socialism and Communism. Socialism was the way of everything being done as a community and not privately owned by one person or company.
This is when Karl Marx became a known name to people. He wrote, with the help of Friedrich Engles, “The Communist Manifesto”. The two of them “predicted the outbreak of a massive uprising that would overthrow the existing ruling class and bring power to a new revolutionary regime based on their ideas” (Duiker 2015). His idea of how communism was going to be the one that ruled all over the world was a critical way of thinking that never came to be during that time. Not many people like the idea of everyone being paid the same wages even though they might have more skills that the person next to them. At this time Capitalism was evolving.
Politics were put into place and the working class organized unions on their behalf which allowed for better working conditions and better wages.In Conclusion the question of if the elites Ideologies were lies to get people on board is kind of a yes and no answer. In the beginning it seems that the elites didn’t care what people thought as long as they worked and were profiting off of it. As politics formed and the working class found a way to organize a union, the elite found a way to still be profitable while being fair and listening to the working class and improving on the needs of the workers. Hence why Capitalism still plays a big role in society today.
Analysing Singpore’s Low-wage Workers Using Karl Marx’s Ideas
This essay aims to make use of the ideas and concepts presented by Karl Marx in The Marx-Engels to examine the problem of income inequality in Singapore, as presented in an article by TODAY, titled “Some low-wage workers working like ‘slaves’, says Labour MP”. Firstly, Singapore’s low-wage workers tend to be part of a low-trained or vulnerable workforce facing limited job prospects, while being considered by their company as largely expendable or replaceable, leading them to continue working for their employers even despite exploitation or bad working conditions, which enables the wage gap problem to persist. This reflects Marx’s perspective of capitalism as a system that dehumanises and commodifies labourers.
The article quotes Labour PM Zainal Sapari with lines including “sometimes that is the only job which they can do… and because that is the only option they have […] they are not in any bargaining position”, in addition to, “Trapped by the need to make a living for themselves and their families, these workers are prone to be shackled in servitude to the masters who control them”. The combination of the lack of skill set and the desperation to be employed in order to survive is the reason why these people stay at their jobs no matter the work conditions and “work till you die” like a slave. Secondly, capitalist employers in Singapore are profit-oriented and will pay their employees as low as they can to reduce costs where possible. This Secondly, capitalist employers in Singapore will want to pay their employees as low as possible for their own financial profit. This matches Marx’s view that capitalists shrunk the wages of labourers as much as possible to skim off a wide profit margin, which he called Primitive Accumulation. While Karl Marx’s ideas on capitalism still hold true to Singapore’s modern income disparity, it seems unlikely that the ideas from his Manifesto of the Communist Party would hold up as well today. With reasons such as violent historical conflict against communism after World War 2, Singapore’s strict restrictions on public demonstrations, the vulnerability of many of the low-income workers, and many more, it is unlikely in the near future for a communist movement to gain significant traction before intervention from the government.
The dangers and risk of starting a communist revolution in Singapore outweigh the injustice that the low-wage workers currently face, preventing individuals from attempting to start a revolution. On a brighter note, Singapore has not turned a blind eye to these low-wage workers, instead there have been significant efforts to reach out to them to narrow the income disparity and close the division between classes for a more inclusive society. Minimum wage laws have been implemented for workers in the cleaning, security, and landscaping industries, as well as annual bonuses. Workplace safety and health regulations to protect employee rights Although the results have been small, it provides hope for a future where everyone can enjoy a fairer distribution of wealth.
Analysis of Andrew Ure’s, Karl Marx’s and Friedrich Engels’ Views on Industrialization
Andrew Ure gives contentions support of the processing plant framework. He imagined that the industrial facility framework profited laborers and enhanced their lives. In manufacturing plant framework, he contended that specialists did not need to do much on the grounds that the steam motor a large portion of the work. Ure moreover brought up that assembly line laborers had simpler occupations than gifted specialists. He saw the specialists as a piece of the mechanical procedure that produces products. He likewise anticipates that one day specialists will move toward becoming “negligible overlookers of machines”, doing tasks that is don’t require much aptitude. The creation and changes of apparatus lessens the remaining task at hand on specialists and that machines can likewise drive up other related ventures that will raise business. He says the steam motors that fueled industrial facility gear made work simpler than assignments utilizing the more established hand driven supplies. In the production line framework, laborers getting unfailing wages and that framework is so modifying.
Karl Marx and Frederick Engels utilize contentions against mechanical free enterprise. In the beginning time, Marx and Engels faultfinders of the impacts of the advanced production line framework since they foreseeing its end as the specialists ascended. Specialists took control of a framework which misused them so severely and treated like slaves. In the socialist proclamation, Marx and Engels perceive the rise of another modern culture and the unequal connections between its diverse social classes, the decision class and second one is average workers. Which is working like an issue that remains to be worked out the abundance of the decision class. They trust that with the improvement of the business, the laborers get together against the common; with a specific end goal to keep up the rate of wages. The genuine product of their fights, are in the regularly growing association of the specialists. Specialists of various areas get associated with methods for correspondence, which is made by present day society. In each progressive minute the socialists were conflict with the existing social and political request of thing. They don’t have anything to lose yet have a world to win.
My assessment on the contentions
On my perspective, Andrew Ure gives strong contentions to the plant framework since he thought, that was enhanced the specialists lives. However, another side Marx and Engels thoroughly oppose this idea with that since they thought, later on laborer’s associations defeated the decision or wealthier class. Ure needs production line framework on the grounds that the greater part of the remaining task at hand move on apparatus and specialists get some alleviation. Hardware makes work less demanding. Specialists were certain about their wages and furthermore industrial facility framework is so changing. The modern transformation, which occurred from the eighteenth to nineteenth hundreds of years, in that period agrarian, provincial social orders in Europe ended up modern and urban. Industrialization denoted a move to controlled, extraordinary – reason apparatus, industrial facilities and large scale manufacturing. Furthermore, the managing an account, correspondence and enhanced arrangement of transportation assumed focal jobs in the modern unrest. At whatever point industrialization brought that was expanded the volume and assortment of produced products furthermore, an enhanced way of life. And furthermore enhanced the living conditions for poor people and working class.
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx Essay
The Marxist representation of civilization is observed in the lead of disparities flanked by classes and spawned by financial objects. This essay scrutinizes the role played by the theory of Karl Marx of social stratification and its representation in ratifying social alteration in the course of group struggles.
Particularly, it examines Marx’s model of consumerist society and reviews what notion continues to be pertinent in the twenty-first century. The contemporary progress cannot deny any of the indispensable thoughts enclosed inside his proposal. Marx predicted the persistent demo of commoditization and additional escalating growth of the capitalist bazaar as one day pursuing the bourgeoisie above the facade of the world.
Marx was pragmatic in his reasoning because he postulated that the populace would be intelligent to put up a superior collective system that would credibly call for supplementary complex resources for preservation. He says that “…. the means of communication adapted themselves to the mode of production of large –scale industries.
In addition, it is a newly created connection with the world market” (Marx 1990 506).The dynamic ideas contained within the communist manifesto have had a lasting impact on the very foundations of modern society. Workers should determine their own destiny by collectivization of interests. Through this, they will realize collective bargaining in the world market. Their social welfare will get better and mistreatment will be no more.
Marx insisted on the divergence viewpoint structures that affirm all factions in a culture battle against one another for communal capital. This generates variation involving the factions making the society a ground for clash. The difference is considered to be initiated by profitable capital with groups declining into distinctive classes. The supremacy associations are based on the possession of assets. Consequently, private enterprise is not anything new than the lawful features of control of one class over the other.
The fortunate class exercises their monetary and opinionated influence over the workers by obtaining their labor on the liberated bazaar. According to Marx, a class is explained on the foundation of control over superfluous worth in manufacturing.
The owners of the means of production are referred to as Bourgeoisie, who has power over the allocation of extra worth. The owners of the means of production are in straight inconsistency with the industrial unit personnel who do not have any articulate control in the allotment of additional value yet they are the main manufacturers (Brumfiel 79).
Marx claimed that unrest of the subordinate class demands formation of a mutual awareness about their subjugation. Regrettably, the poorer class no longer subsists as he observed since the precedent class struggles have ended every moment with radical conversion of society as a whole, which can be attained now by the waged people captivating over accessible condition.
The growth of present core executive and fair occupation has broken the subordinate group and augmented the quantity of natives in the center class, which survive in the gap formed between the two classes that Marx had initially projected. The center classes are distinguished from others on the basis of ability hence they are improbable to apprehend their universal struggle and any optimism for unified working class accomplishment is unproductive (Barbera 129).
It is factual that to a convinced degree, classes still verifies voting structures but not to the level, that Marx thought of. Marx postulated that the waged people would develop from being a grouping of persons with universal welfare to an amalgamated set with general ambitions (Marx 26).
The workforce would draw closer to discover their familiar effort and employ the estrangement they experience in the industrious progression to confront the Bourgeoisie. Schism connecting the two classes would enlarge until finally the entire makeup of the public floor into the void. This would facilitate an egalitarian society, which apparently would then espouse collectivism/communism.
The philosophy of Marx does not pertain to the present epoch, as Marx’s explanation of class is not stylish sufficiently for the up to date society. Heilbroner discharge the likelihood of a free society absolutely though his analysis is tautological.
In the near future, there will be persistence of citizens in the central, who do not suit into either the authoritarian sort Marx anticipated as they are beyond the associations of fabrication but do not exert the control of superior class.
Interestingly, affairs do not subsist if there is no manufacturing going on and at the same time, manufacturing cannot survive lacking the resources of production, which remains under the control of Bourgeoisie (Heilbroner 56).
Introducing the employees in undeviating rivalry for the inadequate plunder they could receive ensure that the proletariat would be not gang up collectively and widen class perception in so doing maintain Capitalism.
Capitalism will subsist as long as the low class continue being ignorant of their mistreatment. Cynicism is rising amongst the populace and possibly a form of divergence is rising. The facet of Marx premise that stands pertinent will persist to do so as long as the corporations that abuse manual labor repress the working class.
Barbera, Jeans. (2009). The Cost of Capitalism: Understanding Market Mayhem and Stabilizing Our Economic Future, New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Brumfiel, Fox (2003) Factional competition and political development in the New World, London: Cambridge University Press.
Heilbroner, Rick. (1999). The Worldly Philosophers 7 Ed. New York, NY: Touchstone Books.
Marx, Karl. (1998). The Communist Manifesto: New Interpretations. M. Cowling, (Ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Social Science Theorist: Karl Marx Research Paper
Karl Marx, born on May 5, 1818 In Trier in Prussia Germany, was one of the world’s reckoned sociologists, philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, communist and the pioneer of communism. He was a German but of Jewish origin because his father had converted to Christianity so that he could get an opportunity to practice law in the then racist German society.
He studied law and did a thesis of philosophy although he found himself in a group of Hegelian thinkers that dealt with political and social issues drawing him to communism. Marx was married to Jenny, a daughter of a Prussian baron, and had seven children but only three survived due to poverty and living conditions.
Marx worked as a journalist for a liberal newspaper in which he would publish his articles on economics leading to controversies and the paper was closed making Marx opt to move to Paris. While in Paris, he wrote an editorial that was about French socialism, and Hegelisim in Germany (Französische Jahrbücher).
He also wrote several manuscripts, such as the “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts” (1844) which were published a century later. He also met his best friend Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) and even wrote a manuscript with him. Due to their views they were expelled from Paris, they found their way to Brussels where he published the manuscript “The German Ideology” which was about the “nature of individuals depends on the material conditions determining their production.”
Marx believed in criticizing just about everything that was in existence and in 1848, he published his most popular and most controversial book ‘the Communist Manifesto” and it was not long after its release that the German revolution started. Marx had summarized the book in one sentence “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”.
This book led to his expulsion from Germany, and he went back to Paris where he was also expelled, and back to Germany again where he was charged for incitement and that was the routine of his life until 1849, when he decided to go to London. Due to the many revolutions that characterized that decade Marx decided to concentrate on understanding capitalism and economics (Cohen 1978).
By 1857 he had written over 800 pages of notes and short essays on capitalism, land, wage labor, the state, foreign trade and the world market but they were not published until 1941, under the title “Grundrisse”. In 1859, He published “The Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy”, his first major economic manuscript. Marx explained his labor theory of value, his understanding of surplus value and exploitation which he argued would ultimately lead to a falling rate of profit and the collapse of industrial capitalism.
Marx continued writing and in the last years of his life he fell sick and could no longer keep the pace but could only comment on Germany’s and Russia politics and economics. He even predicted that Russia might move into communism directly without getting into capitalism for he was convinced the end of capitalism was uniting the worker with the means of production and Russia had communal ownership of land but unfortunately Russia ended up embracing capitalism just like other nations (Marx & Engels 2008).
Marx in his writings was trying to explain why the society behaves the way it does by studying its economics politics and philosophy. He explained the cause of social conflict using economics and concluded that social conflict was as a result of resources whose distribution is controlled by the economic system of a society.
He also concluded that interaction and integration in a society is determined by resources since people can only interact with people of their social class. Marx view of an ideal society is that which people own property communally; there are no people that are superior to others in terms of wealth, and that way there would be no conflict.
Marx major contribution on social theories was the conflict theory which he developed. The theory argues that the society is divided according to material possessions hence creating classes in which superior classes exploit their subordinates. He argued the organization of work in society was a major determinant of its structure, its economics politics and social life.
According to Marx there are two major classes of people in a society; the ruling class and the subjects. The ruling class owns the means of production while the subordinates have the labor. The owners of capital who are the bourgeoisies buy labor from the workers, the proletariats, at very low prices that do not match the amount of work they do hence making the ruling class to gain huge profits that increase their wealth while the rest becomes poorer.
This kind of exploitation leads to political oppression since the ruling class use their resources to influence politics and laws made so that they would stay in their favor. They are also able to get as many contracts as possible for which the subjects do the work. The intellectuals are paid so that they would write publications justifying the system hence making all ideologies and morals to support the class structure (Blackledge 2006)
He argued that capitalism alienates the worker from the product he makes, since the product sometimes could be worthy than the worker, they feel used and view themselves as objects of oppression. They also view their fellow workers as objects of labor with no other destiny and all this will result to disappointment and anger.
There will be therefore a revolution as the workers try to unite with the means of production and due to this tension, capitalism will collapse and give birth to a new society. The society will be communistic, Marx says that “the development of Modern Industry, therefore, cuts from under its feet the very foundation on which the bourgeoisie produces and appropriates products.
What the bourgeoisie, therefore, produces, above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable” (Avineri 1968). He also believed that new technologies would be invented leading to less man labor hence more cost and less profits and as a result there will be an economic crisis leading to the fall of major sectors and the development of others.
Marx also used capitalism to define and study history and he concluded that all social conflicts that have occurred have been due to resources and the forces of production. However, critiques have opposed this claiming that capitalism is the most effective and fair way of distributing resources.
Contrary, others argue that selfishness and the need to accumulate wealth is in the nature of man and that no economic system would change that Marx can be considered as the founder of modern sociology in collaboration with others social scientist like Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber. Marx died on March 1883, he was buried in London Highgate Cemetery, with only eleven people in attendance. He died stateless and his epitaph read “workers of all lands unite”.
Avineri, S. (1968). The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blackledge, P. (2006). Reflections on the Marxist Theory of History. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Cohen, G. A. (1978). Karl Marx’s Theory of History: A Defence. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Marx, K. & Engels, F. (2008). The Communist Manifesto. Rockville, MD: Wildside Press LLC, 2008
Karl Marx ideologies and His influence in the 21st century Essay
Political philosophy is a branch of knowledge that has its root in ethics and especially trying to figure out the kind of life that is good for all the human being. People are as expected social beings.
Various philosophers therefore come up with philosophical discourses that revolve around politics in order to establish and broaden various ethical underpinnings in order to enable human beings to improve their lives. More often in the political realm, taking a utilitarian approach, people need to erect leaders as well as support institutions that would elevate happiness to majority of the people.
Various philosophers have come up with various schools of thoughts with an aim of changing many facets of life in order to make the world a better place. These ideologies have been changing the world in one way or another. One of the most influential political philosophers whose ideas had taken a center stage for many decades is Karl Marx.
The German philosopher lived between 1818 and 1883 (Tucker, 2001). He is an individual who has developed various principles that have influenced political and economic endeavors of any countries. This paper sets to identify and evaluate Karl Marx’s ideas that have continued to influence the world for many decades.
School of thoughts
In 1867, Karl Marx published one of his most powerful ideas concerning the development of the human societies. For instance, his ideas concerning hierarchical nature of the society have been central in the formation of various institutions.
Marx influence on education
Although Karl Marx never wrote straightforwardly concerning education, his ideas influenced many people including writers, intellectuals as well as educators. Mostly, the power of Marx’s ideas has continued to change the world especially in his analysis of the society. His ideas are significant in education in that Marx clearly confirmed that life should not be determined by consciousness, rather, consciousness should be resolute to life.
In the in the 19th century and before that, human consciousness was centered on the human activities instead of anchoring human activities on the human thoughts. This means that the way people carried out their activities as well as organized their daily life reflected their thoughts and their ideas about their world.
People built institutions and adhered to the philosophies that were determined by the economic base. Political system, education system as well as the family were organized according to the nature of the class that people belong to which reflects the economic base of the people and it serves to produce it.
Marx felt that various institutions that include education usually reflect the world that is created by the human beings’ activities. He also felt that various ideas reflected the material states and situations in which they were generated (Tucker, 2001).
His ideas are very important in the world today. For sure, politicians who often make up rules usually determines the agenda, unfortunately, they reflects their desires and the focus seem to be a determination of a class rather than for the common good of everyone.
Considering the way education has been organized, there are so many schools that have been constructed which are expensive and can only be afforded by the rich. The idea of their construction is to fulfill the interest of the political class that want to maintain their interests as Marx had stressed.
Marxism, Revolution in countries and communist manifesto
This is one of the complex political doctrines that Marx came up with which has been central in many political arenas. Marxism embrace the idea that the society’s history can better be understood through the history of the struggle of that society.
In the 21st century, there have been many revolutions in various nations. It is paramount to recognize that Marx Ideas have been very helpful in describing various political aspects. Through Marx Ideas of the bourgeoisie as the owners of means of production, we clearly understand find the establishment of the proletariat.
Marx saw situation whereby workers are exploited. He also pointed out that a civil war would arise once the working group realized they have been exploited. Considering that many nations are facing civil war especially based on the means of production, it is very common tin the 21st century. People are becoming enlightened and the idea of class struggle is very dominant in the current world.
The history of class revolution has recently been evident in countries such as Egypt and Tunisia. For sure, Marxist humanism has been behind the revolution that are been seen currently. Marx’s idea about productive forces would create a national revolution that would ensure that the political institutions would be fair has been evident in the world today.
Britain has various socialists, USA has its socialists and from this situation, we can confidently predict that there will be dramatic events that will lead to overthrowing of the capitalists. In Tunisia, the elites have been joining hands and an uprising resulted in order to remove their president in power, Egypt followed and Libya has not be left behind, it planed an uprising that want to put Gaddafi out of power.
Tribalism and class struggle
Marx believed that all societies usually evolve due to pressures that result from economic forces. He postulated that he had encountered historical evolution since the societies were centered on primitive tribalism, all the way to feudalism as well as during an era of capitalism.
He contended that the next movement would be fair, since it would be based on socialism that would lead to an enlightened era called communism. In reality, capitalism has been encouraging tribalism up to now. This has led to a widened gap between the rich and the poor (Tucker, 2001).
Many people are struggling to fight capitalism and establish a government that would ensure equal distribution of resources which according to Marx, is the ideal institution by the communism. Capitalism is a form of political institutions that have been characterized by widespread tribalism since the basic idea of creation of these institutions is centered on the interest of a class; therefore, the focus is maintenance of the class’s interest.
Marx ideas about creation of an institution that would be centered on equality of economic resources has been experienced in the 21st century and many people movements have been created to fight for vices such as tribalism, racism, and fight for the equality of the people.
Many leaders who came after Marx including Mahatma Gandhi have continued to fight for equality of the people as well as fighting idea of class. Political institutions even in developed countries have now been focused on democracy, for instance USA which has been a capitalist country.
Class struggle has been very evident in the current world. Many workers are nowadays forming unions to fight for their interest. In addition, Trade unions have been established to represent the working class in many parliaments in the contemporary world.
Karl Marx can be seen to be one of the most influential personalities throughout history. His ideas have been very powerful an influential in the politics all around the globe. Class struggle has been evident in the whole globe. Revolution has taken a center stage in many countries aimed which can be attributed to Marx’s ideas. The elites have been keen on making reforms.
Tucker R.C. (2001). Philosophy and myth in Karl Marx. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.