Two Destinies – One Desire
“The Women’s Theme” takes an important place in the creative heritage of American writers, appearing one of the markers of the historical and cultural process. Being one of the dominant themes of American literature in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it provides the key for understanding the place of a woman in society and her role in the development of social progress. Showing considerable interest in the destiny of an American woman, exploring the features of the femininity, a woman’s view of the world, and women’s values, and studying the role of women in various areas of society, American novelists endeavored to reflect the woman’s life, the problems of women’s emancipation, and feminist movement objectively.
A characteristic feature of that time was that in the American family a woman continued to be an exploited being. Since the right to make decisions remained with a man, so the norms in the family and at work were built according to the patriarchal model; therefore, woman’s involvement in professional work would have turned this exploitation into a double one. According to Erich Fromm, “Men’s dominance of women is the first act of conquest and the first exploitative use of force; in all patriarchal societies after the men’s victory, these principles have become the basis of men’s character”(116). Nevertheless, the most advanced and educated part of American women has matured the determination to achieve equal rights with men for education, freedom of professional activity, the right to dispose of property and raise children, freedom of divorce, and women’s suffrage. The idea of women’s equality in the second half of the nineteenth century embraces a wide range of American public and finds expression in the feminist movement, which begins to challenge the roles imposed on men and women by society. The theme of
social and moral release of women in the late nineteenth – early twentieth centuries is one of the main in American literature. Among a whole pleiad of talented writers of that time should be noted Kate Chopin and her extraordinary work “The Story of an Hour” and John Steinbeck with his immortal “Chrysanthemums.” Although the struggle for gender equality, which was conducted in all possible ways, including literature, was inherent mainly to women, male writers were able to describe the state of the female soul as stunningly as female writers. Despite the difference in the time of writing and the plots of the stories, the key idea – the desire of a woman to be fully recognized – remains unchanged in both these works. The heroine of Steinbeck, Elisa Allen, is thirty-five years old woman who lives in a valley surrounded by mountains and “closed from all the rest of the world,” as Steinbeck describes this place . She is a nice, intelligent, and interesting woman with a strong character. However, her life, subordinated to marriage with Henry Allen, is not a source of warmth and happiness.
Even though her husband is a hardworking person and an exemplary family man, she does not receive full satisfaction from her marriage or life in general. Henry does not perceive her equally, so he treats Elisa as a child by successfully taken care of her. However, all of this is not enough for her because she wants something more – she desires a life full of adventure. Instead of this she has to dedicate her life to the care of flowers. In her turn, the heroine of “The Story of an Hour” Mrs. Louise Mallard is a young married woman suffering from a heart disease. According to the Chopin’s description, her beautiful face shows a state of violent submission and at the same time a certain hidden inner strength that reflects a sign of grit . Similarly to Eliza, her marriage is an imprisonment, a cage from which there is no way out. She lives without knowing the joy of family life, patiently enduring all the adversity and dislike of her husband, doomed to such an existence by the will of fate. Therefore, when she is cautiously informed of the death of her husband, who apparently died in a railway accident, she is enveloped in a whole palette of feelings from a sudden feeling of grief and sadness, to victorious jubilation from the realization of her long-awaited freedom.
At first glance, in the eyes of the reader, she appears as a selfish, heartless creature, almost a soulless monster, unable to express the mourning, which the situation seems to require. However, what is behind all this? Long years of loneliness outspread there, for even being together, one can feel lonely. The burdensome perception of the futility of such an existence, which brings nothing but new wrinkles on the face, presents behind that side of her life, which is hidden from reader. Her behavior causes the reader to have ambivalent emotions. It might be anger, due to the fact that the Louise allows herself to pass through the deeply feelings inside of her, which the society in that situation would consider immoral. On the other hand, it may be a sense of compassion and comprehension of the motives of her actions. This understanding comes at a time when the reader is invited to feel the air of freedom that Louise breathes greedily through the open window.
“The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves” . Her sudden death, at the moment when she sees her husband alive and unharmed, puts things in order. The report of the train crash was a mistake he does not even suspect about; therefore, he comes home without warning, which causes his wife a heart attack. The doctor’s conclusion that she died being unable to cope with the joy that deluged her at the sight of a living husband sounds plausible, but it is not true. In fact, her heart does not bear the deepest disappointment from the awareness that all her hopes for a free and happy life collapses abruptly… According to Freud, Louise’s inner conflict lies in the confrontation between her innate desires or “ID,” governed by the libido and public opinion or the “Superego” (Kagan, Segal 336-337). Then enters her consciousness or the “Ego” trying to find a balance between the “principle of pleasure” and the “morality principle,” which strive to forbid her from feeling that vague sensation that she cannot determine initially:
There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out of the sky, reaching toward her through the sounds, the scents, the color that filled the air. She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will — as powerless as her two white slender hands would have been.
However, in the end she is completely given to it, remaining in her room. In public, she cannot show her jubilation because this is unacceptable. Relatives expect her to show grief, which she successfully demonstrates, but fate disposes by other way, and her inner triumph and release the chains of an oppressive marriage turn into intolerable bitterness from the understanding of the wreck of her dreams. At this moment, the reader may be puzzled by the question – to what extent her own life must be disgusted, that only the death of a spouse seems to her a way to get rid of suffering?!
The story of Elisa is not so tragic but not less dramatic. Her life seems quite predictable; a string of dull days similar like two drops of water awaits her. Since her vain attempts to delve into business of the ranch are condescendingly rejected by her husband, and the absence of children deprives her of the opportunity to experience the joys of motherhood, all that is left for ambitious Elisa is care for the house and her favorite chrysanthemums, for in this her joy. However, her serene existence is disturbed by a wandering repairman of household utensils. His unusual image, and probably, her sexual dissatisfaction combined with a rich imagination push her to flirt with him, but he sees a completely different interest in their conversation. In an attempt to sell his unnecessary services, a cunning traveler applies various ways to make her more relent, at first, trying getting soft on her, then praising his own professional qualities, thereby groping for her weak spot. Using his discernment, he shows a pretended interest toward her passion – chrysanthemums – and even then gets to the target not immediately. “They smell kind of nasty, you get used to them,” he said. “It’s a good bitter smell,” she retorted, “not nasty at all.” He changed his tone quickly. “I like the smell myself” (Steinbeck 232).
Eliza, who is touched by his interest, has no doubt purity of his intentions, so she opens her soul to him and becomes more benevolent, giving him the opportunity to earn money. However, the tinker, having received what he wanted, namely money for his work done, leaves her in messed feelings. After his departure, she feels completely devastated, which leads to the assumption of how unhappy her marriage is that some vagrant traveler could so easily inflame her. During a conversation with him, she describes her feelings and desires so brightly, as if she was just waiting for this moment to unfold herself for him. “I’ve never lived as you do, but I know what you mean. When the night is dark—why, the stars are sharp-pointed, and there’s quiet. Why, you rise up and up! Every pointed star gets driven into your body. It’s like that. Hot and sharp and—lovely” (Steinbeck 234). It is obviously that she does not often succeed in expressing herself, for there is no one to appreciate it. In an attempt to cope with her feelings, she tries to joke with her husband, then she expresses a desire to go to bloody men’s fights, and finally to drown sorrows in wine, but none of these ideas seems to bring her full satisfaction. The reason for her emotional confusion is a state of frustration, related to unmet needs. Here, the emptiness lies due to dissatisfaction of her natural needs for love and recognition. According to the Abraham Maslow theory, human needs are innate and located on several levels, from simple to more complex, ranging from physiological one’s such as eating, sleeping, sex and ending with the needs for self-actualization (McLeod).
It is quite true that man lives by bread alone — when there is no bread. But what happens to man’s desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled?
At once other (and “higher”) needs emerge and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still “higher”) needs emerge and so on. This is what we mean by saying that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency. To get rid of the constant internal mental stress, she directs all her energy into caring for flowers, using the protective mechanism that Freud named sublimation:
Sublimation is the defense mechanism where socially unacceptable impulses or desires are consciously transformed into socially acceptable behaviors or actions, possibly resulting in a long-term conversion of the initial impulse. Freud believed sublimation to be a sign of maturity, not only individually but also societally, allowing people to function in culturally acceptable ways. Freud defined sublimation as the process of deflecting sexual instincts into acts of higher social valuation. He saw it as an especially conspicuous feature of cultural development. Sublimation is what allows for higher psychical activities, scientific, artistic, or ideological, to play such an important part in civilized life. (Siegfried)
However, in this case the tinker serves as a trigger and this mechanism misfires and ultimately her accumulated tension pours out by a stream of tears, giving her temporary relief. Although Elisa and Louise are different in their lifestyles, they both have an inner strength, a powerful potential of unspent feelings, and energy that does not find an outlet. Suffering from the inability to fulfill themselves, both women are unhappy in their marriage and full of the desire to change something in their lives, but society does not give them such an opportunity.
Kate Chopin concerns about the fate of a woman who is trying to find herself in a life, rethinking the usual values. She sees a woman as an independent person and not as a man’s appendix that serve to provide reproduction and for decorating his leisure. As a result, “The Story of an Hour” reflecting the evolution of women’s self-awareness and the features of women’s perception of the world and their place in it becomes the basis for different sorts of feminist ideas (Kate Chopin International Society). In theirs works, both Kate Chopin and John Steinbeck rather accurately depict social institutions and foundations that prevent a woman from finding herself and gaining inner independence. Under the influence of time (the unfolding of the struggle for equal rights with men, participation in the strike movement, women’s trade union activity, and the organization of various associations and clubs), the main content of the writings of these writers becomes a true portrayal of reality and poignant women’s problem. They create women’s images in which the traditional model of women’s behavior, manifested in self-sacrifice and voluntary self-denial, causes spontaneous emancipation. Those images, being in complex love relationships, act without any slogans, declarations, and programs.
The heroines show determination and strength of character in defending their identities. However, their personal riots does not have a social orientation so far and spread only to relations with men. To reflect the objective reality of American society radical male and female writers cover the “female theme” in different ways based on their own psychology and artistic thinking. The emergence of a new attitude towards a woman in society, the beginning of a new female identity, the appearance of women of a new type – all these signs of social emancipation did not remain unnoticed by them (The Ohio State University). For this reason, the image of the “new woman” begins to form and actively develop in the literature.
The authors refute the traditional perception of a woman and justify her right to be considered as a rightful person like a man. The phenomenon of the “new woman” that is formed in American society force them to give their characters lively and colorful image. They show a new literary heroine possessed a sense of dignity and love of freedom who is in permanent search of that sphere of life that would help her to find herself and her place in life. These stories represent different types of heroines who protest against the enslavement of women in the family and in society as a whole. Despite their differences, they are united by one similar trait – more or less distinct awareness of their own desires and needs. Although the prose writers show various sides of the protest, they have one common thought: a woman has to establish herself as a person and as a representative of the sex; she has to be equal in rights with a man and play significant roles in the public, cultural, and political life of the American society.
Of Mice and Men: The Ideas of Chapter Six
The ending of the novella is seen as a tragedy to the readers following the death of Lennie, nevertheless is holds the key ideas that Steinbeck wanted to present to the reader concerning society during the Great Depression such as how they were unable to understand the concept of friendship. It also shows to the reader the death or beginning of themes that ran throughout the novella.
The opening of Chapter Six is seen as a mirror to the beginning of the book and description of the setting in Chapter One. This cycle created by Steinbeck may be used to hint at the cyclical nature of the ranch workers and how they will keep moving onto new ranches and jobs. This cycle is shown by referencing the “pile of ashes” in Chapter One and then again in Chapter Six by saying “near the pile of old ashes”. This theme is further referenced in the description nature when it says “As quickly as it had come, the wind died” which can be seen as referencing the time spent on the ranch by George and Lennie, a fleeting moment in time. Nevertheless, an alternative interpretation for mirroring the two descriptions is in order to reference the idea of the Garden of Eden. In chapter one nature is described using adjectives which hold majestic and fairy-tale connotations and through this strong imagery a picture of the Garden of Eden is created in the reader’s mind where “two men” enter. In chapter six the imagery used is similar but nevertheless Lennie is killed in this setting so it may be him leaving the Garden of Eden. This would also suggest that Curley’s Wife was the temptations and symbolised the forbidden fruit to Lennie which ultimately would cause him to be forced to leave the ranch. Therefore, this mirroring of description could hint at the religious aspect in ‘Of Mice and Men’ created through the description or could hint at the monotone and cyclical life of a Ranch Worker during the Great Depression.
Additionally, Chapter Six has a semantic field of death infused within the description. The overall description used in this chapter and the actions of the heron described as ”swallowing the small snake” all hints at the theme of death which runs throughout the novella. Furthermore, the phrase “The mountains seemed to blaze with increasing brightness” could be seen as representing heaven and a spotlight over Lennie as he lives his final moments. A different way of interpreting this phrase is that there is hope for George because now he has a fresh start. Furthermore, it may be seen that for George the depression is over suggesting that Lennie was the one standing between him and the ‘American Dream’’. Nevertheless, it may also be suggested that when Lennie dies the dream dies with him shown through the phrase the “sun left the valley”. This loss of dreams is a consequence of the actions of humans. Therefore, Steinbeck may be attempting to show how the lack of hope that society held and the loss of dreams and ambitions were ultimately due to humans and that we are an obstacle to our own future. Thus, Chapter Six is used to reference the theme of death but then also show the death of one of the key themes – dreams.
Chapter Six also helps to reference the concept of friendship which is seen as strange and foreign to other ranch workers. When Lennie and George first arrive at the ranch the boss doesn’t understand the connection between them and thinks that George is trying to “pull one over” Lennie and take advantage of him. Furthermore the final sentence of the book is “Carlson said ‘Now what the hell ya’ suppose is eatin’ them two guys?’” when describing the pain that George felt after shooting Lennie. This shows that the rest of the ranch workers don’t understand the concept of friendship and couldn’t understand what George had been through losing someone close to him. The idea of friendship is also explored when Lennie is hallucinating and the rabbit says to him “He gonna leave you” but Lennie refusing to listen because he understands that him and George are friends and that they “travels together”. Furthermore, this shows that even Lennie, who is mentally challenged, has a grasp on the concept of caring for other people but its harder for the rest of the ranch workers because they are lonely and travel alone when changing jobs. Therefore Chapter six helps to present to the reader the isolation the ranch workers felt during the 1920’s.
Furthermore, the death of Lennie can be seen as significant because it shows how nothing innocent can survive on the ranch. Lennie, due to his mental disability, is seen as innocent and naïve to the horrors of the world. Nevertheless, the ranch results in Lennie killing puppy and Curley’s wife showing that how the ranch life can corrupt even the purest of minds. Furthermore, it is the ideas and actions of fellow ranch workers which lead to the hunt for Lennie and ultimately his death. This may show that they don’t understand him or his innocence but just label him as belonging in a hospital and “looked up”, as Crooks described. It also shows to the audience how due to humans nothing innocent can survive or that we are afraid of concepts we don’t understand like how the brain of Lennie worked.
The significance of Chapter Six is to show to the audience how humans are responsible for the death of dreams, being forced to abandon the Garden of Eden but it also shows the constant idea of humans destroying nature even though we are a part of it due to the disturbance in the environment when Lennie enters, similar to Chapter One. It also shows how the ranch workers don’t understand the idea of friendship or innocence and are afraid of concepts they don’t understand to react using violence as the solution. Therefore, Chapter Six is arguably one of the most significant chapters as it referenced all of the key ideas and themes that ran through out the novella and delivers the final message which Steinbeck wished to present to the reader.
The Communication Technique in John Steinbeck’s Writings
Common Ground In many of John Steinbeck’s works there are themes and elements that parallel his other works. Steinbeck often tackles the result of people’s bad fortune and the realization that their dreams have been destroyed. We can see that in his Pulitzer Prize winning The Grapes of Wrath and his critically acclaimed novel Of mice and Men Steinbeck shows us the results of people having their dreams destroyed. Steinbeck shows us that in his work he gives different characters similar goals and aspirations and has them destroyed in similar ways. In both of the above mentioned books key characters have their dreams destroyed. “Steinbeck often created characters possessing lofty goals; lofty goals in a world of despair and corruption. His characters did not have a dream of tangible luxuries, but a dream of corporal well being and refuge with loved ones”(Thomas 238). In Of Mice and Men, Lennie and George travel to California in order to find work. Once they salvage up enough money, Lennie and George plan on being independent and not worrying about the outside world and its enigmas. George stated “Someday we’re gonna get all the jack together and were gonna have a little house and a couple of acres an’ a cow and some pigs.” (Roberts, 187). George’s dream ran deeper than a love for farming and independence.
The motivation for this dream was not just a product of the poor state of the country and widespread unemployment, but it was a dream that could ensure a happy ending for Lennie. George is anxious to secure his own place so that Lennie can live the type of life where he can be happy and not be hurt by people who do not understand his simple ways. George would run the farm; Lennie would tend the rabbits. This was Lennies dream, to tend the rabbits. He could think of nothing else more enjoyable than tending the rabbits. “Lennies dram is to have all the rabbits that he can take care of, and his attempts to do the right thing are motivated by his fear that George won’t let him take care of the rabbits.” (Tedlock 243). In The Grapes of Wrath the Joad family also dreams of moving out west. They do this in hopes of escaping the direful situation in Oklahoma. “Gonna buy a car and shove out west where it’s easy living.” (Steinbeck 57). The Joads like Lennie and George plan on saving up enough money for their own plot of land. Once this task is accomplished they hope to live a self-sufficient life and rely on one another. They believe that once in California they will find life easier and find all they need in surplus. “Jus’ let me get out to California where I can pick me an orange when I want it. Or grapes, there’s a thing I ain’t never had enough of. Gonna get me a whole bunch of grapes off a bush, or whatever, an’ I’m gonna squash ’em on my face an’ let ’em run off my chin”.(Steinbeck 105). There is clearly a parallel between the themes of these two books.
As both works have the same basis for the characters dreams. How the dream mwas destroyed George and Lennie never had their dreams come true. When they arrived at the homestead for work; George and Lennie at once felt hostility from the ranch owner’s son Curley. Curley was a sinister short-tempered man possessing little physical stature. From Curleys first encounter with Lennie, Curley was looking for an excuse to fight the simple-minded Lennie. “Curley develops a hatred for the bigger man which will be expressed in his desire to mutilate Lennie in the final scene.” (Magil 4296) Lennie ended up killing Curleys wife. This was not a malicious act however. It was an accident that had an unfortunate consequence. “Lennies greatest difficulty is remembering. While he never plans to do anything wrong, he simply cannot remember what is wrong and what is not.” (Magil 89). That consequence being the death of Curley’s wife, and that Curley ordered the men to kill Lennie. The workers assembled and took up arms. George knew that the men were not out to right a wrong, but out to seek vengeance. George decided that he must kill Lennie. George knew that this was the only solution that would spare Lennie the misery that would be inflicted on him by Curley and his men. Like George and Lennie the Joads never saw their dreams materialize. They to were victims of the greed of this time period. The people of the west were averse to change. They were afraid of the migrants because of their different life styles. “Sure they talk the same language, but they ain’t the same. Look how they live.
Think any of us would live like that? Hell no!” (Steinbeck 302). The Joads soon learned that the people of the west actually hated the “Oakies”. A man returning back to the Midwest from California told of the troubles to be found ahead. “People gonna have a look in their eye. They gonna look at you an’ their face says, “I don’t like you, you son-of-a-bitch.” Gonna be deputy sheriffs an they’ll push you aroun’. You camp on the roadside an they’ll move you on. You gonna see in peoples faces how they hate you.”(Steinbeck 306). As the Joads arrive into California they see that their dreams will go unanswered. The land looked beautiful but the circumstances would not allow for prosperity. “Looking into the valley the Joads regret that theirs cannot be the tranquil life that it promises.”(Tedlock 40). The dreams of George of and Lennie were destroyed as a result of apathy. Throughout this novel we can see how Steinbeks characters have a total lack of interest in others well being. In the first chapter the bus driver drops George and Lennie off miles from their destination. The driver did this just to spare himself a few minutes of work. The dream was not destroyed due to killing of Curley’s wife at the hands of Lennie. But as a result of Curley’s lack of empathy. If Curley were more understanding and considerate of Lennies condition the dream may have grown and bloomed into reality. However given the circumstances George had no choice but to sacrifice he and Lennies dream so that Lennie would not suffer at the hands of Curley. George decided that the only solution was to kill Lennie. The Joads also had their dreams destroyed at the hands of apathetic people.
The Joads were treated and looked at by the ranch owners like a team of oxen. They were expected to work long and hard hours for insulting wages. The authorities did not have any concern for the poor who were being taken advantage of. Children were not even spared from the work and, like their parents went hungry. “The kid’s yo ought to see them. Little boils, like comin’ out, an’ they can’t run around. Give ’em some windfall fruit, an’ they bloated up.” (‘Steinbeck 363). They turned their heads away from the atrocities that were taking place in front of them, and bowed their heads to the almighty dollar. The migrants had no choice if they wanted to work. If they refused the wages somebody else would be glad to take the job. “Suppose you got a job an’ work, an’ there s jus’ one fella wants the job. You got to pay him what he ast’s. But suppose them men got kids, an’ them kids is hungry. Spose a dime’ll buy a box of mush for them. An you got a hundred men, jus’ offer ’em a nickel. Why, they ll kill each other fighting for that nickel”. (Steinbeck 324). It was a rat race. The only way to get ahead in the world portrayed by Steinbeck was to turn your back on your fellow man. In these to works of Steinbeck the plight of the migrants is examined.
Often it’s the wealth of the landowners pitted against the poor. In both works this wealth has molded the authorities into cold heartless men. These greedy individuals destroy the dreams of the migrants. The villainous characters he portrayed only had a sense of present pleasure. They had no concern for the fact that at the present moment a child had no life or food. The lower class had no way of getting ahead. Steinbecks charecters never had their dreams materialize into achieved goals. This was true in both of Steinbecks above mentioned works. George and Lennies followed their dream only to have it turn into a nightmare. The Joads journey led them from the barrenand sterile land, to the green, fertile yet poisonous land. In the end dreams turned out to be just that, dreams, nothing more.
John Steinbeck’s Involvement in the Great Depression and Vietnam War
The Great Depression had a massive impact on everyone throughout the United States, and any number of programs to try and improve the well-being of the American people and the economy were put into place under Franklin D. Roosevelt’s time as president known as The New Deal. One of these programs was the Federal Writers Project under the Work Progress Administration. One of the many authors brought in on the project was John Steinbeck, who would become a major player in the literary canon of America. Steinbeck wrote his well-known novel, The Grapes of Wrath, and novella, Of Mice and Men. Both books were written to better show the experiences most Americans faced during the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. Any literature that Steinbeck wrote during his time in the Federal Writers Project was written with one goal in mind: “In every bit of honest writing in the world… there is a base theme. Try to understand men, for if you understand each other you will be kind to each other” (Steinbeck), as written in his journal kept throughout this portion of his career. Steinbeck’s overall goal with his writings based on the Great Depression were intended to aid in furthering large scale social change.
The Federal Writers Project was established in 1935 to provide work for writers, teachers, librarians, and the such that would benefit from literature being published. The original purpose of the FWP had been to write a series of guide books that would have individual focuses on several different aspects of the United States, be it history, economic resources, culture of the American people, or the most scenic places in the country.
Throughout 1936, Steinbeck had travelled with a group of migrant workers, seeing first hand their way of life on the road. The quality of life these men had after having been displaced from their homes during the Dust Bowl appalled Steinbeck, who admired their tenacity and will to keep trying to resettle their lives. Based on his experiences with these workers, Steinbeck went on to write Of Mice and Men, focusing more on the hopes of displaced workers to eventually have their own land again to settle down with their families and reclaim their old lives. Of Mice and Men became a popular novella and stage play as American citizens recovering from the aftermath of the Great Depression related to the story as it was a mirror of their own lives not that long ago. Even citizens that were not affected nearly as bad as farmers and other members of the lower class that read this novella or saw the play began to understand just how much of an impact the devastation of the Depression had on the rest of the country.
After Of Mice and Men, in 1939, Steinbeck would go on to write The Grapes of Wrath. The Grapes of Wrath follows the story of the Joad family as they make their way to California to try and rebuild their lives after their family farm was essentially blown away during the Dust Bowl. Steinbeck’s experiences with the migrant workers also played a large influence throughout this novel as the migrant worker camps spread throughout the country, spanning all the way out to California, which would play a large role in many of the key scenes that took place in the novel.
With the publication of The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck earned a Pulitzer Prize as well as the National Book Award, however the book was widely banned by most schools for several accounts of ‘obscenities’ and coarse language. The novel was also protested by the Associated Farmers of America for how corporate farmers were being portrayed throughout the novel. With the novel’s success, a film version starring Henry Fonda would go on to be released in 1940, however production was attempted to be stopped completed by the Kern County Board of Supervisors to keep the supposed negativity shown in the book from spreading outside of California. Steinbeck achieved his main goal of causing social change with The Grapes of Wrath and was backed by First Lady Elanor Roosevelt for the truth that was expressed in the novel; First Lady Roosevelt would later influence congressional hearings regarding the condition of the migrant camps.
In the years after writing The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck spent time exploring the world and learning more and more to expand his experiences in life. During this time, in the earlier years of World War II, Steinbeck travelled through Europe and North Africa as a war correspondent to the New York Herald Tribune. In this time period, Steinbeck would go on to write East of Eden, taking place in America spanning the time frame of the Civil War all the way up to World War I, calling it “the story of my country and the story of me” (Steinbeck). Steinbeck’s continued work in literature involving the topic of the American people and the gradual change of American history earned him many awards and accolades. In 1946, Steinbeck was award the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Lyndon B. Johnson for helping the American people re-discover themselves through communal experiences as seen in his works.
In 1947, Steinbeck travelled to the Soviet Union as a journalist accompanied by photographer Robert Capa. During this trip, Steinbeck had been under investigation by the FBI for his pro-worker sentiments expressed throughout his writing, his trip into the Soviet Union seemed to confirm suspicions of Steinbeck being a socialist. Despite having come into contact with many communists, labor organizers, and strikers, there was no real definitive proof of Steinbeck being a card-carrying member of the Socialist or Communist parties. Later in his career however, Steinbeck would come under more speculation of is morals and ideals by the politically left and liberals due to his friendship with President Lyndon B. Johnson and pro-war journalistic reporting during the time of the Vietnam War.
At the age of 64, Steinbeck was on the frontlines of the Vietnam War as a journalist and would send back letters telling of what he saw there- these letters would go on to be the last published work of Steinbeck’s. Steinbeck’s shocking letters originally were printed in Newsday, which had been owned by his friend Harry Gugenheim, throughout 1966 and 1967 to be easily accessible to the public. Outside of the shocking content involving the fighting that took place, many fans of Steinbeck’s previous works were shocked at just how pro-involvement in Vietnam Steinbeck truly was, resulting in these letters being kept out of the public eye after the end of the Vietnam conflict for many years. Steinbeck’s primary involvement in reporting on Vietnam came almost entirely from his own interest- both of his sons would become involved in the war- with some encouragement from President Lyndon B. Johnson, though Steinbeck claimed he was never there on Johnson’s behalf. Despite his involvement in the war itself, one of Steinbeck’s sons confronted his father while in Vietnam over his support for the war, as this son felt that the United States’ involvement in Vietnam was wrong and unnecessary. Later in to the course of the war, Steinbeck did begin to have his doubts over the need for involvement, however, these doubts were never published in Newsday.
John Steinbeck started his career as a writer well before the Federal Writers Project came to fruition, however, this program came to be a major turning point in the career of John Steinbeck. Steinbeck’s work in the FWP utilized his experiences living with displaced workers in the aftermath of a massive stock market crash that initiated the Great Depression, only being made worse by the Dust Bowl. Three of Steinbeck’s most iconic works- Of Mice and Men, The Grapes of Wrath, and East of Eden- would likely never have happened if the FWP was not put into to unify the American people as they look back on their history in order to further understand the place that all Americans had from 1929-1939, feeling a greater connection to other citizens after seeing essentially what they had been through. The FWP also gave Steinbeck earned a great amount of respect- or at least fame- among the American people, as well as the government. Despite the numerous doubts that were had about political ties and viewpoint, John Steinbeck remains as a major player in the American literary cannon.
An Analysis of Loneliness in of Mice and Men, a Novel by John Steinbeck
Throughout John Steinbeck’s novel, Of Mice and Men, the author depicts many characters such as Lennie, Candy, Crooks, etc. as having physical or mental impairments. These “disadvantaged” characters quickly become to represent isolation and discrimination, as well as giving the reader an insight into why characters such as Crooks have the persona associated with them due to their impairments. Therefore, Steinbeck’s utilization of many of the character’s impairments thus help in developing the theme of loneliness and isolation that is prevalent throughout the novel.
One of the most significant impairments in the novel would be Lennie’s intellectual disability due to how it emphasizes both his and George’s isolation from society. From the start of the novel, Lennie’s disability quickly becomes the most noticeable due to his childish language and clumsiness. Along with that, Lennie’s disability prevents him from comprehending even the most basic of instructions, which therefore makes him unable to communicate and express himself effectively with others. Because of his disability, he is thus completely dependent on others such as George who especially feels conflicted about his relationship with Lennie. Throughout the novel, George makes his frustrations over having to take care of Lennie clear due to his constant need to monitored and his tendency to get in trouble. As George puts it, “I could live so easy and maybe have a girl.”(Steinbeck 7) which shows how he believes Lennie is a factor as to why he feels lonely because of his responsibility to Lennie, and how accidents such as the one at Weed force them to move out. As for Lennie, he himself does not feel lonely however, he fears being abandoned by George. Due to his disability, Lennie is unable to see that Crooks was simply being hypothetical when he told Lennie, “…S’pose George don’t come back no more.” (Steinbeck 78) which of course shocked Lennie who could not even imagine such a thing and thus confronts Crooks to demand who hurt George. Lennie’s sudden shock to the thought of George abandoning him is very significant to the development of the theme of loneliness within the novel due to the fact that it highlights a key point in Lennie’s character. The reader sees how Lennie’s confusion conveys fear and thus shows how important his relationship is with George due to his disability. By interpreting Lennie’s fear over George abandoning him, the reader can thus see that because of Lennie’s disability, his dependence on George emphasizes Lennie’s alienation from society and how truly lonely Lennie is in society.
Another significant impairment in the novel is Candy’s elderly age and his physical disability which alienates him from the ranch due to his inability to do the work of the other ranch-hands. Because of Candy’s inability to do the taxing work on the ranch, he thus has no power or say on the ranch and is considered “useless” due to the hierarchy on the ranch being mainly determined by physical ability. However, Carlson’s demands to have his old sheep-dog put down is what truly emphasizes his loneliness on the ranch. Carlson ignores Candy’s pleas and tells him that the dog “…ain’t no good to you, Candy.”(Steinbeck 49) which unintentionally reminds him of the debilitating effects of age on his body as well. Candy’s subsequent decision to remain silent after allowing his dog to be shot shows how alone he is on the ranch and the lack of support from the other ranch-hands even further support that fact. After the decision is made to have the dog shot, ranch-hands such as Slim, “… gazed at him for a moment and then looked down at his hands;”(Steinbeck 54) and George who “ …brought the cards together tightly and studied the backs of them,”(Steinbeck 54) obviously show that nobody in the ranch wants to address the “elephant in the room”. The main reason as to why Candy chooses to isolate himself from the ranch was not just because of the loss of his dog, but also because of Carlson’s demands to have the dog “put down” which represents the ranch sacking Carlson over the same reasons that the dog is shot for: old age and disability.
Finally, another character whose impairments are especially significant is Crooks who willingly and yet unwillingly chooses to isolate himself from the ranch. Described as having, “…a crooked back where a horse kicked him,”(Steinbeck 22) and “…a nigger”(Steinbeck 22) which shows how both his physical disability and race are perceived as impairments by the ranch due to their hierarchy and racism. Because of his status, he is completely isolated by the other ranch-men and is only given a small room in the stables so that he is separated from the others in the bunkhouse. Due to his treatment and acceptance that he is not wanted on the ranch, Crooks claims that he values his privacy and maintains a hostile personality towards others. However, in reality Crooks actually longs for social interaction and he tells Lennie that, “A guy goes nuts if he ain’t got nobody,” (Steinbeck 80) which brings the reader some insight as to why Crooks acts the way he does. In fact, Lennie’s encounter with him shows that he has a “soft side” and a desire to be treated as a human being, despite society abandoning people like him and Lennie who are thus bonded by their disabilities. Therefore, the reader can see the tragedy in the novel being represented by Crook’s disabilities. He understands that his “impairments” prevent him from being accepted by the ranch and society, yet he still yearns for a person to talk to. Thus, it is clear that Crook’s hopelessness and isolation in a prejudiced society emphasizes the theme of loneliness and how characters such as he and Lennie are discriminated against simply because of their disabilities and impairments.
Throughout the novel, characters such as Lennie, Candy, Crooks, etc. all displayed how their impairments were one of the major factors in their loneliness. Whether it be mental retardation, elderly age, or even race it is clear that society’s prejudice shows how detrimental it is to the characters. John Steinbeck manages to successfully enhance the theme of loneliness in the novel due to his emphasis on each character’s isolation from society because of their impairments. Therefore, Steinbeck shows the reader the consequences of a society that alienates those with any type of disability be it a physical or mental one. Overall, each character’s impairment emphasizes their low position and isolation in Steinbeck’s societal hierarchy and how those unable to speak for themselves will never be able to if society continues with that mindset.
A Perspective of Nature in The Pearl, a Book by John Steinbeck
When it comes to nature in the first two chapters of The Pearl, it seems that the town is often described as a very peaceful, calm and beautiful place. At the beginning of the first chapter, Steinbeck describes the village right before dawn with such phrases like “the day had drawn only a pale wash of light in the lower sky to the east” and “the little splash of morning waves on the beach”. It gives the story a very easy-going and calm sort of feel that matches Kino’s mood when he speaks of the Song of the Family and how at peace he is. And yet, Steinbeck also describes pigs trying to find food and ants busy at work and it feels like it’s kind of a metaphor to the poor people of the village who live in the bush houses and have to work hard to survive even in this beautiful landscape, as compared to the people who have more money and live in town and can afford things like having the doctor visit them.
Likewise, in the beginning of the second chapter, the shoreline is described when Kino and Juana are going down to the beach with their son. It says “the brown algae waved in the gentle currents and the green eel grass swayed and little sea horses clung to its stems” and describes this part of the town in very smooth terms, talking about how calm the water is and how everything is going about its normal routine. However, once again, it also mentions the darker part of the beach where the dogs and pigs are searching for dead fish or birds so that they can eat. I think this could also be a metaphor to the fact that Kino and Juana are going around their everyday activities when someone big, and dark, happens – the scorpion pinches Coyotito.
Acts of Kindness in Cannery Row
When hitch-hiking, never forget the generous person who allowed passageway by the use of their vehicle. Other acts of kindness are shown throughout Cannery Row, but many of them sadly end in complete and utter disaster. Nonetheless, generosity can be found embedded into many of the characters introduced in this novel. Because this great work of literature is set during the period of time when America was at its lowest, the Great Depression, it rises the question of wealth being a key contribution to one’s character. Does lack of money affect individuals natural generous nature? An abundance of impecunious people roam the streets of the small town of Cannery Row, California. In Cannery Row, by John Steinbeck, living becomes increasingly difficult as the necessities to live become more costly than the average citizen can afford. In a town where people are always in desperate need of money, generosity provided by others becomes necessary to society. Each character experiences lack of money and the restraints that come with it, whether they are naturally generous or not. Generous individuals find other ways besides the use of money to express their selflessness to other people.
Almost everyone in the small town of Cannery Row is plagued with the hardships that come with the absence of money. When this becomes a well known problem, the city is left in the hands of those who have items that are necessary to one’s ability to live. Lee Chong is the owner of the grocery store that is dependant on providing food for the population of this town. This man is an individual who gave significantly to the unemployed and ravenous people living in this community (7 Steinbeck). When Lee knew his grocery store clients had a table of underfed children waiting back home for them and no money to purchase their items, he allowed them to take the groceries and pay later, knowing he was never going to get the money (6). Lee Chong gave to people in his community in the only way he could. He could not give them money or jobs, so he blessed them with food. Though Lee Chong quickly became rich in unpaid debt by impecunious community members, he never failed to give to people in need throughout the story.
Another character that disregarded his unfortunate finances, but still gave when he could was Mack. Mack was a gentle soul with a rough exterior, but despite those qualities, he sought to throw a party for the kindest and most benevolent man in Cannery Row (29). Mack is a penniless character who worked more than an average person would to get supplies and food for this party (46). Along the way to throwing this party, Mack committed illegal acts and made promises he couldn’t ensure he could keep (56). He put his life at risk just to throw a party for this man because displaying his gratefulness held much importance to him (82). Though he didn’t possess any money, he did manual labour in exchange for needed items (94). Mack is a character whose generosity prospered into a beautiful flower that never failed to give.
Dora Flood enhances the entire story of Cannery Row with her kind spirit and comforting nature. Dora is the owner of Cannery Row’s whorehouse and when she did make what profit she could off of this business, she decided during these times in need to aid in paying for desperate families’ grocery bills (Steinbeck 18). After a continuation of this much needed generosity, Dora nearly went broke (18). Even when Dora went nearly broke, she continued to provide food and comfort to her community. When Cannery Row had an influenza outbreak, medical professionals refused to help or care for the ill and destitute children because they knew they would lose time and money if they assisted during these vulnerable times (97). Dora was the first person to volunteer anything to help these indigent children. Since she did not have money, she supplied the children with warm soup and comfort (98). Dora ungrudgingly gave her time, comfort, and food to the grateful people of Cannery Row.
There are very few individuals who had any kind of necessities to offer their community. These influential character’s, Chong Lee, Dora, and Doc, changed the lives of many throughout the story by presenting the people of Cannery Row with the natural generous nature each of them held. When the entire town of Cannery Row’s well-being took a step down, these individuals took a step up and gave graciously.
Literature review: “Of Mice and Men”
Loneliness shows up next in the life of Crooks. Crooks is the only black man on the ranch and has been beaten down by the loneliness. When Lennie and Crooks first met, all of the other men went into town and Crooks did exactly what George did to Lennie when he first met him, take advantage of mental state. Crooks is jealous of their friendship. Crooks tried to persuade Lennie into thinking that George was not going to come back from town that day.
In doing this Lennie became angry thinking that something had happened to George. After breaking the owner’s son’s hand a few days before, Crooks tried to persuade Lennie into thinking that if George didn’t come back from town that day. This puts him in a position of authority. It places him in a position where he can have control over a white man’ so to speak. In addition, because he has probably never had such sort of power that it would be overwhelming after all those years being that, “ A man goes nuts if he ain’t got no one to talk to”.(pg. 222)
Curley’s wife, the farm owner’s son wife, shows loneliness. She is flirty city girl who is always getting herself into trouble with Curley because she flirts with the other men on the ranch. Curley is a lightweight boxer who does not like big guys just because he is not that big but that does not stop him at all. Most of the guys at the ranch stay clear of Curley and his wife because they know that if they get into any trouble with them they could be fired and because “Curley’s old man is the boss”.(pg. 72 ) Curley’s wife has really brought her loneliness upon herself is result of her constant flirting with everyone and because she does this, Curley cannot trust her to be around the other guys. Curley’s wife is also the only on the ranch, which means that she would be lonely from not having anyone to talk to apart from Curley. Although she is married to Curley, she doesn’t really love him. In the end, Curley’s wife has her neck broken by Lennie by accident.
It is a tragedy for Curley’s wife but she did bring it upon herself.For this reason, loneliness is the major theme underlying theme, however, there are two herself are two little “branches” that come off that have to do with the three minor characters, and feeling of fear and jealousy. All of the characters are lonely, except George and Lennie who have each other. Candy is afraid of getting fired from job, Crooks is jealous of George and Lennie’s close relationship and the real loneliness comes from Curley’s wife. Loneliness leads to depression and it is a major theme in the novel, “Of Mice and Men”.
The Power Of Greed In Treasure Island By Robert Louis Stevenson And The Pearl By John Steinbeck
In the books Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson and The Pearl by John Steinbeck, the major themes presented contributing to the plot was greed. Greed is a theme that is displayed through the actions of characters in both of these books and plays a role in driving the plot forward. Both books consist of adventure and mystery leading to a suspenseful reading experience. Greed results in consequences such as possessiveness, dangerous outcomes and guilt, which all play particularly outstanding roles in plot advancement. All three of these topics feed into the overall demise of characters in the books, making them extremely important factors to analyze.
Intense greed causes individuals to do things that they would not typically do, such as being possessive. The characters in the story lose sight of the bigger picture and it causes them to want more than they already have. In The Pearl, Kino finds a rare pearl and took it to an appraiser to get as much money as possible from it but the appraiser would not even give Kino half of what he desired. He would not settle for less and walked out of the store with no money and the extraordinary pearl in his pocket. The Pearl caused Kino to become very obsessive over Coyotito, his son, and was referring to the boy as property, “His face shone with prophecy. ‘My son will read and open the books, and my son will write and will know writing. And my son will make numbers, and these things will make us free because he will know — he will know and through him, we will know… This is what the pearl will do’”. It is not selfish of Kino to want more for his son, but it is greedy for him to want his child to be better than everyone else in his neighbourhood, as they live in a poor community surrounded by rich cities. Non-wealthy people can be just as greedy as treasure hungry pirates. In a conversation between Squire Trelawney and Doctor Livesey in Treasure Island, the squire brings up some good remarks about how the famous pirate Captain Flint only does tasks where there is money and riches involved. Not just Flint cared about money, all other pirates did too, “‘But the point is, had he money?’ ‘Money! Have you heard the story? What do they care for but money? For what would they risk their rascal carcasses but money?’”. Money is an object and they keep wanting more, no matter the cost; bloodshed, dishonesty, and disloyalty do not affect them, so why would they bother worrying? One of the few characters that are genuinely not interested in the money is Ben Gunn, “he possesses the entire Flint treasure hoard, yet shares it with Squire Trelawney and his men, asking for only a small portion of it in return for his services to them”. He has witnessed first-hand what possessiveness looked like from Captain Flint, and he was worried that it would happen to him.
Throughout both novels, multiple characters have lost their lives either trying to protect what they have or by trying to gain more power. In the case of the character Kino in The Pearl, his son is murdered because he kept the Pearl instead of selling it, which caused multiple individuals to target the family and want to take the pearl. The baby was innocent and still untouched from the hands of greed, but the mood changed in the story “and then Kino stood uncertainty. Something was wrong, some signal was trying to get through to his brain. Tree frogs and cicadas were silent now. And then Kino’s brain cleared from its red concentration and he knew the sound – the keening, moaning, rising hysterical cry from the little cave in the side of the stone mountain, the cry of death”. Kino didn’t realize what trouble he brought to his family until this moment, and he thought he could keep his family safe and still get what he wanted. Not only did Coyotito die, but multiple pirates too. Multiple pirates have lost their lives but they didn’t pass on from battle, they lost their lives to keep a secret. Captain Flint never showed mercy when it came to getting what he wanted and he never took chances to reveal where his treasure was hidden. But, “the idea of treasure functions in another way in the book, too, playing off the double meaning of the word “fortune,” which can mean both ‘wealth’ and ‘fate’”(). In saying this, it draws on a good point that the treasure could be perceived as whatever the pirates wanted it to be seen as. In chapter thirteen, a character is introduced named Benn Gunn and he set out for an adventure and he was part of Captain Flint’s crew when the murder took place. When he met the main character, Jim Hawkins, Ben told him about what he saw on the island. He said: “I were in Flint’s ship when he buried the treasure; he and six along- six strong seamen… But, there he was, you mind, and the six all dead- dead and buried. How he done it, not a man aboard us could make out. It was battle, murder, and least ways…”. This was the pirate way and eventually Ben joined a different crew then told them of where Flint’s treasure is located, and soon after he was marooned on a separate island. This proves that even if an individual tries to stay away from being greedy themselves, other greedy people nearby will have an impact on their overall life.
Greed can be an easy temptation to succumb to, but it is challenging dealing with the consequences. There is a clear moment in The Pearl when the Kino realizes what he has done and it causes the reader to feel remorse for this character. To be specific in this book, the narrator wrote: “Now Kino lay in the cave entrance, his chin braced on his crossed arms, and he watched the blue shadow of the mountain move out across the brushy desert below until it reached the Gulf, and the long twilight of the shadow was over the land” . Kino is sitting by himself reflecting on what he has done and what has happened to his once fulfilling life, of waking up to his wife and son. It will never be the same as it once was because his friends turned on him, which caused him to panic and inevitably got his son killed in the process. Coyotito being killed was an accident which is why it is understandable for Kino to feel regret and remorse for his son. Pirates, on the other hand, do not feel guilt, so the character in Treasure Island that best demonstrates this trait is Jim. He starts out as a young and innocent boy but eventually grows and matures into a young man that can take care of himself. At the end of the novel when he found the treasure with what was remaining of the crew, Jim has a moment when he is thinking to himself: “…That was Flint’s treasure that we had come so far to seek, and that had cost already the lives of seventeen men from the Hispaniola. How many had it cost in the amassing, what blood and sorrow, what good ships scuttles on the deep, what brave men walking the plank blindfold, what shot of cannon, what shame and lies and cruelty, perhaps no man alive could tell”. He realizes what has happened in order for this treasure to be in the cave and for it to be in his hands, and he is considering if it is all worth it. Was all the gold and jewels really worth the bloodshed? Jim never intended for the people that went on the voyage to get hurt or die, but he feels guilt from it, especially from Israel Hands. This character was murdered by Jim but it was in self-defence as Hands tried to throw a spear and kill Jim first. This was a moment that Jim did regret it but it was not his fault. Greed does many different things to an individual and makes them do and think things that they wouldn’t typically be known for. In a previously written essay it has said that “In our lives greed is something that will make a person go above and beyond normal just to achieve more than what they already have”. Greed is one of the most common forms of human emotion that exist but is often hidden because it is seen as a negative trait. In the cases of these books, it is clear as to which characters face the most internal conflict, and it is represented in their actions and dialogue. The pirates, in particular, have the most difficult time masking their struggle because they have been raised the same way, to always want more.
After reading the novels and studying the concepts presented, greed does many things to the mind that have the potential to change an individual. It could be over a short period of time, as seen in Kinos story, or an extended period of time, which is viewed in Captain Flint’s tale. It can cause an innocent man to forget about the real values and treasures that life holds, and a selfish one to fall even deeper into despair and obsession. Overall, both of these important characters in the novels lost sight of themselves and what really matters.
Literary Criticism in Regards to “The Chrysanthemums” and “The Painted Door”
The author Emily Wingate, was a student at the Dartmouth University, during the time that she wrote this essay. The essay won Dartmouth’s annual Literary Theory contest, which is reviewed by the ivy league university’s top ranked english professors such as Dr. Michael A. Chaney and Dr. Colleen Glenney Boggs. Wingate’s thesis is that, women in society are not given a voice, and are taught to suppress their emotions. The author conveys her thesis through exploring the protagonist of the story, “The Chrysanthemums”, Elisa, who is not content with her life however, she refuses to express her unhappiness as she has little confidence in herself. Wingate also discusses the roles of women in the society, as women are portrayed as wives, not people and must conduct themselves in order to please their husband which is shown by how Elisa gardens, as did her mother, however unlike her mother she does not nurture the plants, but instead she gardens in a much more powerful manor, which Wingate deems to be quite “manly”. This article is quite useful as it demonstrates the effect that a patriarchal society has on the happiness and general mental wellbeing of women.
The author of this “Feminism in The Chrysanthemums”, Siti Fatihah, has studied English literature, and teaches English as a second language to students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her thesis throughout the article is how women are forced into specific roles in society, and as a result are unable to fully be themselves. Fatihah emphasizes how the author of The Chrysanthemums, John Steinbeck, who won a Nobel Prize in Literature, demonstrated how society views, men as strong and powerful and views women as weak, however in reality women, such as Elisa, are truly strong individuals. The author’s cultural background provides a fresh take on feminism, and particularly gender stereotyping. Fatihah also includes numerous quotes from outside sources that could be beneficial while writing the essay.
The author, Dr. Darrell Dobson, who has a PH. D from the University of Toronto in Education, has published numerous educational pieces of literature that are primarily targeted towards educators. He is also president of the Jungian Society for Scholarly Studies and is editor of Journal of Jungian Scholarly Studies. His thesis in his scholarly article “Archetypal Literary Theory in the Postmodern era”, is that although the Painted Door could be viewed solely as a patriarchal, or anti-feminist, piece of literature, Dobson believes, that viewing the story by solely one lense would undermine the integrity of the art. His theory is that due to the polysemous nature of art, all readers need to support multiple perspectives in order to fully appreciate the art. His belief is that although it is true that “female independence and sexuality are dealt a blow by patriarchy”, that a Jungian lense or a Psychoanalytical lense would provide different ways of viewing this piece of literature. In combining many lenses, it would result in a better understanding of the literature. The author also sheds light onto the sexist manner in which women’s sexuality is often portrayed.
Dobsons theory could be very valuable in writing the essay it in order to fully comprehend a story from one lense, I should first view the story from all lenses. This could be very beneficial not only while writing the essay but in all future readings.