A Look at the Friendship Between Slaves in Forge by Laurie Halse Anderson
In the novel Forge, by Laurie Halse Anderson, Curzon and Isabel are slaves who have run away from their masters. As they separate, Curzon joins the army where friendships with soldiers (especially a boy named Eben) help get him through rough times. Curzon continuously thinks about Isabel and is worried if she is safe. While at a camp his former master Bellingham arrives and recognizes him. Once again he becomes a slave and reunites with his fiend Isabel who was also recaptured by Bellingham. Curzon as the main character of this historical novel goes through very tough times. Curzon’s friendship with Isabel and Eben helped him get through his journey.
Eben’s friendship and support is valuable to Curzon. At one point Curzon saved Eben’s life by throwing a rock at a British soldier. Even though they have many debates on topics that they do not agree with, they manage to stay friends. There is a time when Eben hides a spoon which Curzon has stolen in order to save him from punishment. This shows Eben trusts Curzon and knows his character. Again, in the middle of the story, Eben comes up with a plan for Curzon to free himself from being a slave. Eben says: “Benny is going to dress in your clothes and pull your hat down low… When we’re out of sight, he’ll change back into his own clothes. You’ll need a place to hide.” This proves Eben is trying to help his friend get away and start a better life. But Curzon could not accept the plan because his master would punish Isabel after his escape. Curzon says: “even if you made the best of plans, I couldn’t go. Bellingham has a maid, a friend of mine. I have not yet convinced her to run away. I can’t leave her behind, and if I run, she’ll be mistreated.” All of these events show how deeply caring Eben was and how he benefited Curzon by standing behind him and helping him.
Curzon’s friendship with Isabel was deep and complex. At first when they were brought back together, she is not very kind and understanding while towards the end (when they both are recaptured by Bellingham) she let Curzon know that she also likes him and has feelings for him. Curzon has the same mixed feeling from the start to the end. When Isabel wants to escape, Curzon really wants to be there by his side and he needs to convince her that he would look for her sister. There are many problems in their way and they need to free themselves from the past when they were in chains. Being together in that harsh environment against all odds, gives them more strength at the end and respect for one another. The love they feel for each other helps them try to escape again.
In conclusion this historical thriller shows us the journey of a young man named Curzon who has survived being in chain, a winter as a soldier and becoming a slave one more time, with the help of his friends Isabelle and Eben. The story ends with stronger bond between Curzon and Isabel who now have started another phase on their journey. They are on the search to find Ruth.
Seamus Heaney’s “The Forge”: The use of Imagery
Imagerys Effect On Poetry
Imagery is perhaps the most important tool that a writer must possess to be considered great. Imagery may be defined as the representation through language of sense experience (Arp, 607). This means that anything written that can be related to one of our senses, for example taste or smell.
Seamus Heaneys “The Forge” supplies us with numerous examples of imagery touching on many of our senses. The imagery in this poem touches on so many of our senses that I find it somewhat more confusing than helpful. He touches on so many senses putting a blurred picture into my mind rather than a crisp clear picture. I will, however, do my best to interpret this piece of work.
Heaney appeals, for the most part, to two of our senses, sight and olfactory. He describes how things look and sound.
Heaney only tells briefly of how something looks or sounds. Then our imagination takes this and forms a recollection of something similar that we have seen. Everyone has seen a rusting iron hoop or an axle and that is why Heaney mentions them here. We are meant to picture a quaint house perhaps a farmhouse with these items outside leaning against an old garage. The old rusting hoops and axles is how the narrator pictures himself.
Heaney writes “The hammered anvils short-pitched ring” (Heaney, 612). This makes me think of an old alarm clock that has to be wound twice a day to ensure proper operation. The anvil is the drive telling the man his time may be almost up. Due to this drive he is searching for what it means to truly live.
The man has come to realize that life is unpredictable like a “fantail of sparks, or hiss when a new shoe toughens in water” (Heaney, 613). Heaney includes this line because the man is looking back on his life and much is simply repetition and we live for the sparks or fleeting moments. I think the new shoe toughening in water represents new knowledge that we strive to acquire in life.
The remainder of this poem describes the anvil. The anvil is everything about the man, his actions, attitude, and life. The person either dies or becomes an adult at the end of the poem. “The grunts and goes in, with a slam and flick, to beat real iron out, to work the bellows” (Heaney, 613). I believe these final two lines signify the end of the mans life because it sounds as though the iron anvil is being destroyed, or is becoming an adult as the iron anvil is being formed into something more important and valuable.
All in all I believe the narrator described what drives us and makes us act the way we do. I also believe the man dies in the end. There are many points that I am unsure of like the ending. I am unsure if the person dies or grows up. Nevertheless I think this is perhaps the best poem I have read.
The Forge by Seamus Heaney and the Speaker’s Thought Process
In Seamus Heaney’s “The Forge” we are taken into the speaker’s thought process as he is picturing the inside of a forge that he passes by. He begins by describing what is physically visible to him and slowly uses this information to develop an idea of what goes inside the forge. The speaker uses this imagination of the forge to demonstrate the creative process of poetry.
The speaker uses the darkness and mystery of the forge to illustrate the start of the creation process. He begins with his describing what he is able to see of the forge which is just a “door into the dark” (line 1), meaning he cannot really see what is going on within the forge. The lack of being able to see can be seen as an illustration of the way you start when writing poetry which is with no ideas what so ever. The fact that he can only see complete darkness is like how he only sees complete darkness in his mind. However, he then begins to describe the outside of the forge which are common forging tools like the “old axles and iron hoops” (line 2) which start to give him ideas of what is inside. This can be seen as the inspiration that can come to a writer at the beginning of his writing since right after he begins to hear “short-pitched ring” (line3) which is a sound that seems like it’s signifying the start of something which in this case is the forging process but can also be seen as the start of the poetry process. The speaker then describes the “unpredictable fantail sparks” (line 4) which can be seen as the first brain sparks or first ideas that are coming to his brain since ideas are often unpredictable because they can come at any time and from anywhere. The speaker also uses the semi-color and commas between these observations to show the flow of ideas from one idea to another like the inspiration that happens within writing. These ideas then begin to develop into the next poetic process.
The speaker then continues to imagine the process of forging which reflects the development of ideas within poetry. He starts by picturing the “anvil” (line 3) which is a tool for forging but based on the writing we can say that he is using is to symbolize a tool in writing. He then infers that it “must be somewhere in the centre” (line 6) which signifies that it is the core of something meaning it is important in some way or another. This thought process can most likely reference a very important tool in writing which is needed in order to begin the whole writing process. This tool can be the imagination of the writer since he continues to describe it as “horned as a unicorn”(line 7) and a unicorn is a fictional animal that can only exist within our imagination. This illustrates the importance of imagination within the writing process and how it must be the most important tool in writing since it is at the center of it. He then describes this tool as “immoveable” (line 8) which again shows the importance of the tool since it cannot be moved and it is there like “an altar” (line 8) showing again how high up in importance this tool is since someone in an altar is often someone of importance. The speaker continues to describe how the forger “expends himself” (line 9) which can be a representation of how a writer expends himself within the crafting of writing. This is further supported with the reference to “shape and music” (line 9) which in other words is the creation of objects and sounds within the forge. He uses these words instead of sounds and objects in order to exemplify the beauty of the creation process within both the forgery and poetry giving both a very artistic description. He begins to further expand on his feelings and opinions within writing as the poem continues.
Furthermore, in the last stanzas the speaker describes the actions of the forger in order to illustrate the hard work that begins to happen when finally starting to create the poem. He begins to signify the start of his writing when he “recalls a clatter” (line 11) which means he has finally remembered something or something has finally came to his mind. This is the ideas finally hitting him to start his writing. He then describes “grunts” (line 13) which is a sound that many make when frustrated which is a reference to the frustration within the crafting of poetry. He further says that something “goes in” (line 13) signifying the start of something because something has finally gone through which in this case is the start of the craft that has finally begun. Then he begins to describes the “slam and flick” (line 13) within the forge which are sounds that are louder than the sound the speaker described at the beginning of the poem. This progress from weaker sounds to louder ones is a representation of how within the writing the crafter starts from small thoughts and moves onto huge ones from those small ones. He then describes the beating of “real iron” (line 14) which in forging happens when they are making something and in this case is the creation or crafting of the poem. The speaker ends with “to work the bellows” (line 14) which is as shout and can be seen as something very chaotic and when talking about poetry it can be a reference to the chaotic nature of it since you create something orderly out of a bunch of chaotic ideas.
Seamus Healey’s speaker ends up showing the hard and lengthy process that comes with writing poetry. He uses his thought process when imagining the inside of the forge to illustrate the process of the creative process. He treats what is inside the forge like the inside of his mind when he is working on poetry. He compares both the forge and the creating process as a place where work of art happens and where beauty arises from hard work. The speaker gives the reader a mental picture of what it feels like to go through the creation process and how one must go about it. It is not just some easy and quick process like most people believe it is. The process is a series of steps and it can be very chaotic and frustration like that of forging.
Valley Forge Military Camp in Pennsylvania
Valley Forge is a military camp that is located in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. During many of the major wars in 1700s and 1800s Valley Forge became a place the army’s went to during the winter months. It’s location was far enough west from Philadelphia so it was hard for the British army to surprise attack them. It was along the Schuylkill river and had high hills so it was easy to defend themselves. Valley Forge was one of the most important places for the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. George Washington And the Valley Forge site The leader of the American Continental Army was George Washington during the Revolutionary War. There were over 12,000 soldiers from the 13 colonies that were part of the American Continental Army.
During 1777 the army had already been defeated by the British army in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown and needed time to rest and retrain. Valley Forge is where George Washington picked to encamp his Continental Army during the winter of 1777-78. Washington got respect from the soldiers because he was a leader that stayed with his men. He was the best horseman in the camp and he was very athletic.
The British Army in Philadelphia
The British army were occupying Philadelphia which was the capital at the time. The British seized Philadelphia after beating Washington’s army at the battle of Brandywine and the Battle of Paoli. But Washington had a plan to engage the British again by surprising and destroying them. Valley Forge was in a good position from Philadelphia 18 miles along the river bank.
The Camplife of The Army at Valley Forge
You might think the camps at Valley Forge were really comfortable, but they were actually packed with people, full of sickness, and the winter elements made it really harsh. Over 2,000 soldiers died from starvation, disease, poor weather conditions, and malnutrition. They were dying from these illnesses because they didn’t have a lot of food or clothing which made them feel very weak and the diseases were very contagious. Some of the diseases they died from were pneumonia, smallpox, typhus, and dysentery. Some soldiers had no shoes because the government didn’t have enough money so when they wore them out they couldn’t replace them. Because of that they would get frostbite and if there feet turned green they had to get there foot amputated. The army’s supplies like food and tents were delayed in getting to Valley Forge so they had to build huts to protect from the bad weather. Washington designed the huts and the soldiers built them. He made rules for how the huts should be maintained and no food could be eaten in the huts.
Retraining the Army at Valley Forge General Baron von Steuben came to Valley Forge in February 1778 to retrain the army. He taught them how to march in formation, fire their guns, and use bayonets. General Baron von Steuben did not speak English language but the soldiers really liked him. When the army first got to camp in Valley Forge they were tired and cold, but after 6 months at camp they were re-energized and ready to fight against Lieutenant General Sir Henry Clinton’s British army at the Battle of Monmouth in New Jersey. They were more skilled at fighting after being at camp Valley Forge and that made them able to win the battle against the British in 9 days. On June 19 1778 they left Valley Forge to battle the British as they moved to New York.
It was George Washington’s decision to march his army to Valley Forge that allowed the 13 colonies to be victorious against the British. The Army rested and retrained even with bad conditions and sickness but it was enough to make them successful when they battled the British again. Valley Forge was an important place for the Army during the Revolutionary War in the winter months due to its location in Pennsylvania.
The Unforgettable Memory of Getting a Smart Phone and Being Admitted to HCC
The most important memory that I can remember was the first time I got a smart phone as well as the day I was admitted to HCC, I was 17 years old and I just applied for an admission at HCC which obviously I was accepted. A week before I got the phone, I and my dad had gone to the school I applied for and submitted some applications, we went back and forth from home to my school since we were told to submit some document that we didn’t have at that time as a result we had to go back home to get it. After we were done for the day we headed home. The next day we got a call from the school that some document were missing from the ones we submitted, therefore we got the copy and went back to the school to turn them in. I was nervous that maybe because I didn’t go to high school in the United States I might not get admitted, but to my surprise I was admitted but I didn’t start taking classes immediately because I was late to enroll for class so I had to wait for the next semester which was summer 2011.
After I was admitted to the school and we had submitted the necessary documents, everything was set to go but I didn’t have a suitable phone to be exact, and I thought to myself after all I was going to school to learn, nobody was going to pay attention to me or to my phone anyways. Before the summer class starts, I went to a new student orientation and saw all different types of people with different phones, which compared to mine was showy. When I got home I told my parent what we did and all. When I was done telling my parents what we did, I went into my room and I told my sister about the phones that I saw that I was ashamed of my phone, I told her that I couldn’t even bring out my phone and even when I want to bring it out I was reluctant to do. I went on and told her that when I saw the people phones I excused myself and went to the restroom to put my phone on silent so that if it ring I would not know and neither are the people sitting next to me. From their onward I started disturbing my parent to get me a smart phone but they said no, reason? If they got me the phone I would not concentrate on my studies that I would only concentrate on the phone and social network. I plead to my parents to no avail. One day my Mom came with me to a student orientation because I had to go to two orientation, she saw many teenage probably the same age with me or older and I whispered into my Mom’s ears and said “did you see the types of phone they use” and my Mom said “don’t worry you will have yours” I was not satisfied with the answer but I didn’t say anything I kept quiet and didn’t talk to her throughout the time till we got home.
The day before summer class starts I was in my room getting angry at my parent for not getting me a new phone when I sister came to tell me that Mom and Dad are calling me. I went into my parent’s room to answer them, then my dad said “where is your phone” I said it was in my room and he told me to go bring it, I went inside brought the phone and gave it to my Dad. I was standing In front of my parent and wondering if they were going to give me a new case for the phone, and that they were going to it wouldn’t had done any good to the phone. Then I saw my Mom’s face, she was smiling and I was thinking she was smiling for a new case of an old phone why? My Dad stood up, walked towards his bag dipped his hands into the bag and brought a box, he walked up to me and handed it over and I looked at it and I started dancing because I was so happy I didn’t know what to do I went and gave my parent a hug, and I ran into my room to unbox my new phone. My sister was with me, she wanted to touch the box but I didn’t let her because I wanted the first person to touch the box or anything coming from inside the box including the phone. I unboxed the phone and bringing an HTC HD2 smart phone I looked at and I started dancing again. I brought out the phone and insert the sim card (my parent had bought the sim card too), I turn it on and there it was all bright and new I was so happy. I did all the necessary things I had to do to the phone; I downloaded apps and game. Now that I have a new phone, I was so ready for my first day in college alongside with my new phone. My first day in school as a college student went smoothly for me, I had everything I needed for class (including my new phone), I met my teachers and other students in my class although we didn’t talk much I still love the class.
This memory is important to me because my parent cared about I feel and how I was going to feel after my first day in college, that was why they wanted to make it memorable for me. Even though I thought that I was not going to be accepted because I didn’t go to high school in the United States. It was also special to me because I experienced the life of an American student, I saw the way the education is in America and I wanted to have mine. This memory never left my mind because I cherished it and I forever will.
The Most Unforgettable Moment in My Life: Receiving My First Tennis Racquet
I consider the most memorable moment of my life when I first received a tennis racquet because this event marked my life. I will just call it “racquet”, but, in fact, it is neither a specific nor only one. I have been playing tennis since I was five, so I have had many racquets, five exactly. According to age, game style changeswhen the racquet reaches a condition that negatively affectsthe performance at the court. I chose my tennis racquets as my learning artifacts because I have devoted a substantial amount of my life to tennis. I believe tennis has been contributing greatly to the development of my moral, ethics and behavior. In the following paragraphs I will write about the changes tennis has been making in my life, each of the racquets I have owned, the memories I have had with each of them and the importance and relevance that each have had to my person.
When I was four years, being at an age where I was unable to make these sorts of decisions by myself, my parents made the decision to enroll me into a sport. They took me to some basketball, swimming and tennis lessons. They gave me the opportunity to choose which one I would like to pursue so that I may put all of my energy and time in order to profess only at one sport rather than being mediocre at each of the three. Tennis at that time gave me the greatest happiness more than any of the other sports, and regardless of my immaturity and age, I decided to continue with tennis. On my fifth birthday, my parents gave me as a gift a first tennis racket.I will never forget it. It was a junior size, red Wilson racket. I have a picture of me holding that racquet in my first tennis lesson and I still have that racquet at home as a memory of when I started playing tennis.
In the following year, when I was six and had already improved a little bit, my tutor recommended me to get a new racquet. It was a bigger Wilson, but it was still a racquet for kids. It was blue with rocket graphics on the head. I remember this racquet because with this racquet was when I had my strings broken for the first time, something I wanted to do for a long time. It was an amazing sensation.
When I was ten years old, I started to play a few local tournaments. For these, I got a racquet that looked like a professional one, but it was still lighter. It was a blue Babolat. In my first tournament with that racquet, I was the runner-up and I got my first trophy. In my second tournament, I won two matches and went to the final against the girl I had previously lost to. I know it was going to be a tough game. I started winning, but something unpredictable happened. On one of my serves, the racquet flew out my hand, went straight to the ground and broke right in the middle. At that time I used to have only one racquet. For this reason, I had to borrow a racquet from someone. I looked around and the only person I knewthatcould lend me one had a much heavier racquet than mine. I had no choice. I played with that racquet and lost the game. That day I learned why a tennis player must have more than one racquet. If the strings or the racquet breaks, you must have another racquet to play with.
After that tournament I was invited to practice and being part in the tennis team at my high school. I had no racquet, so I had to buy one. Not just one racquet but two. I bought different colored onesbut with the same specifications of the first one. I started the practices with my new team with all motivation I needed. That racquet improved my game a lot. I started beating girls that I have never beaten before. With those I was the best player at my high school team and competed against other teams from the area.
After three years, I needed to change my racquets. I was already twelve, and I needed adult racquets. For this reason I bought two Head Extreme racquets. I was starting to travel with my high school team to other schools nearby to play tournmanets. With those racquets I did really well at the high school tournaments and I have good memories from them.
After one year and a half I got the most recent model of the Head Prestige. Actually, this is the model I am currently using when I want to play tennis for fun. With this kind of racquet I had unique memories. I played even more tournaments a little bit farther from my area. However, this was the last racquet model I got. After I finished high school, I decided to quit tennis and dedicate my time to my college studies.
The experiences I have had in my life with tennis were fantastic and irreplaceable. I would have had a completely different life without them and, as a result, I would be a completely different person today. Without tennis I would not have had so much fun and exciting moments as much as I did. Also, I would not have had the same friends as I do today.It is tough to imagine that all of this started when I first got my first racquet. For this reason, it is a moment that I will never forget in my life. I do not know how many racquets I still have. However, a lot of great moments, learning opportunities, wonderful experiences and amazing friends happened because of these.
Secured Framework to Avoid Forgery in Hr Consultancy
In a complex recommended system for job seekers online recruiting websites are present. Another way is real time consultancy services. The real-time consultancies are bridge between job seeker and company. Consultancies forward job seekers resumes to the company for interview scheduling. But there is problem in Consultancy services. Consultancy employees forward same resumes to the different companies and earn money from different companies.In this system consultancy employee working is tracking by software. This software gets details information about the employee downloading. The consultancy employee downloads resume from different online websites and forward to the company. The messaging system is use for sending alert to the job seeker.
Two important functions of human resource management are recruiting the candidates and selecting them. Recruitment is the first stage in the process.
Recruitment and selection can play a pivotally important role in shaping an organization’s effectiveness and performance, if work organizations are able to acquire workers who already possess relevant knowledge, skills and aptitudes and are able to make an accurate prediction regarding their future abilities. Recruitment also plays a vital role in ensuring the worker’s performance and he or she is able to achieve the organisation’s goals. It is often considered as recruiting a candidate means replacing the previous one but it’s not the case ,recruiting means selecting a candidate who can perform at high level within given deadline for specific job. Starts from the interview and ends with the contract of employment.
Organisations cannot run without a person. A pillar on which organisation stands is HR management. In highly competitive environment it becomes tough to select appropriate candidate, it furnishes an efficient concerned with securing right information about the applicant. The main purpose of selection process is selecting the suitable candidate for the post. It is the prime role of the administrator and also to look after their further growth and overall development. potential for further growth and development. The procedure of selection starts if their is vacancy for the particular job position. The recruitment of candidate is done on the basis of his or her qualification ,available experience and competency. Few small chunks of words such as job operations of the organizations . Recruitment is finding the potential applicants for actual or anticipated org vacancies thus, it acts as link in bringing together the people with jobs analysis, job description, job design, job evaluation plays a major role in this process continues with selection and ends with the placement of candidate.
Organizations cannot run without valuable sources called personnel. A pillar on which an organization stands Is human resource management.
II. LITERATURE PAPER SURVEY
Barber (1998) defines Employee recruitment as “practices and activities carried on by an organization for the purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees”. MNC’S have plan for recruiting the candidate that not only fills the vacant position but also adds to the culture of organisation. According to Costello (2006) recruitment is described as the set of activities and processes used to legally obtain a sufficient number of qualified people at the right place and time so that the people and the organization can select each other in their own best short and long-term interests. Recruitment is one of the major functions of HRM. It helps the manager to attract and select best candidates for the organization. Parry & Wilson (2009) stated that “recruitment includes those practices and activities carried out by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees”. As success of service sector as in case of civil aviation industry depends upon the human capital, recruitment &selection of the right people into the service business is crucial to achieve organizational success (Zheng, 2009).
III. PROPOSED METHODS
The consulting industry is one of the fastest growing business sectors worldwide with new opportunities emerging continually in hundreds of different fields. But these days, there are many forgeries in HR Consultancy itself. The Consultancy Employees sell the data (user resumes) third party companies by themselves to earn the whole net profit due to which the HR Consultancies are in loss.
This project examines the issues related to dynamic Human Resource Management of Consultancy. There is no tracking system for HR Consultancy employee working. The topic selected for the study is “HR Consultancy” The main theme of the project is the analysis and interpretation of practices of the employees using Human Resources as a tool. It is prepared to know whether the company is preparing well or not; performance of the company and about its competitiveness by the analysis and interpretation of the HR Consultancy Process. A critical study of the effectiveness of HR Consultancy and suggest ways for improvement. The problem lies in identifying relationship, mutual understanding between the management and the employees. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
The more popular and widely adopted symmetric encryption algorithm likely to be encountered nowadays is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). It is found at least six times faster than triple DES. A replacement for DES was needed as its key size was too small. With increasing computing power, it was considered vulnerable against exhaustive key search attack. Triple DES was designed to overcome this drawback but it was found slow. The features of AES are as follows – Symmetric key symmetric block cipher, 128-bit data, 128/192/256-bit keys, Stronger and faster than Triple-DES, Provide full specification and design details, Software implementable in C and Java Levenshtein distance String Matching Algorithm
The Levenshtein distance is a string metric for measuring the difference between two sequences. Informally, the Levenshtein distance between two words is the minimum number of single-character edits (i.e. insertions, deletions or substitutions) required to change one word into the other.
Working. The Levenshtein distance has several simple upper and lower bounds. These include: It is always at least the difference of the sizes of the two strings. It is at most the length of the longer string It is zero if and only if the strings are equal. If the strings are the same size. The Levenshtein distance between two strings.
IV. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Architecture includes all those activities that take place to convert from the old system to the new. The old system consists of manual operations, which is operated in a very different manner from the proposed new system. A proper implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet the requirements of the organizations. An improper installation may affect the success of the computerized system. There are several methods for handling the implementation and the consequent conversion from the old to the new computerized system. The most secure method for conversion from the old system to the new system is to run the old and new system in parallel. In this approach, a person may operate in the manual older processing system as well as start operating the new computerized system. This method offers high security, because even if there is a flaw in the computerized system, we can depend upon the manual system. However, the cost for maintaining two systems in parallel is very high. This outweighs its benefits.
Another commonly method is a direct cut over from the existing manual system to the computerized system. The change may be within a week or within a day. There are no parallel activities. However, there is no remedy in case of a problem. This strategy requires careful planning. A working version of the system can also be implemented in one part of the organization and the personnel will be piloting the system and changes can be made as and when required. But this method is less preferable due to the loss of entirety of the system.
Recruitment simply means searching for and inspiring prospective employees. The different and varying behaviours of employees relatively have a significant effect on different aspects related to the quality management practices. The study reveals that the recruitment and selection process offered in selected industries is effective. The selection is done by evaluating the candidate’s skills, knowledge and abilities which are highly required to the vacancies in selected industries. The designed system provides the ability to assign tasks to project members. If further worked on, this functionality can assist in determining the performance of employees based on their ability to finish tasks on time.
Survival in Auschwitz is a memoir written by Primo Levi, an Italian Jewish survivor of the Holocaust who was sent to and worked in the Auschwitz-Monowitz labor camp during the later years of World War II. Levi’s memoir is significant for its contributions to the historical record of the Holocaust, as well as providing a profound personal account through his memories of life in Auschwitz. While the memoir is successful in documenting part of the Holocaust’s history and Levi’s memories, it is evident that Levi’s memoir tells us more about the memory of the Holocaust due to the gaps within the memoir’s historical contribution, memory’s effect on Levi’s writing process, as well as the memoir’s impact on memory communities.
When attempting to reconstruct the past, there are two means through which this can be achieved: History and memory. The former refers to structured learning about the past by using facts and evidence-supported documentation, most commonly through primary sources which are written or produced by people who were present at the time of the historical event in question. Conversely, memory refers to reliving or understanding historical events by means of others’ recollections and personal experiences, which are passed down and transmitted through memory communities into collective memory. This is acknowledged by Eviatar Zerubavel in “Social Memories: Steps to a Sociology of the Past”. As memory is shared within various social groups known as “mnemonic communities” (Zerubavel 289) and stored within physical and virtual locations known as “social sites of memory” (Zerubavel 291), our memory would thus extend much further than what we personally have experienced, allowing us to learn more about history through the memories of others. Examples of this, in terms of learning about the events of the Holocaust, are historical poetry such as Levi’s “Epitaph” (Levi 11) and testimonies from survivors from what Annette Wieviorka calls “the era of the witness” (Wieviorka XV). This includes the works of Elie Wiesel, who writes because he believes he “owes the dead [his] memory” (Wiesel 16), and Levi’s Survival in Auschwitz.
With regards to the memoir’s historical contribution, it is undeniable that Levi’s accounts provide an in-depth view of life as both a prisoner and labor camp worker in Auschwitz. Every chapter explains a different aspect of how he eventually managed to survive living in camp Monowitz, ranging from his deportation and arrival to living under the prison hierarchy, the inner workings of the black market, as well as surviving selection multiple times, before finally getting liberated by the Soviet Army. All of such are experiences unique to him, but still serve as first-hand documentation for the historical record of the Holocaust. As Doris Bergen mentions in War & Genocide, Levi’s testimonies on the Holocaust were “some of the most insightful reflections on that event ever written” (Bergen 180). This is true based on how Levi’s words match up with the factual evidence of occurrences during the final years of World War II, such as how he had begun his memoir by describing his “good fortune” (Levi 9) to have been deported to Auschwitz in 1944, and Bergen states in War & Genocide that the Germans had personally deported the Italian Jewish population “beginning in 1943” (Bergen 180).
However, Bergen then follows up with the fact that “most of the Italian Jews murdered in the Holocaust died in 1944 or early 1945” (Bergen 180). This already shows a gap within Levi’s accounts as he clearly was not part of the majority who died, whether it was in the gas chambers or otherwise, like the “women … children … old men” (Levi 20) from the freight trains whom he never saw again. In addition to this, Levi’s experiences in relation to the Holocaust as documented through his memoir do not begin until 1944, while anti-Jewish aggression from the Reich Government takes place long before Levi is deported and involves experiences other than being sent to concentration camps, like the various pogroms that occur across Eastern Europe and the ghettoization of Polish Jews from “late 1939 to early 1949” (Bergen 111). Despite its historical accuracy and detailed accounts of life in Auschwitz, Levi’s experiences are not representative of the fate that most Holocaust victims faced, as such victims faced a wide range of outcomes that did not necessarily result in being sent to Auschwitz, let alone surviving life there. Thus, his memoir leaves more gaps than it fills in terms of our historical knowledge of the Holocaust, and is therefore comparably more telling of his memory of it than its history.
Similarly, Survival in Auschwitz can be viewed as more memory-based due to the impact of Levi’s memory on the writing of his memoir. Having been part of the surviving minority of Holocaust prisoners and having written this memoir “following his return to Italy in the autumn of 1945” (Thomson 142), Levi is fully aware of the outcome of World War II and feels “oppressed by shame” (Levi 150) and guilt for having survived. As opposed to other similarly autobiographical primary sources that may have been produced by other concentration camp prisoners, Levi uses his memoir to relive his experiences in Auschwitz, equipped with the knowledge that he survives the entire ordeal and lives to tell the tale. Content-wise, his memoir would then be vastly different from an account that was written as the events of the Holocaust were unfolding, thus altering how he would have viewed and reflected on his experiences rather than capturing his immediate, unknowing responses. Wieviorka also explains in the introductory chapter of The Era of the Witness that historians treat testimonies “with considerable mistrust” (Wieviorka XIII), only very occasionally using them to build a historical narrative as such accounts are rarely unbiased or impartial (Wieviorka XIV). With this in mind, in addition to Levi’s awareness of the outcome of World War II and feelings of remorse towards his own fate, Survival in Auschwitz hence cannot be used as factual historical evidence, as it primarily documents Levi’s memories of Auschwitz and lacks neutrality or objectivity in the expressed opinions.
Furthermore, Levi’s motivations for writing his memoir discredit it as a historical source as well. Wiesel, also a Holocaust survivor who feels guilty for having lived on, writes to honor the dead, because “he owes nothing to the living, but everything to the dead” (Wiesel 16). His shame towards being able to enjoy a post-Holocaust future while many innocent people—old and young—perished is echoed by Levi, who chose to write for the sake of his “interior liberation” (Levi 9) in a near-therapeutic approach to coping with his experiences. What’s more is his acknowledgement that his memoir “adds nothing” (Levi 9) to what readers already know about the Holocaust’s history, its purpose is to formulate a study of the human mind instead from a sociological perspective. Though Levi raises an astute comparison between the Lager and “a gigantic biological and social experiment” (Levi 87), documenting history relies on facts, rather than aiming at understanding it from other social aspects, or “having fun in writing and at amusing [his] prospective readers” (Roth 183).
Another way in which memory impacted Levi’s writing process is his decision to “write his book backwards” (Thomson 147), “in order of urgency” (Levi 10). By deciding to write whichever chapter he considered more or most important, Levi is able to develop more careful, proselike descriptions and turn his memoir into a “teeming, intensely literary work of great complexity” (Thomson 148), which is another feature rarely found in other historical sources. Within the fragmented order in which Survival in Auschwitz was written, Levi also makes a number of allusions to famous works of Italian literature, namely the chapter entitled “The Canto of Ulysses” in which he attempts to recite from Dante’s “The Divine Comedy”. This reference to Inferno and Dante’s journey through Hell eventually becomes representative of Levi’s own journey in Auschwitz, showing how he viewed his experiences through a literary scope. Therefore, Survival in Auschwitz tells us more about the memory of the Holocaust based on Levi’s unique takes on the psychological significance of this historical event, none of which aid historians in rebuilding its historical narrative.
Finally, the impact of Levi’s memoir on the collective memory of the Holocaust plays an immense role in Holocaust remembrance. As he brings up in the Chapter 5 dream sequence of Survival in Auschwitz, his sister and her friend are just two of the numerous listeners who have gathered to listen to the story he’s telling, this dream that is also his friend Alberto’s “and the dream of many others, perhaps of everyone” (Levi 60). This shows his intent to share his story to those beyond the sphere of other survivors, allowing him to tell his story first to strangers on the Milan-Turin express train, then to his sister, before finally reaching the general public (Thomson 144-45), successfully expanding the collective memory with his words alone. While his storytelling skills were applauded by his listeners, he did not encounter such warm reactions when he put his words to print. In his search for a publisher, he faced multiple rejections from both American and Italian publishing houses (Thomson 155-57), halting his hopes of reaching a wider international audience with his memoir. He was even rejected by a Jewish-Protestant publishing business as “the moment was not right” (Thomson 157). During his interview with Daniel Toaff on Italian State TV, Levi recalls speaking with a Polish lawyer who translated his answers for the passers-by around them. Levi’s answer regarding his identity was altered, so he was a newly-freed political prisoner instead of being an Italian Jew. When asked, the lawyer reasoned that “ it [was] best for [him]; Poland is a sad country” (Back to Auschwitz).
From this, it is clear that Levi’s prepublished story was capable of contributing to collective memory on a small scale, only reaching a global scale once it was officially published. However, even so, the memoir’s original title of If This Is a Man was changed to Survival in Auschwitz for the American release (Roth 181), so as to promote a new message of strength and survival rather than maintain its psychological implications. Subsequently, Levi became a “national monument” (Thomson 141) in Italy, a member in the public eye who received opportunities for both written (Roth; Thomson) and televised (Back to Auschwitz) interviews, valued for the experiences he had and shared. Hence, despite the challenges Levi faced and the compromises he had to go through in order to bring his story to the public eye, the great influence of Survival in Auschwitz is still highly evident and allowed more people worldwide to share in his memories of the Holocaust.
In conclusion, Levi’s interpretation of the Holocaust implies a deeper meaning behind its events, one that’s more rooted in the recesses of the human mind. As Thompson points out, “no other work conveys the unique horror of the Nazy genocide more directly and profoundly, or interrogates our recent moral history so incisively” (Thompson 142). Rather than simply looking at his experiences in Auschwitz from a shallower, more literal point of view, Levi suggests studying it with a basis of psychology and morality, and to take it “as a sinister alarm-signal” (Levi 9). Thus, he would disagree with Wiesel’s statement that the Holocaust cannot be understood and to write about it is to “warn the reader that he will not understand either” (Wiesel 18), taking on the opposite viewpoint instead. Chapters 8 and 9 in Levi’s memoir, in which he discusses the Lager’s black market and the two main categories of men—the drowned and the saved, are indicative of his “intense wish to understand” (Roth 180) and his view that the Holocaust was a social experiment conducted to determine “how much of our ordinary moral world could survive” (Levi 86) in the face of dehumanization and the struggle to stay alive. “Auschwitz was the catalyst that turned Levi into a writer” (Thomson 159), and it is because of this that Levi wrote a memoir as potent as Survival in Auschwitz and, while he could not provide all the answers to this question on the strength and longevity of human morality, it is through his memories that he invites us to form our own psychological judgement of this event and develop our own memory of the Holocaust as well.