Characterisation and separation of powers
Introduction The constitutional validity of the Regulating Organic Food Security Act 2014 (Cth) (Impugned Act, hereafter referred to as IA) is an issue that will be discussed in this essay in addition to whether the National Organic Food Security Commission is valid as well. Both of these will be discussed with regards to the issues of characterisation and separation of powers. Head of power/Trade and Commerce Firstly the scope of power in this case is non-purposive and the physical movement of organic food across state borders satisfies the term trade, a term which is enumerated in s51 (i) of the Australian Constitution, under trade and commerce.
However the issue arises of whether the IA applies to interstate only. It is implied that s 51 (i) does not give rise to a legislative powers in regards to trade and commerce operating intrastate. For the IA to be enforceable upon ‘Healthy Meals Now’ and ‘Get-it-there-Quick’ it must purport to regulate intrastate trade and commerce.Despite this even though there is no explicit power to support intrastate trade regulations, intrastate trade may be allowed and be regulated if it is intimately connected to interstate trade and commerce as well as if it is fundamentally economically linked with interstate trade and commerce in which case reasonably is. In determining the constitutional validity of the IA, the Commonwealth Constitution head of power must be interpreted. In relation to this, there are two approaches that can be utilised when observing the IA and the first is to view the IA in regards of the narrow â€˜golden ruleâ€™ approach or secondly on a broad interpretation approach. Both of these have similar fundamentals in terms defining words on their plain definition so that it does not create an illogical outcome. Hence to determine constitutional validity it is in essence to interpret the restrictions of the head of power. In this case the effect of the IA should be measured using a broad interpretation of the trade and commerce power. This approach interprets the legislation whilst maintaining that public policy principles that arise from a piece of legislation remain logical. The important point is that there must be attention to the duties that may arise or be eliminated as a result of the IA in addition to the character of powers and any rights in which the IA may create, change or exclude. To establish the constitutional validity of the National Organic Food Security Commission (NOFSC) it must be characterised to its real character as well as its true nature. The direct operation of the IA within s51 (i) of the Commonwealth Constitution must be considered so that it can be determined whether or not the NOFSC is a legitimate use of power. The courts also have a duty to determine the proper operation of the IA in eliminating, changing or regulating any privileges, duties, rights and powers in regards to all processes of how organic food is grown and manufactured for public consumption, it is also superfluous to ascertain if the IA is desirable or not, either socially or politically. It is clear that the IA retains specific characteristics including creating the NOFSC, an authority with the power to regulate organic food, however in the case that some functions of the NOFSC do not fall within s51 (i), there is no reason to reject the legitimacy of the IA. Implied incidental power may be relevant in this case, as the IA possibly operates separately from the head of powerâ€™s subject matter. The main test to determine whether the IA is within incidental range is to see if the IA is within logical and appropriate means in terms of its object or purpose in power. Therefore the link of the IA to s51 (i) in respects to Trade and Commerce is sufficient. This is due to the fact that the IA is made in regards to s51 (i) rather than being insufficient or distant, which is why a substantial link to s51 (i) is all that characterisation covers in this case. Judicial Powers The next issue is the application of judicial powers to the NOFSC. The separation of judicial powers is not made explicitly distinct under state constitutions. The two main points to consider are that judicial powers must only be to Chapter (III) courts (who can exercise Chapter (III) powers) and that these courts cannot use non Chapter (III) powers. However administrative roles can be utilised if within incidental range. In terms of the parliament, it cannot use judicial powers that may put the IA and the NOFSC under the constitutional powers of trade and commerce by trying to affirm certain facts. The next question is whether the IA is exercising the judicial power of the Commonwealth. To determine the meaning of â€˜judicial powerâ€™ it should be considered what were the meaning of the words at the time of the creation of the act. Two judicial powers are that of judicial review and being able to make enforceable decisions that involve legal rights. In this case â€˜Organic Food Rights Nowâ€™ is claiming that the IA is preventing the right to healthy food. However even though the power to enforce is specific to courts the power to make other conclusive determinations of legal rights prevent non-Chapter (III) bodies from making judgements that may have an effect on legal rights, as long as these non-Chapter (III) bodies do not have the power to make decisions that cannot be appealed, that is, any conclusive decisions. Thirdly the IA creates the NOFSC which seems to be exercising judicial power, in addition there is a Federal Court Judge who will head the NOFSC which raises the issue of whether the judge is acting in their personal or judicial capacity. The nature of the power conversed is likely to be judicial and by applying the Persona Designata Rule a federal judge, in this case The Honourable Janice Hamilton, may occupy a non-judicial post. The power of the NOFSC to apply punitive penalties is non-judicial. Based on the constitutional validity of the IA the NOFSC does have the authority over the organic food industry to which the act applies. However what this commission is allowed to do at most is to provide references to a Chapter (III) court so that any breaches of the IA can be legitimately enforced. Conclusion In advising Brendon, Get-it-there-Quick and Organic Food Rights Now, it is clear that it was the parliamentâ€™s intention to pass the legislation in regards to interstate trade and commerce in addition to the creation of the NOFSC which allows the Commonwealth to control subject matters specifically in relation to trade and commerce that operate within the incidental range of s51 (i). The IA is hence not unconstitutional. In regards to the separation of powers, the NOFSC is invalid in its decisions that apply to Brendon and Get-It-There-Quick and its decisions should not be enforceable on these parties. The parties should seek an opportunity to represent their case at a hearing and appeal to a court if necessary. Maanik Ruprai 17516642
 W & A McAthur Ltd v Queensland (1920) 28 CLR 530  Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, s51 (i)  R v Burgess; Ex Parte Henry(1936) 55 CLR 608  Redfern v Dunlop Rubber Australia Ltd(1964) 110CLR194  Minister for Justice (WA) (Ex rel Ansett Transport Industries (Operations) Pty Ltd) v Australian National Airlines Commission (1976) 138 CLR 492  Fairfax v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (1965) 114 CLR  Bank of New South Wales v The Commonwealth(1948) 76CLR1  Australian National Airways Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (No 1)(1945) 71CLR29  Bank of New South Wales v The Commonwealth(1948) 76CLR1  Australian National Airways Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (No 1)(1945) 71CLR29  Murphyores Inc Pty Ltd v Commonwealth(1976) 136CLR1,  HCA 20  R v Burgess; Ex parte Henry(1936) 55CLR608  Re Dingian and Ors Ex Parte Wagner and Anor  HCA 16, 183 CLR 323, 128 ALR 81  Building Construction Employeesâ€™ and Buildersâ€™ Labourers Federation (NSW) v Minister for Industrial Relations (1986) 7 NSWLR 372  R v. Kirby; Ex parte Boilermakers’ Society of Australia HCA 10, (1956) 94CLR254  Attorney-General for New South Wales v Brewery Employees Union of New South Wales) (1908) 6 CLR 469  Shell Co. of Australia Ltd v Federal Commissioner of Taxation (1930) 44 CLR 530  Hilton v Wells(1984) 157 CLR 57
A Character That I Have Found Interesting in Thursdays Child by Sonya Hartnett
A character that I have found interesting in Thursdays child by Sonya Hartnett is Devon, I found this character interesting because he never quite gives up on his dream of owning a pony, he is very stubborn and shows this by bluntly asking Cable “would you pay me Mr Cable? ” showing he would only do work if there was a chance that he could get money for his pony. He is also very headstrong and shows this when Audrey complains about Cable he says “Ill kill him I swear”, showing he is very rash. Another reason I find Devon interesting is the way he always wants to be “free”, he shows this by riding everywhere on his horse which he says “you can fly; you can fly like a bird. ” Showing that he likes to go where he wants with his horse, he also thinks that his horse is the best horse in the world and loves riding him “Devon was an easy bribe, always wanting to go off riding champion” he also talks to the horse telling it how fast he thinks it is, “you could trash them all, you could thrash them all on three legs” showing he loved his horse and believed it was the greatest in the world. Another point that makes Devon fascinating is the way towards the end of the novel when he sells his horse, this is surprising because of the way he loves the horse and how it “must have made him ache in every bone for he had loved that creature. ” This shows that Devon really didn’t want to sell his horse but that he though that he had no other option but to do so, he shows that he places his family’s needs above his own and after selling Champion he goes to look for work. Devon appears to be ineffectual in this story for several reasons, when his family is poor and he goes off to work to earn money for himself or his family, we see this near the start of the novel when he goes to work for cable but when he comes back he has no money because he didn’t do a satisfactory job for Mr Cable, And when Da goes to argue with Cable he learns that two of Mr cables pigs had got loose and that he was “kind” not to charge Devon for them. We also see Devon in this way when he leaves and sells champion to go look for work, none of the family think it was a wise decision, “ so many men are on the road, what if he doesn’t find anything for months? ” and “That boy shouldn’t have done it”. So the family do not think that Devon leaving and looking for work was a good idea so in that way he failed that too. In conclusion Devon is an interesting character because he gives up everything at the end of the novel
Patricia Benner: The Theory of Nursing Laniece C. Leon Chamberlain College of Nursing CCN 100: Success Seminar Patricia Benner: The Theory of Nursing Dr. Patricia Benner is a very accomplished nursing theorist. She was born on May 10, 1955 to parents Ethel and Donald Brushett (www. yahoo. com). She went to Pasadena College and received her BSN. She then received her Master’s Degree in Medical Surgical Nursing from the University of California, San Francisco and went to get her Ph. D. in Stress, Coping and Health from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Benner is currently a professor of nursing in the Department of Social and Behavioral Nursing at the University of California, San Francisco. She has written nine books, and received many awards for her accomplishments. She is an internationally known researcher and lecturer on health, stress and coping, skill acquisition and ethics and has had great influence on the world of nursing. Theory Dr. Benner introduced the theory that expert nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time through a sound educational base and a multitude of experiences. The premise of this theory is that the development of knowledge on applied disciplines such as medicine and nursing is composed of the extension of practical knowledge through research and understanding the “know-how” of clinical experience. It states that nursing requires procedural or scientific knowledge, techne, and the advancement of knowledge through practice and experience, phronesis. Before the publication of her most widely known book From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice, there was no real characterization of the learning process of nurses. Using a model called The Dreyfus Model of Skill and Acquisition developed by Stuart and Hubert Dreyfus and applying it to nursing, Dr. Benner developed a five-stage process that a nurse goes through on the journey to developing expertise in the field: The Novice Stage, The Advanced Beginner Stage, The Competent Stage, The Proficient Stage, and The Expert Stage. Each stage builds on the other as the nurse gains experience and learns. The Novice Stage According to Dr. Benner, a nurse in this stage is completely dependent on the rules or plans set forth by their instructor. They have very little situational perception and no discretionary judgment. Their instructors break down the task environment into “context-free” features that a beginning nurse can recognize without the having had any experience in the field of nursing. The instructor provides rules that the “novice” nurse needs to use in order to draw a conclusion or determine the action necessary based on the facts of the situation that can be recognized without prior experience. A “novice” nurse exhibits “rule-governed behavior” which leads the nurse to be limited and inflexible. Due to their lack of experience, the nurse tends to have a “Just tell me what to do and I’ll do it” attitude. The Advanced Beginner Stage As the nurse progresses from the novice stage to the advanced beginner stage they acquire experience from their work. At this stage they are able to use the rules and plans illustrated by their instructors in conjunction with their practical or situational experience to help them increase their skill level. More features of a situation become recognizable for nurse based upon their experiences which allows them to be able to anticipate certain elements of a situation. The down side is that the “advanced beginner” nurse can feel overwhelmed. Their situational perception is still a bit limited so they treat all aspects of the situation separately and with equal importance. As more things become recognizable, more rules are introduced that apply to each situation making things more difficult. The Competent Stage At this stage, the nurse learns that in order to feel less overwhelmed with the potential relevant elements of a situation, they need to devise a plan or a perspective that will help them determine what elements of a situation are important. A plan will help them determine what elements of a situation needs to be taken care of immediately and what elements can be ignored. “The competent performer must devise new rules and reasoning procedures for the chosen plan or perspective determination so that the learned rules for actions based on relevant facts can then be applied. ()Because there are so many different situation that directly named or defined, the “competent” nurse has to decide for themselves what plan to use for each situation even if they’re not absolutely sure. “Prior to this stage, if the learned rules did not work out, the performer could rationalize that they he or she had not been given good enough rules rather than feel remorse because of a mistake. ”() This can create a sense of responsibility that can be frightening for the nurse. However it can also give the nurse a sense of accomplishment when the outcome is in their favor. By the time the nurse is ready to move to the next stage of development, he or she “can now better predict immediately likely events and needs of patients and plan for them. ”() The Proficient Stage In this stage, the nurse becomes less overwhelmed as they are able to more readily see a situation as a whole rather than in separate aspects. Their decision process is less perplexing because their plan for the situation has become a part of their intuition. Actions become easier and less stressful as the learner simply sees what needs to be achieved rather than deciding”() The Expert Stage At this stage, the nurse no longer uses rules or guidelines to gear their actions. They now have an intuitive grasp of the situation which allows them to be more fluid and flexible in their responses. They let their now long grown experience guide them. In times where an “expert” nurse has diagnosed a situation in the wrong way they can revert back breaking down the situation into aspects to get a better handle on the situation. For they most part, though, they are able to see the situation and do what needs to be done based on what has previously worked for them in past experiences. References Benner, P. , Chelsa, C. , & Tanner C. (2009). Expertise in Clinical Practice: Caring, Clinical Judgment, and Ethics. Jones, Moniaree Parker. (2007). Nursing Expertise: A Look at Theory and the LNCC Certification Exam. Journal of Legal Nurse Consulting, 18(2), 12-15. PATRICIA BENNER: THE THEORY OF NURSING
Essay on Black Dog by Penelope Lively
Essay on Black Dog By Penelope Lively Brenda Case is a mid-age housewife with personal problems. The English modern short story “Black Dog”, written by Penelope Lively, portrays Mrs. Case as being a frustrated woman with a peculiar manner, besides this she has difficulties to adapt within the society’s norms. This is probably because Brenda Case is going through the largest crisis in her life; the mid-life crisis. This gives Brenda some difficult factors to deal with. She is going through this emotional state of doubt and anxiety, realizing that her life is halfway over. Through the whole story Brenda is searching for her own sincere character, but has trouble finding it. As a defence mechanism, she supersedes all of her feelings. Was this the life she really would have wanted? The Black Dog symbolizes her “shadow life”. We’re situated in a suburb of England; the Case family is a regular middleclass family. Mrs. Case, who is the principle character, is a housewife and her husband, John, makes the money. Their life is characterized by the static tedious daily routine; her doing the shopping and him attending the job. One day Brenda starts seeing a large Black Dog lying in their front yard. She constantly has a fear that the dog is going to eat her, basically paranoia of the wild animal. However, Mr. Case cannot see the dog. He even asks all the neighbours, but they haven’t seen the dog either. The colour of the dog should illustrate bad omen and negativity, but was this really signifying bad omen or was all this commotion simply caused by Brenda’s alter ego or her introverted state? As mentioned the dog symbolizes Brenda’s shadow life; the psychological term of the life that she could have had or if you live in the shadow of someone else. Mrs. Case obviously did not have a dream of becoming a housewife but she first realized her own character now. Perhaps she was pressurized from outside influences on what to do. This is also shown when Brenda follows the guidance from her two well turned-out daughters; they advice her to go on vacation and redecorate the house. However, when this made no progress they send her to the doctor’s office. All these recommendations are not helping Mrs. Case crisis, she finds out that facing the problem was the right solution for her. She understands that the Black Dog will be there all the time until she faces the real problem, her mid-life crisis. I would assume answering the question of “What is valuable in life? ” and “What is the meaning of life? ” would be a difficult task. The vagueness of the query is inherent in the word “meaning” and “value”, which opens the question to many interpretations. Some would use theological or spiritual explanations, where others would use scientific theories or philosophical arguments. The power of the words means different things to different people. Clearly Mrs. Brenda Case has gone through a personality development. This was probably affected because of a lack of a job and her ageing children; all of a sudden she did not have to take care of her kids any longer. We can conclude that most outside influences have noting to do with your real self. You need to find your own sincere meaning of what life is and what goals you may have got. Some say a mid-life crisis also is the beginning of individuation and a process of self-actualization that continues on to death. But what is a mid-life crisis? Is it the physical changes associated with ageing or the changing of spousal relationship? Is it the death of parents or the children becoming adults? Perhaps it is the menopause for women and work issues for men? I guess a crisis through mid-life would involve reflections on what the individual has done up to that point often associated with feelings that not enough was accomplished. Maybe Brenda had the convincing that she one day would be successful accountant manager, instead she became a housewife wearing a pinafore. At the end of the story John Case suddenly see some footsteps of the dog, but what is causing his hallucination? A large question remains unanswered.
My Favorite Person
MY FAVORITE PERSON
My favorite person was born, February 24, 2002, and that day will forever be a milestone in my life. He is a bundle of joy from Heaven, and the way he smells is like the air drifting over the cold winter snow. He is my son Micah Jarrell Bailey.
That day gave my life new meaning. He is a handsome, well mannered, smart little boy with the character of some of the world most honorable people. Micah has a canting look that is prominent is a crowd. He has the face of a care bear with round, chubby, and slightly freckled cheeks. His eyes are a greenish hazel with a touch of gold, that give off a hue of sparkling diamonds, They are placed slightly deeper than normal, which give a sophisticated look.
He has silky, mildly curly hair with an autumn brown tent and his skin is smooth and flawless with a tone of caramel. His physique is one of an under-sized football player: his arms are short with indention lines here and there demonstrating small muscles. His abdomen is round that lead to his semi-defined chest. His legs are rather large for his age, thighs with crumbling muscles like those of a body builder and slightly knocked knees, which lead to his large calves. We always tell him he has legs like a tank. Even with his good looks it is his personality is what makes me pay attention, it is one of a happy puppy. He has the ability to create warmth and tranquility in my heart, His smile is like an ocean front sunset on a cool summer night, simply breath taking. He walks with somewhat of a gentle swagger, like that of a Heisman trophy winner on draft day.
He always seems to say or do the right thing at precisely the right moment to disrupt tension in the room. Micah is a smart person and is like the Forth Infantry from Fort Hood, Texas, looking for Saddam Hussein, he is unbelievably focused, and He is a straight “A” student and has an incanting love of music, plus enjoys reading. He is in the third grade and reads on a seventh grade level He likes to read adventure books with warriors that he can pretend to be. In addition, he does a remarkable job reading and understanding his children’s Bible. Even with his charming personality and eye catching good looks, he has an overwhelming sense of character. He is eight years of age and has the mind action of someone twice his age. He loves interacting with people; he has a unique way of dissecting a person with his mind, like a surgeon would do in surgery. First, he would innocently attach them with a flurry of questions, like a contestant of Jeopardy. Secondly; he will evaluate your answers to see if he could obtain a better answer.
And thirdly, after the questioning has ceased, he candidly smiled and walk away. This is the way he would analyze people. I have never met a person whom he did not like, and he always has something good to say about everyone. Micah is a blessing to me and will always be on the most favorite people. With all his wittiness and good looks, he is truly and admirable person inside and out. Everyday, he lets me know that there is a God above. When I wake him in the morning, he always hugs me, while still half asleep and says with soft cartoon character like voice “I love you momma,” and at night, he never lets us forget to say our prayers. And, those are the type of little things he does, which just fill my heart with joy. And, that is the reason he deserves all the love I have to give.
S. Truett Cathy: Character in Leadership
NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Learner: Jeffrey L Boyer THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETELY FILLED IN Please Follow These Procedures: If requested by your mentor, use an assignment cover sheet as the first page of the word processor file. Use “headers” to indicate your course code, assignment number, and your name on each page of the assignment/homework including this assignment cover sheet. . Keep a Photocopy or Electronic Copy Of Your Assignments: You may need to re-submit assignments if your mentor has indicated that you may or must do so. Academic Integrity: All work submitted in each course must be the Learner’s own. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by the faculty mentor. The knowing submission of another persons work represented as that of the Learner’s without properly citing the source of the work will be considered plagiarism and will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course, and may result in academic dismissal. OM5015 Dr. Jean Perlman Organizational Behavior Assignment 6 Faculty Use Only Character and Its Influence in Leadership Jeffrey L. Boyer Dr. Jean Perlman North Central University August 5, 2010 Abstract S. Truett Cathy (Truett Cathy) is the founder and CEO of Chick-fil-A, Inc. that currently operates as the second largest quick-serve chicken restaurant in the United States. The goal of this paper is to bring to light the influence, effectiveness and most importantly the character of one of the most endearing CEO’s in the United States. The paper provides a detailed overview of Mr. Cathy’s achievements in business, and provides a personal perspective from Mr. Cathy what he felt were the most important principles for developing a great business. A review of Truett Cathy’s character traits results in a discussion of some of the most important traits in correlation to his success such as, integrity, selflessness, high moral character and others. An examination of charisma and character is also found in the paper with a comparison in leadership characteristics of Mr. Cathy to that of Jack Welsh, former CEO of General Electric. The paper concludes with a short summation of how Mr. Cathy’s leadership principles could influence one’s leadership decisions moving forward. S. Truett Cathy: An Introduction S. Truett Cathy (Truett Cathy) is founder and chairman of Chick-fil-A, Inc. Cathy started the business in 1946, when he and his brother, Ben, opened an Atlanta diner known as The Dwarf Grill (later renamed The Dwarf House). Through the years, the restaurant prospered and led Cathy to further the success of his business. In 1967, Cathy founded and opened the first Chick-fil-A restaurant in Atlanta, GA with the company growing to the second-largest quick-service chicken restaurant chain in the United States based on annual sales. “Cathy”. n. d. para. 2) Truett Cathy is widely known as one of the most endearing and selfless entrepreneurs in business. Often described as the man who “invented the chicken sandwich”… Mr. Cathy would more rather be known to the world for his satisfaction and sense of obligation to the community and its young people. (“Cathy” n. d. para. 4) Today Chick-fil-A is one of the most popular fast food restaurants, and the principles of the founder are not simply acknowledged, but rather it seams endeared by the employees and the patrons of the restaurant. Truett Cathy built his life and business based on hard work, humility and biblical principles. Based on these principles, all of Chick-fil-A’s restaurants operate with a ‘closed on Sunday’ policy, without exception (“Cathy. n. d. para. 8) Mr. Cathy adopted this principle at the risk of company profits, but Mr. Cathy wanted to set an example for his employees that family comes before profits. Interestingly enough one of Mr. Cathy’s favorite quotes comes from the book of Proverbs, which says, “A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favor rather than silver and gold”. Mr. Cathy’s passion for young people has translated significantly to corporate Chick-fil-A, which has now given more than $25 million in scholarships to its employees since 1973. Truett Cathy is one of the most decorated philanthropists in America today. S. Truett Cathy: Reasons for Admiration Growing up in central Pennsylvania in the 90’s did not provide a personal opportunity to see the impact of the Chick-fil-A franchise, but after moving to Lynchburg, VA it was quickly noticed that the food chain was uniquely different than its competitors in the burger industry, excluding the obvious product selection. When visiting a chick-fil-A it would be noticed that the workforce seems to have a joy about their work… trained to use the phrase, “it’s my pleasure to serve you” the employees not only make you feel welcome, but rather to make your dining experience a great time. Every Chick-fil-A restaurant personally visited has provided a wait staff in the dining area with a friendly smile asking if they may take your trash for you, or even refill the coffee you purchased while taking exact instructions to how you would like your drink prepared. Where did this come from? Is this just a clever ploy by management, or is the principle of being a servant to others being engrained into the culture of the restaurant by its founder? The answer lies in Truett Cathy’s Five-step recipe for success: 1. Climb with Care and Confidence 2. Create a “Loyalty Effect” 3. Never Lose a Customer 4. Put Principles and People ahead of Profits 5. Closed on Sunday (“Cathy”. n. d. Five-step Recipe. ) When visiting Truett Cathy’s personal website you will see the principles in life for which he guards so dearly. As part of Mr. Cathy’s “Five-Step Recipe for Business” he is quoted as saying, “I have found that the most effective way of promoting my business didn’t cost me anything but a little kindness to my customers”. (S. Truett Cathy. n. d. ) As a visionary Mr. Cathy possesses all the traits of a great leader and entrepreneur, but the humanitarian side of this fine gentleman is stamped all over the business processes of his organization. Mr. Cathy’s personal sense of serving others alludes to what can be considered some of the most important character traits desired in leadership. One of the first traits noticed of Mr. Cathy is a compelling sense of modesty and humility. Reasons as to why modesty/humility are important in leadership is supported by Jim Collins (2001), author of the book “Good to Great”, who submits that many of the best CEO’s in American business operate their companies with an extraordinary sense of humility and modesty. Collins (2001) would argue that humility creates a sense of approachability for those who are following, and allows for open, creative discussion about business processes and ideas. Protecting the vision and name of Chick-fil-A is evident by Mr. Cathy’s business practices, writings and observable character. It is easily understood by corporate practices that Truett Cathy values high ethical and moral standards. The importance of these traits are important not only in creating a trust within a leadership team, but as a key determinant of protecting business interests against corruption and ultimate business failure. Maguad and Krone (2009) would concur with this belief when they wrote, “the moral leader is more than a person who is conditioned to follow rules or policies. Moral leadership is what one is, as opposed to what one does. ‘What one is’ flows directly from the values he or she possesses” (p. 09) Finally, of all the traits that Mr. Cathy possesses… selflessness seems to be one of the most important to him. Recorded in Mr. Cathy’s five-step recipe for business success he writes, I’d like to be remembered as one who kept my priorities in the right order. We live in a changing world, but we need to be reminded that the important things have not changed. I have always encouraged my restaurant operators and team members to give back to the local community. We should be about more than just selling chicken; we should be a part of our customer’s lives and the communities in which we serve. Selflessness is one of the most endearing personality traits that one can have. It creates an endearment to the one who possesses it and manifests itself though generosity, the willingness to put others needs in front of your own along with the willingness and joy to serve others. It’s a personal belief that the greatest leaders are those who are willing to serve. In relation to selflessness, Charles Goodyear once wrote, Life should not be estimated exclusively by the standard of dollars and cents. I am not disposed to complain that I have planted and others have gathered the fruits. A man has cause for regret only when he sows and no one reaps. (n. d) Charisma vs. Character In preparing for this research paper, the initial leader of choice with regards to inspiration was to be Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric. Even as popular and admirable that Mr. Welch may be, there were many studies of his leadership traits which pointed out that his strengths in leadership were that of charisma and not those of character. Jack Welch took General Electric (GE) to profit heights it had not seen before, but his leadership many times took the approach that people were expendable much sooner than corporate profits. As a result Jack Welch was perceived by many to not care about what happened to individuals around him so as long as corporate goals were being met. In a study by Sankar (2003), which studied the difference between charisma and character, the author states that charisma, Focuses on personality attributes such as dynamism, style, image, inspiration, symbolic behaviors, impression management, emotional intelligence, extroverted style, self-confidence, etc… but that charismatic leadership may occasionally be more personalized in nature where the leader is self-serving, self-aggrandizing, and exploitative of others. p. 46) Mr. Welch was certainly one of the greatest CEO’s in American history, but it could be debatable that his leadership skills were more of charisma than of character. This begs the question as to whether he should be admired as a great leader if business outcomes were more important that those who served at GE. Character, in contrast to charisma, is viewed by Sankar (2003) as a leader’s moral center which influences his/her vision, goals, self-concept, work ethic, attitude, etc. p. 48) Sankar (2003) spends a great deal of time in his research pointing out the significance of integrity with relation to those who have high character. (p. 48) Sankar (2003) defines integrity as a “state of soundness of and adherence to moral principle” (p. 48). Mr. Sankar (2003) when speaking to the importance of character and its role in business leadership states, The leader plays a critical role in the propagation of an ethical culture within his/her organization. In view of ethical-moral crisis in many occupations it can be deduced that this crisis is indicative of the absence of moral leadership in these organizations… The leader’s character is a strategic source of power for infusing the culture of his/her organization with a code of ethics, moral vision, imagination, and courage. Leadership excellence cannot be evaluated without an assessment of the leader’s character. (Sankar, 2003, p. 55) With regards to Truett Cathy and his qualities as a leader, he can be admired for many leadership traits such as being confident, inspiring, a great motivator and recruiter… however Mr. Cathy seems by all accounts to be a man of great integrity and character which can be argued to far outweigh all other personality traits. Truett Cathy understands the value of “worthy leadership” which is defined by Thompson, Grahek, Phillips and Fay (2008) as having, “the ability to guide, direct or influence people in a way that has great merit, character and value” (p. 366). In relation to personal leadership, a detailed study of the life of Mr. Cathy will inspire me to keep life and leadership in perspective. It will be a personal goal in all levels of leadership to truly put principles and people ahead of profits. Regardless of profits and performance, this will provide a sense of accomplishment at the end of life that will far outweigh short-term gains at the cost of others. Clark M, Payne R. Character-Based Determinants of Trust in Leaders. Risk Analysis: An International Journal [serial online]. October 2006;26(5):1161-1173. Available from: Business Source Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed August 3, 2010. References: Collins, J. C. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap–and others don’t. New York, NY: HarperBusiness. Kathy, S. Truett. (n. d. ). Retrieved from https://www. ruettcathy. com/default. asp Maguad, B. , & Krone, R. (2009). Ethics and moral leadership: Quality linkages. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 20(2), 209-222. doi:10. 1080/14783360802623043. Maguad, B. , & Krone, R. (2009). Ethics and moral leadership: Quality linkages. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 20(2), 209-222. doi:10. 1080/14783360802623043. Maxwell, John C. (2002). The 17 Essential Qualities of a Team Player. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Inc. Maxwell, John C. (2002). Leadership 101. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Inc. Robbins, S. P. , & Judge, T. A. 2009) Organizational behavior, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780136007173 Robbins, S. P. , & Judge, T. A. (2009) Organizational behavior, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 9780136007173 Sankar, Y. (2003). Character not charisma is the critical measure of leadership excellence. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(4), 45-55. doi:10. 1177/107179190300900404. Thompson, A. , Grahek, M. , Phillips, R. , & Fay, C. (2008). The search for worthy leadership. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 60(4), 366-382. doi:10. 1037/1065-9293. 60. 4. 366.
“Perfect Sunday” by Jose Ayala and “Cathedral” by Raymond Carver
The Second Joyful Mystery Ding-dong. As I lazily got up to answer the door of the short stories in my hand, I was surprised to see a blind man, named Robert and a long lost grandson, named Jorge. Perfect Sunday by Jose Ayala and Cathedral by Raymond Carver both revolves around the host-visitor dynamic. Raymond Carver’s Cathedral revolves around the interaction of the character of the husband and his wife’s long time blind friend, Robert and Jose Ayala’s Perfect Sunday delves into Jorge’s visit to his grandmother. As both pairs of characters engage in small talk they are able to reconnect, establish new ties and discover more of themselves. The characters of the short stories will be cross-examined with each other. First would be visitor to visitor then host to host, Jorge to Robert and Dona Santos to the husband. Then Jorge will be compared to the husband and Dona Santos will be compared to Robert. Through this we can discover the deeper ideas both short stories possess. Jorge and Robert are both the visitors in the short stories. Both characters appear to be unconventional to the host characters. The husband and Dona Santos are in a way traditional and conservative. In Cathedral the husband was at first not very comfortable with Robert visiting. Aside from Robert being a complete stranger, the husband was not at ease about the idea that Robert was blind. The husband had a lot of preconceived notions about how blind men behaved and looked like. The thought that Robert married an African-American woman came as a shock to him. He even reacted quite violently. “Her name was Beulah. Beulah! That’s a name of a colored woman. “Was his wife a Negro? I asked”. He also was surprised when he saw Robert with a beard and without a cane or a pair of glasses. He was even taken aback with the way Robert ate. “I watched with admiration as he used his knife and fork on the meat”. In Perfect Sunday Dona Santos is the typical grandmother. According to the text she is of traditional Spanish descent. She is very conservative. Jorge’s lifestyle seems to be quite not ideal to her. When Jorge took out a cigarette Dona Santos eyed Jorge quizzically. “Dona Santos looked at the cigarette, then at Jorge”. She also seemed to be a little disappointed that Jorge is a musician. She seemed to have approved more on Jorge’s cousin, Leo who was a taking up business administration and was disappointed when she heard that he was not able to finish school. The visitor characters represent the unusual in the society each of the short stories exist in. They also represent change and reform in the society. The host characters symbolize the norm and the tradition the society upholds. In both short stories the contrasting of these ideas are present. Both selections also look into how the concept of change and tradition can help shape the characters. Jorge and the husband are very much alike. Both characters have that tendency to be stereotypical and judgmental. For Jorge this can be seen in the first part of the selection when he was observing the passersby. This trait is apparent to the husband with regard to how he perceives and treats Robert. Both characters are not in tuned to their religious beliefs. Jorge’s refusal to attend mass and even claiming that doing so will ruin his perfect Sunday is proof to this. The husband’s “prayer” during their dinner was done jokingly and even bordering on mockery. When asked by Robert whether he was religious or not, he explicitly answered “I guess I don’t believe in it”. Dona Santos and Robert can be put next to each other. Both these characters are the religious or spiritual influence in the other characters’ lives. Dona Santos’ beliefs are more explicitly stated. Robert’s can be considered as more spiritual. These characters serve as the catalysts for change in their co-characters. Dona Santos’ sense of religiousness and spirituality influenced Jorge in a juvenile and very childlike way, the way a little boy is disciplined by his grandmother for not going to mass or rewarded for behaving well in the liturgy. Through this, although very superficial, Jorge was able to grasp a ritualistic and cultural concept of religion and his grandmother’s beliefs. I found the husband’s and Robert’s “spiritual” enlightenment quite problematic, because both of them were high on marijuana when they engaged in the activity. This may be so, but in a way Robert was also able to help awaken and reconnect the husband’s character to himself. Both selections had religious references in them, specifically with cathedrals. In Perfect Sunday, cathedral was used to describe Jorge’s state of being, “…Feeling again like a vast and empty cathedral”. As for Cathedral, the cathedral served as a vessel for the enlightenment and awakening of the husband. The cathedrals can also symbolize how the characters perceive religion and ultimately their lives. For Jorge religion is very tradition based. With his grandmother’s influence, religion is an obligation and not devotion. So when his grandmother asked him if he went to mass his mind went into this trance-like, echoing and empty state. What Jorge knows of religion is its structure and like a cathedral, its vast hollowness. As for the husband’s experience, the cathedral, at first, amplified his unfamiliarity with religion. But what the story promotes is that when the husband begins to open his mind to what Robert has to say and looks at things in a different way; profound, transcendent and unexpected experiences arise. What is similar to both texts is the factor of human interaction, connecting and reconnecting to the people around us; especially if like Jorge and the husband we have gone too comfortable being bubbled up in our own beliefs and realities. In a way, we have to let other people in for us to know or be reminded of who we are and what we really want to be. We all have to get up from where we are seated, answer the door and let that visitor in. 092308 R34
Motif of conscience and principle in A&P
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Conclusion
Conscience is the moral sense of right or wrong in a human being. It is perceived as the guide to someone’s behavior. It is the conscience of an individual that raises alarm when the person is doing wrong or right and helps the person to adjust accordingly.
A principle on the other hand is a firm belief or rule that governs the attitude and behavior of an individual. Principles of a human being determine the character of the person. Conscience and principle are related in that the conscience of a person always reminds him or her of their principles. John Updike’s A&P has vividly demonstrated these two motifs. Sam visualizes that sticking to the morally right principles does not always lead to positive results as most people would expect. A&P is narrated in the point of view of Sammy who tries to be a hero only to realize that heroes seldom get far in the modern world. Sammy is a cashier at A&P and while at work identifies three beautiful ladies but their dress is a mess according to Sam and he is uneasy with them. He suspects one of them to be their leader whom due to romantic interest names Queenie. Sammy’s character of being opinionated doesn’t allow him to hide his disdain for his older co-workers and he is not ashamed of his interest to Queenie. Sammy can be described as an individual who is bored with life in the town of Massachusetts where he grew up and he longs to break free from the trappings of the society. Sammy’s voice is also explicitly humorous. When he first sees the girls, he cannot remember whether he has rung up the box of HiHo crackers under his hand. I ring it up again and the customer starts giving me hell. She’s one of these cash-register watchers, a witch about fifty with rouge on her cheekbones and no eyebrows, and I know it made her day to trip me up. She’s been watching cash registers for fifty years and probably never seen a mistake before. Sammy’s character greatly shows one who sticks to his principles. He is highly driven by conscience and this lands him between a rock and a hard place. In the beginning, he is humorous, sarcastic and has high self-esteem but in the end, he is disappointed, hopeless and stigmatized. Lengel reminds the girls that A&P is not the beach and this hits Sammy like a blow though humorously. Back in the office all characters in Sammy’s language become animals. Lengel scuttles crablike into his office when he sees the girls the first time. All other customers group like sheep and pigs in a chute when they see chaos at the front register. The three girls according to him seem to buzz; the Queenie like queen bee and the other two buzz like drones around the queen. Sammy’s sweet voice, his humor and his categorical descriptions of the supermarket setting undercut the implicitly sentimental situation of the story. Lengel’s principles lead him to question the girls about their dress and they have a heated argument of the word ‘?decent’. For instance, the word reverberates with socioeconomic import. Sammy boldly stands to defend the girls yet he had earlier shown that his attitude towards the dress code of the girls is similar to his. He put across that it is one thing to have a girl in bathing suit down the beach. Updike’s A&P has greatly achieved the motif of principles in how Sammy before seeing the girls is humorous, sarcastic and held in high self-esteem. When Sammy first sees the girls is uneasy because of the bath suits the girl are wearing. His conscience tells him that the kind of dress code they are in is not fit for the environment they are in. He cares how the other customers are going to think about the upbringing and character of these girls. Deep in his heart, he expects that everyone comprehends his principles and that they have similar principles and should therefore not make the mistake of coming to A&P in bath suits. Lengel is another outstanding character who portrays sticking to his principles. Lengel the manager is privileged to encounter the girls as they are entering the A&P and thanks to his moral principles that drive him to questioning the girls and he tells them that they are not at the beach. Although Sammy tries to defend the girls seriously, Lengel is not at all seemingly going to agree that it is rightful to come to A&P in such a dress code. Sammy in an operation to hinder bathing-suit policies not only in A&P grocers but also everywhere quits his job. This shows how he is stuck to his moral principles and how he is faithful to them. Everyone expects that he is going to be a hero and he himself believes in the same. Contra to his expectations, Sammy quits the job and joins the society that the girls are in. Being in the same society with these girls automatically would not promote his stand against no-bathing-suit but rather influence him in supporting the same and this causes the story to end in a gloomy mood for Sammy the protagonist. The three girls dressed in bathing-suit-clads walk to the grocery store confidently without fear since they have principles which do not allow them to notice they might be making. They have no shoes put on and their conscience does not deny them to walk to any public place. This alludes the immoral principles that have enslaved them. The girls seem to do anything they think is right according to them without considering their societal relationship. Their conscience isn’t seemingly alerting them and this explains their character. They must have noticed they are sexually provoking but don’t seem to care. Conscience on the other hand seems to be guiding most characters in the John Updike’s A&P. Sammy the main protagonist in the story greatly shows his emotions. Sammy’s conscience helps him visualize the poor dress code of the three girls. He would even start admiring the girls owing to the girls’ attractive nature and dress code. Sammy is eventually seen to quit his job to defend and uphold his principles. This decision is informed by Sammy’s conscience. Lenger the manager of the A&P grocer on seeing the three girls in poor dress code does not conceal his emotions and his conscience causes him to utter his mind. He tells the girls off that the A&P grocer is not a beach. Thanks to his conscience despite Sammy’s defense to the girls, Lenger is firm since he is cock sure that his conscience can’t mislead him. It takes much confidence to tell the girls that they are dressed inappropriately but Lenger’s conscience does not allow him to bear the embarrassment and let the ladies make away with that. The three girls are other characters whose motif of conscience has been portrayed highly. The girls act like they have been deprived of their motif of conscience. It is common sense that it is not right to go to a public place half naked or without shoes. Not even a single society would tolerate that but the girls shamelessly go to an A&P grocer in their bathing clad and they do not seem to care. The author uses these characters to show that not all people’s conscience is active in life. Anybody would have expected the girls to have changed before they left home informed by their conscience. Sammy’s decision of quitting job is informed by his conscience. He has an aim to curb the habit of indecent dress in public places and he thinks that quitting his job will help cease this habit little does he know that his efforts are in vain since he is going to the same society with the girls and would end up supporting them owing to the fact that he has interest in one of the girls whom he nicknamed Queenie. His conscience is right because if Lenger, his manager considers him and negotiates to return him to his job, he would be curbing the habit but the story ends in a cold mood where Sammy is sadly glaring at his boss without a glimpse of hope to get his job. Sammy taking off his apron and bow tie is another occasion where the motif of conscience is evident. Sammy takes off his apron and bow tie to show that he is quitting job. He is different from other workers who fail to report to work or boycott work activities or even influence others to a strike. His decision is not only dignified but also vividly shows his aggravated emotions. He has arrived at the decision after being guided by his conscience. From the beginning of the story, almost all the characters are principled. Starting from the main protagonist Sammy who in many incidences has a lot of things he does compelled by his principles can be referred to as the chief principled character. Despite the attractive nature of the girls, Sammy does not misbehave or reveal any evil thoughts with the girls. This shows his dignified and moral principles that he strictly adheres to. When Sammy quits job, Lengel tells him that he would feel the same disappointment even after quitting job. This is meant to intimidate him and discourage him from quitting the job but since Sammy is a man of principles, he remains firm and does not turn back. This alludes that Sammy is unshakeable as he comfortably quits the job which is enough prove that a person should stick to his principles come rain come sunshine.
Conscience and principle are key motifs used by the author to build his characters commencing with the main protagonist Sammy who is unshakeable. By quitting his job, he demonstrates believe and trust in his conscience. Lenger the A&P grocer manager is another key character who is bold enough to tell off very attractive ladies due to their provocative dress code. This is least expected as men’s weakness for half-naked ladies is so strong a desire to bear. He tells them that the A&P grocer is not a beach and hence there is need to dress decently to show respect to other customers.
Literary Criticism and Review
The Necklace, A Perfect Day for catfish, Everyday Use, Boys and girls, this blessed house and Sure thing portray the themes of marriage, materialism, and identity in different yet almost similar ways. This literary criticism discusses in detail the idea of marriage in This Blessed house, The Necklace and A perfect Day to banana fish. It also addresses the topic of materialism in The Necklace, Everyday Use and A Perfect Day to Banana Fish.
It further examines the idea of identity in Boys and girls, This Blessed House, and Everyday use. A summary of the main points drawn in this writes up included.
- 1 Marriage
- 2 Materialism
- 3 Identity
- 4 Conclusion
- 5 References
The theme of friendship depicted in the short stories This Blessed House. The author informs us that Sanjeev and Twinkle know one another at a birthday party. Twinkle was impressed by Sanjeev because of the way she refilled her teacup during their conversation. After only four months of frequent visits and long phone calls, Sanjeev marries Twinkle and moves in with her to a new house. Their wedding attended by people that Sanjeev could hardly recall from his childhood. Modern day relationships are characterized by two people infatuated with each other. The infatuation leads them to believe that they are in love and as a result, they rush into marriage without taking time to know each other. Unlike the traditional relationships where the couples were forced to marry each other with or without their consent, Sanjeev’s and Twinkle then introduced to each other by family friends. Introduction of people through friends is standard on the present days. After rushing through marriage, Sanjeev begins to question if he loved Twinkle. The doubt provoked by Twinkle’s fascination with Christianity when she finds several sculptures in her new house. According to Sanjeev, he expects that being from the Hindu religion Twinkle would show no interest whatsoever in Christianity. He notices negative traits such as Twinkle’s laziness and her inability to cook most Indian dishes. He laments in regret how his parents had sampled different girls for marriage who were equally hard working. Their relationship depicts two strangers who have not courted long enough to cope with their differences. Twinkle and Sanjeev represent the reality of modern-day marriage as rushed as a result of desperation. In the text, the necklace, Guy de Maussapant conveys marriage as the only means that women hoped to maintain or become wealthy. Maussapant reveals this by introducing us to the character Madame Loisel. The young lady is born to parents from the lower class. Madame Loisel’s parents are artisans. The author depicts the role as a woman who had gotten used to the lower standards of living and had no ambitions whatsoever on the type of man she would marry. From the author’s description, it is predictable that Madame Loisel was bound to settle for any man that showed any interest to marry her. She decides for a little clerk at the ministry of education. Madame Loisel spends most of her time lamenting on how she wishes that her husband could provide her with the delicacies and the extravagant life she craved. The fact that she is married off to a poor man consumes her and causes her to have a low self-esteem. Maussapant informs us that she has a wealthier friend whom she hates visiting. Madame Loisel alienates herself from her best friend.Her husband is prosperous, and that makes her suffer. Madame Loisel is unhappy with her marriage because she desires the lavish life. The state of her unions changes ten years down the line when she loses Madame Forester’s “diamond” necklace, and the couple cooperates to pay off the debt (Cohen). J.D Salinger, in the text A Perfect Day to Banana Fish, describes a single kind of marriage. The author introduces us to two characters namely Muriel and Seymour. Seymour is Muriel’s husband. Seymour has post-traumatic stress disorder due to his experience at war. Muriel is least concerned about the well-being of her husband’s mental condition and focuses on the wealth benefits she gets. When Sybil meets Seymour lost in thought at the beach and asked him about the whereabouts of his wife, he tells her she is at the salon getting her hair dyed mink or making dolls for the sick child. The response is a lie to Sybil to cover up for his self-centered wife. The author depicts this marriage as a selfish marriage. The conclusion based on the fact that Muriel does not offer any emotional support required helping her husband recover from post-traumatic stress disorder, and therefore he has to spend his time around Sybil who is only an innocent child.
The theme of materialism has been brought out in The Necklace, Everyday use and A Perfect Day for Banana Fish. In the short story called The Necklace, the author introduces us to a homemaker who desires to have a more satisfying life. Madame Loisel’s perfect experience is that in which she can afford anything she likes. However, her aspirations cut short because she is married to a little clerk in the ministry of education. Madame Loisel’s friendship with her best friend limited because of their apparent differences in their social statuses. The epitome of Madame Loisel’s materialism is depicted when her husband comes home bearing an invite to Madame Ramponneau party that is exclusive. The husband expects her to be happy because he is among the few people at his office to be invited to such an individual. In an unexpected turn of events, Madam Loisel’s breaks down into self-pity. The wife laments that she has no dress to wear to the party and everyone is going to know that she is poor. After futile efforts of the husband convincing her that to wear her theatre dress, he offers to buy her dress with money that he has been saving up for a gun. Madame Loisel further claims that she has no jewelry to accessorize in the suit. The husband advises her to borrow jewelry from Madame Frostier. Madame frostier lends her a “diamond necklace.” The author describes how Madame Loisel’s beauty stands out at the party and how much she loves looking vibrant and beautiful. Madame Loisel remembers with nostalgia how cute she looked at the side. We can conclude from her fantasies that that was the only day she truly lived. Materialism, in a perfect Day to Banana Fish by J.D Salinger, has been brought up by the character of Muriel. Muriel is a materialistic lady who is willing to stay with a mentally ill husband due to the material things he can provide for her. In a conversation with her mom, Muriel dodges a question about the stability of Seymour and discusses a dress. She states that the suit was ugly similar to the one that they saw in Bonwit’s window. We would expect that her priority would be trying to help her husband cope with post-traumatic stress Disorder. In another scene, Sybil meets Seymour at the beach and asks him about the where about of his lady. The ex-soldier claims that the wife is at the salon getting her hair dyed mink. The fact that Muriel is willing to put her life in danger married to a mentally unstable person without necessarily caring about him getting better concludes that she is very materialistic. If Muriel were more emotionally supportive of her husband, he would not have committed suicide. In the story, Everyday Use the theme of materialism has been brought out through Wangero. The story depicts an innocent girl (Dee) born of a single family who changes when she becomes learned. Dee’s mother and Maggie are illiterates, and they have grown accustomed to that kind of life. When Wangero returns home, she is a different person who appreciates her African roots more than she did before. The unusual twist of events because Dee’s mother believes in the connection that is evident in families. Wangero’s materialistic nature sets in when she wants specific quilts that her mother had promised her sister all to herself. The author informs us that she had been offered the same quilts by her mother before she joined college but claimed that they were too old-fashioned. Wangero’s material nature also reveals itself when she spots the churn during a meal. Dee jumps ecstatically and stands to a corner and claims that the churn top is what she needs. In this text the reader can relate Wangero’s materialism to the exposure, she finds after pursuing further education. The conclusion is drawn based on the fact that her younger sister, although her mother had promised her the quilts, lets Wangero have them. However, Dee’s mother intervenes by taking the quilts off Wangero by force and gives them to Maggie.
In both genders, the theme of identity revealed through the narrator who is female. Unlike the assumption that she will act like the girls and stay the narrator rebels indoors from being ladylike. She grows attached to her father more than her mother. The narrator respects the work of his father. The narrator’s mother wishes that Lard would help his father more so that her daughter can stay indoors. An incident happens, and the narrator realizes that she can object to some stereotypes without necessarily trying to do chores meant for boys. The theme of identity revealed through Twinkle and Sanjeev in the story The Blessed House. Sanjeev is a sensitive person and cares about the opinion of passersby when they spot the statue of the virgin marry on his property. Twinkle on the other and is a free spirit. She is curious and adventurous. Twinkle is aggressive with her identity as she corrects Sanjeev who lies to his colleagues that her name is Tamina. In the book Everyday Use, Wangero knows very little about her identity. The heirlooms are Maggie’s and her family’s true identity. She is misinformed about how quilts are made even thug she appears to be deeply rooted in her African tradition.
The theme of marriage ten depicted in the short stories This Blessed House. The author informs us that Sanjeev and Twinkle were introduced to one another at a birthday party. After only four months of frequent visits and long phone calls, Sanjeev marries Twinkle and moves in with her to a new house. Their relationship depicts two strangers who have not courted long enough to cope with their differences. Twinkle and Sanjeev represent the reality of modern-day marriage as rushed as a result of desperation. In the text, the necklace, Guy de Maussapant conveys union as the only means that women hoped to maintain or become wealth. Madame Loisel spends most of her time lamenting on how she wishes that her husband could provide her with the delicacies and the extravagant life she craved. Madame Loisel alienates herself from her best friend. Her husband is wealthy, and that makes her suffer. J.D Salinger, in the text A Perfect Day to Banana Fish, describes a single kind of marriage. The author introduces us to two characters namely Muriel and Seymour. The author depicts this marriage as a selfish marriage. The conclusion based on the fact that Muriel does not offer any emotional support required helping her husband recover from a post-traumatic stress disorder, and therefore he has to spend his time around Sybil who is only an innocent child. In the Necklace, the epitome of Madame Loisel’s materialism comes when her husband comes home bearing an invite to Madame Ramponneau party that is exclusive. The husband expects her to be happy because he is among the few people at his office to be invited to such an individual. In an unexpected turn of events, Madam Loisel’s breaks down into self-pity. The wife laments that she has no dress to wear to the side and everyone is going to know that she is poor. Materialism, in a perfect Day to BananaFish by J.D Salinger, has been brought up by the character of Muriel. In a conversation with her mom, Muriel dodges a question about the stability of Seymour and discusses a dress. The fact that Muriel is willing to put her life in danger married to a mentally unstable person without necessarily caring about him getting better concludes that she is very materialistic. In the story, Everyday Use the theme of materialism has been brought out through Wangero. The story depicts an innocent girl (Dee) born of a single family. She changes when she becomes learned. Wangero’s materialistic nature sets in when she wants specific quilts that her mother had promised her sister all to herself. Wangero’s material nature also reveals itself when she spots the churn during a meal. Dee jumps ecstatically and stands to a corner and claims that the churn top is what she needs.
“Analysis Of Conflict In Jhumpa Lahiri’s This Blessed House.” 5 Dec 2017. 123HelpMe.com. 6 Dec 2017 <<https://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=160876>.>. Chris Sabatino, Brigid McCusker, Chris Boutsikaris and Sam Pastuzyn. “A PERFECT DAY FOR BANANAFISH themes.” n.d. weebly. 6 Dec 2017 <https://salingerbananafish.weebly.com/themes.html>. Cohen, Madeline. Suduiko, Aaron ed. “The Necklace Themes.” 29 October 2016. Gradesaver. 6 December 2017 <https://www.gradesaver.com/the-necklace-and-other-stories/study-guide/themes>. E, Charles. “Boys and Girls – Themes and Meanings” Comprehensive Guide to Short Stories, Critical Edition Ed.” May 2004. Notes. 6 Dec , 2017 <<https://www.enotes.com/topics/boys-girls/themes#themes-themes-and-meanings>>. “Everyday Use Themes at a Glance.” n.d. notes. 6 Dec 2017 <https://www.enotes.com/topics/everyday-use/themes>. Ives, David. “The Sure Thing.” Ives, David. . . “. 1988. Lahiri, Jumpha. This Blessed House. interpreter of the maladies, 1999. Maussapant, Guy de. The Necklace. n.d. McKeever, Christine. Weinbloom, Elizabeth ed. “Interpreter of Maladies This Blessed House Summary and Analysis.” 27 November 2011. GradeSaver. 6 December 2017 <https://www.gradesaver.com/interpreter-of-maladies/study-guide/summary-this-blessed-house>. McManus, Dermot. “. “A Perfect Day for Bananafish by J.D. Salinger.” ,” 8 Sep. 2014. The Sitting Bee. The Sitting Bee. 6 Dec 2017 <https://sittingbee.com/a-perfect-day-for-bananafish-j-d-salinger/>. no_one. “Boys and Girls.” 28 April 2004. Everything. 6 Dec 2017 <https://everything2.com/title/Boys+and+Girls>. Salinger, J. D. ” A Perfect Day for Bananafish.” Salinger, J. D. A Perfect Day for Bananafish. New York: The New Yorker, January 31, 1948. , pages 21-25. SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Everyday Use.” 5 Dec. 2017. SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 2007. . 6 Dec 2017. SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on A Perfect Day for Bananafish.” 5 Dec 2017. SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. 6 Dec 2017 <https://www.sparknotes.com/short-stories/a-perfect-day-for-bananafish/themes.html>. SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Everyday Use.” 2007. SparkNotes.com. 6 Dec 2017 <https://www.sparknotes.com/short-stories/everyday-use/citing.html>. “The gender conflict in Munro’s “Boys and Girls.” n.d. <https://www.engelska.uu.se/digitalAssets/299/c_299583-l_1-k_a-level-discussion-essay.the-gender-conflict-in-boys-and-girls.pdf>. Walker, Alice. Everyday Use. 1944.