Barack Obama and Nicolas Sarkozy: Partners or Opponents? Compare and Contrast Essay
Barack Obama is the new President of the United States who was elected on this position not that long ago. At the very beginning of his president campaign he was very popular, and he still has a lot of people among ordinary citizens and inside his cabinet who support him. However, some of his actions and laws have already caused a lot of debates and reduced his popularity among people.
Nicolas Sarkozy – the sixth President of the French Republic was also very popular in 2007, and easily managed to defeat his main opponent Segolene Royal. An ambitious and charismatic leader, Sarkozy has done a lot to save his country during the economic recession. This still did not protect him against criticism and so-called “anti-Sarko” movements.
One of them is considered to be a man who started a new page in the American history. No matter what they say, the 44th President of the United States is an African American, and, from my point of view, it is one of the greatest democratic achievements.
Another one is the first French president from an immigrant family (Kesselman, Krieger, Joseph 127). In his country, he is called a “hyper-president”, Napoleon Bonaparte, or Louis XIV because of his will to control everything and make changes even if other reputable politicians do not support them.
So, do Barack Obama and Nicolas Sarkozy really have something in common? Are they partners and allies as many tend to think or some major differences in their views and policies make it just an illusion?
In this essay, I want to compare domestic and foreign policies of both Barack Obama and Nicolas Sarkozy, and define what kind of relations they have.
Presidency Of Barack Obama: Domestic Policy
Once Barack Obama became the President, he had no time to relax. Urgent measures to handle the effects of the world financial crisis had to be taken. One of such measures became an economic stimulus bill suggested by Barack Obama even before his presidency. The law was signed on January 2009, but in October, it turned out that the law did not work well, since unemployment rates reached 10.2%. Since 1983, it was the highest rate (Bureau of Labor Statistics).
One of the President Obama’s primary concerns was the health care reform, which caused heated debates. Democrats and Republicans were trying to answer such questions as whether the right to health care is fundamental, whether all American citizens should have access to health care no matter some circumstances, whether it is the federal government that should make such changes, etc (Dinan 1).
On March 23, 2010 the initiative of the President Obama to perform a health care reform was supported by the Congress. At this moment, it is hard to predict what effects it might have, whether it will be a failure or no. Yet, what is obvious from the two examples above is that the President Obama has own views on what may be better for the country in these hard times, he can set up goals, and develop plans on how to achieve them.
President Obama’s Foreign Policy
On the international level, Barack Obama has also demonstrated some achievements as well as several failures from my point of view.
For instance, the recent Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), which was signed by the American and Russian Presidents on April 8, 2010, can be called one of the most significant international documents signed by the President Obama since his presidency. Two countries with the biggest nuclear potentials have taken the responsibility and agreed to reduce their arms.
Another example of the “right” international policy is the President’s decision to withdraw American troops from Iraq. Although this plan is only going to be implemented, it is a step that I think all Americans will support. However, what I do not agree with is the President’s focus on Afghanistan. It is also time to stop wasting money there and endanger our soldiers.
Nicolas Sarkozy’s Domestic Policy
The French President Nicolas Sarkozy is a very charismatic leader, sometimes a bit rude, too active, too demanding. Yet, what I think is that Sarkozy is one of the best French presidents who really acts in the interests of his country and people. Anita Hausser, who wrote his biography, calls Nicolas Sarkozy a heavy worker, a workaholic who never rests (BBC News).
His presidency is also marked by the world economic crisis. However, France is in the list of the countries that suffered the least from the global economic recession.
In 2007, Sarkozy and his government developed own economy stimulus package, which included a lot of reforms such as cutting taxes, reducing the public sector, and others. On November 2008, Sarkozy established special fund that possessed 20 billion Euros and was aimed to help banks and companies to overcome the crisis.
Immigration policy turned into one of the main focuses for Mr. Sarkozy, and even split opinions in France. Once, Nicolas Sarkozy called the young people from the Paris suburbs “rabble”, which definitely caused an ambiguous reaction in the society and criticism (BBC News).
Yet, Mr. Sarkozy is not actually against immigrants. He just wants them to be skillful workers and appreciate values in the country where they want to work and live, and come to France legally. Not a bad policy!
President Sarkozy’s Foreign Policy
What specific achievements of the President Sarkozy on the international scene should be discussed?
First, it should be mentioned that Nicolas Sarkozy is considered to be a pro-Atlantic politician. In 2008, the President Sarkozy announced his decision about French reintegration with NATO. For some politicians and even ordinary people, it was rather a shocking claim, because France in these terms was a special country. It was a long time ago when according to De Gaulle’s decision France left this military block (Kesselman, Krieger, Joseph 128).
These days, France has some special relations with Russia, which is not supported in the United States, but it seems like this does not make the President Sarkozy worried too much. First, Sarkozy played rather an important role in the conflict between Russia and Georgia in 2008.
Since those times, relations between two countries flourished even more. One of the recent examples that can prove this was a helicopter carrier Mistral, which France sold Russians.
By the way, reaction of the United States to this event was definitely negative, but it seems like France did not care much. Generally, such a position is clear. Both countries, and France in particular, gained their benefit, and not only from the economic point of view.
What about Sarkozy’s policies in Iraq and Afghanistan? From the very first days and till the present time, Nicolas Sarkozy is against the war in Iraq. However, in 2008 he agreed to send French troops to Afghanistan so that to demonstrate France is still the NATO’s ally.
To sum everything up, President Sarkozy acts according with French interests most of the times, no matter what his international partners may think.
Now, let me answer the main question of this essay. Do the presidents of the United States and France have something in common? Are they partners?
I believe that both presidents, although may be not very popular in their countries, try to do a lot in order to support economies, people, ideals, and interests of their countries.
The President Obama has just started his presidency (Dinan 1). The President Sarkozy has two more years to finish what he has started and to do more for France. In both countries, two presidents have opponents as well as those who support their initiatives and help achieve goals.
Yet, I should say that relations between two presidents are not always defined as “partnership”. For example, Nicolas Sarkozy’s views on the reduction of nuclear weapons are very different from those that the President Obama has. Nicolas Sarkozy has a very strong position on this issue and claimed that France is not going to reduce its strategic weapons.
On the one hand, it may sound quite irresponsibly. On the other hand, the President Sarkozy again acts according to the interests of his country. He realizes that even if the United States gets rid of the part of their nukes, they will still have enough to protect themselves.
I should still mention that both presidents have strong opinions about Iran and its nuclear policy. Nicolas Sarkozy is one of the biggest advocates as well as the President Obama for special sanctions that should be imposed on Iran.
Dinan, Stephen. “Obama’s Budget Doubles Deficit in 10 Years”. Washington Times 20 Mar. 2009: 1+.
“Employment Situation Summary”. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Official Website. Mar. 2010.
Kesselman, Mark, Krieger, Joel, Joseph, William A. Introduction to Comparative Politics: Political Challenges and Changing Agendas. Boston: Wodsworth, 2007-201.
“Profile: Nicolas Sarkozy”. BBC News, Official Website. 26 Jul. 2009.
Obama’s speech on 2012 budget cuts Essay
On February 14th, 2011, the president of the United States of America, delivered a speech detailing his government’s vision for the county, alongside the speech, he presented the government’s suggested changes in 2012 fiscal budget (Wasson). This paper analyzes the speech; however, it will focus on the suggested budget cuts.
The speech and budget changes
The president through his speech detailed his government’s vision for the country and supported the speech with a presentation of some budget adjustments that will see the country attain the vision as suggested.
Although the budget suggested a reduced expenditure by the government, its main role was to balance deficit reductions with priority investments; it did understand that some sectors budget in the economy could not be tampered with despite the expected changes; such areas included research and development as well as health matters.
In the section named “Terminations, Reductions, and Savings,” the government targeted 212 sectors that would suffer budget cuts; after the cuts, the expected saving in 2012 alone is more than $33 billion (Wasson).
Issues that were discussed
- Budget cuts
There was a proposed cut on expenditure catered by the government on low-income home energy assistance program (LIHEAP); this has been argued that it is likely to have an effect on over 3.5 million low-income households who are believed to use the program for lightening and cooling. The cut was expected to be about $2.5 billion; it is likely to cause pain among the Americans who are suffering reduced incomes resulting from the world financial crisis of 2007.
Another cut that pained the people were the cuts on community service block grants (CSBG), the sector was expected to lose about $350million; economic analyzers are of the opinion that the programs are crucial in the support of community-building investments; when the budget is reduced, then community development will be hampered (FactCheck.Org)
- Budget Freeze
One area that the speech targeted to freeze some expense is on non-security discretionary spending, the budget suggested a five-year budget reduction that in turn would avail finances to develop other sectors of the economy especially those that can create employment. By the end of the five years, the sector was expected to have its budget at 1.9% of the country’s GDP down from the current rate of 2.7%.
- GOP Spending Cuts
The budget targeted to cut expenditure on GOP spending cut; the proposal was the first to have a direct cut on actual spending of a program. The expected savings from the cuttings were $60.8 billion. The Republicans felt that this cuts were detrimental to the economy and was likely to lead to unemployment in the economy.
Decide what the president accomplished or did not accomplish with his speech
According to my understanding, the proposed cuts were contraction policies in the economy; however, they were strategically developed for the good of the country. The main areas that were affected were those that yielded minimal return to the Americans; this move was necessary especially in the wake of global financial crisis. Implementation of the actions suggested is what waits to be done, however since Obama’s got in office, over 60% of proposed cuts have been successful so even this is likely to follow suit (Thiess 1)
Obama’s 2012 budget cuts continue to raise debates among the Americans; some people feel the cuts would injure the economy while others feel the cuts would facilitate economic recovery from world financial crisis. The proposed cuts are expected to reduce the countries budget expenditure by over $33 billion in 2012.
FactCheck.Org. Fact Checking Obama’s Budget Speech. 18th Apr. 2011. Web.
Thiess, Rebecca. President Obama’s 2012 budget: An analysis of the budget cuts. 14th Feb. 2011. Web.
Wasson, Erik. Budget director previews cuts in Obama’s 2012 plan. 2rd Jun. 2011. Web.
Should the Obama Generation Drop Out? by Charles Murray Essay (Critical Writing)
In the essay Should the Obama Generation Drop Out Charles Murray analyses the ideas of Barak Obama within the educational system. The author provides the suggestions how to improve the current situation and what measures could help developing an educational reform.
Although Murray emphasizes an importance of the reforms of the educational system, the information in his essay provides the description of the inability of many students to deal with college-level material and incapability to pay for the bachelor’s degree instead of suggesting the concrete solutions and adequate reforms of the educational system.
The main statement of the essay is that it is not important where a person learned and got the professional skills, it is important what and how one can do the job. I absolutely agree with this position.
As we can see today, majority of students concentrates not on the quality of knowledge and professional skills they can learn, but on the presence of the diploma and the popularity of the school or university.
Murray suggests the concept of challenges the basic elements on the higher education and indicates that those ideas should be supported by Obama. Thus, Murray says, “As president, Mr. Obama should use his bully pulpit to undermine the bachelor’s degree as job qualification” (Murray, 2008).
However, although the author proposes the concrete reform, he emphasizes the benefits of the vocational trainings and test which could improve the level of specific knowledge that a worker may need. I disagree that such vocational courses can be more helpful than a full specific education or an additional degree. However, the position of bachelor’s degree as the only one key element of getting a job needs to be improved.
Murray claims that the standards of materials used in the process of getting the degree is high and require the special abilities of the students. If some of the students are unable to deal with the college and university sources, it does not mean that they do not have the appropriate professional skills and knowledge.
Murray says that a century ago students could easily go to work after high school, but today situation is different. Although they prefer to get more knowledge and skills from university, at the same time, they “treat college as vocational training, not as a leisurely journey to well-roundedness” (Murray, 2008).
From my point of view, it is incorrect to suppose that all students consider studying at university as the leisure. Moreover, in the other paragraph the author claims that the level of materials in university can be too high and complicated for a number of people. Therefore, I think that such statement is confusing.
Although Murray supposes that his essay can be considered as elitist or pessimistic, I think that those two characteristics are absent. His attitude is absolutely well-grounded and valid. As a realist, the author notices the present problems within the current educational system and claims for their solving.
However, as he wants to improve the situation, some specific ideas and possible variants reforms could be appropriate as well. Writing about discharge of the bachelor’s degree as a job qualification, Murray indicates the certification tests as a possible solution.
According to Murray, such tests “would provide evidence that the applicant has acquired the skills the employer needs” (Murray, 2008). Analyzing this idea, I think that this idea is worth to be considered by government. As the result, many young people will be able to prove their capability to work, skills and competitiveness comparing with those who have the bachelor’s degree.
Of course, this statement is valid. However, at the same time the author says that “certification tests would not eliminate the role of innate ability – the most gifted applicants would still have an edge – but they would strip away much of the unwarranted halo effect that goes with a degree from a prestigious university” (Murray, 2008). Therefore, such measure will not solve the whole problem. But, the author does not suggest other ideas of solution.
It seems that Murray only indicates the problem for the government and for President Obama particularly. I think that he should explore this question deeper and elaborate the exact ideas of what reforms could be more effective and why. In the present form, the essay Should the Obama Generation Drop Out gives an answer – yes, but it does not give the practical answers.
Emphasizing the value of professional skills and their domination over the bachelor’s degree, Murray suggests President Obama to use his authority to change the current situation. The bachelor’s degree should not be a key aspect of acceptance or rejection of an employee. Every person should be treated according to one’s professional skills and do not be judged due to the absence of the bachelor’s degree.
Although I agree with the main statement, the present essay can be considered as more emotional that informative. The author discusses inability of many students to deal with college-level material instead of suggesting the concrete solutions and adequate reforms of the educational system.
Murray, C. (2008). “Should the Obama Generation Drop Out?”, The New York Times. Retrieved from <https://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/28/opinion/28murray.html>
Obama’s Speech on The Issue of Gun Control Rhetorical Essay
“Obama on Gun Control” was a speech made by President Barack Obama to address the issue of gun control after the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School that left 20 children and 6 adults dead as a direct result of automatic weapons fire (Paulson, 1). The wording of the speech goes directly towards the issue of gun control and how the current state of laws limiting the sale and distribution of fire arms are insufficient to address issues related to firearms ending up in the wrong hands.
Presently, the U.S. has one of the highest rates of gun violence in the world with well over 9,000 deaths per year on average due to firearm related deaths (i.e. murders, suicides and accidental discharges). The sheer amount of deaths has created numerous debates surrounding the accessibility of firearms within the country and how more stringent measures need to be implemented in order to address such an issue.
Unfortunately, such measures have often been stalled due to numerous pundits citing the Second Amendment and the supposed need for firearms as a method of self-defense due to most criminals being armed. The speech “Obama on Gun Control” attempts to persuade people on the basis of ethos that stricter methods of gun control need to be implemented so as to reduce the amount of violence connected to firearms.
Appeal to Ethos
The concept of ethos can be described as a form of guiding beliefs that are an inherent part of a community or nations character. It is used as guide that influences a person’s behavior to such an extent that by examining the ethos behind a culture you can determine how they will react based on a given situation.
It due to this that concepts behind any form of ethos must first be subjected to intense examination before it is shown to have been constructed under a proper ethical and moral framework. In the case of the speech “Obama on Gun Control”, it attempts to appeal to two particular aspects of the American ethos, namely: freedom and civil liberties.
The main point of the argument presented is that while American’s enjoy numerous freedoms and civil liberties as an inherent right (i.e. the right to bear arms) such rights must be tempered to a certain degree with discipline. The reason behind this is connected to the potential for abuse and how such actions could have a resoundingly negative impact on others within society.
Rhetorical Strategy Used: Appeal Utilizing Ethos
What must be understood is that Ethos can also refer to the way in which a person portrays themselves in an argument, in a sense that it is a method in which persuaders present an “image” to people that they are attempting to persuade. This particular “image” refers to a persuader’s “character” in the sense that a person is attempting to persuade another person of the righteousness of their statements based on their inherent character.
In the case of the speech “Obama on Gun Control” this takes the form of the President attempting to convince the American public of the righteousness of his cause on the basis of the image that he is portraying, namely, as an individual in power that understands the problem with gun control who has also actively attempted to resolve such an issue.
It is this argument on the basis of a projected image that is a cause for concern since basing it on a person’s knowledge and experience alone does not justify the action itself.
For example, a person may argue for the righteousness of a cause on the basis of their knowledge of the event yet this attempt at persuasion may in itself be self-serving for the person that is attempting to persuade other individuals. This can be seen in the case of the President’s speech since prior to the events at Sandy Hook there has been no solid evidence that the he has actively attempted to resolve issues related to gun violence within the U.S.
Not only that, when examining several aspects of Obama’s speech it can clearly be seen that there are thinly veiled jabs to the current Republican majority Congress who, based on his speech, have not done enough or are even unwilling to act based on the actions of special interest groups (i.e. the gun lobbyists).
In the case of the President’s use of ethos, what must be understood is that it is “artifice”, meaning that is created, manufactured, made, constructed etc.
It can be considered a type of surface image which may in fact have an entirely fictitious relationship to what is actually true. For example, a teacher could show up in class one day wearing cowboy boots, a ten gallon hat and long sleeved t-shirt with a large image of a cactus on the front, the next day he can wear an average suit and tie while the day after that he could wear a Scottish kilt, bagpipes and one of those patterned hats.
The reason I mention this is due to the fact that despite the different outfits he wears the person and the ideas that are being presented have not changed at all however what is changed is the perception of the audience regarding the idea being presented.
The same can be said for ethos wherein the method in which the idea is “packaged” drastically changes the perception of the audience towards accepting the idea itself or the validity of its statements. In the case of the speech and gun control it can be seen that when boiled down to its very essence it is merely a statement which says the following: “follow what I say when it comes to gun control”.
It is in the way that it is packaged and presented to the public that changes the perception of the public to the idea that is being presented. What the President did was appeal directly to the American public based on the fresh sympathy from the Sandy Hook incident and utilized the ethos of freedom and liberties that are tempered by discipline as the main crux of his argument.
However, what most people fail to realize was that the President did not have any true passion to address the issue of gun control prior to Sandy Hook as evidenced by his presidency that was more concerned with other issues related to health care, economic reform and various foreign policy isues. Thus, the passion and resolve showed in the speech can very likely be nothing more than a manufactured ethos meant to appeal to the public for the sake of a political victory.
The speech “Obama on Gun Control” attempts to persuade people on the basis of ethos that stricter methods of gun control need to be implemented so as to reduce the amount of violence connected to firearms.
Overall, the speech can be considered as resoundingly effective in that it does not state that it would impinge on freedoms nor take them away, rather, it focuses on implementing more discipline so as to avoid tragedies such as what occurred at Sandy Hook.
As it was stated earlier, ethos is not something that is inherent but rather something that has been created and manufactured with a surface image in order to fulfill a particular purpose.
It is often utilized as a method of convincing people or justifying a particular set of actions and as such it is crafted in such a way so as to be convincing, believable and thus adaptable. For example when order someone to go into battle you do not tell them that the possibility of them dying is high rather you tell them to fight for national pride, democracy, freedom etc., even though the fact of the matter is that person will most likely die.
Such a process can clearly be seen in the case of President Obama and his speech wherein his use of ethos as a means of justifying his point of view is inextricably connected to the way in which he balances the concepts of freedoms and civil liberties with the tragedy that occurred at the elementary school.
In a sense, the ethos utilized as an argumentative device by the president can be considered as a means of manipulating public perception regarding truth in such a way that it promotes a particular idea on the basis of the common good but in fact it was created in order to carry out a particular action (i.e. political victory against the Republicans).
Paulson, Scott. ” Obama’s speech on gun control and gun violence in America.” Examiner.com. Examiner, 13 Jan 2013. Web.
Fiscal Policies by President Barrack Obama Essay (Critical Writing)
Macroeconomics deals with analysis of major factors contributing to stability of an outward looking economy. These elements are referred to as economic variables and they include: consumption expenditure, investment expenditure, savings, exports and imports. These are the macroeconomic variables describing an economy operating at an equilibrium position.
Any extraneous variable injected into the national equilibrium equation would affect the stability of a nation. This research paper will begin by discussing the current economic crisis in the United States of America. It will entail a detail examination of major issues that have contributed to recession as an economic crisis in United States of America.
Easy credit facilities, collapse of major financial institution, war in the Arab countries, economic suctions on potential trading partners, skyrocketing inflation rates, and the decline in value of a dollar against other hard currencies are factors contributing to crisis in the economy.
To counter these factors contributing to financial crisis, this paper will deliberated on policy instrument employed by President Barrack Obama. It will involve a thorough appraisal of fiscal instrument for the economic year 2009- 2010. So as to offer an explicit view of fiscal policy, it is important to focus much attention first on the description of both contractionary and expansionary fiscal policy.
This research paper will further offer a comparison of the two as employed by the current president of United States of America then describe a statement of polices adopted by the White House. Before a conclusion is drawn, we will put across recommendations which are relevant for the current economic situation.
Economic crisis in United States of America
The current economic stalemate in various countries is as a result of misplaced priorities. This means that man is the source of all the troubles pulling down the prospects on an economy. Economic crisis has been marked by low employment of factors of production because of low spending.
This minimum spending may be as a result of fewer saving. Macroeconomic equation offers an illustrious example of how savings, investment, consumption and the balance of payment deficit affect the running of an economy thus leading to economic crisis (Richard, 2010). As part of the factors contributing to economic crisis the paper present the following ideas as the leads to economic crisis.
Collapse of major financial institution
The beginning of the crisis was a very simple pointer n the financial market. It was triggered by a housing plan whereby credit was given to people to buy houses whereas they could not afford. Since they didn’t have enough savings, the only option was to go for mortgage from financial institution.
The long run effect was a failure in paying back their debts and a subsequent collapse of major banking institutions. Statistics shows that there was an estimate of 6 trillion US dollars mortgage debt in 1999 which translated to 12 trillion US dollars in 2007 and a further higher level in later years.
If these figures are compared with annual value of gross domestic product of approximately 11.5 trillion US dollars with a debt of 9 trillion US dollars then it was not possible pay the losses. This acted as the beginning of the present predicament of never ending debt crisis. Although stimulus package has been recommended by US administration, minimum results have been registered.
Easy credit conditions
In the year 2000 the government reserve reduced its rates by 5.5 % for three years. This was necessitated by terrorist attack in 2001 and a predicted deflation. An increased downward pressure on interest rates was caused by increased trade deficits in the year 2006 and summed up by the housing problem (Lahart, 2010). Following the deficits, United States had to borrow so as to finance them. The act had an effect on the price of marketable securities and the interest rates since the two are inversely proportional to each other.
Invasion of Arab country of Iraq
As a security measure, United States of America invaded Iraq with presumption of destroying dangerous chemical weapons in possession of Iraqi government.
This meant redirecting development resources to this otherwise non income activity. The net effect of this action is a deficit in capital and recurrent expenditure budget. Monetary and non-monetary resources could have been used for development and to supplement other arms of the federal government. Economic assumptions shows that resources are better utilized within a country.
Sanctions placed on growing economies
Economic suctions placed on other countries destroy environment meant for business. A good illustration of this factor is economic suctions imposed by the united nation on the already crippled economy of Zimbabwe.
This was a bold step following a widespread crime against humanity committed by the sitting government. The net effect of the trade sanctions is a minimized ease of flow of economic goods through trade channels. Another factor chipping in is the progressive growth in economies of Japan and Europe which is unfavorable for the economy of United States (Paul, 2010).
Other nations have diverted their trading partners from USA to these fast growing economies. This therefore means that the output for locally manufactured products cannot find market thus yielding less national income. Appreciation of the dollar against other hard currencies has affected exports of sectors where it has a comparative advantage.
The surplus produced are suppose to be exported to earn foreign exchange and support domestic investment. A long run effect of low exports and increased imports is the creation of unfavorable balance of payment deficit where the United States economy cannot find foreign market for its products while on the other hand it has to import.
Increase in price of oil per barrel and other consumer goods has an effect on consumption spending. In the beginning of the year 2007 prices of oil was 49 US dollars but one year later the prices was nearly a triple of the value (Joseph, 2010). Economist based the argument of the view that people would want to save more and spend less because of the fast increase in prices of goods and services. Since the prices are high, purchasing power of the consumer reduces.
This translates to a situation where producer goods cannot find market thus forcing producers to cut down their production. Inflation also affects negatively market securities like bonds. Public tend to shy away from the unattractive bonds which then calls for a new offer. In this regard money is held for speculative purposes.
Decline in value of dollar
For any investment to be done, investors are more concerned with the rates of exchange so that they can get a value for their money. If the exchange rates are high, investors would get a less value for their investment because it would not find market. The United States recorded a high decline in the value of its currency by 45% between the years 1985 to the end of 1987.
This mainly affected the bonds and other securities in the stock market owned by foreigners who had invested in the U.S. economy. It therefore meant that the public and private projects cannot be financed by foreign direct investment as a source of capital.
Fiscal polices employed by President Barrack Obama
The current president of United States was fast in formulating policies to deal with economic crisis. Among the package was the use of fiscal policy to jumpstart a thriving economy.
This captures the tax collection as a source of revenue and how they can be spent wisely. If the percentage of taxes and their internal composition are adjusted then their cumulative effect will be on: aggregate demand and employment in the economy, the ways of allocating resources while taking care of income distribution. Every government must consider drawing an all inclusive budget for the citizens.
The major source of finance for the budget is revenue collection in form of taxes from all administrative levels. Another principal source of funding is printing money. More money will go into circulation and can lead to hyperinflation if production in all sectors of the economy is not enhanced.
The government can also borrow from the public by issuing securities like bonds and other stocks. This has an effect of reducing money in circulation and therefore using such funds for developing sectors of the economy. Reserves and selling fixed assets can also be used as a source of funds for federal government’s intentions.
So as to be explicit on fiscal policy instrument, graphical representation can be drawn to demonstrate effect of taxes on the demand curve.
A reduction in taxes has an effect on effective demand since the demand curve shifts to the right as shown by the arrow in the graphical diagram.
Expansionary fiscal policy
This involves a progressive increase in government spending compared to taxes as a source of revenue. Since the expenses in the budget are more then the budget will face a deficit of finances.
The 2009 saw a deficit 1.8 trillion US dollars and the current projection for president Obama will realize a deficit of 7.1 trillion US dollars by the year 2019. Health plan by the president will see more funds being allocated to it. Following an increase in terrorist treat and continued stay of military in Iraq will demand more funds be allocated in form of military spending.
While attempting to build on employment level, Obama’s government has to create opportunities for its youth. This is in form of enhancing the capacities of both service and manufacturing sectors. The motive of the president’s budget proposal was ultimately for socioeconomic equity. As an expansionary measure, US president proposed a tax relief for those earning less incomes and families with minimum source of income.
This would subject them to more disposable income. Since tax levels are low, consumers would shy away from spending hence an overall increase in consumption expenditure and aggregate demand. An equal and opposite force of increasing taxes for income groups of persons earning above 25,000 dollars is meant to reimburse accounts of the federal government and thus gourd them from loss after a tax subsidy for the poor population.
The act empowering the less fortunate in the system will bridge the gab between the poor and the reach thus achieving a bigger percentage of social equality. Considering the fact that more taxes have been imposed for the elite in the system then spending on expensive consumer goods is reduced but a tax relief would motivate them to spend (Krugman, 2010).
By cutting down on taxes charged for small and medium enterprises, the administration would reduce unemployment while expanding on job creation. The action of raising taxes on capital gains is a non-motivating factor to investors as it would reduce the amount spent on investment. These taxes on capital gains supplements governments budget and thus enable it developing less developed areas of the United States of America.
To analyze on the issue of divided taxes is that the kill the will power of an investor whose earnings has to be taxed further regardless of the levels of earnings. It must be considered that the current economic crisis was partly caused by a reduction in efficiency of stock market leading to investors moving out of the market. Financial institutions with its aspects of circulating deposits could not function well.
To illustrate this point, persons would borrow funds but were not able to payback their debts. This meant that the financial institution failed to generate incomes from the process of lending and reinvesting deposits. The president wish to streamline these financial sectors by injecting in funds from the central bank by reducing banks lending rates. If the rates are reduced, banks would go for funds from lender of last resort. Therefore these banks would be able to support their activities.
This expansionary fiscal policy is meant for redistribution of economic resource and a more progressive definition of taxes. This means that those who earn more will have to pay more in form of taxes.
Contractionary Fiscal Policy
This kind of fiscal measure has a high revenue level as a result of high taxation rates. Contractionary measure is possible by reducing government spending or increasing the taxes levels. The end factor is a less deficit in budget or rather the surpluses are more contrary to anticipation. By default, a budget is supposed to show an equilibrium position between spending and incomes (Lahart, 2007).
In his administration president Obama planned on increasing taxes on high income groups so as to balance on income distribution and bridge the gab between the poor and the rich. However much of the contractionary policy is not used by Obamas administration simply because of the policy framework.
Statement on the policies adopted
Policy instrument adopted by president Obama is an expansionary fiscal policy with an aim reducing the gab between the poor and the rich through fiscal policy instrument adopted. A more progressive taxation system recognizes the need to tax more people at a higher income category and redistribute it the low income group.
The policy also favors the poor population in the health care plan by reducing the pay roll tax contrary to previous reduction on income tax. Pay roll taxes majorly finance the social security and medical care of the population. This major cut was to stimulate growth in various sectors of the economy by building on the motivation power of the people (Richard, 2010).
Financial sectors form the basis of any economy. There is a need therefore to make them more responsive to the needs of the population by letting the interest rates fluctuate with demand in the market.
This is possible if the federal government do not temper with the lending rates of banking sectors. In the light of this statement, a positive measure can be taken in form of encouraging masses to borrow and reinvest.
Interest rates can be reduced for those who want to invest in specific sectors of the economy an example being housing. Foreign direct investment is another approach that can be employed by the government to stimulate growth. This is possible if taxes imposed on foreign investors are reduced.
It can be in form of tax cut on corporate body. All factors considered, an American economy cannot survive on its own without employment of monetary policy. As illustrated in statement mentioned above, monetary policy is the use of interest rates to regulate on money circulation in the system.
If the government wants to encourage borrowing from financial institution then it reduces the lending rates. People would then go for monies in the bank to reinvest in a potential business environment. If an overinvestment is registered then the government can increase the lending rates which would prompt people to hold monies for speculative purposes.
The beginning of this paper is a discussion covering on the economic crisis in the United States of America which is broadly seen as recession.
Contributing factors analyzed include: collapse of major financial institution, progressive increase in the prices of consumer goods, misplacement of priorities, trade sanctions on other nations, and the perpetual increase in debt burden. As a measure to deal with financial crisis president Obama employed the use of fiscal policy as a macroeconomic stimulus package. The research paper is explicit on both expansionary and contractionary fiscal policy.
It is evident that the president employed more an expansionary measure by focusing on reducing on taxes imposed on low income group. After an analysis of the policy instrument, the paper offers a statement on fiscal policy. Final it is imperative to make recommendation which will add value on to the research in the field.
Krugman, P. (2010). The Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008. New York: Norton Company Limited.
Lahart, J. (2010). Egg Cracks Differ In housing, Finance Shells. Wall Street Journal, 23, 1317- 1623.
Joseph, E. (2010). Freefall: America, Free Markets, and the Sinking of the World Economy. New York.:Norton & Company.
Richard, B. (2010).The Global (Financial). Economic Crisis. Retrieved from .
Paul, W. (2010). Financial Stress – Should We Blame the Failing Economy? Economic policies Retrieved from .
Is Barrack Obama like Hitler? Expository Essay
Comparison of American presidents George W. Bush and Barrack Obama to Adolf Hitler or the Nazis has become very common. After eight years of comparing George W. Bush to Adolf Hitler, Obama is also receiving the same treatment. The actions, believes and personal associations of Obama are compared to those of Hitler on many internet blogs and newspaper columns.
Adolf Hitler is one of the most forceful and powerful personalities in history. He was a philosophical and political leader of the National socialist party (Nazi) and what most people agree on about his personality is that he was evil.
He has become the most infamous leader for his extremist stands. Comparisons between Obama and Hitler are based on their policies. However, it is absurd and inexcusable to compare Barrack Obama to Hitler. Obama is not like Hitler at all and it is a logical fallacy and a dilution of history to compare them.
Hitler rose to power during a period when Germans needed a hero to save them from a recession. The same is the case for Obama to whom, most Americans looked for a savior from the economic problems facing America. Both individuals wanted change and those comparing Obama to Hitler have used such phrases, as “Hitler wanted change too”.
It is wrong to assert that since Hitler wanted change, every other person who wants change is morally or politically equivalent to Hitler. From the books audacity of hope by Barrack Obama and mein kampf (translated loosely as my struggle) by Adolf Hitler, it is clear what kinds of change these two persons believed in.
Hitler wanted change to the German population and actually not to the government itself. He blamed the Jews for the failures in the German society since he believed Germans were superior to other races (Michael, para 8). Mein kampf reveals Hitler’s extreme hatred for Jews (Meler, para 39). According to his book, Obama on the other hand recognizes and desires to change the problems in the American functional government and state of politics.
Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi party, a political party that believed in National Socialism. Hitler was therefore a socialist unlike Obama who although branded a socialist by some critics has personally rejected claims that he is a socialist. Republicans are yet too convincingly proof that his policies are socialist and again, being a socialist does not imply that someone is like Hitler.
Hitler’s form of socialism was based on racial supremacy. In his period of leadership, Hitler sought to increase German dominancy among other nations and employed an expansionist foreign policy that triggered the World War II. His policies were based on racism and anti-Semitism. During the short period as a president, Obama has tried to improve the relationship between America and other countries, especially Arab speaking nations.
There is no way these actions can be similar to those of Hitler. Obama has not tried to increase America’s dominance over other countries but has mainly focused on reducing the possible threats against America by trying to undo some actions of previous regimes.
Inhumanity, dictatorship and mass murders dominated Hitler’s leadership. His leadership policies lead to mass extermination of Jews and other racial minorities. Those comparing Obama to Hitler argue that these vile actions of the Nazi had their roots in socialist, eugenics and imperialism ideologies that Obama supposedly posses.
From his publication, the audacity of hope, he writes, “there are certain things that anchor my personal faith, the golden rule, the need to battle cruelty in all its forms, the value of love and charity, humility and grace” (“Book summary: Audacity of hope”).
This indicates the different personalities between Hitler and Obama. Hitler believed in cruelty and he forced his soldiers to perform inhuman acts on Jews and other race minorities. He was a dictator and he perpetrated genocide in Germany through race cleansing.
Obama’s policies are against inhuman actions, dictatorship, racism and cruelty. By supporting the Geneva Convention against torture, Obama portrays a character that is completely different from Hitler. The Obama presidency is about avoiding mass murders whenever possible by employing other gentler means to solve the current world problems. By employing dialogue to bring understanding between nations, Obama focuses on creating cohesion.
Obama is an extreme supporter of pro-abortion bills. This has generated a lot of criticism and the continued likening of Obama to Hitler. By supporting abortion, some critics accuse Obama of perpetuating genocide just like Hitler. This is far fetched and out of context.
The debate about humanity in abortion has been going on for along time and people have different stands on the matter. What is worth noting is that in Obama’s viewpoint, every woman should be allowed to decide whether to do abortion or not. He does not therefore support abortion but the right to choose.
In his perspective, abortion decision rests on the actual individuals involved. They can make the decision to go ahead with it or not depending on their moral inclinations and believes. Hitler on the other hand was a dictator who determined whether an individual dies or not. He prohibited abortion for the “pure-blood” Germans and allowed it for the other races as a case of “racial hygiene.” He wanted to control the reproduction of the other races.
Therefore, supporting pro-abortion laws does not at all portray Obama as having the same moral values as Hitler. Hitler did not give any choice to those he deemed deserving to die. They were just executed. Obama does not call for execution of unborn children but for the right of the mother to choose.
In conclusion, Obama is not like Hitler. He does not fit into Hitler’s moral or political personality. Not everybody who wants change in government and political environments is like Hitler. It all falls back to what the individual in question wants to change. Obama wants to change the way the functional government operates and the political environment in America.
Hitler wanted to change the German population by racial cleansing. He promised to improve the economy and Germany’s global dominance but perpetuated racism and inhuman actions. Persons can only be termed to be like Hitler if they practice his kind of ideologies.
Without bias, Obama’s ideologies do not fit into those of Hitler at all. He has a different view of America from the one Hitler had about Germany. In audacity of hope, he writes, “there is not a black America and a white America and Latino America and Asian America- there is the United States of America” (“Book summary: Audacity of hope”).
Therefore, the comparison of Obama to Hitler is a poor comparison only meant to gain attention. Although not everybody approves of Obama policies, more logical comparisons to other leaders should be made but not to Hitler. Doing this is down playing the evil of Hitler’s leadership.
“Book summary: Audacity of hope.” Political books summaries, reviews and opinions. 31 July 2009. Web.
Meler, David. “Adolf Hitler’s rise to power.” Dickinson State University. 2000. Web.
Michael. “Adolf Hitler’s rise to power.” Adolf Hitler. n.d. Web.
Compare and Contrast of the Historical Figures: Barrack Obama and Joel Osteen Compare and Contrast Essay
Historical figures have been known to shape the lives of many people hence causing an influence to them. The leaders are remembered either by their political influence or religious influence. There are so many of them but in this paper, we shall look at two historical figures; Barrack Obama and Joel Osteen.
Barrack Obama started his political career as early as 1996 when he was elected as a State Senator in Illinois (Price, 2009). His main achievement as a senator was reforming the ethical and health laws and looking after the welfare of the low-income earners when he sponsored a law that sought to increase tax credits.
He however resigned in 2004 when he was elected to the U.S Senate. He was inaugurated as the 44th and the 1st African American president in 2009 and is still running the office to date. He has already achieved a lot in this short period that he has been in office and will be remembered by many.
Among the notable achievements is his reversed ban that had been directed by President George Bush on federal funding establishments that permitted abortion and withdrawal from Iraq the U.S military troops (Wheeler, 2009). Obama has also been on the forefront in the fight to end the Iraq and Afghanistan war.
He is a religious leader who took over Lakewood Church in 1999 after the death of his father. He travels all over the nation spreading the word of God and he reaches over five million viewers in over 100 media coverage. He has transformed a lot of people’s lives with his message (Lanham, 2008).
He is also the best selling author and he has sold million copies of his books in America and abroad; he was included in the list of the ‘ten most fascinating people’ by Barbara Walter. He has reached to the less fortunate in the society and he will be remembered mostly in his generous contributions and inspirational teachings to them (Young, 2007).
Comparisons and Contrast between Barrack Obama and Joel Osteen
The only notable contrast in their type of leadership is that while Obama involves himself in politics, Osteen is a religious leader. They have similar leadership styles in that they have both been termed as ‘life coach.’ Thy have a wide scope of influence in their leadership as seen in by their following. Obama for example is said to have won the senator’s seat with 70% vote and Osteen on the other hand has over 5 million followers in his ministry and has in addition sold over millions copies of his books.
Both are educated and possess a good knowledge in their works that make them effective leaders. They also perform their duties with utmost sincerity and for the good of their followers. They have been considered as servant-leaders who have influenced the lives of many people in a positive manner.
They are also public speakers, a factor that makes their communication skills outstanding to garner their supporter’s confidence. They will both be remembered as inspirational leaders. Obama has written inspirational books about the effects of drugs in his teenage life and Osteen has written many inspirational books of different topics, their speeches are also inspirational. The most notable Obama speech was the one he delivered during his inauguration (American Rhetoric, 2009).
American Rhetoric (2009). Barrack Obama: President Inaugral Address. Online Speech Bank. Web.
Lanham, R. (2008). The Sinner’s Guide to the Evangelical Right. London; Sage Publications
Price, J. (2009). Barrack Obama: The Voice of an American Leader. New York: Greenwood Publishing Ltd
Wheeler, J. (2009). Barrack Obama: 44th President of the United States. Tuskon: University of Arizona Press
Young, R. (2007). The Rise of Lakewood Church and Joel Osteen. New York; Whitaker House Publishers
Ad on Sex Education Distorts Obama Policy Essay (Critical Writing)
How the advertisement distorts Obama’s views
The television advertisement by the campaign team of Senator John McCain tries to portray Senator Obama as an individual whose values do not fall within the mainstream. To do this, the advertisement presents Mr. Obama’s beliefs on sex education in a distorted manner. One way this has been done is the reference to Mr. Obama’s support for a sex-education bill introduced in Illinois to claim that Mr. Obama prefers “comprehensive sex education” for students at the kindergarten level.
The campaign team’s interpretation is that Mr. Obama would like conventional sex education to be taught to 5-year olds (Rohter, para.8). This interpretation is clearly indicated when the interpreter asks, “learning about sex before learning to read?” (Rohter, para.2).
This is a misstatement of the bill’s purpose in that the bill proposed that the kindergarten students should only be taught how to recognize when they are being sexually abused and as Obama said, “exercise some possible protection against such abuse” (Rohter, para.7). The kindergarteners would therefore not be taught everything about sex issues. The more complicated issues like sexuality, intercourse and contraceptives would be taught at higher levels.
The advertisement also asserts that Mr. Obama has only one accomplishment in the field of education and that accomplishment was during the Illinois sex education bill, which did not even become a law. From the advertisement, Mr. Obama therefore does not have a strong policy or commitment towards education. This is another indication on how the advertisement distorts the position of Mr. Obama on matters of education. Apart from this bill, other achievements by Mr. Obama indicate his commitment towards education.
In the late 1990s, he helped in administering an education project in Chicago that was worth forty-nine US dollars (Rohter, para.10). In addition, he was also a sponsor in the measures that increased charter schools in Illinois and grants to summer school programs. According to Education Week magazine, he was considered by advocates of early childhood initiatives as innovative and progressive with regard to his promotion of early childhood education programs.
Can this source be trusted and why?
The article is an online version of the one printed on the New York Times newspaper. The New York Times can be trusted to provide truthful information and individually, I trust it. The simple fact that this source has a very good reputation for not spreading incorrect information plays a major role at shaping my view of it.
It is usually cited by various other sources thereby portraying its broad acceptance as a reputable source of information. For example in the article, “Is McCain unable to use a computer due to war injuries?” (FactCheck, para.18), interviews by The New York Times are quoted.
Although the author of the article may be biased and therefore provide biased information, he cites many sources of the information he uses to make his judgment. A reader of the article can therefore refer to the other sources to discredit or confirm the writer’s claims. Furthermore, the article is not an opinion but more of an examination of the subject matter using verifiable information.
FactCheck. “Is McCain Unable To Use a Computer Because of War Injuries?” FactCheck.org. 17 Sept. 2008. Web.
Rohter, Larry. “Ad on Sex Education Distorts Obama Policy.” Check Point. The New York Tmes. 10 Sept. 2008. Web. https://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/11/us/politics/11checkpoint.html?partner=permalink&exprod=permalink
Barack Obama as President of the United States Research Paper
As the forty fourth president of the United States, President Barrack Obama has accomplished several feats. Being the first African American president in the history of the United States is in its self a phenomenal achievement though other elements factor in as well.
Since his inception in 2008, president Obama faced many great challenges, the immediate one being the 2007 to 2008 global recession which was severe in the United States in particular. Through a number of financial policies and stimulus packages, president Obama was able to lift America from the verge of depression and though the economy is not yet completely stable, progress is evident throughout the nation.
President Obama was also prominent in his attempt to reach out to the Islamic community which has for a long time been considered to be at odds with American capitalist ideology. The president went to great lengths to symbolize a new beginning to the way America and Islamic nations coexisted and he also endeavored to convince Russia to abandon its nuclear weapons program all of which won him universal appeal.
With such sentimentalism for global peace, president Obama was nominated for and awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. more recently, the president signed into legislation one of the most controversial yet significant bills in American history, which allowed for the provision of comprehensive medical insurance to every American citizen regardless of their income.
With such outstanding accomplishments, president Obama has outdone many of his predecessors though from my perspective, president Obama has not accomplished enough to be ranked as one of the top five presidents in United States history. This essay takes a comparative look at the accomplishments of my prospective top five American presidents in history vis-à-vis Barrack Obama’s accomplishments.
George Washington was an exceptional soldier who fought for America in several wars such as the 1754 mission to Fort Duquesne and the Monongahela expedition of 1755 where he provided admirable leadership and motivation (Skidmore 51).
Though America was still under the colonial British rule, he went ahead to chair meetings in 1774 which saw the adoption of Fairfax Resolves which led to the declaration of independence. He was also an elected delegate First Continental Congress which called for the unification of all states and was also present at the First Virginia Convention consequently playing a major role in the liberation of America from the British(Murray & Blessing 79).
His broad leadership was not only in meetings and when it emerged that America had to fight for its liberation, Washington was the leader of the Continental Army that fought in the American Revolutionary War against the British from 1775 to 1783 eventually gaining their liberation from the Kingdom of Great Britain and ensured sustained peace with Britain with the signing of the Jay Treaty in 1795(Eland 112).
This earned Washington a lot of respect from his compatriots and his selfless leadership was an inspiration to many which saw him being unanimously elected as the first President of the United States of America in 1789. George Washington was also keen in trying to avoid unnecessary conflict and was of the option of building a strong and stable nation through a central government supported by a viable a tax system and managed through a national bank (Skidmore 53).
As such he issued the Proclamation of Neutrality which basically isolated the United States from involvement in foreign conflicts. He served as the US President for two terms and turned down offers to serve a third term thus establishing the policy that limits the serving duration of a U.S president to two years (Eland 110).
America’s sixteenth president, Abraham Lincoln just like Barrack Obama was a lawyer, though in comparison, their backgrounds were quite different since Lincoln hailed from a relatively poor family. Lincoln and Obama were also Illinois state legislators and members of the United States House of Representatives before they were elected as president.
One unique aspect of Abraham Lincoln is that he had about eighteen months of formal education and the rest of his academic accomplishments were self taught through avid reading and outstanding retention of information (Murray & Blessing 85). Though both presidents faced tough opposition especially when they were about to occupy the presidential office the southern states posed a great threat to Lincoln’s presidency by asserting that they would secede if he became president(Ridings & McIver 26).
Once he was appointed, seven cotton-growing states in the South affirmed themselves as a new nation called the Confederate States of America (Murray & Blessing 85). In addition, civil war broke out when Union troops were attacked at Fort Sumter. To settle the unrest, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation and put it into effect in 1863 which effectively put an end to slavery with the help of passing of the Thirteenth Amendment.
Black men were also in a position join the Union Army and Navy which was previously impossible and ultimately the Confederation states were overcome and the North and South were reunited(Bose & Landis 79). Abraham Lincoln also put into effect the Morrill Act which allowed agricultural and mechanical colleges to be put up in each state. He also availed large tracts of land in the west for low prices through the Homestead Act in order to settle majority of freed rebels, homeless families and slaves.
He also approved the National Banking Act which facilitated the establishment of the first paper currency which would be managed through a new network of national banks. His Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864 allowed for the establishment of the first transcontinental railroad which was responsible for expanding the trade and transport industries in America (Murray & Blessing 86).
Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States of America and was often referred to as one of the ablest presidents of the progressive era. Roosevelt unlike Obama was aggressive in his attempts to establish equality such as control of monopolies in industry, trade and commerce, implementation of the anti-trust act and the execution of progressive ideology (Eland 92).
Roosevelt main commitment was to the public which led him to close down registered businesses also known as trusts in transport and banking that were defrauding the public through manipulating the supply of products hence selling them at high prices (Murray & Blessing 89). Roosevelt personally ordered the indictment of large companies under the 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act such as Northern Securities Company and J. D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company (Ridings & McIver 28).
In addition, Roosevelt saw through congress the ‘Pure Food and Drug Act’ and the ‘Meat Inspection Act’ which saw a cleaner and hygienic approach to the way food was handled.
The public had been outraged by the unhygienic conditions in the food processing plants and the acts allowed for sanitation in handling and packing of food as well as meat inspection in the plants which is applied to date (Bose & Landis 84). Roosevelt conservatism efforts saw the passing of the ‘Antiquities Act’ which facilitated the construction of 18 new National Museums, more than 40 bird sanctuaries, a number of national forests as well as four game reserves in the United States(Eland 121).
John F Kennedy
Similar to Barrack Obama, John F Kennedy was relatively young when he was elected as the 35th president of the United States. He had similar intentions to Barrack Obama with regards to peace though Kennedy went even further to establish the Peace Corps (Skidmore 35). During his reign, America had a strained relationship with the Soviet Union regarding Europe and ideology.
The relationship between the soviets and America was especially tense in Germany regarding the east and west which saw the two nations on the brink of war. Kennedy was however quick to intervene and was able to prevent war with the soviets but the standoff led to the construction of the Berlin wall. Kennedy also signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty which was aimed at close down any existing nuclear test sites (Ridings & McIver 33).
In addition to ending racial discrimination, President Kennedy proposed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which ensured that all American citizens held equal rights in terms of living and employment and affirmed his commitment by creating the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
As the 32nd President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt was in a similar situation as Barrack Obama, in that during his tenure America went into depression (Eland 102). Unlike Obama who injected billions of dollars into the economy to revive growth, Franklin D. Roosevelt created ‘The New Deal’ that encouraged the increasing construction of buildings and bridges.
Since the construction needed labor, an increasing number of people received employment which in turn spurred economic growth thus ending the depression (Eland 104).
In addition, Roosevelt helped correct the abuses that were taking place in Wall Street through the SEC, created jobs in collaboration with the TVA, WPA as well as other public works projects. Roosevelt was also president at the time World War II was taking place and he was able to lead the nation through the crisis and built a security network to shield America from foreign invasion (Bose & Landis 70). He also established social security which ensured that old and jobless citizens had an income.
President Barrack Obama has made significant contributions to America’s foreign relationship and as such, he has accomplished considerable actions. However, some of the preceding presidents accomplished exceedingly more due to the fact that they either led America through an enormous crisis or transitioned the nation to a greater level.
The only crisis in America during president Obama tenure in office was the recession which nevertheless posed a big challenge to the administration. America has not transitioned during Obama’s tenure and hence George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, John F Kennedy and Franklin D. Roosevelt outrank him in as far as great accomplishments are concerned.
Bose, Meena & Landis Mark. The Uses and Abuses of Presidential Ratings. New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2003. Print.
Eland, Ivan. Recarving Rushmore: Ranking the Presidents on Peace, Prosperity, and Liberty. Oakland, California: Independent Institute. 2009. Print.
Murray, Robert & Blessing, Tim. Greatness in the White House: Rating the Presidents, from Washington Through Ronald Reagan. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State Univ. Press. 1994. Print.
Ridings, William & McIver, Stuart. Rating the Presidents: A Ranking of U.S. leaders, from the Great and Honorable to the Dishonest and Incompetent. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing, 1997. Print.
Skidmore, Max. Presidential Performance: A Comprehensive Review. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. 2004. Print.
Analysis of Obama’s Victory Speech Essay
On November 4, 2008, President Barrack Obama delivered The Election Night Victory Speech at Grant Park, Illinois. During this keynote acceptance speech, he emphasized that the American dream was not on its deathbed because “change has come to America.” His passionate speech, employing rhetoric that soars and excites, instigated the people of America to restore their confidence in the nation and strive to fulfill their personal dreams and yet still form part of the larger American family.
My evaluation of this acceptance speech will concentrate on the way Obama employed the approaches of narration, intonation, verbalization, silence, and telling of stories to draw the attention of the thousands of his audience who were enthusiastically listening to this historic speech. Obama employed different rhetorical strategies to deliver the speech and it was effective in giving the audience hope concerning the future.
“If there is anyone out there who still doubts that America is a place where all things are possible; who still wonders if the dream of our founders is alive in our time; who still … tonight is your answer”(Obama, para.1). With those words, Obama started his keynote delivery with a clear message of hope to the people of America.
Maintaining a direct eye contact with his audience, Obama was loud enough to be heard, but soft enough so that the poetic words could sink deep into the minds of his listeners. Obama’s use of the power word, America, rouses the attention of the audience since invoking the word demands absolute obedience (Balshaw, 18).
In addition, the opening allusion to the American dream echoes the words of great speakers in American history, such as Martin Luther King. His use of “who still” three times in the opening sentence is a triple that serves the purpose of grabbing the attention of his listeners. The first paragraph also anchors across time. He refers to the past, “our founders,” as well as the general present, “our time.”
More so, the use of “tonight” refers to the immediate present, which is a recurring theme that brings the past to the individuals listening to the address. The concluding word in this paragraph, “answer,” is the start of the next triple and gives an indication of the resolution of the tension.
“It’s the answer spoken by young and old, rich and poor… (Obama, para.2). The use of “answer” again here indicates that he is ready to solve the problems that have been affecting the U.S. in the new century and echoes the theme of change (Brill, 38). Subsequently, Obama uses “answer” again in the next two paragraphs so as to drive the point home that momentous change has arrived in America.
In the third paragraph, he recognized that America is a diverse country having people from different backgrounds by saying “It’s the answer spoken … Americans who sent a message to the world that we have never been a collection of Red States and Blue States: we are, and always will be, the United States of America”(para. 3).
In order to achieve a warm reception, Obama cleverly used the second person in addressing his audience, “It belongs to you…it cannot happen without you…your victory… it’s your job too,” He used this technique to illustrate the significance of the people of America in helping him bring the change in the country.
He intended his audience to realize that his triumph and future effort to bring change in the country will depend on the endeavors of the collective and not entirely on himself. In the mind of the people, the use of the second person is intended to enable them feel a sense of belonging. Therefore, as their presence is acknowledged, they are able to feel appreciated and part of the change that was to come to America.
During the acceptance speech, Obama made numerous references within the text of gifted speakers in the American history, for example, Martin Luther King, as mentioned above.
“The road ahead will be long. Our climb will be steep…I have never been more hopeful than I am tonight that we will get there. I promise you – we as a people will get there” (Obama, para.13). This creates the perception that the road to recovery will not be easy. He wanted his audience to realize that repairing the damage he inherited from the country’s past leadership will not be an easy task.
The inclusion of the inter-textual references of other motivational speakers also served the purpose of instilling hope in the eyes of the people. This is because it is the same hope that stirred the audience with confidence in many of Martin Luther’s speeches (Washington and King, 3). It seems that the plain and musical language of the speech was drawn heavily from the life of the past inspirational speakers.
In the speech, Obama routinely repeats the slogan “yes we can” (Davidson, 68). This acts like an encouragement that all things are possible and the people of America are able to surmount all difficulties that they may encounter in the journey towards complete economic and social liberation. Prior to his election has the 44th president of the United States, Obama had vigorously campaigned for change in the country (Gormley, 135).
Therefore, the repetition of the slogan seems to stress that the country has transformed over the years in terms of acceptance of the role of women in the society as well as how it tackles times of economic turmoil (Maclnnis, 56). In addition, it points that more change is yet to come during Obama’s presidency. Finally, but not to be ignored, it also epitomizes the American dream, which every citizen of the country can realize through maintaining a positive mentality in life.
In the speech, Obama gives thanks to various people who assisted him to ascend to presidency. He started by praising the defeated, “A little bit earlier this evening I just received a very gracious call from Senator McCain. Senator McCain fought long and hard in this campaign, and he’s fought even longer and harder for the country he loves” (para.6).
Through this, he demonstrated magnanimity in victory, appreciated the defeated and he did not ignore or trampled upon them; therefore, this indicates that he is a good leader. It is interesting to note that he was able to commend his competitors before his supporters.
Thereafter, he commenced a series of thanks. He portrayed the Vice President as an ordinary person saying, “we’re just like you” so as to connect with the crowd. And he only mentioned Joe Biden at the end of the paragraph. This created tension and also assisted in capturing the audience attention.
Next, he thanked his family members, First Lady, Michelle Obama, and his daughters, Sasha and Malia,”I would not be standing here tonight without the unyielding support of my best friend for the last sixteen years, the rock of our family and the love of my life, our nation’s next First Lady, Michelle Obama”(para,7).
To his daughters he said, “Sasha and Malia, I love you both so much, and you have earned the new puppy that’s coming with us to the White House.” This demonstrated that he is a normal family man who cares for the well-being of his family, for example, he promised his daughters a puppy. The reference to his grandma who had just passed away without being over sentimental induces the sympathy of the audience.
The speech signifies that Obama will be ready to incorporate the efforts of everybody in the road to recovery. He said, “Let us resist the temptation to fall back on the same partisanship and pettiness and immaturity that has poisoned our politics for so long” (Obama, para. 17).
The phrase “partisanship and pettiness, poisoned our Politics” is an alliteration showing the extent of the damage it has caused to the American society. “Let us” speaks to all voters in America, regardless of their political affiliation and repeats nobility as well as the call for humility and healing of the land.
Obama’s employed the life of the 106-years old Ann Nixon Cooper to repaint the history of America as well as bring to the attention of the audience the successes and failures that the country has gone through in the past century so as to connect them with it.
The creation of a sense of history was meant to demonstrate that the extraordinary could become ordinary if Americans are prepared to strive to this end. The history of skin color is meant to indicate that he is a beneficiary of the historic struggle. “America, we have come so far” (para. 29). This illustrates that he addresses the country with ease since he is a part of the struggle. He also gives an individual touch by relating his two daughters to the old Ann Nixon Cooper.
“This is our chance to answer that call. This is our moment. This is our time – to put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids; … to reclaim the American Dream” (Obama, last paragraph). The repetition of “this is” again is meant to draw the attention of the audience and it also acts a the final call to action. Obama gets back to the central theme of hope and beneficial gains that awaits the people of America. He concludes the speech by restating the ‘yes we can’ theme.
Listening to Obama’s acceptance speech captured my imagination from the start. The sections of the speech, which can be characterized as celebration, thanksgiving, challenge, history, and hope, had a central focus of emphasizing the importance of unity in America for the benefit of its future. The general approach Obama used in the speech is to form an inclusive sense of history so that every American could see himself or herself as a part of the road to recovery.
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