African American Heritage Paper
This paper explores the African American heritage and also identifies the significance of nurses being culturally aware, sensitive and competent when caring for people of African American heritage. Although these terms mentioned above are used interchangeably, they have different meanings. Cultural awareness is appreciating the external or material part of the culture, such as the music, arts, and physical characteristics, and dress. Cultural sensitivity is the personal attitudes toward the culture, such as not saying things that is offensive to someone from a different ethnic or cultural background (Purnell,2013, p.
Cultural competence is putting it all together; by using your knowledge to provide culturally congruent care and to be able to work effectively with people in cross- cultural situations. African Americans are the second largest ethnocultural groups in the United States; however, it is one of the most misunderstood cultures. This culture is so unique because they have mixed their cultures from their different homes of origin in Africa, along with American culture.
This paper overviews the history, communications, family roles, workforce issues, biocultural ecology, high-risk behaviors, pregnancy and childbearing practices, spirituality, health care practices, nutrition, and death rituals in the African American culture.
It is important that nurses see themselves as becoming culturally competent when caring for African Americans, and this involves incorporating cultural desire, cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skill, and cultural encounter with the people of African American heritage (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). 2 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE One of the largest minority groups in the United States, African Americans culture includes the various cultural traditions of different African ethnic groups.
“Data from the U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census (2001) reveals that there are approximately 34,333,000 African Americans residing in the United States, representing 12. 1% of the total population” (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). They were forcibly imported into the United States as slaves from 1619 to 1860 (Purnell, 2013, p. 21). During slavery, they incorporated their culture from their homes of origin, and as a result, their culture included several cultural traditions of African ethnic groups. Many African Americans live in poverty due to discrimination and lack of proper education.
Most families of African American heritage value education, but they still struggle to have equal representation in the workplace, and are more likely to work in a hazardous environment, resulting in job related diseases and illness. Due to the lower-level positions and the difficulty in achieving higher opportunities in the workplace, some African Americans continue to feel discouraged. Nurses need to address discrimination and also issues that create ethnic or racial tension in the workplace.
English is the language spoken by African Americans, however, people of lower socio economical status communicate in an informal language known as African American English (AAE) (Purnell, 2013, p. 22). According to Campinha-Bacote (2009), the major problem that AAE speakers face is prejudice. Most people believe that AAE is inferior to Standard American English. As a result, African Americans who speak AAE are sometimes misinterpreted as being uneducated.
Nurses should be aware not to stereotype African Americans as only speaking AAE, and also not to stereotype them as uneducated based on the way they communicate. African Americans are expressive when 3 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE communicating and often use body languages to convey their feelings. Their expressive language and body movement can be misconstrued as anger or provocation.
Nurses need to be familiar with these characteristics and not misinterpret them. As a nurse, when interacting with African Americans for the first time, be sure to address them formally, until given permission to use other names, such as their first name. The African-American family has evolved over the last two decades and still continues to evolve. A person that is brought up in a traditional nuclear family is more likely to continue that tradition. Whereas, a person that is brought up in a single parent home is more likely to continue that same tradition.
Although these situations are more likely, they are not always so. To provide the most competent care, the best thing for the nurse to do would be to ask the patient in a non-judgmental way about family dynamics and also ask them what they would feel the most comfortable with when it comes to decision making for their care. The nurse should then accept this decision. Being knowledgeable about this cultural group’s family values and beliefs are crucial for providing care for the African American patient (Revell & McGhee, 2012).
A high percentage of African American households are matriarchal and fall below poverty level. With that being said, it is wise for nurses to make a point of including women when discussing health care issues. Nurses also should take note when dealing with homosexual individuals in this ethnic group, not to break confidence by sharing their lifestyles with others. This information can jeopardize and cause conflicts within the family and ruin relationships. Romantic relationships of the same-sex are not totally acceptable within this culture.
4 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE As in many culture, social status is important in African American community. African Americans are often met with negative atmosphere and prejudice attitudes based on their cultural background and skin color. Assumptions are made based on AAE spoken by some as an indication of unintelligence and the lack of education. These assumptions sometimes affect employment opportunities and job promotions. Nurses should be cautious not to fall into the stereotyping African Americans based on these characteristics.
African American skin color ranges from light to very dark due to the combination of a gene pool of more than 100 racial strains (Purnell, 2013, p. 25). When assessing for cyanosis in dark-skinned African Americans, be sure to pay attention to the oral mucosa or conjunctiva. When assessing for pallor, note the absence of the underlying red tones that give the skin it’s glow. Lastly, when observing for jaundice, be sure to look at the sclera of the eyes, the soles of the feet, and the palms of the hands for any yellow discoloration (25).
Health care is a luxury that low socioeconomic African Americans may not be able to afford. Meeting their daily needs takes priority over what they believe to be minor health issues. Consequently, diseases that could be treatable might end up being a life- threatening situation. African Americans are family orientated, because of this; some tend to initially seek medical attention from family members rather than going to a health care professional. Health care professionals need to be aware of this and work toward teaching and distributing health information via church and community centers. Most African American women are against abortion due to religious, cultural, and moral beliefs.
As a result, there is a delay in making a decision until it becomes too late. 5 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE Family support is crucial for pregnant African American women. Gichia (2000) studied and found out that African American women look for role models such as older female relatives, or if they have none, they look for someone who seemed like a mother to them, such as a neighbor. These role models can provide the pregnant woman and new mother with needed support. According to Abbyad & Robertson (2011), nurses caring for pregnant African American women need to be informed about the variety of ways in which childbirth preparation can occur, as in any other group of pregnant women.
Moreover, nurses need to consider the ways in which their attitudes and behaviors send unwelcoming messages to African American women seeking prenatal care or childbirth classes. These attitudes can discourage the African American woman in seeking further care. “Culturally competent care for the childbearing African American woman includes addressing all components of care including the use of complementary and alternative medicine” (Revell, 2012).
The childbirth nurse that is providing culturally competent care should be aware that the perceived norm is different for every family. African Americans are spiritual and are usually affiliated with some religious order. Historically, the church has played a major role in the life of African American culture. The church is a place where they can meet on common grounds. Faith and prayer is one of the most important attributes of Christian African Americans. They believe that God has the power to heal them, and he also has the power not to. They believe that whatever happens to them is according to God’s will. Food is very valuable in the African American culture.
It symbolizes health and wealth. It is derived from African descent. When food is offered to someone, it means that the person is valued; and by offering food, they are given you something that is 6 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE valuable to them. When it comes to nutrition, some African American diets are high in cholesterol and fats. According to James (2004), “African Americans will need information on basic nutrition topics such as serving sizes and reading food labels”. Nurses that work in African American communities should be involved in programs that promote healthy food choices.
These programs can specifically be developed for churches, neighborhood grocery stores, and local restaurants. “Health disparities among the African-American population include life expectancy, heart disease, hypertension, infant morality and morbidity rates, cancer, sickle cell diseases, HIV/AIDS, violence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and asthma” (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). Unfortunately, they have the tendency to see a health care professional only when absolutely necessary. “Health is viewed as harmony with nature, whereas illness is seen as a disruption in this harmonic state due to demons” (Purnell, 2013, p. 33).
Recognize and support your patient cultural behaviors and believes to promote healthy interactions. In addition, always provide factual information about health practices that may not be understood due to their cultural believes and cultural differences. In conclusion, it is recommended that nurses familiarize themselves with cultural specific information in order to provide cultural competent care in African American community. Nurses should consider the following question: “In caring for African- American patients, have I asked myself the right questions.
” It is important for nurses to be aware of their biases and prejudices toward African Americans. In addition, they should possess the needed skills to conduct a cultural assessment while possessing knowledge of this cultural group (Campinha-Bacote, 2009). Lastly, nurses should always 7 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE have the desire to become culturally competent not just with African American patients, but any patient that has been placed in their charge. 8 A NURSING METHOD TO AFRICAN AMERICAN HERITAGE Resources Abbyad, C. , & Robertson, T. (2011).
African American Women’s Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers. Journal Of Perinatal Education, 20(1), 45-53. doi:10. 1891/1058-1243. 20. 1. 45 Campinha-Bacote, J. (2009). Culture and diversity issues. A culturally competent model of care for African Americans. Urologic Nursing, 29(1), 49-54. Gichia, J. E, (2000), Mothers and others: African-American women’s preparation for motherhood. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 25(2), 86-91, James, D. (2004).
Factors influencing food choices, dietary intake, and nutrition-related attitudes among African Americans: application of a culturally sensitive model. Ethnicity & Health, 9(4), 349-367. Purnell, L. D. (2009). People of African American Heritage. Guide to culturally competent health care (2nd ed. , p. 21-35). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co. Revell, M. A. , & McGhee, M. N. (2012). Evolution of the African American Family. International Journal Of Childbirth Education, 27(4), 44-48. Revell, M. A. (2012). Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the African American Culture. International Journal Of Childbirth Education, 27(3), 55-59.
Forms of Greatness
In the comedic play of “Twelfth Night” by William Shakespeare, a phony letter supposedly written by Olivia (which is really Maria), left for Malvolio to find, which he reads it out loud. He read the quote: Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon ’em, Act II, Scene V. The quote itself explains that although Malvolio is not born great, he can still become “great” by doing certain tasks, which makes him behave like a complete fool.
Greatness happens when one have the act to live his and her life with dignity and pride and to love oneself and also, others. Greatness comes through birth, or determination, or maybe by luck.
It is true that there are people who are born great, who are destine to do well but besides that, there are many ordinary people who achieves greatness by working hard, for example. However, there are also people who becomes great by having greatness thrust upon them, who are put in a situation and comes out great.
Basically, everyone has greatness and people must be great for others, too. Achieving greatness is the most admirable form of greatness because everyone have the ability to accomplish greatness, although there are various paths to it. Anyone is capable of acquiring greatness but it requires enormous amount of inner strength.
Being a great person does not mean he or she have to be known by the whole world, however, being an admirable person means being that somebody who can bring great presence for oneself and the surroundings. The least admirable form of greatness is being thrust upon them, because they did not seek nor expect greatness, but they found themselves in situations that requires them to do something unusual. The people who have greatness thrust upon ’em are put into a position where they have no choice but to do something to save people lives, like the American soldiers serving for their country, for example.
The children of Will Smith named Jaden and Willow Smith can be consider great that have acquired as they grow up. Their parents are very known, famous Hollywood stars, which makes them being born great. They grow up with wealth and also, follows their father’s footstep on film and music industry, which makes them become popular. I can personally say that my mother have achieved greatness by her efforts and hard work to become a teacher.
Although she is not considered great from birth, my mom have had a great potential as she grew up. As an example of someone who have greatness thrust upon others are the American troops and soldiers who serves for our country. Maybe some volunteered to represent America but most of the soldiers are placed on a daring situation where they are forced to save the country. Barack Obama, the President of the United States can be seen to achieved greatness through his own struggle because he was born into uncertainty. He is not a son of a king and heirs to the throne, he is one born as an ordinary person. It takes many years of study and hard work to get to the top: Obama is one of the brilliant people to win praises for their own success and he is a great example of one who achieves greatness.
Leadership of Howard Schultz
” Howard Schultz for President? “. Howard Schultz, who is a founder & CEO of Starbucks has showing concern about the future of Americans. His recent activities including boycott the political donations, until Washington, D. C coming up with some “real effort” to reduce the debt ceiling. Disappointing with the U. S political leaders as they failing to act appropriately while America’s confidence is faltered. By looking at the past, the Starbucks CEO has indeed achieved a remarkable milestone, from a sales person in Xerox Corporation in 1979 and to today, a massive green giant astonishing leader.
All this footprint certainly is not coincidence or miracles. In the past, economy volatility, US recession, consumer demand instability struck his business beyond all recognition. Despite all this pitfalls, this premium coffee maker able to embrace the resistance and continue serving quality coffee every corner till today. Looking at his context ,all these demonstrates that his business understands the concept of “ostrich syndrome”, meaning by burying their head in the sand when facing criticism.
And such, Howard now challenge the leadership style adopted by the U. S government by not hearing the heart of the Americans. The question here is, “Can his leadership style fit perfectly in the political field”? Many critics claimed this is total different ball game, not just about coffee bean. As Howard apparently lack of political experience, this has put his entrepreneur leadership into challenge. Howard’s leadership however substantiated by evidences, well, at least from business perspectives. In his business history , this captain well aware that customer response and satisfaction is the best business performance thermostat.
But to achieve this corporate desire , will require tremendous effort, starting from top management down to every barista in Starbucks. In such circumstances, to him, everything matters, and this is not something hard to observe. This modern leadership are well played by Howard and his team throughout Starbucks business. Sourcing from Joseph Michelli- Starbucks experience, “this coffee business having the capability of motivating people through powerful, emotionally engaging visions and reconciling the people needs around their organization”.
Starbucks management has even establish a Mission Review Committee that govern leadership behaviors and ensure commitment by their partners by listening their concern. They makes a point of listening and responding to the ideas and suggestions of partners. Clearly, Howard adopt “Situational Leadership” here, whereby attend the perception of the followers and to indicate how efforts directed towards wider organizational goals could align with calculations of follower self-interest. His leadership style, changes our perspectives towards leadership.
Is the U. S President not doing sufficiently to address the needs of his people? Don’t get me wrong. Both also are transformational leaders, is just that Howard Schultz is practicing authentic leadership, this largely due to his father losing jobs because of medical problems, since then he became passionate about a company’s need to care for its employees. On the flip side, President Obama has proved to be a very good Senate majority leader by convening committees to do the work and intervening at the end.
One of this strength is tends to see issues from several vantage points at once, so maybe it is natural that he favors a process that involves negotiating and fudging between different points of view. But particular in this debt ceiling settlement, he seems to be passive. Further from the above, so what setback is facing by the President? According to the award winning author, John Kotter, in his book “Our Iceberg is melting”, somewhat is similar to President Obama of failure in producing short-term wins. Failure in creating some visible, unambiguous successes to his fellow Americans all these while.
This eventually causing Americans losing faith and trust in his leadership. This weakness of President Barrack Obama allowing Howard Schultz leadership ability become more prominence. Howard now ultimate intention is to create more job opportunities inside U. S, which he believe will turn things around. This similar challenge faced by all the leaders around the world, no exception of the increasing unemployment rate in my country. In my opinion, to resuscitate the economy, unparallel creative leadership style is needed.
Perfect example from Sternberg’s propulsion model of creative leadership, “Re-initiation” leadership style, “whereby a leap in the dark from the familiar to meet perceived opportunity, and findings ways of removing constraints to uplift current country economic condition”. This is certainly not easy. Especially the effort of satisfying the needs of millions citizen in Malaysia. Perhaps, respective leaders need to learn from the green giant leader on how to “surprise and delight” like what he did to his Starbucks customer. This is what we hope from our leaders, an effort to put a smile on everyone’s face.
Dr. Martin Luther King; a Dream Come True?
During the Civil Rights Motion, a man named name Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. stepped up as a leader in order to assist end racial partition. Throughout this time and the numerous years before it, African Americans suffered significantly. Dr. King’s “I Have A Dream” speech made a substantial pivotal moment in the Civil liberty Movement and unlocked to equality. On August 28, 1963, King offers his speech for liberty. He starts by specifying the emancipation of the servants, provided by Abraham Lincoln and mentions that blacks are still not free.
He is extremely convincing and passionate while likewise being aggressive and confrontational. King, together with his advocates, requires a quick and transformation instead of a slow process. Although demanding, King is an extremely tranquil individual and wishes to acquire equality through non-violent actions. His use of Ghanaian style protest proved to be the most modest and reliable method.
He understands that combating violence with violence will just develop an endless cycle of battling, ruthlessness, and suffering.
After stating his demands, he carries on to what many individuals would call the most remarkable part of the speech, which is his “I have a dream” part. Because part he laid out his vision and wishes for the Civil liberty movement. The supreme message from his speech is equality amongst all people not simply African Americans. Forty-nine years has passed because this legendary speech, which pleads the question; Did Dr. King’s dreams come to life? This is not an ideal world and there will always be some sort of dispute or imperfection when it concerns true equality, however that being said, I believe that his dream has actually come to life. His dream was that individuals would be evaluated not by the color of their skin, however by the content of their character; that segregation would end; and that all males, women, and children could live as totally free human beings. In some methods, Dr. King’s dream has come to life. African American trainees can go to schools with white students, they can all eat in the same restaurants together, and some even marry one another.
Segregation is kept out of school and communities so the children of today are able to have better lives. His dream was that everyone could be free. It seems clear that life in the South has improved for African- Americans. African-Americans have become professionals and teachers and even Mayors of cities and towns throughout the South. Black Congressmen and women have been elected from the South. In the North, Blacks have also progressed in all walks of life. One African-American of mixed heritage grew up to be elected to the Illinois State House and the United States Senate and made it all the way to the White House. The ability of Barack Obama to become President was made possible by Dr. King and his comrades who brought the Civil Rights movement to all of our doorsteps. There will always be some form of racism out there, but at this point it’s just regarded simply as ignorance. Right now, racism isn’t even close to how it was nearly fifty years ago.
For the most part, people treat each other equally. Any opportunity for a white man is the same opportunity for a black man. There are no limitations to anyone based on race. Equality has definitely gotten a lot better ever since Dr. King’s speech. Dr. King’s dream has certainly come true in many ways. Take President Obama for example; the first African American president in U.S. history after all the bad that’s happened like slavery and unfair treatment against blacks. We have come from being in the slave house to the white house. The Civil Rights Movement definitely helped the progression of African American’s rights in America.
With public demonstrations, rallies, boycotts and freedom rides, the African American race was given the right to ride on the same public transportation, eat at the same restaurants, and go to the same schools as the white race. The Civil Rights Movement also gave African Americans the right to register to vote. Since Martin Luther King’s time, there have emerged many African Americans who have become very successful and influential like Oprah Winfrey, Sean “P. Diddy” Combs, and Shawn “Jay-Z” Carter to name a few.
We have accomplished and are doing so many good things and have become very proud people. There are still many people out there who are racist, make racist remarks, and feel like other races are different in a bad way. That being said, the level of significance in racism is nowhere near how it was before. As previously stated, this isn’t a perfect world and there will always be ignorance everywhere. If that disparity in behavior can’t be completely eradicated, will the Black man ever be truly free? Dr. King initiated a huge improvement in the freedom for many and he was definitely successful, but at this point it is up to the individuals to make a difference for themselves whenever they face ignorance.
Barack Obama 2004 Keynote Speech
During his keynote speech at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, Barack Obama introduced himself as a skinny kid with a funny name. The rising star of Illinois politics was elected to the U. S. Senate three months later. His delivery, using rhetoric, was full of fervid sentiment that reminds us of what we love about the United States of America. His passionate speech inspired Americans to renew their faith in their country and persist their individual dreams and yet still come together as one American family.
On July 29, 2004, Barack Obama gave the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in Boston.
He was received by thousands of enthusiastic delegates, waving blue and white campaign signs and reciting his name. As the keynote speaker, Obama set the tone for the Democratic manifesto, outlining the principles of the party. His speech concerned the unnecessary and artificial divides in American politics and culture, emphasizing the importance of unity in our country, not just red states for Republicans and blue states for Democrats.
Obama retreats this approach by saying a quote; “We worship an awesome God in the blue states, and we don’t like federal agents poking around our libraries in the red states.
We coach Little League in the blue states, and yes, we’ve got some gay friends in the red states. There are patriots who opposed the war, and patriots who supported it. We are one people, all of us pledging allegiance to the Stars and Stripes, all of us defending the United States of America. ” He effectively uses the Stars and Stripes as a metaphor for our American flag. The general theme of Barack Obama’s keynote address was the American Dream. He says “My parents shared not only an improbable love, they shared an abiding faith in the possibilities of this nation.
He spoke of his international and interracial heritage as his father is from Kenya and his mother is from Kansas, and stressed the power of education in our society, distinguishing his attendance at Harvard Law School in spite of his family’s financial hardship. He also criticized poor black youths in America who believe that reading a book is acting white. He exclaims as a proud American “In no other country on Earth is my story possible” describing his successful career in politics and law and raising a family at the same time.
Going along with his theme of the American Dream, Obama identified himself as “a skinny kid with a funny name who believes that America has a place for him, too. ” His speech was an extremely emotional and passionate addressed that spoke to millions across the country. He spoke of national unity as one of the most important and unique characteristics of the United States, and how unity is one of the most important things that our country could have in 2004, in light of 9-11 and the war in Iraq.
The allotment in the speech in which he made the simple phrase “there’s a United States of America a rallying cry of unity and togetherness was simple and powerful. ” By stating that there is a United States of America he does not simply mean that there is a USA. He means that we are a united country, united as one as the United States of America. Obama’s rhetoric was deeply felt and was more reproducing, splashing with patriotism: “We are one people, all of us pledging allegiance to the stars and stripes, all of us defending the United States of America. He criticized the Iraq war, saying “we should never ever go to war without enough troops to win the war, secure the peace, and earn the respect the world. ”
This statement follows the Democrat’s extreme goal: to earn the respect of the world. The criticism reflects his attitude on the war: we need more troops. It appeals to the opinion of the world but also with a confident yet offensive shade: “The world should respect us, because when we confront an enemy we do it right. ” Emotionally, the highest point of the speech was his statement that “We worship an awesome God in the Blue States. By saying this he denied the assumption that the Democrats are the secular party, and did it in unashamed language.
Faith was a alternating theme throughout the speech, from near the very beginning when Obama said “faith in simple dreams, the insistence on small miracles. ” Notice how Obama uses the terms “simple” and “small” utilizing emotions to connect with the “regular guy” of America, the blue collar worker. This is language that Democrats do not often use, and it makes the speech more accessible to many people and gives more support to other themes. Obama connected Democratic social programs with the one and only Golden Rule.
Technology in Healthcare
The development of technology has changed the world in so many ways, mostly for the positive. Most people think technology just stops with their iPhones, TV’s, and computers, but in the world of healthcare it strives far beyond that. Health care, hospitalization and even a trip to the doctors office are much more effective and proactive these days than they have been in the past due to the advancement in technology. Better technology and computer systems have radically improved the quality of healthcare.
There have been many advances in the improvement of robots to help professionals be more time efficient, but still have direct access to their patients. Through robotic systems that include video and audio capabilities, healthcare professionals can “go” into the patient’s home to provide follow-up care. We can never eliminate the need for hospitalization or in-person visits. Some patients will always need intense care, monitoring and direct physical evaluation.
We can, however, be more efficient in using our resources (KevinMD.
com). MD, Hiep Nguyen, stated in KevinMD, “Because hospital care is so expensive, insurance companies encourage us to discharge patients sooner, sometimes refusing to authorize care beyond a certain time period. While this reduces the immediate cost, there is a greater chance that patients will have complications and return to the hospital, negating the cost-saving effort. In addition, early discharge often leaves both patients and physicians feeling that their care was incomplete and of lesser quality.” People might assume that the cost of technology would negate the cost benefits of getting patients out of the hospital sooner, but this is not the case. Most of the technology that we currently use is already in wide use. Competition is making the technology even more affordable, economical and effective. There are many emerging advances in health care technologies.
Many people are familiar with MRI’s, microscopes, and heart monitors, but there are many people haven’t heard of like bioengineered blood vessels, magnetic molecules, “The YouTube cure”, and using water fleas as human test subjects. New brain scans were developed to perform up to seven times faster than previous MRI’s. This was such a huge improvement for neuroscientists and doctors as they were able to lessen the amount of time identifying problems, and more time fixing and improving them (nursing Schools, 1). Daphnia pulex, also known as water fleas, now have a big role in toxicology tests. This is beneficial for the safety and overall well-being of many different organisms, including humans (Nursing Schools, 2). “The YouTube Cure” is a method of treating Multiple Sclerosis, which is a chronic, typically progressive disease involving damage to the sheaths of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, whose symptoms may include numbness, impairment of speech and of muscular coordination, blurred vision, and severe fatigue. Paolo Zamboni came up with the idea of using inflated balloons on twisted neck nerves to relieve the horrible pain.
“The YouTube Cure” still exists on the fringes of medical science, but only time will tell whether or not it proves to be a worthwhile strategy (Nursing Schools, 4). When hospitals began experimenting with implanting electromechanical pressure sensors in their cardiac patients, they noticed a 30% decrease in readmissions. These wireless heart monitors, researched and created by CardioMEMS, relay arterial signals to doctors and greatly assist them in keeping track of all sorts of factors — making it an indispensable preventative tool (Nursing Schools, 10). In February of 2009, President Barack Obama said, “To improve the quality of our healthcare while lowering its cost, we will make immediate investments necessary to ensure that within 5 years, all of America’s medical records are computerized.”
I personally believe that this is what needed to be done, and Obama has made it happen. Even going to a doctors’ appointment I have noticed so much change in technology. They used to pull out folders for each individual patient, but now it’s all saved and they just pull it up on the computers. Even the scales are electronic now, instead of using the old scales. All of these advancements are great improvements in our society. It makes life so much easier and we are able to correct flaws faster and more effectively. We now have electronic medical records, online referral and prescription systems, and seamless transfers of digital images between providers, which make things a lot easier for professionals in the health care field.
It will drastically lower costs – on the order of $80 billion a year, according to one estimate (Forbes). As the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office of National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) found last year, 92 percent of studies between 2007 and 2010 reached positive conclusions on the effects of better healthcare technology, including cost savings. With all of the technological advances in the healthcare field, it makes things a lot easier for doctors and scientists of all kinds. People will obviously still need hospital care and medical attention, but we are now more able to make their hospital stays and visits faster and a lot more cost effective. So, all in all, better technology leads to better treatment and lower costs.
10 Amazing, Emerging Advances in Medical Technology.” Nursing Schools, Nursing 00000Colleges, Nurse Education. N.p., 16 Feb. 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. Gallagher, Jason. “Five Amazing Technological Advances in the Health Care Field.” 00000Yahoo! Contributor Network. Yahoo, 26 Aug. 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. Nguyen, Hiep, MD. “Technological Advances Can Solve Our Current Healthcare 00000Crisis.” Technological Advances Can Solve Our Current Healthcare Crisis. 00000KevinMD.com, 7 Dec. 2011. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. Flows, Capital. “Is Better Technology Still The Future Of Healthcare?” Forbes. Forbes 00000Magazine, 16 May 2012. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. DePompa, Barbara. “Technological Advances Key to Healthcare Transformation.” 00000Advancing IT. Web. 29 Oct. 2012.
Analysis of Obama’s Speeches
Eleven days before Christmas a child is usually happy, energetic, excited, and anxious to see what kinds of pleasant gifts are underneath the tree from “Santa.” No one in Newtown, Connecticut had a clue that 20 of Sandy Hook Elementary School’s students and six adults wouldn’t be seeing that precious day. Unfortunately on this peaceful Friday, December 14th , 2012, Adam Lanza took their lives. His motive is unknown. As police arrived to the scene, Lanza committed suicide by shooting himself in the head.
This was the second-deadliest shooting in US history, after the Virginia Tech massacre in 2007. This shooting really hurt the nation and they wanted answers. President Barack Obama then delivered three speeches following this tragedy. The first speech was only a few hours after the incident. His second speech was in Newtown, Connecticut at a prayer vigil for the community. The last speech was held in the White House concerning gun control. In the speeches, he used rhetoric to appeal to his various audiences using purpose, audience, context, logos, ethos, and pathos.
Before we start, let’s define these concepts. Purpose, audience, and context are a few of the major concepts in a rhetoric essay.
They help analyze the paper, and the meaning behind it. They ask the questions, ‘Who, What, Why?’ Primarily, purpose signifies the goal, or goals, of an argumentative text, in this case, the three speeches President Barack Obama gave. The purpose tells the reason why the text is composed and what it hopes to accomplish by the end of the reading. The purpose can be varied but is often used to inform or persuade. For example, the purpose of a STOP sign is to warn you of incoming danger. Secondly, audience means just what it says – the audience of the paper, who you’re writing to. There are three different types of audiences, judicial, deliberative, and epideictic. A judicial audience looks to the past to see how things happened. On the other hand, a deliberative audience looks to the future to inspire action. Lastly, epideictic is a little different from the first two. Its primary focus is of the now, the present. This is non-oppositional, whereas judicial and deliberative were the opposite. As you see, there are many different audiences, but there should be one target audience. This will influence how the text is composed. Thirdly, context refers to the way something is written. Context is the situation or circumstances of either the reader or writer.
This affects the way in which listeners respond to the texts as well as the way the writers construct the texts. Also, context refers to the technological environment in which a text is designed to be read by the intended audience. For example, is it a television commercial? A print magazine article? These are the things to take into consideration when reading, or listening to a speech. On the other hand, ethos, pathos, and logos are modes of persuasion used to convince audiences. Primarily, ethos means to convince an audience of the writer’s credibility or character. A writer would use ethos to show to his audience that he is a credible source and is worth listening to. You don’t want to listen to someone who doesn’t know anything about what he’s talking about, right? Ethos helps the writer eliminate that confusion. Secondly, pathos is the emotional appeal. It means to persuade an audience by appealing to their emotions. For example,” Feed the Hungry” uses a lot of pathos, ranging from the sickly children, to the sad music played in the background.
They are trying to persuade you to send money for the children and families in need. Pathos is used to invoke sympathy from an audience. Thirdly, logos means to convince an audience by use of logic or reason. To use logos would be to cite facts and statistics to help persuade the audience to better know and understand what you’re talking about. Now that you know what purpose, audience, context, logos, ethos, and pathos is, we can now see how President Barack Obama used these rhetoric appeals in his three speeches following the Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting. In his first speech, President Barack Obama’s purpose was to simply offer support, warmth, and to console the Americans in this time of tragedy. He wanted to tell his fellow Americans that he was there to support them. There are two sets of audiences that President Barack Obama was speaking to. Primarily, he was speaking to the press about the tragedy that had just occurred a few hours prior, but his main audience was the Americans shocked by what happened. Imagine sitting in your living room, hearing all these different reports about a massive shooting that killed 20 little children and not knowing what really happened.
I was in a clothing store when I heard of the incident, so for the president, only a few hours later, to come on the television and explain what had happened was a slight relief. The technological context of this speech was that this was a press conference, held in the White House in Washington, D.C on December 14, 2012. The extended scene was for the television and the internet world wide. The logos, ethos, and pathos of the first speech are apparent. President Barack Obama uses logos by explaining the shooting, using facts to better help the Americans understand what had just happened. He uses ethos by very much showing that he is the President of the United States. Just by his professional dress you would assume that he was someone worth listening to. He has the Presidential Seal visible, as well as the presidential flags in the back. The flag pin he’s wearing and the White House text behind him is a clear indication that he is the president. Not only does he show that he’s the president, he also shows that he is a parent, gaining him more ethos.
From the tears he’s possessing, and the slight dramatic pauses he takes, he’s also showing that he’s a real human being. President Obama never cries and for him to shed a few tears is showing great pathos. President Barack Obama exemplifies pathos in this speech a great deal. He uses the fact that the children had their entire lives ahead of them – birthdays, graduations, weddings, etc. He also emphasized the fact that parents should hug their children a little tighter because the families of the children who were killed weren’t able to do that anymore. President Obama’s second speech is slightly the same, but a little different. This took place in the actual vicinity of the shooting. President Obama held a prayer vigil at Newtown High School on December 16, two days after the tragedy. His purpose for this speech was to address the families and the community of the shooting. His purpose was also to offer love and prayers of a nation.
President Obama wanted to let the Newtown community know that they aren’t alone, and they, in many ways, inspired the nation. The audience of this second speech was for the families, first responders, and the community of Newtown. He primarily targeted this speech to the families of the shooting. This press conference was televised, as well as shown on the internet. As shown in President Obama’s first speech, there are many signs of ethos. For one, he has an American flag behind him, acknowledging that he’s the President of the United States. To add, he also has a flag pin on his jacket, and also there’s a presidential seal on his podium. Through various ways, he’s also showing that he’s a parent and he has a heart. He’s a representation of the nation, letting them know that they are not alone. With the many different references to the Bible, President Obama then gained ethos from the Christian audience. One way President Obama is showing logos is when he talks about the fact that this is the fourth time we, as a nation, has come together to comfort a grieving community by a mass shooting.
He also states that he will use whatever power his office holds to engage the citizens to prevent more tragedies as this one. President Obama uses pathos throughout this whole speech. For one, he reminds us that they are gathered there for the memory of twenty beautiful children and six fearless adults. He also states that there are really no words to match the sorrow of the community, but he and the nation will do all to help. President Obama uses pathos by emphasizing that the world has been torn from the recent shooting. He then compares a child to having your heart outside your body. He also showed pathos by reminding the parents that as a child grows older, they are separating from them, letting them know that they can’t always be there for them. Lastly, President Obama uses pathos when he states the children’s names at the end of the speech and the adults’ names in the beginning of the speech. This speech is pretty different from the first two.
This speech isn’t epideictic as the first two. In President Obama’s last speech regarding the Sandy Hook shooting, his purpose was simply to inform Americans on future plans his office will be taking in regards to the rising gun violence of the United States. He wants to propose a means to reduce the gun violence and prevent tragedies from happening again. He’s using all his power to keep guns out of the hands of dangerous people. He’s specifically targeting the American gun owners and potential gun owners. He’s letting them know about what protocol will be taken in regards to owing and purchasing a gun. His immediate audience is the press. President Obama held this speech on the 19th of December at the White House in the James S. Brady Briefing Room. The technological context was that this was a press conference aired on television and through the web. He used logos by primarily telling us that the vice president, Joe Biden, will be leading the effort because he wrote the 1994 Crime Bill that helped law enforcement bring down the rate of violent crime in the country.
He also went on to give examples of how majority of Americans are supporting the banning of the sale of high capacity ammunition clips, military style assault weapons, and enforcing laws requiring background checks before all gun purchases. He also stated the differences in how people use guns, whether it is for hunting, sport shooting, collection, or protection. . Then, President Obama gave a few examples of how after the shooting, gun violence was still on the rise. He stated how since the Friday morning after the massacre a police officer was gunned down in Memphis, leaving four children without a mother. Also, a woman was shot and killed inside a Vegas casino. Additionally, three people were killed in an Alabama hospital. Lastly, a four year old was caught in a drive by. President Obama didn’t use much pathos in this speech because his mood changed from grieving to irate. However, in the beginning of the speech, President Obama reiterated the tragedy by describing it as “heartbreaking.”
The ethos President Obama used was the White House sign behind him, his flag pin, and the presidential seal on his podium. He also had Vice President Joe Biden standing beside him, reminding us that he, President Obama, is president. The purpose, audience, and context in the three speeches vary. The purpose of speech one and two are slightly similar. In the first speech, the purpose was to inform, as well as comfort Americans from the tragedy that transpired only a few hours before. In the second speech, his purpose was to pray for the families of the killing, and also remind them that as a nation we are all grieving. However, the purpose of the third speech was to inform the United States of the future procedures that will be enacted towards gun violence.
The audiences of the speeches are different. In the first speech, Obama was addressing all Americans, whereas in the second speech, he was addressing the community of Newtown, specifically the families of the shooting. In his third speech, President Obama’s audiences were the American gun owners, as well as the potential gun owners. The contexts of all three speeches were pretty different. Obama gave the first speech in the White House press room a few hours after the shooting. Two days later, he was in Newtown at the local high school, just a few miles away from the original shooting. Three days later, on the 19th, President Obama was back in the White House in the James S. Brady Press Briefing Room. In conclusion, ethos, logos, and pathos are used in rhetoric analysis that can help writers make their argument appeal to readers. President Obama did just that in his three speeches to appeal to his audiences.
This is about artistic freedom and basic rights of free expression, which need to be available to all, whether they have money and lawyers or not. ” –Shepard Fairey “The journalism that AP and other organizations produce is vital to democracy. To continue to provide it, news organizations must protect their intellectual property rights as vigorously as they have historically fought to protect the First Amendment. ” –Press Release, Associated Press INTRODUCTION During the 2008 campaign, an image featuring then-presidential candidate Barack Obama’s photo became the subject of a legal dispute that continued long after the election ended.
Amidst the presidential debates, another debate was brewing—between a famous visual artist, Shepard Fairey, and a major newsgathering agency, the Associated Press (AP). An AP photographer, Mannie Garcia, took the picture of the presidential hopeful, which Fairey popularized on posters that he emblazoned with the word “Hope. ” Once it was determined that Fairey had used AP photographer Mannie Garcia’s image of presidential candidate Obama in his posters, the issue in Fairey v.
Associated Press was whether Fairey’s use of the photo constituted “fair use,” an affirmative defense under the Copyright Act.
If so, Fairey’s “fair use” would excuse the copyright infringement and Fairey would not have to pay. If not, Fairey would be liable for copyright infringement and would likely have to pay damages. Although Fairey settled the lawsuit with the AP in January 2011, another lawsuit was still pending—that of the AP against Fairey’s clothing company, “Obey Clothing” and other clothing stores (Urban Outfitters, Nordstrom, and Zumiez) for copyright infringement. The parties, however, settled their claims in March 2011. In the settlement agreements, the parties explicitly stated that they still maintain their legal positions in the case.
Thus, the dispute about whether Fairey’s use of the photo constituted fair use has never been resolved. Although the settlement agreement stated that the AP and Obey Clothing agreed to share future profits from sales of the Obama image on merchandise, the underlying issue is still very much alive. The case between Fairey and the AP is certainly timely and addresses copyright in the context of news photos. This issue will continue to be relevant given that President Obama is the likely Democratic candidate for the 2012 presidential election, and it is certainly possible that other businesses will seek to capitalize on Garcia’s photo.
Not only may businesses seek to capitalize on this image, but the Obama campaign itself may look to exploit the image, because the image became so iconic in the 2008 election. Moreover, as opposed to prior case law concerning appropriation of art, this set of facts incorporates new media. “It has become especially important in an era when digital technology allows artists to, with the press of a few buttons, use other people’s finished products as raw material for new works. ” Fair use case law can certainly be applied to cases in the digital area.
The best way to predict the outcome of the AP suit against Fairey’s company is to understand how the court might have ruled in the original case—that of the AP against Fairey personally. This Essay will explore whether Fairey’s use of the AP Photographer’s photo constituted “fair use” and will analyze how the relevant fair use cases would bear on the present case. The AP originally asked to be credited and to receive compensation. First, I will introduce and explain the fair use four-factor approach laid out in section 107 of the Copyright Act. Second, I will discuss how fair use case law, such as Rogers v.
Koons, Campbell v. Acuf -Rose Music, Inc. , Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. v. Nation Enterprises, Dr. Seuss Enterprises v. Penguin Books, Leibovitz v. Paramount Pictures Corp. , enhances our understanding of these factors. Finally, this Essay will analyze the Obama Hope Poster case in the context of the four factors and arrive at a conclusion based on case law and public policy. Key Terms 1. Copyrights 2. Moral rights of copyrights 3. Economic right of copyrights 4. The copyright Act of 1976 on the United States 5. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 6.
The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) 7. Industrial design 8. The Hague System 9. Copyright Agreement 10. Federal Law of Copyright 11. Industrial Property Law 12. ASCAP 13. The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works 14. Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor (INDAUTOR) 15. International Trademark Registration (Madrid System) 16. Tariffs 17. Industrial Drawing 18. Brand piracy 19. Registered trademark 20. Natural person 21. Certification marks 22. Collective trademarks 23. Defensive trademarks 24. Generalized trademark 25. Trademark look 26.
Effects of Terrorism
Victims of terrorist attacks by the year 1985 was at 816 people, in 2001 the number of deaths rose to 3,295 because of the attacks on the 11th of September, 2001. 2996 people died on this day. More than 1,000 people died because of acts of terror in 2003. Nobody expects this kind of stuff to happen. But since it does happy, people have to live in fear, and worry about “what if” this happens again. A lot of people are even the government are constantly asking themselves “are we ready? ”.
This can happen any time, and any day. There is no way to really prepare yourself since you don’t know when and what will happen next.
It is believed that terrorist strike for a couple different reason. There are a lot of people in the world who hate the United States and would risk their life as a suicide bomber. They use murder, kidnapping, hijacking, and bombings to perform these attacks. “The single biggest threat to U.
S. security, both short-term, medium-term and long-term,” President Barack Obama said April 11, is the possibility that terrorists might obtain a nuclear weapon. The second biggest threat to world history’s mightiest military state, it goes without saying, are terrorists without nuclear weapons but armed with box-cutters, rifles or homemade explosives. In order to solve the problem of terrorism , the root of the problem must be found. People start to apply terrorism to certain races, religions, and nationalities because the cause is not exactly known. Doing so and blaming one nation, may make them angry and want to fight back which will lead to terrorism. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the government knew that things had to be different. Security almost everywhere was stepped up and there was a lot of changes taking place. If you flew on an airplane before 9/11 and then flew again after, you would definitely notice the difference.
There used to be a fairly fast security check out at the airports. Now, there are hours of security procedures that are required before you are able to pass security and board your flight. Simple things such as fingernail clippers could be confiscated because they pose a threat. This isn’t only limited to airports though. When you attend a large event, such as, lets say a football game, you will noticed a high presence of security there too. None of these security measures existed before terrorism. It’s all a matter of cause and effect. Terrorism has been around for a very long time, but has been on the rise in the last 10 years.
Nobody knows what causes a terrorist attack. Some people say it has to do with race, nationality, or even religion. If a terrorist doesn’t like the way that a government works, that right there could be another reason. Due to all the terrorist attacks, security almost everywhere has been upped. Terrorism has no warnings, and can happen anytime. It endangers the life of every person in the United States. Since there is no warning, the best thing is to just know what to do when a terrorist hits, and with all the recent attacks, and the security being upped, hopefully we are just one step closer to solving this problem.
Changes in Political Culture Between 2004 and 2008
After reading all of the lecture notes and spending quite some time browsing the internet, I found three things that dramatically changed between the 2004 and 2008 Presidential elections. Media influence, technology and the change in demographics played major roles in the 2008 elections. Media influence was the number one change between 2004 and 2008. Although the media played a big part of the 2004 elections, that election does not compare to the media frenzy of 2008. In 2008, television became the primary medium for conveying the campaign to Americans.
The television channels devoted hours a day to observing every small item, almost all of it live. Little was said back and forth between the campaigns that were not reported quickly by a media outlet. Across the medium, 67% of the time on cable came from talk format or live standup. Only 23% came from reported pieces in which correspondents have control of the message. (2) What press stories made a difference in 2008? There was more reporting on the background and character of candidates during the primaries, when the process of discovery was new and went on longer.
Yet arguably, the two most important stories about Obama came from a church DVD (the sermon by the Rev. Jeremiah Wright Jr. ) and a tape made by a blogger doubling as a supporter (Mayhill Fowler) ,working for Huffington Post, who recorded Obama’s statement about bitter small-town voters. The reporting on Sarah Palin’s background in Alaska by various news organizations probably represents the most memorable example of first-hand, pro-active reporting into candidate backgrounds during the general election in 2008. 2) These are just a few of the examples of how the media bandwagon was so influential during 2008. It does not matter the party affiliation or beliefs, we all followed a certain media outlet of choice during that time. The second change between 2004 and 2008 was that Americans decided to get out and vote. Mainly due to the media frenzy, Americans stormed the ballot boxes none the less. Demographics were a very close second to the media during this time of change. The change in numbers is almost unbelievable.
The electorate in last year’s presidential election was the most racially and ethnically diverse in U. S. history, with nearly one-in-four votes cast by non-whites, according to a new analysis of Census Bureau data by the Pew Research Center. (3) The unprecedented diversity of the electorate last year was driven by increases both in the number and in the turnout rates of minority eligible voters. Much of the surge in black voter participation in 2008 was driven by increased participation among black women and younger voters.
The voter turnout rate among eligible black female voters increased 5. 1 percentage points, from 63. 7% in 2004 to 68. 8% in 2008. Among all racial, ethnic and gender groups, black women had the highest voter turnout rate in November’s election — a first. Overall, whites made up 76. 3% of the record 131 million people who voted in November’s presidential election, while blacks made up 12. 1%, Hispanics 7. 4% and Asians 2. 5%. The white share is the lowest ever, yet is still higher than the 65. 8% white share of the total U.
S. population. (3) The third and final thing that changed between the 2004 and 2008 Presidential elections was technology, especially the internet and social media sites. According to a survey conducted by Complete and released by Cisco about the influence of online video and social media applications on American’s political engagement, the Internet was cited by 62 percent of respondents as a regularly used source for 2008 presidential election information and coverage, which was surpassed only by television (82%).
Nearly a quarter of Americans (24%) says that they regularly learned something about the campaign from the Internet; almost double the percentage from a comparable point in the 2004 campaign (13%). (4) The Internet has, and has forever, changed the role of how presidential campaigns are fought, and how Americans attain their political news and information. “Were it not for the Internet, Barack Obama would not be president. Were it not for the Internet, Barack Obama would not have been the nominee,” said Arianna Huffington, editor in chief of The Huffington Post, at a conference on ‘How Politics and Web 2. Intersect,’ at the Web 2. 0 Summit in San Francisco. (4) “The tools changed between 2004 and 2008. Barack Obama won every single caucus state that matters, and he did it because of those tools, because he was able to move thousands of people to organize,” Joe Trippi said. (4) In conclusion I can definitely see the major changes in political culture between the 2004 and 2008 Presidential elections. I also believe these changes started around the 2006 general elections and continued to progress for the next 2 years.
It will be very interesting to watch the 2010 general elections and 2012 Presidential election to see how much influence the media and internet have. I think it will only progress until there is literally a live camera around anytime a candidate is in a public setting. Hopefully the trend of people getting out to vote is here to stay. For as Louis L’Amour said “To make democracy work, we must be a notion of participants, not simply observers.