Edgar Allan Poe

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Review of “The Tell-tale Heart” Short Story by Edgar Allan Poe

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Tell-Tale Heart is a story that is about a man that kill a person because of his fear of eye color, he always see him in the night, when he were going to kill him he wake up and start cry but the narrator he stop and he wait for the perfect moment to kill him, when he kill him he butchered him but when the police came to the house, he blamed himself. At beginning of the story, he said that he is not crazy. The grandfather and his little grandson is about a grandfather Once upon a time there was a very old man who lived with his son and daughter-in-law. The man was so old that his hearing and sight had diminished. His hands trembled when he tried to eat. The old man would sit in the corner with tears in his eyes trying to eat his food, with trembling hands. One day he dropped his bowl and it broke on the floor. The wife scolded him and they gave him a wooden dish to eat out of instead. One night, they were sitting together and the four-year-old grandson began to gather together some bits of wood. His parents asked him what he was doing. The little boy told his parents that he was making a trough for them to eat out when his parents be old. The man and his wife were crying.

The Tell-Tale Heart and the grandfather and his little grandson one of the similarities are that they are treated badly, Both have mental problems. In the story of the Tell-Tale Heart, the protagonist has a paranoia and a mental deterioration, the murderer’s obsession with specific and unadorned entities: the old man’s eye and the heartbeat. In the story The grandfather and his little grandson he have a mental problems, his hands trembled when he tried to eat and that is a mental problem. The Tell-Tale Heart and The grandfather and his little grandson differences are that the protagonist is treated very badly and in the Tell Tale Heart they treated him normally. Another difference is that in The Tell Tale Heart the protagonist murder someone and in the grandfather and his little grandson he doesn’t kill anyone. The protagonist of The Tell Tale Heart have a fear with eye color but in The grandfather and his little grandson, he doesn’t has any fear. Another is the place where it develops the story is different. In conclusion, we can say that The Tell-Tale Heart and The grandfather and his little grandson have differences and similarities like one similarities that both have mental disability and one difference is that in The Tell Tale Heart he murder someone and in The grandfather and his little grandson he don’t kill anyone.

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268

Edgar Allan Poe – The Giant Of Gothic Literature

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

One of the giants of Gothic Literature, Edgar Allan Poe set the standard not only for the genres creepy plot and characters, but also for what it means to be Goth Depicted in portraits dressed in black, with haunted, sunken eyes, Poe’s bad boy behavior, excessive drinking, vicious feuding with other writers, and harsh criticism of other literary work would fit as well in a punk fanzine as well as it did in the literary magazines where he made his name and reputation.

Edgar Allen Poe was born in January of 1809 in Boston, Massachusetts. His parents were actors and separated when Poe was young. He was orphaned at the age of two, after both his mother and father died in December 1811. The wealthy John and Francis Allen adopted Poe and raised him in their Virginia home. He was schooled in England and attended the University of Virginia briefly. After a short stint in the military, Poe began his writing career. Initially his poetry was not commercially successful. In August 1835, he began working for the literary magazine the southern Literary Messenger. He got off to a rocky start to due his excessive drinking, but within a few months, he was named editor. He published some of his fiction as well as reviews but was primarily known as a critic.

In 1836, Poe, now 27, married his 13-year-old cousin, Virginia. Starting in 1838 with the narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym, Poe published a series of stories and poems that established him as a master of American Literature. Later works such as The Rave in 1845, broke new poetic ground. These poems and his theories of composition helped to develop modern perspectives on the aesthetic value of poetry and short stories.

In an 1846 essay, Poe laid out what he considered to be the essentials of a good short story; exemplified in the Tell-Tale Heart. Chiefly, unity of impression where a distinctive tone carried throughout the short story. Further, Poe was a founding story of several fiction genres such as the modern horror story, the psychological horror story and even science fiction. Yet, Poe’s artistic successes were darkened by personal trials and tragedies. Afer losing his wife to tuberculosis in 1847, Poe’s alcoholism and depression worsened. Fittingly, Poe’s death was somewhat mysterious.

On October 3rd, 1849 he was found in the street badly dressed, delirious and unable to move. He died four days later. Poe’s last words were reportedly “Lord, help my poor soul.” Gothic literature emerged in the late 18th century with the publication of the 1764 novel “Castle of Otranto” written by the English novelist Horace Walpole.

Gothic literature accented mystery and the supernatural, focusing its attention on the irrational. Narratives often deliver fragmented information in order to build suspense and mystery. The Tell-Tale Heart is no exception with its eerie setting and possible mad narrator. The American short story grew unpopularity due to the growing availability of magazines. Poe was extremely influential in the short story genre, being a pioneer in laying out the rules to the short story. For example, readers should be able to finish a story in one setting, writers should strive for unity of effect, and nothing should distract from the stories design, and although they should be imaginative, stories must always tell the truth about human nature.

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212

Narration Style in “The Tell-tale Heart” by Edgar Allan Poe

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

Both The Tell-Tale Heart and The Fall of the House of Usher are great examples of how Edgar Allan Poe, an American writer born in 1809, uses the first person narration style of writing. When reading both short stories, it is very clear that the male narrator in Edgar Allan Poe’s first novel The Tell-Tale Heart is much more coherent and relatable than the narrator in The Fall of the House of Usher. When reading both of the given texts, it is clear to me that when reading The Fall of the House of Usher that the narrator is more part of the background than focussed on like the narrator in The Tell-Tale Heart.

The Tell-Tale Heart, compared to The Fall of the House of Usher is more gratifying to read, as it is far easier to understand without having to look up almost every second word like you have to do in The Fall of the House of Usher. An example of this in The Fall of the House of Usher is on pg. 3 when it says “ I say insufferable; for the feeling was unrelieved by any of that half-pleasurable, because poetic, sentiment with which the mind usually receives even the sternest natural images of the desolate or terrible.” In the first couple of pages, The Fall of the House of Usher is disorienting, and abstruse.

In The Tell-Tale Heart, the narrator is present and is somewhat the main focus, while in The Fall of the House of Usher, the narrator is generally absent, while another separate character is the main point of focus, making The Fall of the house of Usher very confusing to read. On page. 9 , the following “His action was alternately vivacious and sullen. His voice varied rapidly from a tremulous indecision (when the animal spirits seemed utterly in abeyance) to that species of energetic concision—that abrupt, weighty, unhurried, and hollow-sounding enunciation—that leaden, self-balanced and perfectly modulated guttural utterance, which may be observed in the lost drunkard, or the irreclaimable eater of opium, during the periods of his most intense excitement.” is talking about another character ( Roderick Usher ), while The Tell-Tale Heart is talking about himself, ultimately making a more relatable narrator.

In conclusion, The Tell-Tale Heart is the preferred choice, in terms of a better understanding and comprehension than that over The Fall of the House of Usher, both written by Edgar Allan Poe.

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371

Detective Fiction by Edgar Allan Poe

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

Detective fiction is a type of inscription in which a detective is mechanized to resolve misconduct. The audience is dared to explain the wrongdoing by the hints delivered in advance. The detective reveals the response at the conclusion of the novel. When the story starts, crime is familiarized. In particular narratives, the erroneous individual is blamed for the crime to keep the reader locked in. Ultimately, the detective initiates an investigation to detect the guilt-ridden perpetrator. This paper describes the role of Edgar Allen Poe the father of detective fiction. The principal investigator story was created by Edgar Allan Poe and his small tale The Murders in Rue Morgue that he wrote in 1841 (Klein, 1999). In the story, two females are killed, and the police department has a tough time deciphering the circumstances.

Investigator Dupin leads his personal examination and resolves the offense when the law enforcement agency cannot. Poe is persistent in using Dupin in numerous additional short stories. The genre cultivated slightly generally through the 1800s. Victorian novelists, such as Wilkie Collins and Charles Dickens, engraved detective fiction. Nevertheless, when Sir Arthur Conan Doyle shaped Sherlock Holmes, the genre produced. Doyle wrote and completed fifty short stories as well as narratives around Sherlock Holmes with his sidekick Dr. Watson. Doyle’s characters are very common today. In the 1900s, numerous innovative detectives were introduced, safeguarding that the genre sustained growth. Some of the additional general investigators were Endeavor Morse and Gervase Fen, a formation of Edmund Crispin. Crispin is attributed to making the investigator genre more modern. William Legrand, the main character in “The Gold Bug,” shows specific characteristics with Poe’s famous unprofessional detective, Dupin. Legrand is of a memorable intimate, but because of financial adversities, he has been to close to poverty.

On the contrary, he comes from the French lineage from New Orleans. He resides lonely on an island near Charleston, South Carolina. Additionally, similar to Dupin, he surrogates between sorrow and enthusiasm, which directs the teller of tales to the uncertainty that he is the dupe of a class of insanity (Delamater, 1997). The basic evidence of the story is that Legrand is metaphorically nibbled by the gold bug once determining a portion of parchment on which he discovers a cipher with guidelines to the suppressed beauty of the adventurer Captain Kidd. As through the extraordinary significant Dupin stories, “The Gold Bug” emphases little on accomplishment than on the clarification of the phases to the resolution of its mystery. To crack the mystery of the cipher, Legrand establishes the critical potentials of the substandard detective: close consideration to the minute point, extensive information about language and mathematics, far reaching knowledge about his opponent which is Captain Kidd, and most important a perceptive intuition as well as a methodical reasoning ability.

Poe’s famous gothic stories of psychological obsession, such as “The Black Cat,” “The Tell-Tale Heart,” “The Fall of the House of Usher,” and “Ligeia,” seem at first glance entirely different from his logical stories of detection. In many ways, however, they are very similar: Both types depend on some secret guilt that must be exposed; in both, the central character is an unusual whose mind seems distant from the minds of ordinary men; and both types are elaborate puzzles filled with clues that must be tied together before the reader can understand their overall effect.”The Oblong Box” and “Thou Art the Man,” both written in 1844, are often cited as combining the gothic and the compelling core of Poe’s genius. The narrator of “The Oblong Box,” while on a packet-ship journey from Charleston, South Carolina, to New York City, becomes unusually curious about an oblong pine box that is kept in the stateroom of an old school acquaintance, Cornelius Wyatt (Poe & Richardson, 2009). In the course of the story, the narrator uses deductive processes to conclude that Wyatt, an artist, is smuggling to New York a copy of Leonardo da Vinci’s

“The Last Supper” done by a famous Florentine painter.When a storm threatens to sink the ship, Wyatt ties himself to the mysterious box and, to the horror of the survivors, falls into the sea with it. Not until a month after the event does the narrator learn that the box contained Wyatt’s wife embalmed in salt. Although earlier in the story the narrator prided himself on his superior acumen in guessing that the box included painting, at the conclusion he admits that his mistakes were the result of both his carelessness and his impulsiveness. The persistent deductive efforts of the narrator to explain the mystery of the oblong box, combined with the sense of horror that arises from the image of the artist’s plunging to his death with the corpse of his beautiful young wife, qualifies this story, although a minor tale in the Poe canon, as a unique combination of the gothic and the ratiocinative.

“Thou Art the Man,” though frequently categorized as a mockery of small-town life and behaviors, is likewise a stimulating but slight influence to the type. The story is expressed in a sarcastic tenor by a storyteller who suggests to an explanation for the vanishing of Mr. Barnabus Shuttleworthy. He is one of the town’s wealthiest and most celebrated appreciated inhabitants (Amper & Bloom, 2007). When Shuttleworthy’s nephew is suspected of killing the uncle, Charley Goodfellow, a near acquaintance of Shuttleworth, brands each exertion to protect the young man. Each term he expresses to elevate and back the alleged nephew, though, aids only to excavate the town’s people’s doubt of him.

Through the story, Goodfellow is mentioned as “Old Charley.’’ He is praised as a gentleman who is substantial, exposed, forthright, and truthful. At the story’s inference, he obtains an enormous box allegedly covering wine assured him by the killed man previous to his demise. When the box is opened, the partly lousy body of Shuttleworth sit down in the table, points his limb at Goodfellow, and speaks, “Thou art the man!” Goodfellow, not astonishingly, acknowledges to the homicide. The rudimentary satires of Charley’s of not being such a “good fellow” afterward and of his labors to have the nephew sentenced even as he fake to have him absolved are dominant to the story’s conspiracy, the extreme sarcasm emphases on the incomes by which Goodfellow is made to admit. It is Goodfellow’s honesty and uprightness that reasons the storyteller to suspicion from the start and therefore discovery the body, twig a part of monster jawbone depressed its gullet to root it to be seated up inside the case, and use ventriloquism to brand it appear as if the dead body says the arguments of the name. The story presents such characteristic detective-story agreements as the formation of untrue signs by the illicit and the detection of the felonious as the smallest likely suspect.

“The Mystery of Marie Rogêt,” although it also focuses on Dupin’s solving of a crime primarily from newspaper reports, is based on the murder of a young girl, Mary Cecilia Rogers, near New York City. Because the crime had not been solved when Poe wrote the story, he made use of the facts of the case to tell a story of the murder of a young Parisian girl, Marie Rogêt, as a means of demonstrating his superior deductive ability. The story ostensibly begins two years after the events of “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” when the faultless of police, having unsuccessful to solve the Marie Rogêt case himself, doubts about his status and requests Dupin for assistance.

Dupin’s technique is that of the definitive wing chair investigator; he folds all the reproductions of the reporters articles that have interprets of the misconduct and circles about systematically investigative every one. He states the circumstance extra complicated than that of the Rue Morgue since, paradoxically, it appears so modest. One of the elements of the story that makes it less accessible than the other two Dupin tales is the extensive analysis of the newspaper articles in which Dupin engages— a report that makes the story read more like an article critical of newspaper techniques than a narrative story. In fact, what makes Poe able to propose a solution to the crime is not so much his knowledge of evil as his knowledge of the conventions of newspaper writing. Similarly, it was his knowledge of the meetings of novel book that made it possible for him to deduce the correct conclusion of Charles Dickens’s novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of ’80 (1841) the previous year when he had read only one or two of the first installments.

Another aspect of “The Mystery of Marie Rogêt” that reflects Dupin’s deductive genius and that has been used by subsequent detective writers is his conviction that the usual error of the police is to pay too much attention to the immediate events while ignoring the external evidence. Both experience and right philosophy, says Dupin, show that truth arises more often from the seemingly irrelevant than from the so-called strictly relevant. By this means, Dupin eliminates the various hypotheses for the crime proposed by the newspapers and suggests his hypothesis, which is confirmed by the confession of the murderer (Poe, Tales of mystery and imagination, 2003).

Although “The Mystery of Marie Rogêt” contains some of the primary conventions that find their way into later detective stories, it is the least popular of the Dupin narratives not only because it contains much reasoning and exposition and minimal narrative but also because it is so long and convoluted. Of the many experts of detective fiction who have commented on Poe’s contribution to the genre, only Dorothy L. Sayers has praised “The Mystery of Marie Rogêt,” calling it a story especially for connoisseurs, a serious intellectual exercise rather than a sensational thriller such as “The Murders in the Rue Morgue.” The above are some of the work done by Allen Poe. From these stories, one can deduce that Detective Fiction is essential in helping in the training of the criminal investigators. From the stories, one can be able to gauge a lie or something real. On the other hand, the Detective fiction induces critical thinking of an individual. Therefore, it is essential to assist one in making a rational decision.

References:

1. Amper, S., & Bloom, H. (2007). Bloom’s how to write about Edgar Allan Poe. New York: New York: Chelsea House.

2. Delamater, J. (1997). Theory and practice of classic detective fiction: prepared under the auspices of Hofstra University.

3. Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Pr.Klein, K. G. (1999). Diversity and detective fiction. Bowling Green, Ohio Bowling Green State Univ. Popular.

4. Poe, E. A. (2003). Tales of mystery and imagination. London: Collector’s Library. Poe, E. A., & Richardson, C. F. (2009). The complete works of Edgar Allan Poe. New York: Cosimo Classics.

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194

Edgar Allan Poe and the Orangutan Obsession

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

Edgar Allan Poe’s unusually common usage of orangutans in his short stories is no secret. In The Murders of the Rue Morgue, the orangutan turns out to be the murderer who deprived Madame L’Espanaye and her daughter of their lives. Its actions are depicted as extremely –and perhaps uncomfortably- human like. Its shrieks using a ‘shrill voice [like] that of a man’, however its language is obviously not recognized.[1] When assuming the murder’s occurrence in chronological order, it is suggested that the daughter’s body was ‘firmly wedged in the chimney’, while her mother’s was ‘hurled through the window headlong’, as if the brute realized its actions are less than worthy and desired to hide away the bodies of the deceased women.[2] Therefore, the orang-utan seems to bears uncanny similarities to our species in that it can communicate albeit not effectively, and it can kind of distinguish between right and wrong. Also in Hop Frog, the figure of the orang-utan features as a masquerade disguise for the king and his seven ministers. They are ‘saturated with tar’ and covered with ‘flax’ in order to accurately represent these beasts.[3] The orang-utan emerges as an undesirable and scary creature. However, seeing that the eight important men remain unidentified, disguised as they were, the orangutan figure does not seem to differ that much from that of the human being.

In another of Poe’s short stories, Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether, the reader does not encounter human beings dressed up as orangutans with absolute certainty. Nevertheless, the manner by which the sane asylum workers were treated and how they were all ‘tarred, then- carefully feathered’ by the insane patients, is reminiscent of Hop Frog, where the fool outwitted the wiser men and degrading them to the figure of the orangutan.[4] In fact, the narrator is reminded of ‘Chimpanzees, Ourang-Outangs, or big black baboons of the Cape of Good Hope’.[5] While the keepers are not specifically attired as orangutans, they are still masquerading as a cross between several species of the ape family. The reader may notice a pattern between the human being who is going through a crisis where his intelligence and morality is questioned, and his sudden metamorphosis into an orangutan. This has taken place too often in Poe’s stories to be taken simply as part of the plot without much significance. In what way might the deprived human being be linked with the orangutan? What is the meaning behind this analogy?

In his essay ‘Handling the Perceptual Politics of Identity in Great Expectations’, University professor Peter J. Capuano points out how the Victorians were deeply preoccupied with ‘the material features of the body’ and what message is evoked through the shape of their bodily characteristics.[6] In Great Expectations, Dickens exaggerates this Victorian anxiety by including characters like Pip who compare his status in life with that of Estella by studying his hands. According to Capuano, this sudden interest in the body stems from human beings’ loss of their ‘privileged status’ of superiority over animals, when Charles Darwin’s theory suggests that in fact human beings are derived from the ape family.[7] This revelation brought with it an identity crisis, a deflation to the human ego, and unsurprisingly a curiosity regarding the way how apes ‘looked and behaved’ just like humans.[8] Needless to say, the Victorians dreaded to face a life where human beings are no longer at the top of the biological spectrum, and they would not have anything to do with these creatures and avoided any associations with them. They strove to re-assert their power over all the other animals, and instead used terms related to apes, gorillas, orangutans and so on in order to insult races whom they regarded as lesser.[9]

So how is this discovery linked with Poe and his treatment of human beings as orangutans? In a letter addressed to George W. Eveleth, a Maine medical student, Poe states that it is the heart which makes one human, and without which man would become a ‘brute or a god’.[10] Therefore, Poe seems to be of the belief that if one does not live up to humanity’s moral standards, one is living on par with apes; a declaration which would not be very pleasing to his contemporary audience. Yet, his numerous instances where the human is reduced to an orangutan suggest that Poe is deliberately placing his readers in distress, in order to show them how close to brutes they really are. Why is Poe so intent on making this sentiment felt? What is his main motif behind his accusation of lacking humanity among his generation?

The most likely theory behind this reasoning stems directly from Poe’s life. Through his letters, one becomes acquainted with the hardships he endured after his adoptive father John Allan disowns him and refuses to contact him. From the letters Poe wrote to Allan, one will realize how the latter deprived Poe of the money necessary to further his studies which led him to fall into terrible vices like gambling. Poe was robbed of the love a child should get from his father. He lived in poverty and was always in want of money. He witnessed the death of his beloved wife Virginia. He endured several feuds with several other writers and critics and towards the end of his life had to experience the bitterness of unrequited love. Could it be that he is trying to reassert his dignity by comparing such people with brutes? Perhaps this comparison with orangutans has been inspired from the Victorians’ desire to be as unlike orangutans and apes in general as possible, and therefore Poe took this opportunity to voice his opinion regarding humanity. Despite being poor, unloved and even thought to be insane, Poe worked hard to get his own back by demonstrating through his writing how akin to orangutans human beings actually are. This theory seems to be viable because in both The Murders in the Rue Morgue and Hop Frog as well as in The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether, the orangutan doubles as the human being whose behavior is less than human. In The Murders in the Rue Morgue, the orangutan is a murderer who physically deprives others of their lives just as Poe is deprived of his life through insufficient finances and neglect. In Hop Frog and The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether, the orangutans are the ones who have made fun of those deemed to be lesser and perhaps stupid, just as how Poe was often not taken seriously due to rumors of his insanity and of his insobriety.

Poe possibly manipulated the Victorian’s insecurity regarding their very existence and included it within his tales in order to mock and magnify people’s faults. He perhaps sought to transfer the ire and shame mercilessly instigated by other people, onto the very same individuals who were not so fond of him. The distress is further enhanced through the nature of his short stories itself as he deals with delicate subjects such as death, murder and horror, in order to add to his ‘enemies’ vulnerability and simultaneously build up a screen of bravery and power for himself. Poe managed to fight back and regain some authority through this analogy which not only has probably satisfied his anger and indignation towards humanity but it also added a depth and mystery to his infamous stories. The orangutan will forever remain associated with human beings’ flaws and their failure in society. It is a warning against one’s unacceptable instinctual behaviour and an encouragement to think before ‘acting like orangutans’.

List of Works Cited

Capuano, Peter J., ‘Handling the Perceptual Politics of Identity in Great Expectations’, Dickens Quarterly 27, 3, (Sep 2010), pp. 185-254

Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore, George W. Eveleth to Edgar Allan Poe — January 19, 1847 <https://www.eapoe.org/misc/letters/t4701190.htm> [accessed 21 July 2017]

Poe, Edgar Allan, ‘Hop Frog’, in The Portable Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Penguin Group, 2006), pp. 215-224

Poe, Edgar Allan, ‘The Murders of the Rue Morgue’, in The Portable Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Penguin Group, 2006), pp. 238-270

Poe, Edgar Allan, ‘The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether’, in The Portable Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Penguin Group, 2006), pp. 359-376

Notes

[1] Edgar Allan Poe, ‘The Murders of the Rue Morgue’, in The Portable Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Penguin Group, 2006), pp. 238-270, p. 249.

[2] Poe, ‘The Murders of the Rue Morgue’, p. 250-270.

[3] Edgar Allan Poe, ‘Hop Frog’, in The Portable Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Penguin Group, 2006), pp. 215-224, p.220.

[4] Edgar Allan Poe, ‘The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether’, in The Portable Edgar Allan Poe (New York: Penguin Group, 2006), pp. 359-376, p. 375.

[5] Poe, ‘The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether’, p. 375.

[6] Peter J. Capuano, ‘Handling the Perceptual Politics of Identity in Great Expectations’, Dickens Quarterly 27, 3, (Sep 2010), pp. 185-254, p. 186.

[7] Capuano, p. 188.

[8] Capuano, p. 189.

[9] Capuano, p. 190-191.

[10] Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore, George W. Eveleth to Edgar Allan Poe — January 19, 1847 <https://www.eapoe.org/misc/letters/t4701190.htm> [accessed 21 July 2017].

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165

The Border Between Life And Death

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

Edgar Allen Poe created an interesting paradigm surrounding his theory on cosmic principle. He sees the universe as God’s artistic creation dispersed among humankind. Artists, namely poets, bring together the universe by breaking free of their physical world and its correlating corruption and materialism. To do this, poets must use their imagination and delve deep into their minds to find the universe’s original harmony. Poe’s theory goes on to describe mankind’s dualistic nature, where man is both spiritual and rational. The spiritual side draws on imagination, emotion, and creativity while the rational side remains terrestrial and distant from cosmic unity. Ultimately, poets can regain unity with the universe only through death. In Poe’s “The Masque of Red Death,” Prince Prospero attempts to rid himself of the Red Death by retreating into his mind. Prospero represents the spiritualistic side of the poet, and Red Death represents the earthbound rationality of life.

Prospero represents the spiritual mind of his character. Poe describes the spiritual poet as someone who seeks to rid himself of his materialistic reality by “looking inward to the depths of his mind” (Poe’s Cosmology). Additionally, Prospero attempts to “free himself from time, reason, [and] the physical world” (Poe’s Cosmology). The dualistic poet creates his own reality – free of unpredictability, danger, or death – and utilizes his imagination, creativity, and emotions to become closer to the “harmony of the universe” (Poe’s Cosmology). In “The Masque of Red Death,” Red Death represents the experiences of life, and does so by creating a “voluptuous scene” (Poe 62). To escape the Red Death plague, Prospero withdraws “to the deep seclusion of one of his castellated abbeys” and seals himself in with “gates of iron” (Poe 62). Prospero’s retreat is “bold and fiery” and filled with “much of the beautiful, much of the wanton, [and] much of the bizarre” (Poe 64). Prospero reconstructs a world within the abbey, where a “multitude of dreams…writhe(d) in and about,” floating around like the “wild music of the orchestra” (Poe 64). Prospero isolates himself into a world of emotion and imagery to escape his own profane physical surroundings, and thus Prospero creates an imaginary world of phantasmagoric surroundings inside the walls of the abbey. According to the concept of dualism, a poet surrounds himself with his own creativity and beauty to escape harsher reality. Likewise, Prospero surrounds himself with beautiful scenes and bizarre dreams in order to both escape the ugly reality of life and bar his physicality – represented by Red Death – from his mind.

Just as Prospero represents the spiritual side of the dualistic poet, Red Death represents the earthbound rationality of life. Poe describes this side of the dualistic poet as possessing “rational knowledge” and characterizes it as “sick, dark, and insensitive” (Poe’s Cosmology). This rational side can be seen as a series of inevitable constants: despair, pain, materialism, and death. In “The Masque of Red Death,” the fatal “Red Death” rampages Prospero’s country and infects people with “sharp pains…profuse bleeding… [and] seizure” (Poe 62). Prospero attempts to shut the plague out of his life, but at his grand party, the “presence of a masked figure” appears; “Neither wit or propriety exist(ed)” in this figure, dressed “in the habiliments of the grave” (Poe 65). Red Death lacks any “tangible form” and comes “like a thief in the night” for those who “shut him out” (Poe 66, 62). Prospero tries to attack Red Death, but he dies before he can even lay a hand on the impostor. Red Death – comprised of despair, pain, and death – symbolizes the rational side of Prospero as a dualistic poet. Furthermore, if Prospero is trying to escape the rational aspects of life, then he is trying essentially to escape life itself. Thus, Red Death also represents life in its entirety and as such, cannot be altogether eliminated or ignored. It is then ironic that Prospero causes his own downfall to death by trying to separate his mind from life.

According to Poe’s theory of dualism, Prospero represents the spiritualistic side of the poet, and Red Death represents the earthbound rationality of life. Poe dealt with unhappiness in his own life when the only women he ever loved died young. Conversely, Prospero deals with the inevitability of death in “The Masque of Red Death” by trying to run away from it. By attempting to separate his spiritual side from his rational side, Prospero’s persona dies and only then becomes unified with the universe.

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86

Women in Transit

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

In his stories “Ligea,” “Berenice,” and “The Fall of the House of Usher,” Poe shows a series of women in transit. All the women are in transit between death and life. The fact that this path is not one-way emphasizes the flux. More immediately, the narrator always catches these women in transit between physical places. The one glimpse we get of Madeline Usher comes when the lady “passed slowly through a remote portion of the apartment, and, without having noticed my presence, disappeared” (120). In “Berenice” the instance in which the titular character is actually present occurs when Berenice dashes into the room, bears her white teeth, and dashes out, never speaking a word (88). Of Ligea the narrator says, “she came and departed as a shadow” (104). The narrator almost never captures these women standing still or speaking a word. The perpetual state of physical transit seems to underscore the larger state of mortal flux in which these women exist.

Their perpetual flux also elucidates Poe’s notion of beauty. Each of these transitory women is the defining subject of stories that take “the most poetic topic in the world:” “the death of a beautiful women” (Philosophy). But if the death of beauty is the center of these stories, why do we only get fleeting glimpses of the women? How are we to know their beauty? It seems that the very quality of beauty lies in its ethereal, unsubstantive quality; or, as Poe says it differently, as “not a quality.” As opposed to truth, which is of the intellect, and passion, which is of the heart, beauty is of the soul. While heart and mind would seem to come to judgements based on contemplation of empirical data, it seems that the soul’s way of knowing (though perhaps knowing is not a good word) is based on the immediate effect of this empirical data. The transitory women are thus the ideal subjects of beauty. As the heart and mind can easily corrupt the soul, it seems the ideal way for the soul to confront beauty is to come only briefly in contact with it, not allowing for the heart or mind to begin their corruption. The most valuable quality of these women is not something they do or say, but rather some immediate emanation.

But in order for this immediate emanation beauty to live on, the woman must also absent herself from the viewers heart and mind: truth and passion are “absolutely antagonistic to that Beauty” (Philosophy). Therefore, Poe’s notion of beauty also relies on what one does not know of the object of beauty, namely all her humanly perfections. These holdings of the intellect and heart corrupt the transparent sheet of beauty. It is thus understandable that Poe drives all of his women to death. It is with them under the ground that he can maintain his fantasy of their voiceless, actionless perfection. Perhaps the constant premature entombment of these women stems from a deeper fantasy to place all women in a space where he can keep his romantic notion of them alive.

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335

Rhetorical Analysis: “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe

June 7, 2021 by Essay Writer

Edgar Allen Poe wrote the poem, “The Raven” in January of 1845 and upon the publication of his piece, he was met with great praise and critical success, despite having been a published author and journalist for many years. “The Raven” is deemed as one of Poe’s greatest poems for its structure, language, rhyme scheme, and for the story as a whole. It is a tale about a young man who is continuously grieving over the loss of his love “Lenore. ” A raven enters through the man’s window and sits on the bust of Pallas on the man’s chamber door. Every question the young man asks the raven he only receives one answer: “Nevermore. ” Because the raven can only speak this single word, each question the man asks only frustrates the man and reminds him of his loss. While this poem is critically acclaimed and considered one of the best poems ever written, the question is raised as to why. Could it be his poetic structure, or maybe a factor never been considered? Either way, “The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe is seen as one of the best pieces of poetry ever written.

In order to understand what makes “The Raven” a great piece, one must look at the appeals it makes. At first look, it comes across as a being an ethos based writing, due to the fact that at this point in his career, Poe was already a very well established writer and poet. At a closer look however, it becomes clear that it is actually a pathos based piece. The reason being is that the story is about a man’s struggle to deal with the loss of his beloved. The piece begins and ends with this young man’s focus on the loss of his love, Lenore. It is only when the raven enters the piece that we begin to see this man’s distress in his loss. `Prophet!’ said I, `thing of evil! – prophet still, if bird or devil!By that Heaven that bends above us – by that God we both adore -Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels named Lenore -Clasp a rare and radiant maiden, whom the angels named Lenore? ‘Quoth the raven, `Nevermore. ‘ `Be that word our sign of parting, bird or fiend!’ I shrieked upstarting -`Get thee back into the tempest and the Night’s Plutonian shore!Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!Leave my loneliness unbroken! – quit the bust above my door!Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!’Quoth the raven, `Nevermore. ‘ Because of his sorrow, the young man begins to question the reasoning of the raven’s presence, taking the raven as devil who has come from the banks of Hades to torture him over his loss of Lenore. Since Poe digs deeply into the loss of Lenore, the piece is based off pathos. Due to the fact that the story as a whole is based off of the young man’s loss of Lenore, it can also be assumed that the piece was also supposed to be based off pathos. Lenore is the focus of the young man’s sorrow, and his sorrow in turn is what leads to the story of the raven tormenting him. This sorrow the man faces and the torturing by the raven all play off the idea of pathos.

Poe’s vocabulary is also a very strong contributor to pathos in this piece. The language Poe uses is very dynamic and forthright, allowing for the piece to be viewed in the way Poe wanted to, instead of leaving his writing up for interpretation. The audience gains a better understanding behind the language, and that allows for a much stronger feeling about what the story really means, making for a deeper connection to the young man’s lost love. Poetic structure contributes to pathos since the story relies on its rhyme scheme and musicality. Due to the fact that the words are so closely connected rhyming wise, it give the reader a chance to read the poem as more of a song, instead of a story which allows for a deeper connection to the reader and the audience. It allows for more emotion to be put into it because it isn’t just a story to be read, but a piece to be experienced.

“The Raven”, which can be seen by its familiarity and acclaim, has a very broad audience, but was not intended for such a range of readers. Poe original focused for “The Raven” was a smaller audience because he released the poem in a periodical without the intent of reaching mass audiences. “The Raven” was simply a piece Poe created for a magazine that by chance made him an overnight sensation, and because of this it is possible to see the true audience. Since it was written for a small periodical, Poe understood that his poem would not be viewed by a large audience so his intent was not to write it for one. This can be seen in his writing style and content. The writing style of the piece uses a vast vocabulary and complex rhyme scheme that isn’t too often seen in standard poetic writings. The content has horror twist to it, which Poe used to narrow down the audience even more.

Despite using these tactics Poe manages to appeal to a larger audience than he would have expected, mostly due to its very emotionally driven story line. Emotion spawns from the loss of Lenore, but also from the insanities in which this young man goes through because of his loss. It also appeals on a bigger scale because of the poetic structure of the piece, due to the fact that the piece as a whole rhymes and has a very consistent flow to it. This gives the piece mass appeal for the reason that it can be enjoyed for its poetic structure alone and doesn’t need to appeal in the sense of literature. The raven appeals emotionally as an instigator to the young man’s feelings and acts as a torturer of young man. Because of the highly charged emotional content, “The Raven” is able to appeal to a greater audience than Poe intended for.

Although Poe attempted to appeal to a small demographic of readers, he ended up appealing to a much larger audience. Poe was able to utilize every piece of his writing to reach an audience much larger than the one he initially intended. Because he uses each piece individually and with a great amount of depth, he was able to compose a stronger piece and thereby able to appeal to a larger audience. He was able to create one of the best examples of poetry through the depth of his piece, demonstrating the overall importance of the “The Raven” in the history of literature.

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Analysis Of “William Wilson” And “The Tell-Tale Heart” By Edgar Allan Poe

February 15, 2021 by Essay Writer

Edgar Allan Poe is considered a major figure when it comes to literature; mostly through his poems, short stories, and various works of fiction. His works depict artistic imagination especially when it comes to the rationality of man (Szabo & Crisan 1). The theme of otherness in literature can be viewed as the aspect of being different from what is considered normal. Normal, in this case, put into view certain expectations or rather aspects that do not deviate from the social norm. Otherness, in the works by Edgar Allan Poe, is illustrated by the gothic style integrated in most of his works. He is known for developing gothic fictions in literature (Sun 94). The analysis puts into view the theme of otherness with respect to the literary works, William Wilson and The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe.

William Wilson by Poe depicts the otherness theme through the character of the main protagonist, Wilson. William Wilson is different from the normal expectations of man’s behavior through his dual nature. He abides by both reality and illusion, especially after his institutionalization. While institutionalized, Wilson develops an alter ego, which he identifies using his own name, which subjects him to schizophrenic experiences (Kao 2). He becomes confined in the institution through which the allusions limit him from understanding his surroundings. The illusions associated with the development of the alter ego challenge him to struggle to acquire free will. However, as the story progresses, it becomes clear that Wilson is not confined or controlled by the institution but rather by his own mind (Kao 2). The academy, as per his case, becomes the external force that oppresses his free will. Being the perceived external force, Wilson focuses to overwhelm it in his pursuit for free will. Wilson states, “at an age when few children have abandoned their leading-strings, [he] was left to the guidance of [his] own will, and became, in all but name, the master of [his] own actions” (Poe) to illustrate the victimization imposed on him by the academy. The mental pursuit of his free will is illustrated by the statement, “The next morning I began a hurried journey away from Oxford University. I ran, but I could not escape. I went from city to city, and in each one Wilson appeared.” From his description, the institution is endless and entails complex divisions. Besides the academy’s complex nature, Wilson also views his free will to be limited by the teacher who imposes complex rules in the entire institution (Kao 3). The teacher is positioned at various levels that include being the school’s administrator, a pastor apart from the teacher. Wilson exhibits fear when he views the teacher both in school and in church. It is important to note that his mental deterioration commences immediately after he becomes part of the institution as his experience is different when compared to pre-school life. However, through the struggle to acquire freedom from the academy and the teacher, the mental struggle results in his self-destruction. At the end of the story, he states, “And, in my death— see by this face, which is your own, how wholly, how completely, you have killed — yourself!” (Poe). The statement does not possibly imply an actual death but may also signify Wilson’s complete mental incapacitation (Kao 5). Therefore, through the mental struggle between reality and illusion Poe illustrates the theme of otherness through Wilson’s character.

Otherness, in The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe is illustrated by the madness of the narrator. The story is narrated using the first person which makes it easier for the reader to comprehend the protagonist’s elusive thoughts. His dark thoughts differ from the norm especially since he appears to be disturbed by illogical elements (Amir 596). His awkward behaviour is illustrated with his claim that he is of sound mind rather than mad, the idea that he is disturbed by a sound that keeps elevating. On his stance that he was not mentally incapacitated, he perceives that his sickness developed his senses, thought-processes and emotions including a strong hearing ability. He states, “The disease had sharpened my senses –not destroyed –not dulled them. Above all was the sense of hearing acute,” (Poe 1). It is from his assumed “strong” senses that he is pushed to believe that one of the eyes of the old man has to be eliminated. He perceives that he had no problem with the old man apart from his eye. He states, “Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and so by degrees –very gradually –I made up my mind to take the life of the old man, and thus rid myself of the eye forever.” In other words, it is his indifferent senses that push him to commit murder. It is from the statement that the reader ascertains that the narrator is mentally incapacitated (Amir 597). Also, the narrator appears to be thrilled about how he managed to carry out the murder; an aspect that deviates from the societal norm when it comes to valuing life. He states, “Oh, you would have laughed to see how cunningly I thrust it in!” Apart from the eye, he believes that the sounds that he keeps on hearing emanate from the old man’s heart. This happens on the last day of his attempt to kill the old man when he hears the heartbeat with the view that the sound from it keeps on elevating. Furthermore, he believes that the sound could be heard by the neighbours. To put an end to the sound, he pounces at the old man and kills him. When police arrived at his home after receiving a call from the neighbour about some disturbance emanating from his house, he calmly takes the police around the house. However, he begins to hear the sound again. He attempts to ignore it by moving his chair but is unable to control it. By then, he becomes convinced that the police are aware of his deed and thus confesses about his crime. He states, “Villains!” I shrieked, “dissemble no more! I admit the deed! –tear up the planks! here, here! –It is the beating of his hideous heart!” (Poe). The most possible assumption is that the narrator is struggling with guilt and attempting to justify his actions using illusions (Amir 598). Otherness, in this case, is illustrated by his state of mind whereby he fails to distinguish between reality and illusions.

As mentioned earlier, the analysis puts into view the theme of otherness with respect to the literary works, William Wilson and The Tell-Tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe. Otherness is perceived as an aspect of being different from what is considered as normal Otherness, in William Wilson, is illustrated by the mental struggle between reality and illusion by the protagonist which later leads to his self-destruction. Otherness in The Tell-Tale Heart is illustrated by the narrator’s state of mind which eventually results in his evil deed and self-destruction.

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The Black Cat By Edgar Allan Poe Summary

February 15, 2021 by Essay Writer

The book tells the story of a man who realizes that his mental state is deteriorating and accepts that he needs to do something before his life is too late. The story revolves around the sense of guilt that surrounds a murderer who commits a crime and who is capable of hiding his crime. But the feeling of guilt takes him to the edge of madness and to reveal himself against himself.

At the beginning of the story, the man lived happily with his pet cat and wife. Life seemed to go on smoothly apart from minor incidences that happened. However, things begun changing when the man started taking alcohol. The unnamed man says that he started by getting easily irritated even when around close friends. The man started by being verbally abusive towards his wife every time they would have an argument. However, this did not last long and he started abusing his wife physically.

It was not only his wife who was subjected to violence, according to the narrative, but also his beloved cat. The man loved the cat very much and spent most of the time petting him. He began his violence towards animals by hanging his first cat, Pluto, after returning home drunk. Shortly after, another cat came to live with him, also mistreats him. The theme of violence in history reaches its climax when the narrator kills his wife, a point worth mentioning is that the man blames his violent act of alcoholism.

When he was not drunk, he was a kind and gentle person who treated people and animals with tenderness. However, it is worth noting that towards the end of the story, the man no longer blames his violent acts of alcohol, but blames a supernatural power that caught him every time he was drunk. It was not only his wife and cats who experienced the violence of man but also other animals.

Before the man started drinking, he was loyal to his wife and pet cat, Pluto. However, the man gets out his cat eyes out. Despite the fact that his wife saw the kind of cruelty to which he had subjected the cat, he still remained faithful to him.

After the man took out the cat eye, the cat was still playing with him. Under normal circumstances, the cat would have run away from the house and moved to another house away from the brutality.

When the man discovered that the cat also lacks an eye, begins to despise him, while the woman loves him even more. After a while, the woman shows the man that the white spot on the cat skin has grown. Interestingly, the white spot now forms an image of the gallows .The gallows a wooden device used to hang people.

The man is too afraid of the cat to abuse him, but the cat never leaves him alone for a moment, and even sits on his chest and breathes in his face when he is in bed. Then, man does not sleep. As his hatred for the cat increases, so does his physical and verbal abuse of his wife. One day, he and his wife go down to the basement of the old house where they live now that they are poor. The cat follows them. In an attack of extreme irritation, the man tries to kill the cat with an ax. The woman stops him and the man; sticks the ax in his brain, killing her.

Man wonders how it is better to hide the body. After much deliberation, the man decides to hide the body in a space behind the basement wall. That night, the man sleeps peacefully for the first time in a long time. The cat is nowhere to be found.

The police appear. On the fourth day, there is still no woman and cat. But, the police come back and search the house again, especially in the warehouse. Just when they are about to leave, abandoning their search in the cellar, the man decides to brag about how well built the house is. He takes his cane and hits it against the place on the wall where his wife body is hidden.

A noise responds to his blow. It’s a sad sound, like a crying child. It sounds horrible and desperate, but also victorious. The police are in that. They go down the wall only to find the body, with the cat on top of the head. And that is why the man is in jail, sentenced to death by hanging him. The narrator had accidentally closed the cat on the wall with the body.

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