Riots in the “Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992” Play Essay
In the early nineties, American society had to struggle with political and racial tensions. In part, these conflicts manifested themselves in the Los Angeles riots that broke out in 1992. This paper is aimed at discussing the way in which riots are reflected in the play Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992, written by Anna Deavere Smith. In particular, this literary work illustrates the views of different characters on these events. One should demonstrate how the opinions of these people are affected by their social status, race, or gender. These are the main questions that should be examined more closely.
It should be mentioned that these riots were sparked by the trial of Rodney King. This African-American male was arrested and beaten by police. More importantly, this video was recorded and made public. The trial of this case necessitated the change of venue. In other words, it was necessary to try this case in a different location in order to ensure the impartiality of jurors. The court decided to exonerate police officers from the charges of excessive force. The defense attorneys believed that Rodney King resisted the police officers, but these moments were not captured in the video. This decision of the court led to violent protests against racial inequality in the United States.
In her play, Anna Deavere Smith attempts to illustrate various perspectives on this play. Some of these people did not want to be involved in this turmoil. For instance, one can speak about the Korean woman, Mrs. June Park. She does not understand why her husband had to “get shot” (Smith, 153). This woman stresses the idea her husband was a hard-working man; furthermore, he was always willing to donate money to various community needs. She wants to emphasize the idea that the social status of her family was achieved through hard labor. Thus, she does not know why the Korean community has to suffer from these riots. One should keep in mind that during the riots, many of the Korean stores were burned or robbed. On the whole, people like Mrs. June Park believed that their security could be threatened. So, many of them could have negative attitudes towards these protests.
Additionally, one can refer to the opinions expressed by Maxine Waters, who was a congresswoman at the time when the riots took place. Admittedly, she does not support the violent actions of the protestors. Nevertheless, she believes that these events were incited by institutional racism (Smith, 167). Her perspective is influenced by such factors as race and social status. As a black person, she is keenly aware of injustice caused by racism. She notes that African-American youth could suffer from unemployment, food insecurity, and lack of educational opportunities (Smith 168). Moreover, their needs were excluded from public discourse. This person also believes that not all of the protestors were criminals. Nevertheless, as a person, who occupies a very high social status, she does not accept violence because it can only provoke other conflicts. Thus, she tries to express a balanced opinion on this problem.
On the whole, these examples indicate that the representatives of different social groups may have various opinions on the Los Angeles riots. Some of them wanted to shield themselves against the dangers associated with these events. In turn, other people attempt to evoke sympathy for the protestors.
Smith, Anna. Twilght: Los Angeles, 1992, New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2014. Print.
Westward Expansion and Its Support in the USA Essay
In the 1840s the territory of the United States of America experienced a massive and quick growth. Within only four years the size of the country doubled. Then more lands were annexed. Overall the country grew by about sixty per cent (Haynes, par. 1). This process started to make sociological influences. The United States developed moods and movements that saw this expansion as a political destiny of the country. According to these ideas, the United States was meant to take over the whole continent.
Of course, these moods had opposing forces that were warning about the increasing risk of war with neighboring nations. There also were opinions supporting the imperialist ideas, but stating that military forces were not the right tool to achieve this goal, because other nations and lands would want to join the territory of the United States over time.
The expansion was dictated by the imperialistic moods of the whole world. The United States was not short on lands, yet the annexation of new territories was seen as the only way to survive in the power race of the world and the necessary source of political and economical strength. This is how the concept of Manifest Destiny occurred.
Westward expansion was the reason of the war between Mexico and the Unites States. The annexation of Texas by the US caused arguments over the territories and borders. Texans claimed some of the lands that Mexicans considered as their own. The war lasted for a year and a half, the United States was much more powerful, so as a result, Mexico had to give up more than half of its territory, the peaceful agreement between the two countries stated that the land will be given away for fifteen million dollars plus the sum of debts Mexico owed to the United States. The question of slavery abolition was raised during the expansion, the US government made promises that there will be no slavery on the annexed territories. The arguments over slavery put the beginning to the Civil War in the United States.
The expansion served to unify the nation of the USA, but at the same time it served as a cause of a major conflict between the country’s citizens. First of all, this conflict touched the rich and the poor, the gap between the social classes grew rapidly because of the problems in the crops market and farming. There were too many farm states, which led to overproduction of crops. Besides, the size of the country made the transportation of the crops very expensive and long.
Another aspect of national division of the United States that happened due to the expansion was the conflict between the Native Americans and the non-native citizens. The number of people dwelling on the territory of the United States grew, and because of that reservations were forced to move from their lands. This led to armed confrontations between the non-native military forces and Native Americans.
The process of westward expansion was complicated and massive. It had its advantages and disadvantages. The leaders of the US were hungry for new territories and more power, but they also had to deal with more problems and conflicts that came along with the diverse and multinational population driven by very different needs and interests.
Haynes, Sam. Manifest Destiny. 2006. Web.
Aristocracy Assailed: The Ideology of Backcountry Anti-Federalism Essay (Book Review)
Saul Cornell was an assistant professor of history and a NEH postdoctoral fellow at the Institute of Early American History and Culture, the College of William and Mary1. The creation of the American republic is a part of the author’s interest in history.
Written in 1990, the article attempts to address the anti-federalists’ opposition to the adoption of a new government in the US. The author examines the views of the consensus historians and the attitudes of the anti-federalists towards the idea of American democracy. Cornell also examines the details of the Carlisle Riot that took place in 1788 as well as the position was taken by the anti-federalists and their views on aristocracy2. Cornell was motivated by the need to address the issues raised by the anti-federalists because their contributions have been ignored.
The article was published in the Journal of American History. The language, tone, and style of writing and the expression of ideas are scholarly. It is intended to be used for teaching history at the college and university level. In addition, scholars and researchers in American history are likely to find the work important.
In this article, Cornell discusses the historiography of the subject, citing a number of other authors in history, their work, and opinion on the idea of anti-federalism and the creation of aristocracy in the US. According to the author, the American public, historians, and authors think that the constitution was a natural capstone to the revolution.
However, Cornell disputes this view and criticizes most historians who hold this view. The author states that the view is biased because it attempts to diminish the important views and voices of the anti-federalists3. In particular, Cornell states that the anti-federalists were an important part of American history because their views provided evidence that the constitution and its setting were likely to violate the principles of the revolution.
The article is based on Cornell’s view of the anti-federalists and their contribution to the creation of the American republic. His thesis is based on the argument that the anti-federalists contributed to the creation of the republic by offering an important perspective on the meanings of the revolution and the problems that affected the citizens during the revolution and creation of the republic.
In brief, Cornell states that the white community wanted an aristocratic government with centralized powers funded by a strong process of taxation and supported by a strong military4. On the other hand, the anti-federalists believed that centralized power was associated with corruption and the British Empire, which the revolution had defeated. Thus, Cornell argues that the federalists wanted a government in which voters were free to vote for their representatives in the legislature.
To develop the argument, Cornell has used a good number of primary and secondary materials. He has referred to a number of research articles, books, historical accounts, and individual writings in history. Footnoting has been used to refer to other important works in the history of America, especially in the creation of the republic and the revolution.
I think Cornell’s argument is valid and durable because it is based on historical facts. Cornell’s argument is persuasive because it shows how the anti-federalists contributed significantly to the constitution-making because their campaigns compelled the proponents of the constitution to pass the Bill of Rights, though reluctantly, during the ratification. This means that we should consider the important work of the anti-federalists in our history books.
Cornell, Saul. “Aristocracy Assailed: The ideology of backcountry anti-Federalism.” The Journal of American History 76, no. 4 (1990):1148-1172.
- Saul Cornell, “Aristocracy Assailed: The ideology of backcountry anti-Federalism,” The Journal of American History 76, no. 4 (1990):1148.
- Cornell, 1153
- Cornell, 1156
- Cornell, 1162
Confederate and Federal Government: Factors of Antagonism Essay (Critical Writing)
I am very glad that you have been following the occurrences in our country. Things here are pretty hot, especially because Florida was one of the very first seven states to secede. Federal troops are all over the place, and many important services are not accessible. However, what many people did not know, and I believe you also do not know, is that this fallout was long overdue. The antagonism between the confederacy and the federal government has existed since the 1700s. What you see today is only an eruption of the antagonism. I also understand that people only blame one reason for this fallout, the fight against slavery. However, there are other factors that include state rights, economic differences between the North and the South, the expansion of the abolition movement and the election of Lincoln.1 I will try to explain each of these factors as precisely as possible.
Firstly, the problem began as early as 1793, just after the discovery cotton processing machines.2 The popularity of the machines has been growing over time in the South, leading to the need to invest in cotton plantations due to the ease of separating cotton and its seeds. These plantations necessitated the use of slaves as laborers. On the other hand, the Northerners preferred industrialization: they put all their efforts in developing industries.3 Their industries have employed both blacks and whites, leading to an inclusive culture, which is not the case in the South. Similarly, the industries have led to serious economic and social differences between the North and the South: the economy in the North has been improving while that of the South has been deteriorating. The overall implication of this difference is the agitation for the abolition of slavery by the Northerners and a stout defense of slavery in the South.
The second factor that contributed to the division between the North and the South is the tussle for state and federal rights. Immediately after the success of the American Revolution, our founding fathers formed a federal government and a confederation of state governments to support it.4 A few years later, people such as Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry and John C. Calhoun began agitating for the autonomy of the states.5 On the other hand, the Northerners agitated for the supremacy of the federal government. Over time, the North has maintained its support for the supremacy of the federal government while the South still agitates for state rights. Some problems after the revolution exposed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. Therefore, the leaders had to congregate and develop the US Constitution, which ignored the need for state rights. The Southerners felt neglected and demanded the power to nullify some federal acts, which also did not work. Consequently, they began agitating for secession.
Thirdly, the growth of the abolition movement also contributed to the division. Many people argue that this factor was the biggest cause of the division. Trouble began in 1804 when the North outlawed slave trade.6 Crises arose during the acquisition of new states: the Northerners wanted them to be non-slave, but the Southerners opposed them.7 Several compromises were necessary for suppressing the problem. For example, during the acquisition of Missouri, the House of Representatives passed James Tallmadge’s proposal to amend the admission bill in order to allow the admission but the Senate rejected it.8 The crisis ended through the Missouri-Compromise of 1820: Maine joined the union as a non-slave state in exchange with Missouri. This decision helped solve a representation crisis because there were 11 slave states and 11 non-slave states in the country, and admitting one more to any side would weaken the other.9 Many Northerners continued to raise their concerns about the cannibalism of the Southerners. They used different forms of literature to popularize the abolitionist movement. For example, they spread pictures of the “Whipped Peter” with marks resulting from beatings all over his body. They also reacted very positively to Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852. Some of them even engaged the southerners in violence. A good example was John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry in 1859. The Southerners interpreted such actions as revolting against their way of life.
Finally, the election of Abraham Lincoln has also greatly contributed to this conflict. The Southern states believe that Lincoln is a staunch supporter of anti-slavery.10 Immediately he won the elections, they submitted their Declarations of the Causes of Secession. South Carolina, through a special convention, declared an end to its association with the United States of America, and last month, other six southern states including my state, Florida, joined them.11 The other states include Texas, Georgia, South Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, and Louisiana.12 President Lincoln has ordered federal troops to force our states into the union, but I believe this decision will only aggravate the problem. There is a rumor claiming that four more states: North Carolina, Virginia, Arkansas and Tennessee are also planning to join the confederacy.13 I also hear that the upper southern states do not know whether to join the confederacy or remain faithful to the union. Their main reason for wanting to remain in the union is the belief that the federal government might allow them the right to continue holding their slaves. On the contrary, I believe this wish will never happen because the federal government seems committed to the total emancipation of slaves. These states also fear that joining the confederates might turn them into battlefields between the North and the Lower South.
In summary, the division is not spontaneous. It began as soon as we attained our independence. Our founding fathers had some fundamental differences, which have been growing over the years. They only found an appropriate time to explode. Nonetheless, I support the course of the Confederates because I hate freeing the slaves. For example, here in Florida, we have a total of 61,000 slaves. This number is 85% of the labor force in our cotton plantations. Therefore, we cannot submit to the demands of the North.
There are many shootings out there, and I would like to end here. I am looking forward to meeting you in August in case the conflict ends soon.
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009.
Merrell, James Hart. The Lancaster Treaty of 1744. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008.
Rakove, Jack N. Declaring Rights. Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998.
Vorenberg, Michael. The Emancipation Proclamation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
1. Jacobs Harriet, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. (Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009), 20.
2. Merrell James Hart, The Lancaster Treaty of 1744.( Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s) 2008, 6.
3. Rakove Jack N, Declaring Rights.( Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998), 12
4. Rakove Jack N, Declaring Rights.( Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998), 14.
5. Rakove Jack N, Declaring Rights.( Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998), 11.
6. Jacobs Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. (Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009), 26.
7. Merrell James Hart. The Lancaster Treaty of 1744. (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008), 8.
8. Rakove, Jack N. Declaring Rights. (Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998), 9.
9. Rakove, Jack N. Declaring Rights. (Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998), 6.
10. Vorenberg Michael. The Emancipation Proclamation. (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 5.
11. Rakove Jack N. Declaring Rights. (Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998), 7.
12. Rakove Jack N. Declaring Rights. Boston. ( MA: Bedford Books, 1998), 9.
13. Rakove, Jack N. Declaring Rights. Boston, MA: Bedford Books, 1998.
The United States People During 1920-2000 Essay
While orienting to gaining the material resources and economic benefits and to stating the position of the superpower in the world, it is possible to shift the attention from the moral norms to the economic and social competition. This statement can be used to describe the situation in the United States during the period of 1920-2000. The First World War made the Americans re-think their vision of stability and development, but the back side effect of the process was the mainly hidden decline in the values, beliefs, and norms. Thus, the people of the United States persuaded the world that they were the great power, but they presented their soul and beliefs in return because the US argument was based on developing the military potential, supporting wars, provoking discrimination and inequality, and violating the people’s morality for economic rewards.
The First World War was only one step in developing the military and political competition between the world nations. In 1939, the competition started again, and the United States joined the struggle while opposing the powers of Germany and Japan. The development of the wartime technology and the focus on the military-industrial production accentuated the Americans’ concentration on the political ideals instead of social ones. Thus, the West Coast attracted millions of the Americans to work in the military industries (Foner 683).
However, the main evidence to support the idea of shifting the norms and ideals is the development of the Manhattan Project. The use of the atomic bomb to attack the Japanese Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August of 1945 was the controversial argument to state the power of the United States because of ignoring the value of the human life (Foner 701). The development of the military potential could not contribute to the people’s spirituality.
Nevertheless, World War II ended, and the people of the United States found themselves involved in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and even the Cold War. The United States promoted their democratic ideas in South Korea against the communist ideas in North Korea, but the main tool was the war (Foner 715). The scenario of the military involvement was also chosen in Vietnam in the 1960s (Foner 752). The Cold War became the symbol of the hidden military and obvious political opposition.
The Americans can also be discussed as losing their souls because of promoting discrimination and inequality in the society. The new start of Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s meant that the Americans were not ready to state the idea of equality for all the members of the US society (Foner 624).
Furthermore, the inequality was supported even with the New Deal because the focus on the gender, age, and race meant the actual limitation of the persons’ rights associated with the disenfranchisement in the South and the rights of unemployed blacks (Foner 660-661). Such problems as the Little Rock Crisis supported that idea that the active development of the movement for the rights of the discriminated social categories was necessary (Foner 761). Black persons remained to be the most vulnerable members of the society, and the economic prosperity did not contribute to coping with inequality.
People’s moral values become extremely violated in the 1990s when computerization changed the people’s vision of the world and the role of the family decreased. Computerization and a progress of the Internet in the 1990s provoked the appearance of the generation of ‘netizens’ living in the cyberspace (Foner 854). This cyber revolution also affected the people’s ‘soul’ and morality. The era of divorces and the decline of traditional marriages started because 50% of marriages ended in divorces, and the people began to choose living alone while ignoring the traditional family values (Foner 866). People became valuing economic benefits higher than the ethical ones.
In spite of the provided arguments, it is possible to state that the Americans opposed the violation of the moral norms, ethics, and beliefs significantly because of promoting the Civil Rights Movement, fighting the discrimination, and declaring the people’s liberties. Thus, the Civil Rights Movement is the main feature of the 1960s because it led to stating the rights of blacks and women and to coping with the social segregation (Foner 773).
The next step was the promotion of the ‘affirmative action’ programs to support discriminated people (Foner 809). Much attention was also paid to ceasing the war in Vietnam as the threat to the people’s lives (Foner 813). However, the problem is in the fact that all these activities worked to overcome the consequences of the focus on economic prosperity of the nation as the superpower, and they emphasized the problems typical for the US society.
From this point, the Americans completed the challenging journey to the progress and to the status of the superpower. However, the price for the success was the violation of ethics and moral norms. The focus on the military tools, war, and destruction cannot be discussed as the way to achieve the prosperity in relation to the nation’s social, spiritual, and cultural life. That is why, the US citizens can be considered as partially losing their souls for receiving the other benefits.
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty! New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company. Print.
History of Higher Education for African Americans Report (Assessment)
Difficulties in Accessing Higher Education
Before the civil war, my access to higher education was limited because all blacks were slaves. As slaves, we were part of the property owned by our white masters. Therefore, we could not enjoy any of the elementary rights that other citizens enjoyed. We were not allowed to vote, go to school, or even walk freely around the country. That was the reason we did not access education by the early 1800s. The situation worsened when laws were passed in 1829, outlawing blacks from participating in all matters of formal education.
Even if I had the opportunity to participate in higher education, I could not have managed to take advantage of it since it was expensive, and I would have nothing to eat after school. None of the black families, especially in the South, owned anything or was wealthy enough to pay their school fees. Worse still, we always worked for our food. Therefore, going to school would bring about starvation.
In the late 1800s, many things changed in favor of blacks. Laws were passed, allowing us to vote and go to school. We were also triumphal when we got our freedom after the civil war. When we were granted freedom in 1865, many schools were opened throughout the country, specifically for freedmen. In addition, missionaries and other philanthropic groups volunteered to support our education. They taught us in schools and gave us financial support for our school fees. The Morrill Acts also gave us a huge opportunity to access a college education. Many colleges were opened, and we were admitted. The formation of the Freedmen’s Bureau was also very crucial in helping us access a college education. It catered for all our college needs.
Institutions of higher learning have radically changed. At the moment, they admit blacks as both students and employees. We can now access education and job opportunities. Many of my friends have been employed as cooks, tutors, and gardeners.
I am likely to participate in higher education because I want to use my hard-earned freedom to motivate my fellow freedmen. I am sure participating in higher education as a tutor will be a brilliant way to motivate other blacks who still believe they are not good enough for higher education.
Cities in the United States’ History Term Paper
Environmental Protection, Historic Preservation, and Gentrification
Key Values and Ideals
After decades of environmental pollution and degradation, Americans decided to revitalize their approach towards environmental protection during the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century (Bryant and McGee 46). From district headquarters to national levels, government sectors of America merged and combined their efforts towards protecting the environment using environmental protection policies, gentrification approaches, and historic preservation strategies. Environmental protection refers to strategies used in safeguarding the natural environment from any physical harm to benefit humans and other inhabitants. Comparatively, gentrification is the process by which wealthy individuals or inhabitants migrate to uninhabited areas and dominate with a view of making a socioeconomic impact (Bryant and McGee 47). Historic preservation comprises private or public efforts tailored towards preserving and restoring historical land features, artistic values on the landscape, and cultural dimensions of land inhabited. All these movements had specific aims and ideal values towards the planning of urban space.
The greatest aim of revitalizing the urban landscape was to provide a favorable human environment where people could manage to dwell in clean towns, enjoy infrastructural growth, and live in a natural atmosphere (Bryant and McGee 51). The three movements, namely, environmental protection, historic preservation, and gentrification, had key values and ideals for urban development in America. A key-value associated with the historic preservation of the American urban landscape was to meet the preservation challenges that hampered the promotion, protection, and development of a sustainable urban environment with cultural picturesque. Historic preservation through maintenance of cultural land elements, artistic landscape features, and other historical artifacts in modern urban design hinged upon the aim of providing balanced modern development of towns (Bryant and McGee 53). Historic preservation also aimed to protect cultural values, while providing tenancy, leadership, and education aimed to promote socioeconomic equality.
The gentrification approach has almost similar values and ideals with historic preservation and environmental protection movements towards the urbanization process and human welfare. When wealthy investors moved into uninhabited local areas and renovated the housing systems into modern urban planning, the socioeconomic statuses of these remote areas changed (Bryant and McGee 62). Gentrification movement aimed at improving the living standards of people within local suburbs, renovating countryside areas into urban zones, and providing sustainable urban development. Similarly, environmental protection is the movement that generally targeted to improve human and animal lives through the protection of marine life, air and water resources, and wildlife or other components of flora and fauna (Bryant and McGee 100). Such perception means that the three movements typically aimed at providing the urban environment, which promoted environmental protection, socioeconomic equality, respect to the cultural landscape, and maintenance of prehistoric artifacts.
Benefits to Urban Development
The three movements aimed at promoting sustainable urban growth that respects human welfare, socioeconomic equity, wildlife preservation, maintenance of air and water quality, and sustenance of cultural values, including preservation of historical artifacts, was beneficial to urban development (Bryant and McGee 113). The beneficial aspect of urban development is the effort of these movements in enabling robust economic development that seemed essential to modern living. Well-maintained prehistoric urban artifacts, buildings, and places were sources of revenues as they offered tourism sites that provided employment opportunities to residents. According to Bryant and McGee, urban planning resulted in the attraction of corporate investors, business tycoons, and multinational companies to invest in America and provide economic growth opportunities (47). Investors, who set up businesses in the United States like real estate business or sustainable atmosphere due to the attraction by the growth of tourism provided employment opportunities to American workers.
The booming real estate business prompted businesspersons to migrate into America in search of commercial spaces to operate their businesses, which subsequently generated revenues to the government through the taxation process. The improved infrastructure that eased transport made it easy for internal and cross border trade to operate effectively. Bryant and McGee note that trade, tourism, industries, and real estate businesses provided substantial sources of income, which emanated from proper environmental protection, gentrification, and historic preservation measures (57). Urban pioneers financed urbanely renovated buildings, concrete skyscrapers, prestigious offices, commercial buildings, and residential space that attracted wealthy city dwellers, who acted as sources of employment and government revenues. Bryant and McGee (73) state that despite bringing lucrative benefits to the economic expansion of America, the movements that aimed at providing sustainable urban planning prompted several criticisms regarding equitable human survival.
The three movements towards urban growth resulted in socioeconomic inequalities, and thus, proving challenging to low-income earners in America. These movements are sources of displacement of economically weak persons. Bryant and McGee assert that “displacement of long-time and low- and moderate-income neighborhood residents by middle- to upper-income newcomers occurs as rehabilitation fever sweeps across a quaint neighborhood” (52). Business tycoons gradually convert affordable rental houses to luxurious bungalows, condominiums, or large commercial and residential houses only meant for upper-class dwellers. The conversion means that newcomers displaced and replaced the minorities with low income and unemployed persons, who were original inhabitants (Bryant and McGee 62). The cost of urban maintenance exceeded urban planning as industrial sewage treatment, protection of minority rights, national security, wildlife conservation, mitigation of air pollution, and maintenance of city population proved to be very costly.
Different ways Americans regulated, imagined and traversed their cities in the 20th century
Migration and immigration wave of activities in the United States are amongst the most remarkable moments of the American history that made America receive a new name as a state of immigrants. Historically known as the city of gold and good life fortunes, the United States urban history in the 20th century initially began with these two major assumptions (Martin and Midgley 4). After immigrants took positions within certain regions and borders, a new wave of immigration suddenly began at the end of the 19th century, when urban planning and development started dominating major cities. According to Martin and Midgley, even after the invasion of immigrants into regions of America, the United States remained predominately rural until when residential and commercial electrification heightened within towns (10). Urban industrialization and urban city planning created room for Americans to leave their rural suburbs and began rural-urban migration.
Industrialization and urban planning was probably the major cause of emigration movements that Americans practiced during the 20th century. While agricultural labor demand in the rural areas decreased dramatically, urban planning and integration of modern industries acted as a rapid source of economic growth in the United States and consequently stimulated rural-urban migration (Martin and Midgley 7). The pace of rural development during the 20th century was comparatively low as casual agricultural jobs in the rural suburbs decreased tremendously, and subsequently forced people to traverse urban centers in search of industrial vacancies. Teitz and Chapple state that the American city planners during the second half of the twentieth century had started discovering means of structuring, planning, and constructing urban cities and towns (35). The designs would accommodate the economic and business needs of city dwellers, merchants, and upcoming businesspersons.
As residential electrification continued to be slow within the rural centers of America and people discovered the new opportunities that industrialization and urban planning had provided, the quest for rural-urban migration enhanced (Teitz and Chapple 33). Early technologies and discoveries of new construction techniques, which involved the use of steel frames, concrete, and iron, as new technologies of building impelled people to admire the urban planning. The condition of farming in the local suburbs was worsening as unpredictable climate, atmospheric imbalances, and natural catastrophes discouraged farming, especially within the southern parts of America (Teitz and Chapple 43). A typical situation that explains the cause of the 20th-century urban migration was the plight of the poor Black American farmers, whose urban exodus marked an important part of African American history. The Blacks occupied parts of South America, where farming gradually dwindled.
The 20th century in America saw the nation divided into two distinct parts of agricultural and industrial activities. The northern part grew industrially, while the rural southern regions of the poor minorities struggled to pursue agriculture. According to Martin and Midgley, peasant farmers within South America experienced remarkable farming challenges such as falling prices of commercial crops, droughts, floods, and discrimination during the period of 1910-1915 (15). The Southerners faced discrimination from the regime of Jim Crow, which imposed laws of segregating African Americans on basic amenities such as schools, hospitals, railroads, restaurants, and hotel services (Martin and Midgley 19). The literacy test laws, which were preconditions for African Americans to qualify for voting exercise, hampered the efforts of them from exercising their political rights of voting. During this era, the northern industries were performing incredibly with a great economic boom.
When it approached the 1930s, Europe was increasingly making demands for weaponry goods from America that seemed to have gained an economic stance in its northern cities compared to other neighboring nations (Teitz and Chapple 38). The demand for labor augmented in the economically stable northern industries that could no longer rely on either natives or Europeans for labor fulfillment. The African Americans, Spanish Americans, Latinos, and other minority communities saw the need to traverse the northern cities and explore the vacant work opportunities that the northern industries offered (Teitz and Chapple 51). Comparatively, while farm laborers could only make between 50 cents to $2 as their daily wages, workers employed in the booming northern industries could lucratively make about $2 to $5 as their daily wages.
Omaha was a northern city that experienced dramatic urban and industrial growth. From a small population of Blacks in the 1900s relative to thousands of Whites, who occupied Omaha, the number grew to thousands of Blacks, who fled their devastating south to seek employment in the northern regions (Martin and Midgley 32). The White industrial workers had discovered the demand for a skilled workforce, and they started demanding better wages through their organized unions. New immigrants to the urbanized and industrialized North America, including most of the minority communities, became excited with such developments as companies noticed that these groups were finally willing to become replacement workers (Martin and Midgley 41). The recruitment laws tailored against minority groups in the southern parts of American became ineffective in the northern industrialized zone, where labor demands were incessant. Conclusively, the economic pressure that urban planning and industrialization brought to America was significant to explain the rural-urban movements of Americans.
Bryant, Donald and Henry McGee. “Gentrification and the Law: Combating Urban Displacement.” Journal of Urban and Contemporary Law 25.1(1983):46-65. Print.
Martin, Philip and Elizabeth Midgley. “Immigration: Shaping and Reshaping America.” Population Bulletin 58.2 (2003): 1-44. Print.
Teitz, Michael, and Karen Chapple. “The Causes of Inner-City Poverty: Eight Hypotheses in Search of Reality.” A Journal of Policy Development and Research 3.3 (1998): 33-70. Print.
The Emancipation Proclamation and US Economics Report
The origin of the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the progressive movement in the North. It began as a social movement within various local areas, which slowly progressed towards the national level. It attempted to address issues such as poverty and the treatment of slaves under the assumption that most of society’s problems could actually be “fixed” by initiating social and political reforms.
For those in the South, their rural agricultural culture was entwined significantly with the concept of slave labor. This means that the use of slaves, their presence in society as well as the general attitude of people towards them was an indelible aspect of who they were as compared to the North. It is due to this that when the North proposed freedom of slaves, the South violently reacted since it would have denied them an aspect of their culture.
The involvement of the South in the slave trade came as a result of three distinct factors: the expansion of the U.S. into new territories, the need for manpower in order to operate newly established farms, and the economics of free labor that came with owning a slave. Basically, the slave trade was merely the result of economics at work wherein the demand for labor was supplied with slaves captured from Africa. Behind the continued use of the slave trade in the South was the overwhelming demand of Europe for cheap sugar exports wherein slave labor was the means by which the South was able to meet the demand for its products.
Seeing males, females, and children brought from the ships chained and shackled to each other and sold on an open block was often viewed negatively by various colonial residents as such slave ports needed to be located in areas where the processes behind slavery were not immediately seen. This was one of the reasons why the Civil War started in the first place since there was a difference of opinion regarding the morality of treating human beings like cattle.
The Economics Behind the Use of Slaves
The economics of the slave trade focused around the perceived cost of production without slaves and the actual cost of production with slaves.
The Importance of Slave Labor to the South
The various plantations in the South primarily relied on slave labor as a form of manpower in order to produce various agricultural products such as cotton, which was then subsequently shipped off to other countries around the world.
As the South expanded, so did the number of its farms and communities, which produced primarily agricultural goods to be shipped to Europe and other regions. The inherent problem with this scenario lies with the fact that agricultural operations require extensive amounts of manpower in order to properly grow crops, which, unfortunately, the various colonies lacked.
The actual cost of a product with slaves is exponentially lower since slaves are not paid wages, and the cost required for keeping them sheltered and fed is much lower as compared to hiring the same amount of people to do the same type of work.
Profit and Slave Labor
In terms of profitability, slave labor resulted in considerable profits for various sectors in the Fledgling American economy, which contributed immensely towards its growth.
Slave owners often reached profit margins exceeding 20 to 50% on most trips due to the amounts made from the sale of goods traded for slaves (Austin 61). However, despite the inherent benefits associated with the practice, it was the way in which the slaves were treated and the various stories of torture and abuse coming from escaped slaves from the South that caused a cultural and political divide that created the initial division between the North and the South.
The Origin of the Emancipation Proclamation and the start of the Civil War
Since slaves were not paid for their services, the South able to sell products at a lower cost. The lack of slave labor when the emancipation proclamation was put into effect translated into rising costs for agricultural products, which severely affected the South.
One of the main differences between the North and the South involved the trade of products such as cotton, sugar, molasses, rum, tobacco, basically any manner of agricultural product. These products from the South (created through the slave trade) were then subsequently shipped back to various European countries. The reason why such products are grown outside of Europe instead of within Europe itself is based on the fact that it is simply cheaper and easier to grow such crops in the U.S. rather than in Europe. This is based on the land being much more fertile, having a more constant temperature, and the fact that slaves can be easily brought in to grow crops.
Understanding the Differences in Economic Development
The two regions diverged when it came to the concept of manpower and its place in the grand scheme of production. One focused almost primarily on agricultural production while the other developed its industrial capacity.
Dependence on Slaves
Plantations that did not use slaves in the South could not compete with the prices of their counterparts that did. As a result of basic economics, plantations simply chose to utilize slave labor because of their inherent cost-saving measures. The dependence of the region on slave labor was due to its lack of focus on mechanized production as compared to the North and, as such, had to entirely rely on slaves as their primary method of production
Aside from utilizing slaves as a workforce, the South also actively sold slaves to other places around the world where slavery was still considered legal. Thus, with its plethora of valuable slaves, large plantations, and arable land, the wealth of the South was inextricably linked to the practice of slavery. Based on value alone, the sheer number of slaves in the South actually eclipsed the value of all the railroad’s banks and businesses within the North combined due to slaves effectively being viewed as commodities instead of people.
Industrial Nature of the North
The industrial North focused more on processed goods and products, which enabled them to be more independent of a trade centered on agricultural products.
Due to greater levels of efficiency, the North actually accounted for more than half of the country’s corn products, 4/5ths of its wheat, and 7/8ths of its oat production. This shows that despite the level of importance placed on slave labor, mechanized production methods were superior. Just as modern-day processing creates industrial products that are worth more than agricultural goods, the same aspect was also present at the time wherein products from the North were more expensive and sought after as compared to products from the South.
Economic Impact of the Emancipation Proclamation
Economic Impact of the Emancipation Proclamation on the North
The economic impact of the emancipation proclamation on the North was actually more positive since slavery was not widely utilized in the region.
With the devastation of the economy in the South, this enabled farms and industries in the North to “pick up the slack” so to speak when it came to international trade. Exports of cotton and processed materials boomed in the North, resulting in a considerable expansion of the region’s economy. It should also be noted that through the emancipation proclamation, the U.S. was effectively cast in a new and more positive light by the various European countries that had similarly abolished slavery resulting in the creation of more trade agreements. This yielded even greater wealth for the North, which enabled it to recover quite quickly from the ill effects it had suffered during the Civil War.
It is also important to note that while the North had a smaller agricultural sector as compared to the South, it actually outpaced the production of the latter by 17 times when it came to cotton and woolen textiles production. While the increase in labor cost was understandable after the Civil War was over, given the change in production methods (i.e., no slaves), what must be understood is that the South did not account for the entirety of the nation’s production of agricultural products and, as such, could not unilaterally raise the price of the products to such an extent that it would make up for the increased cost of production. The end result was that the South had a great deal of difficulty recovering economically from the end of the war whereas the North’s industrial and agricultural industries were barely affected
Economic Impact of the Emancipation Proclamation on the South
The economic impact of the emancipation proclamation on the southern states after the war was the subsequent increase in the cost of labor associated with growing essential agricultural products and exported goods.
Slavery, in essence, acted as a form of subsidy for southern plantation owners due to the lower cost of labor. With slaves effectively-being freed from the control of the plantation owners, this created a considerable lack of manpower for the South, which prevented its economic recovery from progressing. The sale of agricultural goods in the South that came as a result of free labor in the region through the purchase of slaves actually made the price of basic commodities far cheaper than what they should have been. This, of course, directly benefited the consumers in the South and contributed to the expansion of their consumerist society. However, once the Civil War ended, the South found itself in a situation where there was subsequent rapid inflation of prices, which severely curtailed its capacity to recover economically.
Economic Correlation between Slavery and the Civil War
One of the primary justifications the South had in continuing the Civil War was connected to the high price of cotton and the value of slaves in the global market at the time
The distinct lack of mechanized industrial processes in the region resulted in agricultural operations requiring extensive amounts of manpower (i.e., slave labor) in order to properly grow crops. Thus, the Emancipation Proclamation was, in effect, interpreted by people in the South as an affront to their wealth and businesses due to their dependence on slave labor practices. Once the Civil War was over, the economic dependence that the South had on the use of slaves manifested itself in the form of a declining economy. The South simply did not have sufficient alternative measures in place to deal with the possibility that slave labor would no longer be available to them.
One of the main reasons behind the different economic effects of the Emancipation Proclamation between the North and the South was the level of economic dependence the latter had on the slave trade.
- The South relied heavily on slaves as a means of cheap labor, while the North utilized advanced farming methods in order to grow crops because.
- The North focused on the use of mechanized industrial processes; this enabled the North to far outpace the South when it came to production due to greater levels of efficiency.
The economic differences between the regions resulted in more people being interested in migrating to the North, and, as a result, this further impacted the capacity of the South to recover economically. It was due to this that when the Emancipation Proclamation was announced along with their defeat during the Civil War, this, in effect, wiped out large portions of the South’s wealth.
Old-New World Exchanges and Influences on Peoples Essay
The discovery of America is considered as the main event, which contributed to the development of the Old and New Worlds. It is evident that it played a significant role in the world history and contributed to the development of the global trade, internationalization, and multiculturalism. Despite being uncertain and risky, the discovery of America is of a high significance and contributed to the development of the world trade, globalization, and innovation by introducing new products, starting the colonization period, acquiring of the natural resources, necessity to develop new vaccines and medicines, development of new religious doctrines, and establishment of new trade routes. The primary goal of this essay is to evaluate Old and New World exchanges, determine the effect on various social cohorts, and assess the impact on the development of the lifestyle of the average workers in colonies. In the end, the conclusions are drawn to determine the importance of the event to the global economy and society.
Old and New World Exchanges
Firstly, the Old and New world have to exchange knowledge and lifestyle to continue their sustainable existence. First, aspect is the Colombian exchange since it contributed to the globalization of food and cultivation of the agricultural cultures such as tomatoes in Europe (Boivin, 2012). In turn, the domestic animals, which were transported from Europe, were actively grown in the New World. It is evident that this aspect was a principal contributor to the development of the international trade and globalization. In this instance, the food exchange was beneficial to the world economy and allowed having an efficient distribution of the resources in the world.
Another aspect is the fact that Columbus discovery contributed to the colonization period, which was beneficial to Europe. In this instance, it is apparent that the countries were discovering the new territories rapidly to improve their dominance in the world. It is evident that this fact contributed to the migration to the new land (Powell, 2009). Nonetheless, migration allowed empowering internationalization on the American continent, as representatives of various cultures and ethnicities traveled to the new land to discover new opportunities. Consequently, colonization and migration were the first steps for the introduction of the United States of America, as an extremely international country with numerous opportunities.
Lastly, the Old World acquired the natural resources from the discovery of the American land such as gold. It is apparent that this aspect contributed to the development and advancement of the European treasuries and reserves. Moreover, it was one of the principal drivers for the development of the economic stability in Europe. In turn, the New World gained the ability to trade its products with the rest of the world due to the development of the routes. Development of trusting relationships on the international trade market allowed a sufficient exchange of goods and services in the world.
Groups, Which Were Affected by the Event
The social and cultural groups were affected in the New and Old Worlds. One of them is indigenous people, as they lost their rights to their land and control of their lives (Miller, 2005). Consequently, their lifestyle did not exist anymore, and it can be associated with slavery. It could be said that this factor is rather negative, as the conflict between the newcomers and indigenous people still have a tendency to exist. Nonetheless, it is evident that the discovery of the New World can be beneficial from all perspectives, and have to have some drawbacks.
Another group is Puritans, as their migration affected their religious views and made them believe that indigenous people were closely related to the Jerusalem (Weir, 2014). Moreover, their lifestyle changed since they decided to amend the location of living and adapt to the new environment. It could be said that in this instance, the discovery of the New World contributed to the development of different religious views and dogmas, as several ethnicities have to coexist in the same territory. It is evident that in this case, this aspect allowed cultivating principles of internationalization and multiculturalism in the New and Old Worlds.
Moreover, the European farmers were affected by the discovery, as they actively participated in food production and destitution. It is evident that the Columbian exchange helped explore and develop the system for the growth of new vegetables such as tomatoes and corn. They have to adapt their thinking and develop new planting approaches. It is apparent that the discovery positive influenced the agriculture and the food distribution, as the flexibility and ability to adapt new techniques were essentialities for enhancing the revenues and ability to avoid the shortage of products in the word.
Furthermore, the European traders also were vehemently influenced by the development of the new routes and discovery of America. It is evident that their traveling paths had changed, as now they were obliged to travel to America. It is apparent that this action was an essentiality since the New World was fulfilled with opportunities and had a high market potential. Nonetheless, the traveling distances became longer. Consequently, the traders had to be prepared to spend more time on the ship. Moreover, they have to be prepared to carry higher volumes of goods due to the intensified trade between the continents. Nonetheless, it is evident that their lifestyles were affected in a positive way, as the changes contributed to the generation of the higher revenues.
Lastly, the lifestyle of the medical personnel was affected since they globalization and continuous exchange led to the transportation of various diseases (Nunn & Qian, 2010). It seems that this aspect has only a negative impact, as a significant percentage of the European population died due to the unknown reasons. However, it is apparent that the new vaccines needed to be developed. Moreover, the doctors had to adapt to the treatment of the patients with unexplained symptoms. In the end, it could be said that the discovery contributed to the enhancement of the medical treatment and preparation to the uncertain situation related to the medical issues.
The Ways the Creation of Global Trade Routes Affected the Lifestyle of Average Working American in the Colonies
The establishment of the new routes affected the occupation and lifestyles of the average working Americans in the colonies. Firstly, the trade was intensified since the products were transported to the further distances. In this instance, more time of the average working American had to be devoted to the packaging, as the transported vegetables have a tendency to spoil rapidly. It could be said that this aspect contributed to the ability to schedule efficiently and maintain the quality of the products on the same level after the transportation.
Secondly, higher volumes of goods were transported due to intensified trade and longer time, which is required for transportation. It is evident that this aspect contributed to the economic growth of the region (Newell, 2008). In this instance, more workers were assigned to unload and load more ships than before. It could be concluded that in this case, the workers had less time for their hobbies or performed the duties more efficient to be able to have a rest. This aspect contributed to the development of a particular trait such as self-organization and responsibility.
Thirdly, the maritime routes were dominating since the transportation of the goods have to be done between two continents, which are separated by the ocean (Hatfield, 2007). In this instance, the colonial workers have to adapt to the remote mode of transportation. It is evident that they have to devote more time to the structuring the bulks of goods in the ships. In this case, critical thinking was involved, as it required loading the ships efficiently. In this instance, this feature assisted in the development of the critical thinking and ability to find a solution to more severe problems.
Moreover, the new trade routes contributed to the development of internationalization since the workers had a tendency to meet the traders from the foreign cultures. It is evident that they have to communicate more and be able to express their thoughts to the foreigners. Additionally, they had a tendency to adopt new traditions and become more educated regarding the other countries and their cultures. It is evident that in this case, the workers were becoming more knowledgeable about the world and wanting to share their views with their family members.
Lastly, the workers had a tendency to discover new goods since the variety of the transported products was continuously extending. In this case, the workers had a chance to explore different innovations and inventions and adapt them to their lives. Despite having a monotonous job, it could be said that their lives started being filled with the joy, as they were able to discover new cultures and languages continuously. In the end, all of the aspects contributed to the globalization of culture, trade, innovation, and social perspectives. It is evident that the changes had that positive influence on the lifestyle of the workers and contributed to the development of the necessary skills.
In conclusion, it could be said that the significance of the Colombian discovery is high, as it contributed to the development of internationalization and globalization concerning culture, innovation, inventions, religion, and trade. It is evident that it played a significant role in the formulation of the global economy, appearance of multiculturalism, and internationalization in the world. Additionally, it had a strong influence on the elaboration of the personal traits of the workers, which were necessary for the efficient performance of tasks. Furthermore, it is apparent that the discovery contributed to the developments, discoveries, and innovation in the medical sphere. Nonetheless, the primary drawbacks are the inability to indigenous people to adapt to changes and presence of the lack of understanding of their culture by newcomers. Nevertheless, this discovery contributed to the development of the United States of America, which is a significant player in global economy and politics.
Boivin, N. (2012). Old world globalization and Columbia exchange. World Archaeology, 44(3), 452.
Hatfield, A. (2007). Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial relations in seventeenth century. Philadelphia, PA: The University of Pennsylvania Press.
Miller, R. (2005). Discovering indigenous lands: The doctrine of discovery in the English colonies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Newell, M. (2008). Economy. In D. Vickers (Eds.), A companion to colonial America (pp. 172-193). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.
Nunn, N., & Qian, N. (2010). The Colombian exchange: The history of disease, food, and ideas. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(2), 163-188.
Powell, J. (2009). Encyclopaedia of North American immigration. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc.
Weir, D. (2014). Francis J. Bremer. Building a new Jerusalem: John Davenport, a Puritan in three worlds. The American Historical Review, 119(2), 514-515.
Watergate Scandal: Nixon’s Critics and Defense Report
In Defense of Richard Nixon
This article explores a statement written by Dean Burch who was a special assistant to President Richard Nixon. The statement was written as a response to calls for Nixon’s resignation for his involvement in the Watergate scandal. The author starts by expressing his dissatisfaction with the reaction of Chicago Tribune’s editors who wanted Nixon to resign. The response is unexpected because the newspaper is respected by many Americans. The decision made by the editors cannot be ignored because they have a right to give their opinions. However, the process used to arrive at that decision should be closely scrutinized.
The editors stated that their decision was informed by revelations made in the White House transcripts that were released after the scandal. Their perceptions and expectations of the President changed after reading the transcripts. The information contained in the conversations contradicted the character displayed by Nixon in public. The author disagrees with that conclusion because in his opinion, the President was trying to explore different avenues in order to find out the truth regarding the Watergate scandal. He was trying to obey the law, keep public interests in mind, and protect the reputation of his officials (Burch, 1974).
The scandal was critical to the stability of the United States and therefore he had to proceed cautiously and act creatively. Moreover, he had to protect the presidency and the nation. The actions of the President were right with regard to the context in which they were performed. Decision-making is difficult especially in high levels of government. Therefore, Nixon did what was right for the country (Burch, 1974). The author agrees that certain revelations in the transcripts undermined Nixon’s values. However, proper understanding of the challenges and requirements of the presidency could help to understand why certain decisions were made.
Nixon’s reactions were not contrary to his character but mere reflections of the need for strong and flexible leadership (Burch, 1974). The decision made by the Chicago Tribune’s editors was biased because it was based on selective conversations that did not reflect the Nixon’s stand on America’s foreign and domestic policy. There are other conversations that reflect the president’s readiness to improve the lives of American citizens and enhance the effectiveness of the country’s foreign policy. Nixon might have acted irrationally and made some mistakes. However, his weaknesses are not a good enough reason for his impeachment.
The author of the article protects Nixon and faults the decision made by the Chicago Tribune’s editors. The views of the author are biased because he considers only one side of the issue. He agrees that the president could have made some mistakes. However, the author argues that Nixon’s role as the president allowed for strong and flexible leadership. The views might impact the reader’s understanding of the Watergate crisis in a negative way because he focuses on arguments that serve to defend the President. There is little mention of the irrational decisions made or any direct involvement. It is important for the reader to get a balanced perspective in order to understand the crisis properly. The defensive approach adopted by the author does not furnish the reader with information that enhances proper understanding of the issue. It is easy for the reader to absolve Nixon of any wrongdoing based on the author’s views.
Watergate: the unfinished business
This article criticizes President Nixon’s involvement and approach to the Watergate scandal. The author finds fault with Nixon’s speech that did not address his unethical behavior of lying and evading the scrutiny of the public and media that went on for many months. The President’s intention is to avoid the scandal altogether and hand over the matter to the courts. The author finds Nixon’s intentions of handing over the matter to the same institutions that should prosecute him ironical (Watergate, 1973). There are questions regarding whether he violated criminal laws with his involvement in the Watergate crisis.
The public needs to have trust and confidence in its leaders and a belief that the people elected into office will not break the law and corrupt government institutions. The author argues that Nixon’s speech did not convince the public that his administration was telling the truth and was not corrupting government institutions. According to the article, the Nixon did the least of what was expected of him as the president like accepting the resignation of two aides and Attorney General Kleindienst, appointment of a new attorney general, and dismissal of White house Counsel John Dean (Watergate, 1973).
These actions did not express the president’s willingness to conduct independent and unbiased investigations into the scandal. The speech did not say whether a special prosecutor would be appointed to conduct investigations (Watergate, 1973). However, the author commends him for taking responsibility for the actions of his officials and acknowledging the existence of the crisis that occurred under his watch. Nixon blamed the press and the courts for revealing sensitive information that his administration meant to keep private. There is need for an independent and transparent investigation into the scandal and drastic changes in the executive branch of the government in order to restore public’s trust and confidence.
The author takes a critical perspective in presenting personal views about the Watergate scandal as well as Nixon’s response. He does not defend the president but criticizes his evasive approach of addressing the situation. The article is not biased and addresses the issue openly and critically. The author’s views might impact the reader’s understanding of the Watergate scandal in a negative way because they heap the blame on Nixon primarily because the scandal was started and perpetuated by his administration. The author does not acknowledge that there were many other officials who were involved in the scandal and they should also be blamed for engaging in criminal activities. The author’s views might make the reader hate Nixon and lose confidence in his ability and willingness to address the issue appropriately.
How the Watergate scandal changed the public’s view of politics and politicians
The Watergate scandal changed the public’s view of politics and politicians because it revealed the many conspiracies and criminal activities that politicians engage in. In addition, the public lost confidence and trust in politicians because of their propensity to lie and corrupt government institutions in order to have their way (Olson, 2003). For example, President Nixon tried to stop the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Criminal Investigation Agency (CIA) from investigating the scandal (Zelizer, 2014). According to Nixon, it was part of a national security operation. After the scandal subsided, many people avoided joining politics because they were not willing to subject themselves to political indignities that the Nixon administration had engaged in and perpetuated.
People lost faith in their leaders’ abilities to protect government institutions and protect the constitution (Finney, 2012). The scandal made the public skeptical and cynical about government operations as well as the legality of some of its activities (Zelizer, 2014). Nixon corrupted the belief that presidents are ethical, honest, trustworthy, and great people. The crisis began an era that was characterized by cynicism and doubts regarding the morality of political leaders. People began to take the words of politicians with great caution because they doubted their authenticity (Anderson, 2006). On the other hand, the scandal gave politics a bad name and as a result many people avoided running for public offices (Zelizer, 2014). The Watergate crisis changed journalism because it led to the emergence of investigative journalism. Media houses changed their coverage of politicians and began focusing more on their weaknesses and private lives.
The press started focusing on the negative aspects of political leadership because of the loss of trust and confidence in elected leaders. The revelations made regarding the scandal eroded the trust that voters had on their elected officials (Finney, 2012). People began to believe the many denigrating arguments that were made against government, politics, and politicians. Today, politicians find it very difficult to convince voters that they will protect government institutions and the constitution from corruption by the unethical and criminal actions of government officials. Many people now consider politics to be a reserve of unethical people who run for public offices only for personal gains (Olson, 2003).
Watergate and the age of social media and Watergate
The Watergate scandal happened at a period when technology was not well developed and social media was nonexistent. If it were to happen in today’s society, its coverage would be better because people would have access to detailed and timely information. They would use their smartphones to create discussion forums that would explore the issue from different perspectives. In addition, they would use the devices to access information regarding the scandal from different sources such as government agencies, media houses, political parties, and religious organizations.
The scandal would not have lasted as long because the government would not be able to hide information and people would be always updated about its progress. In today’s society, the awareness created through social media would prompt people and civil societies to petition political leaders to impeach the president. The scandal lasted for a long period because dissemination of information was untimely and biased (Anderson, 2006). Innovations in technology are very helpful to the way that people understand current events because they facilitate the timely dissemination of information and creation of different platforms that explore issues from different perspectives. Therefore, it is easy to identify biases by accessing information from different sources and making personal conclusions.
On the other hand, people get the opportunity to share information and use online platforms to discuss issues in order to fully comprehend their scope and effects. Technological innovations enhance understanding of events because they combine auditory and visual aspects to cover events. For example, if the scandal were to happen in today’s world, the White house transcripts would be shared on the internet for people to make their own conclusions. Technology is an important aspect of communication that helps people understand current events by accessing information from different sources in a timely manner.
Anderson, D. (2006). Watergate: Scandal in the White House. New York, NY: Capstone.
Burch, D. (1974). In Defense of Richard Nixon. Web.
Finney, D. P. (2012). Watergate Scandal Changed the Political Landscape Forever. Web.
Olson, K. W. (2003). Watergate: The Presidential Scandal that Shook America. New York, NY: University Press of Kansas.
Watergate: The Unfinished Business. (1973). Web.
Zelizer, J. (2014). Distrustful Americans Still Live in Age of Watergate. Web.