Simile

A Study of How Homer Uses Figure of Speech, Imagery and Argument in the Iliad

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Iliad revised

War is most commonly thought of as a bloody and depressing state. However, in Homer’s “The Iliad” war is used by the warriors of it, searching for their own glory in these gruesome battles. Homer displays this quest for glory through heavy use of imagery, dialogue, and similes that show obvious need for glory through each warrior’s actions.

The warriors quest for glory is quite obvious in the beginning of book 17, when Euphorbus brutally murders Patroclus, and then goes on to cry out “I was the first Trojan…to spear Patroclus down… so let me seize my glory among the Trojans now”(17.15-18). From the quote it is inferred that Euphorbus feels that because of this great accomplishment (defeating one of the greek’s powerful warriors) he deserves to “seize [his own] glory” (17.17), thus completing his quest. The warriors quest for glory can also be seen when Hector “[leaps] to his chariot, flinging the burnished gear [of Patroclus] to his waiting troops to haul away to troy, trophies to be his own enormous glory” (17.144-151) Homer’s use of imagery displays that men would act in betrayal (this being Hector, taking patroclus’ armor to receive credit that Euphorbus deserved) to accomplish their quest for glory.

Not only is the warriors quest for glory related to killing powerful enemies but it could also be gained from showing expert skill and bravery. Such skill is displayed when Menelaus, attempting to seize the body of Patroclus, is depicted as “fierce as a mountain lion sure of his power, seizing the choicest head from a good grazing herd” (17.69-70). The scene portrays Menelaus’s great skill as he swoops in to capture Patroclus’ body from the fray. Menelaus does this in hopes to receive credit for his skills in retrieving the mutilated body of Patroclus. Ajax’s fearless acts towards Hector shows the bravery warrior’s go through to attempt to receive glory as “in charges Ajax, shield like a tower before him” (17.146) to “shield Patroclus round with his broad buckler, stood fast like a lion cornered round his young.”(17.151-153). This is a very noble and brave act, one that would allow Ajax to receive glory from his comrades, completing his quest.

In conclusion, Homer is able to convey the warriors quest for glory by expertly portraying the above warriors actions as they all strive to receive credit for their actions through his use of meaningful dialogue, imagery, and similes. His methods allowed him to display the warriors actions through betrayal, skill, and bravery and led to much more than a bloody and gruesome battle, but rather display a deeper characterization of some of the warriors, showing their struggles within the poem.

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Sinners In The Hands Of Angry God: Jonathan Edward’s Use Of Similes And Metaphors

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

Jonathan Edwards’s “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” uses some of the best and most interesting metaphors and similes. “Sinners in the hands of an angry God” is a puritan sermon written to bring people back to religion. Although the intent of this sermon is a common one the way in which it is written is not. It is written in such a way that even while it demeans the congregation it frightens them into submission. Edwards does this by using metaphors and similes to create vivid imagery in people’s minds.

Some of the most vital aspects of Edwards’s sermons were metaphors. Edwards used many metaphors to make his sermons more compelling and engrossing. But these metaphors could also be very abhorrent. One of the metaphors is “ We find it easy to tread on and crush a worm that we see crawling on the earth; so it is easy for us to cut or singe a slender thread that ant thing hangs by; thus easy is it for God when he pleases to cast his enemies down to hell.” He uses this line to make his congregation understands that God in omnipotent and can send them to hell whenever he wants. As harsh as this is the congregation took this in their minds as a reason to not sin, as was Edwards’s purpose.

Another metaphor used by Edwards to brainwash his congregation is “ The wrath of God burns against them, their damnation does not slumber; the pit is prepared, the fire is made ready, the furnace is now hot, ready to receive them; the flames do now rage and glow.” This second metaphor closely follows the first to illustrate what hell will be like. It compares hell to a furnace, showing the heat and fire. He first tells them that God will cast them into hell on a whim then he makes them realize just how awful this would be. This shows that Edwards is a true literary genius, he understands how to affect people with his speaking. One more metaphor used by Edwards is “ The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect over the fire…” This metaphor talks about how God could care less about you, you are to him as a spider is to you. He makes it obvious that we are all nothing in the eyes of the almighty.

Edwards also uses forceful narration to produce vivid imagery. His imagery forces the listeners to visualize hell and how easily they could end up there.

One sentence that provokes vivid images is “It would be dreadful to suffer this fierceness and wrath of almighty God one moment; buy you must suffer it to all eternity”. Edwards conjures images of torture and everlasting pain. He asserts that not only will you go to hell but also you will indefinitely endure torture that would be unbearable for a bare moment. Another extraordinary image producing phrase is “ How awful is it to be left behind at such a day! To see so many others feasting, while you are pining and perishing! To see so many rejoicing and singing for joy of heart, while you have cause to mourn for sorrow of heart, and howl for vexation of spirit! How can you rest one moment in such a condition?” In this Edwards creates an image of everyone celebrating and generally being happy. But while this is going on you endure torture and are left behind in hell while others go to heaven. He shows just how awful those punishments given by God are.

In “ Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” Edwards is able to easily convince his congregation of their wrongdoing easily. Edwards does this by using amazing imagery and innovative metaphors. Edwards constantly reminds his people that they are going to hell and how awful it will be. The sermon was extremely effective then and could well be now. For effectiveness now though, it may need to be changed in a number of ways to suit the current times and mindset.

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The Glass Castle Versus The Color Of Water: A Comparative Analysis Of The Use Of Imagery, Diction, Similes And Humor In The Two Works

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Glass Castle and The Color of Water are two evocative memoirs whose use of literary devices portrays the stories of troubled childhoods to successful futures. The authors of these works both utilize imagery and similes to add meaning to the text; however, they differ in their use of diction and humor. Jeannette Walls uses concrete diction and a unique way of conveying humor where as James McBride uses abstract diction and conveys humor in a more traditional manor.

The effective utilization of imagery by both McBride and Walls helps to reveal their inspiring life stories. Although McBride and Walls both use imagery, Walls’s imagery is more detail oriented than McBride’s imagery therefore making Walls’s style of diction more concrete than McBride’s abstract style. “That afternoon I was alone in the house, still enjoying the itchy, dry feeling of my-chlorine-scoured skin and the wobbly-bone feeling you get from a lot of exercise, when I heard a knock on the door (Page 193).” This is an example of Walls’s imagery. Her use of such descriptive words leaves little to the imagination of the reader. Another example of how Walls uses imagery is “The main street wide-with sun-bleached cars and pickups parked at an angle to the curb- but only a few blocks long, flanked on both sides by low, flat-roofed buildings made of adobe or brick (Page 51).” Also, “…a dark Spanish dining table with eight matching chairs, a hand-carved upright piano, sideboards with antique silver serving sets, and glass-fronted cabinets filled with Grandma’s bone china… (Page 94)” is another example of how Walls utilizes imagery to convey to the reader a vivid picture. By using such pronounced descriptive words, not only exemplifies her mastery of imagery but also her prolific method of concrete diction. McBride also uses imagery as shown by “It’s what made the river flow, the ocean swell, and the tide rise, but it was a silent power, intractable, indomitable, indisputable, and thus completely ignorable (Page 94).” His imagery is more conceptual in nature. Another example of this is “I envisioned her as the wise sage, sitting in a rocking chair, impassively pouring the moving details of her life into my waiting tape recorder over six weeks, maybe two months, me prodding her along, her cooperating, cringing, inching, mother and son, hand in hand, fighting forward, emotionally wrought, until-behold! (Page 267-268).” Again McBride portrays his imagery in a broader way; the reader gets a picture of the idea, not an exact portrayal of the scene as in Walls’s work. McBride’s utilization of imagery demonstrates his more conceptual style, making his method of diction abstract. Although imagery was a literary device frequently used by both authors, it was not the only one that aided them in creating these worthy memoirs.

Besides the use of imagery, both authors used a great deal of similes to help further explain the meaning of the text. McBride uses numerous similes to enhance the readers understanding of his work. For example, “They were mostly women, bug mamas whom I knew and loved, but when the good Lord climbed into their bones and lifted them up toward Sweet Liberty, kind, gentle women who mussed my hair and kissed me on my cheek and gave me dimes would burst out of their seats like Pittsburgh Steeler linebackers (Page 49).” This exhibits McBride’s excellent use of simile to give the reader a greater understanding of how the women were so enthusiastic about their religion that they would get up out of their seats with the same swiftness that Steelers linebackers would jump off the line of scrimmage. McBride further adds to the readers comprehension by stating “It had gotten to the point where I didn’t see why she made such a secret of it, and the part that wanted to understand who I was began to irk and itch at me, like a pesky mosquito bite that cries out to be scratched (Page 173).” This simile is so relatable to most people, the annoying itch of a mosquito bite, that it makes the reader understand how gnawing the question of race was to James. Walls use of simile, although not as strong as McBride’s, still enhances the text overall meaning. “Ernie Goad was a put-nosed, thick-necked kid who had little eyes set practically on the side of his head, like a whale (Page 165).” This simile gives the reader a great visual of how odd Ernie’s looks were by using a widely known creature such as a whale. When Walls was explaining the attempt by Lori’s mother to create a dress for her, the use of simile gives the reader a relatable image of how poorly it looked on Lori. As the text states, “But I told her I looked like I was wearing a big pillowcase with elephant trunks sticking out of the sides (Page 153).” Both authors saw value in providing similes for the reader. Walls and McBride’s similes add visuals that strengthen the readers understanding of the written word and provide further insight to the writer’s true meaning.

Not only does the use of simile provide a hiatus from the seriousness of both memoirs but also the use of humor helps to lighten the mood of each work. McBride’s humor is traditional as exhibited in “Folks got sick and died back in them days like it was a new dance coming out. Plop! Dead as a doornail (Page 60).” This excerpt from the story uses humor while talking about a dark subject in death. Additionally, McBride uses humor to describe the way his mother sleeps. “A hurricane won’t move her, but the sound of a crying baby or a falling pot will send her to her feet like a soldier at reveille (Page 178).” In The Glass Castle, Jeannette Walls uses imagination at times to create a playful mood in a rather serious story. For example, “I got Dad his knife with the carved bone handle and the blade of blue German steel, and he gave me a pipe wrench, and we went looking for Demon. We looked under my bed, where I had seen it, but it was gone. We looked all around the house- under the table, in the dark corners of the closets, in the toolbox, even outside in the trash cans (Page 36).” This excerpt from the memoir refers to when Jeannette and Rex went demon chasing. This quote demonstrates how Walls’s character uses her overactive imagination to construct a funny, light-hearted, and carefree section in an otherwise solemn tale. The use of humor provided the reader quintessential relief from the sobering sagas created by McBride and Walls.

Imagery, diction, simile and humor served as powerful tools for James McBride and Jeannette Walls in the creation of their memoirs. They both used imagery and similes to strengthen the meaning of their works; however, McBride and Walls employed diction and humor in slightly different ways. McBride’s traditional use of humor and abstract use of diction made his novel a vivid account of the issues of race effecting lives during that time period. Walls’s unique use of humor and concrete diction enhanced her depiction of the struggles from her childhood. The Glass Castle and The Color of Water are works that exemplify the tenacity of human kind.

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An Analysis of Metaphors and Similes in “The God of Small Things”

November 8, 2021 by Essay Writer

‘Her reality is magical. She has a heightened awareness of the natural world, of smells and sounds, of colour and light. And she renders palpable this world, at once strange and familiar, in prose of sinuous beauty… A small wonder of style and compassion.’ (Jason Cowley, The Times)

With her sharp imagery, logical thought and emotional sensitivity, Arundhati Roy presents before us a world we can very easily identify with. Her lucid language, witty puns and quick and sudden shifts into thoughts serve to make us more comfortable rather than to confuse us like Faulkner’s work does. She is more close to Steinbeck in style than she is to Morrison, with an additional quality of excessive use of similes and metaphors that help to lend more beauty to her work. Her ‘utterly exceptional masterpiece,’ The God of Small Things, justifies Rushdie’s statement that ‘Literature is self-Validating.’ Along with the brilliance of its inter-related themes and genuine tragic resonance, the novel appeals to our senses for its marvelous descriptions. Roy attempts to ‘show’ rather than just ‘tell’ and this she does, with great success.

Use of similes and the connections she makes between tangible objects and imaginary feelings, between apparent realities and the ones buried deep down in the untraded corners of our minds, between the objects we can visualize and the ones we can just see with the eye of our soul, make her writing very, very interesting. There is an abundance of similes on every other page and it appalls the readers to imagine that with every other thing that she talks about, she can think of something ‘else’ that simply and very interestingly connects with it. She describes situations, people and their feelings and none of her descriptions go without being compared to another natural object or feeling or action. Talking about the lives of Estha and Rahel, she writes: Edges, Borders, Boundaries, Brinks and Limits have appeared like a team of trolls on their separate horizons. Short creatures with long shadows, patrolling the Blurry End. Gentle half-moons have gathered under their eyes and they are as old as Ammu was when she died. Thirty-one. Not old. Not young. But a viable die-able age. (Roy 3)

Very interestingly, we move with the flow and imagine where she makes us imagine, all the things that she visualizes herself. Feelings are described in the same fascinating manner. After Sophie Mol’s death, Mammachi is much grieved: ‘Her tears tickled down from behind them (glasses) and trembled along her jaw like raindrops on the edge of a roof’ (Roy 5). Estha, standing close to Ammu, is ‘barely awake, his aching eyes glittering like glass.’ But during all this, Rahel’s imagination is flying somewhere else: “Rahel thought of the someone who had taken the trouble to go up there with cans of paint, white for the clouds, blue for the sky, silver for the jets, and brushes and thinner. She imagined him up there, someone like Velutha, bare bodied and shining, sitting on a plank, swinging from the scaffolding in the high dome of the church, painting silver jets in a blue church sky (Roy 6).” This is not all, she further imagines him ‘dropping like a dark star out of the sky that he had made’ with ‘dark blood spilling from his skull like a secret.’ (Roy 6). Its all very visual and we can not only ‘see’ all the images, but see them as clearly as the writer or her characters do.

Here lies the strength of the description of the writer. Blessed with the power to create characters that appeal to our senses as vividly as the people around us do, Roy makes us meet each one of them in person. We meet Estha who occupies ‘very little space in the world’ because of the strange ‘silence’ that has encompassed his being. We see him ‘sweeping, swabbing’ and doing ‘all the laundry’. We accompany him to the market place where he ‘never bargained. They never cheated him.’ He appears to be a ‘quiet bubble floating on a sea of noise.’ The silence that overwhelms him is no ordinary silence. It has taken over his whole being: “Once the quietness arrived, it stayed and spread in Estha. It reached out of his head and enfolded him in its swampy arms. It rocked him to the rhythm of an ancient, foetal heartbeat. It sent its stealthy, suckered tentacles inching along the insides of his skull, hovering the knolls and dells of his memory, dislodging old sentences, whisking them off the tip of his tongue (Roy 12).” And further we see that he ‘began to look wiser than he really was. Like a fisherman in a city. With sea secrets in him.’ (Roy 13)

His twin sister, Rahel, who ‘drifted into marriage’ with Larry McCaslin, ‘like a passenger drifts towards an occupied chair in an airport lounge’ shares her twin brother’s emptiness. This feeling of void is only another form of ‘quietness in the other’. These ‘two things fitted together. Like stacked spoons. Like familiar lover’s bodies’. The description of these twins as toddlers is very interesting when we jump back to the time when they grew their teeth. While Estha’s teeth were ‘still uneven on the ends’, Rahel’s teeth were ‘waiting inside her gums, like words in a pen. It puzzled everybody that an eighteen-minute age difference could cause such a discrepancy in front-tooth timing’ (Roy 37)

The similes and metaphors that Roy employs very skillfully are simultaneously tactile and surreal, like an overly vivid dream, and her story telling style seems to be an amalgamation of the styles of Joseph Conrad, John Steinbeck and Toni Morrison. Her short and terse sentences deal with such vast notions that the readers, mesmerized with her ability to convey her ideas vividly, can’t help admiring her style. About Chacko, she writes, ‘He claimed to be writing a Family Biography that the Family would have to pay him not to publish’.(Roy 38)

When the twins were born, Ammu ‘counted four eyes, four ears, two mouths, two noses, twenty fingers and twenty perfect toe-nails’ but ironically enough, the father of the twins, ‘stretched out on a hard bench in the hospital corridor, was drunk.’ (Roy 41) Logically enough, with two children and ‘no more dreams’, Ammu returns to her parents after being mal-treated by her husband and we justify the act. Roy brilliantly juxtaposes the opposites through her comparisons. Describing Ammu further, she explains the inner working of her brain like an ‘unmixable mix. The infinite tenderness of motherhood and the reckless rage of a suicide bomber.’ Seen from the eyes of her twins, she sometimes seemed to be the ‘most beautiful’ woman they had ever come across. ‘And sometimes she wasn’t.’ (Roy 45). She shocks us with her sudden shift in her last sentences and this works really well.

I believe Roy slowly reveals the layers of her mind and what it carries in it to the readers. The tools she uses become stronger in her hands as she employs them with full force and interest. Her similes and metaphors turn somewhat sour and sweet simultaneously. The language she uses becomes her helper and sweeps the minds of the readers bare before she can plant the seeds of her own thoughts, as in the following synoptic quotation: “It was the others too. They all broke the rules. They all crossed into forbidden territory. They all tampered with the laws that lay down who should be loved and how. And how much. The laws that make grandmothers grandmothers, uncles uncles, mothers mothers, cousins cousins, jam jam and jelly jelly” (Roy 31). We can see that The God of Small Things captures our attention for various reasons, of which its style is the strongest. It is a work that validates the judgment of John Updike, who believes that, ‘A novel of real ambition must invent its own language, and this one does’ (New Yorker).

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The Process of Thoughts in “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” by William Wordsworth

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Our thoughts and imagination can be in our favor as a blessing or against us as a curse, as we determine how we shape our thoughts and what we prefer to think, imagine and dream about. Whether these thoughts are delightful or frightening, its what makes us continue our life the way we want. In his poem “I wandered lonely as a cloud”, William Wordsworth examines the process and ways of thought related to nature in his eyes.

A Cloud That is Roaming by Itself

First, he mentions a cloud that is roaming by itself, which usually doesn’t happen as clouds are always seen in groups floating above us, but here he might be referring to the fragment of the cloud. (English Summary, 2018). This cloud is floating aimlessly with no destination to land on, at this point he might be referring to himself as he is alone with no friends and has no where to go to, so he starts to wander around till he hopes to see something that will grab his attention on this journey. (Shmoop Editorial Team, 2008).

A Crowd of Golden Daffodils

Second, he mentions a “crowd of golden daffodils” that he sees while roaming around, he uses the word crowd to mention the countless amount of them and resemble them to a group of humans, the word golden is used to express their majesty and beauty in his eyes. These daffodils can be seen everywhere, “beside the lake, beneath the trees”, similarly to humans that can be seen everywhere. He starts to describe them as “fluttering and dancing” the same which humans do when they are happy and filled with joy. William sees these flowers are happy and living a great moment, it could be because they are all in together in one place, unlike him being lonely with no friends so he can’t enjoy himself.

The Comparison with Stares and Waves

Third, the stars and waves are compared to the daffodils as he sees them as similar elements to the flowers. The number of stars is like the number of daffodils he saw, they are uncountable. They are also similar in the way they show their beauty, as stars shine in the sky, the daffodils sway their heads along the wind in glee. The waves and daffodils are compared to each other by the way they dance. Even though the waves behind the daffodils were also dancing, William could only see the beauty of the flowers at that moment, as their company made him feel pleasured.

Conclusion

Overall, Williams poem reflects his thoughts and ideas of nature and how he associates it with humans and their behaviors. Its clear that at certain stages of emotions he sees that nature is representing him in an equivalent way and could use these thoughts to delight him and assure him that he is not alone in what he is going through.

References

  1. I Wandered Lonely as A Cloud Analysis: Wordsworth • English Summary. (2018, September 23). Retrieved July 17, 2019, from ttps://englishsummary.com/wandered-lonely-cloud-wordsworth/
  2. Shmoop Editorial Team. (2008, November 11). I wandered lonely as a Cloud (Daffodils) Theme of Happiness. Retrieved July 17, 2019, from https://www.shmoop.com/wandered-lonely-cloud-daffodils/happiness-theme.html
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Our Perception of the Works of the Literature (daffodiles by William Wordsworth)

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

I wandered lonely as a cloud

that floats on high o’er vales and hills,

In these lines the writer says that he is wandering lonely as a cloud which floats over valleys and hills. How can a human have clouds’ characteristics, but we understand it because of the schematic knowledge in our mental cognition. We know a human can wander he has no certain destiny, and we have seen clouds floating on sky, which has no direction of its own but they float with the direction of wind. So a human can wander like a cloud, we have experienced that a cloud can be alone and it easily becomes victim of wind and it floats here and there with the wind. So a human wander too when he is no specific goal.

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

In these lines the writer is saying that when he was wandering all of sudden he saw a crowd, we can understand here may be the writer saw a large number of people who are standing in his way, but in next line he says a host of golden daffodils. From here we get the knowledge that actually he was calling daffodils the crowd.

Daffodils are flowers how can they gather and make a crowd. But we have image schema of crowd that, a crowd is a substantial number of people or individuals assembled in a wild or confused or wild manner. So we can understand this trough schematic knowledge the daffodils must be grown naturally in large number and are not organized so that’s why a writer is calling them as crowd.

He says that daffodils are welcoming him as a host. We have image schema of host as an individual who gets or engages other individuals as visitors. So here the daffodils are playing the role of host for writer, welcoming him and entertaining him.

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

In these lines the writer is saying flowers are beside the lake and beneath the trees and they are fluttering and dancing. Flowers do not have hands or legs how can they flutter and dance. But we can understand this comparison, through our schematic knowledge of dance, and movement of flowers. We know when wind blows the flowers or any other plant moves back and forth, and when person dances the body moves in direction and in different way. So we can understand the dancing of flowers.

Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the milky way,

They stretched in never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay:

In these lines the writers is describing the beauty of flowers and he has used the schematic knowledge about the stars that stretch continuously as far as we can see, and stars twinkle and sparks, so are the daffodils. Here we understand that because of image schema of night and stars and flowers. Like the stars stretch continuously the daffodils also ramificate to the limits.

Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

Flowers do not dance flowers do not get happy. But our schematic knowledge makes us believe that flowers can dance because of wind which creates tension in them and they toss and move. We understand the happiness of daffodils because of the scene that writer has tried to mention that it is a sunny day, wind is blowing. Through writer has not mentioned it clearly the day is sunny but we got the image when writer says that flowers are blinking and flowers can blink when sunlight reflect upon them, and because of sunlight we understand that it’s a sunny day.

The waves beside them danced, but they

Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:

In these lines we understand the dancing of waves through our schematic knowledge about dance and the waves in water, there occur many waves in water when wind blows and flow of water becomes faster and waves in water seems like they are dancing, and sunshine the water is twinkling, sparkling and shining. But daffodils are more beautiful so they surpassing the beauty of shiny waves, though flowers do not have characteristics of surpassing anything but we know the surpassing meaning through image schema, and we understand the concept of writer.

A poet could not be but gay,

In such a jocund company:

In these lines the writers is saying that by looking at such beautiful scenery he couldn’t resist to be happy and he is enjoying the company of flowers. Flowers are not companions but through the schematic knowledge about how it is to be in the company of friends. We understand the happiness and cheer of writer.

I gazed’ and gazed’ but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:

The writers gazed the daffodils for long time and thought that this vision has gave him the wealth of happiness. Nature doesn’t wealth to someone but we understand the concept by schematic knowledge that wealth is not just having money but peaceful and happier life is also a wealth.

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.

Here we understand that why the writer is so happy by having the company of daffodils. He has given the image of his life that he is lonely and he feels sad and empty. But the sight of daffodils have vanished his loneliness, and his heart is so happy that it also dances with flowers. Heart doesn’t dance but we know through our experiences that how it feels to be happy. The heart pounds and we can compare that pounding of heart with dancing.

Throughout the poem the writer has compared unlike things he has personified scenes. He started his journey alone and reached his destination by finding companion in the form of daffodils. Though writer has not mentioned his life at any point but we understand that he was lonely and aimless. And he had no means of happiness. But finally he got friend and happiness in nature.

Conclusion

Reading is a process which needs brainstorming to understand the vague ideas and complex connections that a writers make to bring beauty in the text. Reading process continuously alert readers brain, to understand the concept of writer with the users’ perceptions. Our perception and concept make image schema in readers’ mind. The cognitive, image schema is flexible which allows large and complex information to enter into it, and the more information enters image schema gets stronger. Therefore when read any piece of literature that contains complex metaphors, similes, personification we understand and dig out meaning of the writer. This will not be possible to understand if cognition is not fully developed. Our brain understands things which are not possible at all but get the idea and comprehend the text. William Wordsworth in his poem writes daffodils were dancing with joy, though flowers do not dance actually but we understand the moving of flowers back and forth with wind that might look alike as if flowers are actually dancing. The flowers hosted him and gave him joy and nature gave him wealth of joy. It doesn’t make any sense for a person who has never experienced nature, hasn’t been into it and felt the wind, the sparks of sunshine so understanding of these things would be hard. But for those it will make sense that have image schema of nature. Reading and understanding have become possible with schematic knowledge, and a reader can enjoy the classic piece of literature.

References

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  13. Ibsch, Elrud, Dick Schram, and Gerard Steen, eds. 1991 Empirical Studies in Literature: Proceedings of the Second International Conference, Amsterdam 1989 (Amsterdam: Rodopi).
  14. Gibbs, R. W., Jr. 2005. The psychological status of image schemas. In B. Hampe (ed.), From perception to meaning: Image Schemas in cognitive linguistics, 113–135. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  15. Kimmel, M. (2005a). From metaphor to the “mental sketchpad”: Literary macrostructure and compound image schemas in Heart of Darkness. Metaphor and Symbol 20(3): 199−238. — (2005b). Culture regained: Situated and compound image schemas. In From Perception to Meaning: Image Schemas in Cognitive Linguistics, B Hampe (ed.), 285−311. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
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Stylistic Devices in the Short Story Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Similes

Similes are quite often used within the short story, “Lamb to the Slaughter”. An example of this can be identified in the title, which can also be interpreted as: “Like a lamb to the slaughter” the lamb in the story is used as a symbol of innocence, which unconsciously represents Mary Malone in the initial part of the story, even though then her innocence as a “lamb” gets “slaughtered” by her husband. Secondly simile used by the writer is: “She loved to luxuriate in the presence of this mankind to feel- almost as a sunbather feels the sun.” This simile demonstrates her initial caring and devoted feelings towards Patrick, until he doesn’t deceive her with his decision. This overcomes her innocence and leads her to kill him. This technique used by Road Dahl has a great impact on the reader because it gives to the story a symbolic meaning that creates a much more deeper and significant representation of the character’s personality. The decision of the author of using this literature device is interesting and at the same time clear because it demonstrates the total evolution of the main character throughout her actions.

Irony

In the story the author uses irony as a literature device. This can be seen in the quote: “”It’d be a favor to me if you’d eat it up. Then you can go on with your work afterwards.” From this quote we can understand how the reader knows that the weapon of the murder is the leg of the lamb, but the detectives don’t, while they are eating it. This creates a pause within the story and within the reader because it makes the reader reflect a lot on wether the police at this point will understand that Mary is the killer of her husband or not. Irony is a major device used by Roald Dahl even when Patrick says to Mary: “Don’t make supper for me. I’m going out.” Mary here already knows her intentions and at the same time Patrick isn’t aware that she is going to kill him without giving him the possibility to go out. This moment of the story leaves the reader to wonder wether or not she will make this terrible action. The use of irony within the story has a great impact on the reader by creating strong emotions which give the opportunity to the reader to know what Patrick’s character awaits and on the other hand understand Mary’s intentions.

Foreshadowing

The author builds up suspense within the story, by using foreshadowing. This literature device is used to give the reader a hint of the increasing tension between Mary and Patrick, this is shown when he says: “‘This is going to be a bit of a shock to you, I’m afraid.” The writer has chosen this technique because he wants to create an uncomfortable situation between the two characters and make it detect to the reader. This leads the reader to think that something negative is going to occur within their relationship, making curiosity increase within the reader’s mind. The descriptions of Mary’s character are build up step after step to make the reader suspect Mary’s change. This creates anticipation within the story using effective writing. The uncertainty created within the reader on Mary’s real intentions is a technique used by the author to create suspense throughout foreshadowing. The use of foreshadowing as a device is effective within Roald Dahl’s short story because it creates dramatic tension within the trend of the story and conveys little information at a time to help the reader understand what could come next.

Imagery

In my opinion an important device used within the story, is imagery. We can understand this throughout the descriptive language that the author uses to create visual imagery to describe Mary’s Maloney character:”Her skin for this was her sixth month with child had acquired a wonderful translucent quality, the mouth was soft, and the eyes, with their new placid look, seemed larger darker than before.” This quote implies Mary Maloney as an innocent, sweet and caring wife, by helping the reader visualise better the type of person Mary Maloney is. The same technique is used to make the reader visualise better the atmosphere created within the story:”The room was warm and clean, the curtains drawn, the two table lamps alight- hers and the one by the empty chair opposite. On the sideboard behind her, two tall glasses, soda water, whiskey. Fresh ice cubes in the Thermos bucket.” This device is used to create mystery within the reader’s mind, without making the turning point of the story explicit. Throughout the story, imagery has a great impact because it explores within the mind of the reader by transmitting different emotions that give an overall understanding of the circumstances within the story.

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Homer’s Odyssey: Uses of Epic Simile, Simile, Personification

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

“Now you think you’ll shuffle off and get away after that impudence? Oh, no you don’t! The stool he let fly hit the man’s right shoulder on the packed muscle under the shoulder blade – like solid rock, for all the effect one saw (1030, Homer).” Here explains how a man named Antinous (leader of the suitors) throws a chair at a man (Odysseus the main character in disguise) because of an argument that had occurred earlier. Because of Antinous’ ignorant behavior the man ignored it. This shows a poetic device that Homer uses in The Odyssey called a simile; like solid rock, for all the effect one saw. Homer applies the theme of using poetic devices and how it used to portray the details of the events. Speaking of which, Homer uses poetic devices to portray a more interesting story and makes the story seem more than it seems. In the story The Odyssey, readers can then understand, interpret and imagine what events are occurring because using poetic devices just like using figurative language to make give the reader a better visual of the storyline. In The Odyssey, Homer uses quite a lot of poetic devices. Giving only three examples; epic simile, simile, and personification from the three poetic devices, it’ll be fully explained and quoted.

Twenty years had gone by and Odysseus returns, he is now with his son Telemachus. An epic simile is used to explain “Then throwing his arms around his marvel of a father Telemachus began to weep. Salt tears rose from the wells of longing in both men, and cries burst from both as keen and fluttering as those of all taloned hawk, whose farmers take before they fly. So helplessly they cried pouring out tears, and might have gone on weeping till sundown (1025, Homer).” This quote is an epic simile because Odysseus and his son Telemachus’ cries were being compared to the great taloned hawk and the farmer who took care of it, because of how keen and fluttering the hawk was and ‘cause of the farmer watching the hawk fly away after taking care of it ever since it was a baby knowing it grew up and is now starting a new, made the farmer cry tears of joy. Being united with your loved one once again after twenty years, had a major impact on Odysseus.

Odysseus gets his revenge he had always wanted on the rude, cocky, and many suitors because of the disrespecting from every one of them and for trying to take everything (home, wife, etc.) from him. A simile is used to explain “Odysseus’ arrow hit him under the feathers through his throat. Backward and down he went, letting the wine cup fall from his shocked hand. Like pipes his nostrils jetted crimson runnels, a river of mortal red, and one last kick upset his table knocking the bread and meat to soak in dusty blood (1039, Homer).” This is a simile because Odysseus beats Antinous, he had a bad nose bleed – it was being compared to pipes jetting out crimson runnels. Odysseus finally gets his revenge on Antinous.

Odysseus returns home to see that his dog Argus isn’t as strong and active as he was before. Personification is used to explain “Now misery has him in leash (1029, Homer).” This quote is a personification because of Argus (Odysseus’ dog), his misery has him on a leash with no where to go and he has to suffer in one place alone.

Homer’s portraying of using poetic devices makes it more interesting and makes it more than it seems. Homer uses poetic devices; epic simile, simile, personification, they all are used much in the story The Odyssey; it’s one of Homer’s greatest stories. If you haven’t read it yet, you should. The Odyssey is full of gods, action, adventure, etc. For the people who have already read it, re-read it and try to see how many poetic devices you can find. Most of the poetic devices really do make the book seem better.

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Homer’s Usage of Simile in the Iliad

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Just as some writers prefer using metaphors over similes in their literary works, Homer prefers using similes in his. In his epic story, The Iliad, one of the major themes which can be found throughout the entire book is power; the power the gods possess, and the power the warriors have over each other. Homer makes use of similes when it comes to making descriptions and comparisons. One of the similes is used in book 22 to make a comparison of Achilles’ shield to something related to nature, and the description given to the shield works as a metaphor to describe Achilles and his power.

By using similes, Homer is able to give his readers a vivid description of things or compare events that occur in The Iliad. One of Homer’s many significant similes- translated by Richard Graves- which are used in his story, can be found on page 343 of book 22. On this page, it says, “He resembled the formidable God of War, and his bronze armour flashed like a bonfire, or a sunrise.” Here, the armour is a representation of Achilles. In this part of book 22, Hector wants to fight Achilles, but when he sees Achilles he is frightened and flees. Homer compares Achilles’ shield to both fire and sunrise. In some cultures, fire is a symbolic meaning for anger, fear and destruction; it can also symbolise power. Sunrise, which is associated with light, can also be a symbol for greatness and power. Hector running away from Achilles when he catches sight of how superior he looks as he is being approached, signifies fear being imposed upon him, and the greatness or the power Achilles has over him at that instance. Hector is aware that Achilles could easily destroy him at this point. It also describes Achilles as a mighty being. The shield being associated with fire could also represent the anger and hatred Achilles has for Hector as a result of Hector murdering his friend, Patroclus, who he loved very much.

Why does Homer have to describe the armour using a simile? As mentioned earlier, Homer uses similes to create a vivid description or comparison. Comparing the shield to a bonfire or a sunrise in the form of a simile makes the picture the readers get in their minds of the shield a lot more detailed; it enhances the description and creates a contrast between the shield and the bonfire or the sunrise. You can imagine the bright glow of the shield. The simile makes the description less boring, although it adds a slight exaggeration to it. If Homer describes the shield with an adjective, the description becomes plain. For example, it would have been very boring if he had described the shield as simply ‘bright’, and the shield wouldn’t fit as a metaphor to describe Achilles.

In The Iliad, Achilles is the greatest warrior, despite his pride and fury when he feels offended. By knowing what his “bronze armour” which “flashed like a bonfire, or a sunrise” symbolises, and how Hector, the greatest Trojan warrior, flees after seeing him, one can tell how significant Achilles is. Homer even talks about how he resembles the God of War, Ares. Ares is the god who represents violence in war. For Achilles to be compared to him, it explains the fear casted upon Hector, causing him to flee; he has a violent and frightening energy around him. He is powerful. He is god-like and great; undefeatable – yet. Since what the shield is compared to is basically a description of him, it shows how he is perceived as an Achaean warrior. In addition to that, he is described as being “…Zeus’ representative on Earth” on page 46 of book one. Being considered as a representative of the king of the gods sums up to his significance.

Although Homer tries to avoid the use of metaphors in his works when making descriptions, the similes he uses to describe objects and events end up functioning as metaphors in some cases. The description given to Achilles’ shield means it is great, representing the greatness of Achilles.

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Wilfred Owen’s Dulce Et Decorum Est: Alliteration and Simile

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

To illustrate “the old Lie: Dulce et decorum est/Pro matria mori” (Owen “Dulce et Decorum Est” 27-28), Owen uses alliteration and simile.

First, Owen uses alliteration to show that it is not sweet and proper to die for your country. The poem is about “the old Lie” (27) that it is sweet and proper to die for your country. Wilfred Owen describes the façade that seems to make the war sound pleasant because the soldiers are serving their country and saving it. He contrasts this by describing the real conditions and situations that soldiers go through during World War I in trench warfare. The first instance of the alliteration disproving “the old Lie” (27) is in one of the dreams of one of the soldiers where he describes the poison gas affecting him. The effect describes itself as “watch[ing] the white eyes writhing in his face” (19). The description of the pain emphasizes horrors of war by describing an extremely gruesome detail. The alliteration shows that the harsh “w” sound portrays the tactile imagery with the loss of breath that would happen during war, if a soldier was dying. The “w” sound shows that lips twist and the face will twist while trying to pronounce the words Owen uses. The alliteration reinforces the idea by emphasizing the terror, which the color white associates with. In addition, the word “writhing” (19) describes the eyes and the agony and panic that the soldier goes through. Owen further enforces this idea by conveying that Owen possesses a strong hatred of the war and disgust with what war brings. Owen uses the alliteration to provide an image of terror to describe the awful conditions of the war. He shows that while the civilians of the war think that it is a valiant way to die, while in reality, it is an awful death and the illusion that the old Lie creates is just a false face to try and grab more innocent civilian men into the war. Owen also describes this scene of death to allow for an insight into the real feeling of war, so that one might feel the loss of breath or the feeling of dying. Lastly, Owen uses alliteration to illustrate the evil of war, and the contrast to the old Lie. Like the previous example, Owen portrays the evil of war by using alliteration to exemplify his point. The feeling of death describes itself in the line of “a devil’s sick of sin” (20). He is still in the same place of the cusp of death, and this furthers the feeling of death. The use of alliteration proves that Owen wants to provide contrast to the old Lie by employing visual imagery. Visual imagery manifests itself in the line by showing not only the face of a devil, but the image of a devil that is sick of sin. This means that a devil wants to leave hell, but in this case, it is referring to a soldier who realizes his errors on the battlefield, like killing innocent men for no reason, and he obviously wants to try and leave the battlefield or trench. So, Owen compares the battlefield to a place of no escape or a hell. Next, Owen uses the alliteration in the harsh ‘s’ sound of “sick” and “sin” to provide the auditory imagery of evil. In conclusion, Owen uses alliteration to show that the old Lie that many people believe to be true, but is actually deceitful. Owen choses the alliteration to provide the evidence that war is actually much like hell in many ways: there is no escape from it, many sins are committed on the battlefield, and it makes monsters out of men. He also uses this to show that the idea of war may seem patriotic in hindsight, but in reality, it is a place of death and destruction, which can be both physically and mentally.

Next, the author uses simile to describe the horrors of war, in strong opposition to the old Lie. First, he uses a description of the soldier’s uniforms to disprove the wonderful nature of serving in the war. In the beginning of the poem, Owen describes the appearance of the soldiers as looking “like old beggars under sacks” (1). The use of simile by Owen portrays the brightest and bravest soldiers as old men that are filthy. When he uses the simile, he reinforces the idea that soldiers are without much hope and don’t have much ambition to keep fighting. He also wants to show that the soldiers are not what they appear to be in hindsight. The soldiers are supposed to be in neat, new uniforms like the old Lie presents. In reality, the soldiers are beaten down and the simile reinforces the idea of the opposition to the Lie. Owen uses the simile to show that soldiers are really not all that they appear when the government tries to hook young men into joining the war effort. He tries to disprove the statement that it is sweet and proper to die for your country. Like he shows here, the war beats soldiers down and destroys their minds, thus giving the appearance of old beggars under sacks. He just uses the simile to reinforce the robust contrast. In conclusion, Owen uses the repetition of the ‘s’ sound to represent the evil nature of war and the effects of it on soldiers. After a gas attack, the soldiers confuse easily, and fumble around for their helmets, just in time for the gas to roll around. Although, one soldier does not get his gas mask on in time. He is caught out in the gas and feels the full effects of the horrid substance. Owen describes it as it happens and the soldier is “flound’ring like a man in fire or lime…” (12). As the soldier struggles for his life, the simile that Owen uses emphasizes the horrors of war. Lime is a dry chemical compound that can burn through flesh like fire. Owen uses it to show that the soldier, who is without a gas mask, or it is broken, is being hit massively with the pain of his flesh burning off as he writhes around on the ground. This simile shows that the horrors of the war are reality, and that it is not sweet or proper to die in war, it is quite the opposite. Owen also employs the visual imagery of the soldier struggling for his life in the short time that he is breathing in the gas. Finally, Owen uses the simile to reinforce the idea that war is not a sweet or proper place to die for the country that the soldier serves for. In contrast, he explains that war is a horrible place, and that the depiction of war is often wrong because it is actually a place of total destruction like seen with the vivid image of a soldier dying because his skin was burning due to lime. In conclusion, Wilfred Owen uses alliteration and simile to prove the old Lie wrong, and show that war is not a good place to die and that it is often a painful death.

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