Satire

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How Satire is Used in Both Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and The Tempest by William Shakespeare

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Comparison Essay Between Brave New World and “The Tempest”

In the novel, Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, and the play, “The Tempest” by William Shakespeare, the concepts of civilization, government, and the individual and his/her role in society are satirized. Huxley’s utopia is embodied by the World State, a scientifically and technologically advanced dictatorship that utilizes drugs, sex and misinformation to keep their citizens blissfully ignorant and content with their lives; Shakespeare’s society occurs on a reclusive island, where justice is more of an illusion than an actual rule-of-law, and that vengeance is the reason behind the inextricable encounters between the wronged inhabiting the island, and the wrongdoers who are stranded there later on. In both works, the concepts aforementioned are manipulated in such a way to illustrate the idea that people’s actions are motivated by self-interest and, as such, are driven to exploit the system in place for their personal benefit.

Civilization in both Brave New World and The Tempest is interpreted and depicted similarly throughout each work, and each have their own disillusioned character that experiences both their world and the foreign one (John the Savage in BNW, Miranda in “The Tempest”), where there is a distinct separation of these worlds: “They took their seats in the plane and set off. Ten minutes later they were crossing the frontier that separated civilization from savagery” (p. 115). The differences between these worlds is what causes cultural clashes between them The portrayal of civilization as being “people-oriented” without being controlled by the people, is demonstrated through the extraordinary amounts of propaganda, sloganizing, and control through sleep hypnosis and other mechanisms of manipulation. The concept of civilization, though played out differently in both works, is nonetheless similar in that both incorporate the basic principles of stability, power hierarchies, and the stressing of community and belonging to it.

The role of government in both these works is immense, as it’s depicted as this omnipotent, otherworldly entity in Brave New World, embodied by the World State and its Controllers, whom, aside from Mustapha Mond, are barely shown in the novel and this lack of depiction can be purposeful, to illustrate the idea of a system of power whose shadowy inner workings are meant to be just that, hidden from public view: “She [Linda] knew him for John, her son, but fancied him an intruder into that paradisal Malpais where she had been spending her soma-holiday with Popé” (p. 209). Here, Linda chooses to spend her last remaining moment under the influence of the drug soma, illustrating the susceptibility of the individual to the overt influence of an all-powerful government. Then there’s government in The Tempest, where Prospero, self-proclaimed, ¬de-facto king of the island he was exiled to and the running of his small community under the institution of his word being the equivalent of law, and that his primary motivation is his self-benefiting version of justice, where everyone is a pawn in his scheme to return to the mainland as Duke of Milan once more.

Individuals are what comprise the communities that have sprung up in both Brave New World and The Tempest, and because the rulers of these societies need their support, or at the very least a lack of opposition, they appeal to their peoples’ desires in order to garner their favor, and then exploit that for their advantage. In Brave New World, the World State, though not a particular proponent of science, uses it in order to keep their populace in a constant state of anaesthetization and, because of these blissful comas, they are unaware of what’s transpiring around them. Individualism itself is taboo in their society, and is expressed in the following motto: “When the individual feels the community reels” (p. 103), which presents the idea that the community is valued more than the individual, and if said individual starts feeling emotions, it holds the community back. In The Tempest, Prospero is depicted as a duplicitous individual who manipulates others to his advantage: “… Welcome! My friends all: –” Prospero says in a polite manner, referring to the castaways, as opposed to his mistreatment and abuse of Caliban: “Thou most lying slave, whom stripes may move, not kindness! I have us’d thee, filth as thou art, with human care; and lodg’d thee in my own cell, till thou didst seek to violate the honor of my child” (I, ii, 344-348).

As both these works come to a close, they reveal that these supposed “utopias” are not as perfect in practical application, as they are in theory, and that the function of these societies are more so geared towards giving the rulers power to govern over the people, rather than have the people govern themselves and make their own decisions. Ultimately, the word “utopia” used to describe these societies is just a nicety for what they really are: dictatorships, ones that appear friendly and egalitarian, but in reality it’s all a façade to keep the people content.

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168

How Oscar Wilde Created the Comedy of Manner Brand of Satire in The Importance of Being Earnest

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Manners Gone Wilde: The Importance of Being Ernest in Victorian England

Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) in The Importance of Being Ernest 1895 play utilizes the comedy of manners brand of satire to lampoon the social etiquette, pretensions, and conventions of Victorian society. Characterizing the comedy of manners are love relationship(s), which constitute the central plot, stereotyped stock characters with whom the common man would be easily able to identify, and witty humor. The flat, undeveloped characters stand for common dogmas or principles or represent an entire slice of society. Due to the rules governing decorum, the comedy of manners is a medium through which playwrights could openly poke fun at conventions without getting jailed or censored. Algernon, commenting on the essentiality of serious comedy, says that “one has to be serious about something, for one to have any amusement in life” (Act 3, Scene 1). This is the fundamental Wildean principle that applies in his comedy of manners play. Wilde evokes sardonic mockery of social orthodoxy by the characters’ comments and actions against serious mores such as marriage, sexuality, religion, government, and social class.

Twinning and double identity is a mechanism in the comedy of manners which leads to the hilarious plot and denouement of Wilde’s play. As the title reveals, Ernest and earnestness are centers upon which the play revolves. The main protagonist, Jack Worthing, unbeknownst to the other characters has a hidden identity as Ernest. As Ernest, Jack delights himself in hedonistic pleasure in London. The intrigue develops with Jack’s double identity as Ernest and his amorous liaison with Gwendolen Fairfax who earnestly desires to marry an Ernest, because it is a charming name to her ear. Jack decides to put away his dissolute Ernest days behind him in order to marry however, fiancée Gwendolen is fixated on the name Ernest since the name inspires more trust in him. For her sake, he undergoes a legal name change to Ernest Worthing. To his detriment as well Algernon Moncrieff’s fiancée, Cecily Cardew, also wants a husband named Ernest. For her, Algernon, also parades as Ernest. In order to woo his future wife, he seeks a certified name change to Ernest. By the end of the play, in a coincidental meeting with Miss Prism, the former Jack Worthing discovers that his father’s name was Ernest and that his original birth name actually is Ernest John. The motif of twinning adds to jocularity since it heightens the tendency to confusion, identity-theft, and labyrinthine messages. Puns, double-entendres, social blunders, timing, and misunderstandings are weaved in together to achieve a humorous sequence of events.

True to the comedy of manners genre, Wilde “saw the need to flaunt abhorrence of conventional taste in dress and behavior” (Hirst 3). As such, Wilde ridicules the institution of marriage, the motives of union, the game of courtship, and the marriage life. At the play’s start, Algernon finds out that marriage is ‘demoralising’ because married women do not allow their men to drink as much as bachelors. Some characters have cynical views on marriage and freely vent them in such a way as to provoke laughter. Algernon does not look forward to marriage because he considers it an end of the excitement of romance to which Jack replies that the Divorce Court was instituted for people like him (Wilde Act 1, Scene 1). Miss Prism jokingly asserts that “no married man is ever attractive except to his wife” (Wilde Act 2, Scene 1). Lady Bracknell, Jack’s aunt, has forgotten her deceased husband’s name and blames his odd behavior to elements such as “the Indian climate, marriage, and indigestion” (Wilde Act 3, Scene 1). These individual opinions on marriage paint a disagreeable picture of marriage as the characters form and air their perspective based on their own experiences and society’s dogmas. In this play, Wilde mimics the marriage of convenience theme through Lady Bracknell who is a stock character representing the Victorian aristocracy which founded marriages on income and estates, rather than on love and compatibility.

“The comedy of manners inherently provides the most appropriate battleground for dramatizing class warfare” (Ross). Lady Bracknell refuses the alliance between Gwendolen and Jack because Jack is an orphan with a common upbringing whereas his fiancée, Gwendolen, comes from a high social class. The marriage interview that Lady Bracknell conducts is intended to deride the upper classes. As Bracknell interrogates Jack, he responds to her questions with suppressed anger; yet with witty answers which betrays the disgruntled attitude of the poorer classes when confronting the possibility of the denial of a marriage due to class disparities and the stigmatic social implications of such improvident alliances. Bracknell’s questions Jack of his family, education, estate, and ties (Wilde Act 1, Scene 2). Lady Bracknell also attempts to erect a barrier between her nephew Algernon and his fiancée Cecily until Bracknell finds out that Cecily is a high-born, moneyed woman, then she changes her mind and consents to the marriage.

“Because social satire is basic to all the plays of this type, the comedy of manners is particularly subversive” (Hirst 4). Wilde undermines religion and conventional sexuality in The Importance of Being Ernest by pervading the play with lies, half-truths, and innuendos. Miss Prism suggests to a priest, Dr. Chasuble, with whom she is in love, that “he should get married” (Wilde Act 2, Scene 1). While Dr. Chasuble upholds Catholicism’s objection against the clergy’s matrimony, Miss Prism continues to rebut him saying that, “men should be more careful; celibacy leads weaker vessels astray” (Wilde Act 2, Scene 1); clearly alluding to the increased temptation in repressed desire for the woman. In the face of Lady Bracknell’s dissent of Jack and Gwendolen’s marriage, Jack retorts “then a passionate celibacy is all that any of us could look forward to” (Wilde Act 3, Scene 1). This statement is anti-Victorian since pre-marital sex is not condoned and considered taboo. Lady Bracknell echoes her disapprobation at this alternative as she quickly refuses this decadent lot for her daughter, Gwendolen.

At dinner, Wilde takes the opportunity to parody tea manners when Gwendolen and Cecily, as two competing females for the supposedly same Ernest, exchange insults. In Victorian England, having dinner was a formal affair where everyone is instructed to be one his or her best behavior. Table etiquette, customary niceties, and polite conversation are indispensable to having a decent tea with someone else. However, due to double-entendres about the two Ernest’s, the women betray their ire, each wishing that the other would stay away from her Ernest. Wilde repeats his parodying of Victorian table manners when Jack and Algernon have tea. They quarrel that they cannot both be re-christened Ernest and argue over tea-cakes and muffins.

In Act I, Scene 2, Lady Bracknell is inviting Algernon to dinner; however he opts out of her gracious request, saying that Bunbury, his brother is sick, which is a blatant lie.

The irony of The Importance of Being Ernest/Earnest is that no one embodies that virtue. The men, Jack and Algernon, change like Proteans in order to marry and satisfy their desires to be married. The women, Gwendolen and Cecily, demand that they would marry no other than a man called Ernest, hoping that their Ernests are earnest. Lady Bracknell holds hollow, aristocratic standards that only serve to condescendingly remind the other characters of their inferior ranks, choosing to focus her energies on the superficial social trapping of social pedigree rather than character analysis. Lady Bracknell reveals that the Tories and Liberal Unionists’ only significance to her is their visits to her place to have tea and dinner. Tories and Liberal Unionist are opposing sections in British parliament, therefore one observes that politics and social reform does not matter to her. Her attitude reflects the traditional apolitical or politically passive stance of the indifferent rich.

In sum, Oscar Wilde chooses to challenge Victorian morality through the comedy of manners genre where marriage, class conflict, sexuality, religion, and government are attacked. At the same time, the comic element most often surfaces as mistaken identities, twinning, double-entendres, and levity at serious issues. “With The Importance of Being Earnest, Wilde uses his wit like a sword to slash trough rules of etiquette, to poke fun at the aristocracy and academia, and to thrust forward his own philosophy as a committed aesthete” (Wonner 11). Indeed, Wilde’s comedy of manners takes satiric plays in a whole new direction, daring to defy mores, instead choosing to focus on humor and beauty to criticize and see truth more clearly.

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141

The Issue with Memes Overpopulation in Our World

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Memes are overpopulating and it is a problem, while memes are growing in numbers it takes over the internet. Memes are all over the internet, in fact memes are on facebook, tumblr, Instagram, Twitter, they are everywhere! Since memes are overpopulating we need to be aware of what memes are being shared. There are dead memes, stale memes, and new memes. We need to get rid of Dead Memes.It all started with the big hit, “Who Let The Dogs Out,” and memes have grown in numbers ever since. These are dead memes and they are still being used to this day. The pop tart cat, “Nyan Cat” is an example of a dead meme.

Critics say Dead Memes being used today and they are annoying, useless, and not funny anymore so people need to stop. The meme “Do You Know The Wae,” is a dead meme but people are still using it in schools. To put it simply, memes that are dead should not be used as the term “dead” describes them. To call a meme dead, it means that that meme is old or has lost its popularity. If a meme is stale then that means that the meme is losing its popularity. But the real problem isn’t just the stale and dead memes, it is the mass production of memes. Memes are entertaining but not original. Memes like these are so bad and so useless that no one knows why these people make the memes.Memes are a problem because they take away time from people and they are useless except for the 2 seconds of entertainment.

If you were to spend your time on memes all day, you are going nowhere. Instead you could be learning how to code, or building something useful for other people. Memes take away valuable time away from people. If the memes were to stop producing so much stuff then there wouldn’t be this problem in the first place. If only there was a way to stop the overproduction of memes, then we will be truly saved.What is something that YOU can do to stop the overpopulation of memes? You can spread awareness and tell people to stop the overproduction of memes. If your name is Thanos then you can snap your fingers in a metal glove to make all the memes seize to exist. If your name is Light Yagami then you can write the names of the memes being made and get rid of them in your Death Note. If your name is the same name of the person reading this right now, you can tell people to stop making memes. You can use the hashtag #StopMemesFromOverpopulating on Instagram or a Social Media. You can help society get rid of the Overpopulated memes. You can be the solution.

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181

Moliere: a Man of Medicine and Mockery

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Moliere’s The Imaginary Invalid is full of specific references to 17th Century France, and could be alienating for a contemporary audience. By setting the play in the current-day United States, with an emphasis on the health care system, and huge gaps between social classes, The Imaginary Invalid could become not only a commentary on antiquated French medicine, but also a biting contemporary political satire. Moliere, born Jean-Baptiste Poquelin de Moliere, is indisputably the most respected French comedic playwright ever (Life of Moliere: With An Elegant head). Unfortunately, there are no letters, journals, or original manuscripts left of Moliere’s work (Maskell).

As a result, scholars cannot completely determine that Moliere wrote all the plays generally attributed to him. The most controversial claim about the mystery in Moliere’s life is that his most well-loved pieces were actually written by Cornielle (Peacock). Scholars also debate the precise professions and backgrounds of his parents, although the majority agree that his father and grandfather were tapissier de roi for the French kings. Even Jean-Baptiste’s birth year is not known. Only his baptism was recorded – January 15, 1622 – but he may have been anywhere between newborn and several years old at the time (Scott). Scholars to know that he eventually studied “under the Jesuits a the highly competitive College de Clermont,” (Maskell). We do not know much for certain about Moliere’s experience at Clermont, but there is much to infer simply from knowing he went to the most popular college in Paris (Scott). Vast forests have died in vain as scholars have tried to prove that he entered the 5th class in 1637 or the 6th class in 1631. But, in fact, this is one of the hundreds of thousands of things about the life of Moliere we cannot know. (Scott 15)Still, at a school like Clermont, Moliere would have learned Greek and Latin and almost certainly would have read and acted in classical plays (Scott). This background in classical theatre was clearly present in the plays he wrote later in his life.

In The Imaginary Invalid, the stage directions in the Prologue call for a Pulcinella, a character from Commedia Dell’Arte that Moliere would have been familiar with from his studies at Clermont (Moliere 348). After graduating from Clermont at approximately age fifteen, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin took over his father’s role in the court as tapissier de roi for King Louis XIII (Scott 27). Although there is no definitive primary evidence, Virginia Scott believes that he then studied law and worked as a lawyer for a period of six months before beginning his career on the stage (Scott 30). In his 20s, established a theatre company with some friends in Fauxbourg St. Germain and began calling himself Moliere instead of Jean-Baptiste Poquelin for the first recorded time (Life of Moliere: With An Elegant head). Moliere was both a playwright and actor in his company, and for the rest of his career.

The theatre company, called “Illustre Theatre”, fell in debt quickly and eventually Moliere was imprisoned for a time in a debtor’s prison (Parkin). Upon his release he took his plays to the provinces and gained wealthy patrons and then returned to Paris in 1658 with some success (Parkin). Having grown up in upper-class society, the life of a poor playwright may have been a shock for Moliere. His plays frequently criticized social hierarchy through satire, which likely came from his life observing people in many different classes and social standings.

Once he returned from the provinces of France, his performances were generally for the court and upper-class people, even though they so often criticized the social hierarchy present in France (Life of Moliere: With An Elegant head). In the last few years of his life, when Moliere wrote The Imaginary Invalid, scholars have concluded that the playwright had grown quite ill. Satirizing doctors was not a new concept with The Imaginary Invalid, but one can assume that since he was so close to death himself Moliere had had increasing contact with physicians. Moliere lived with tuberculosis for many years before dying of it, and doctors at the time had no cure for the disease. In those years he grew fussy, irritable, and depressed, according to friends and colleagues (Scott 244). On the day of his death, Moliere acted in The Imaginary Invalid playing Argon, a character who seems oddly similar to the actor himself at that point in his life (Scott 243). Interestingly, many aspects of Argon’s life reflect that of Moliere in his final days: Moliere had just begun renting a new apartment which bore remarkable similarity to the stage directions about Argon’s “elaborately furnished” house, he had a distrust of doctors and preferred herbal remedies (Scott 254).

The difference between the character and the actor is that, as Virginia Scott pointed out, the lease for his new apartment “was for six years; Moliere was not expecting to die,” (Scott 253). Moliere was a man of many worlds. He lived as a student, a courtier, a lawyer, a prisoner, a playwright, an actor, and a patient. All these worlds are reflected in Moliere’s plays.

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298

Review on Hanif Kureishi’s the Buddha of Suburbia

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

American humorist Molly Ivins once said, “Satire is traditionally the weapon of the powerless against the powerful.” It gives the everyday person the unique ability to say something about the world in a critical yet captivating way. Throughout history, many have utilized humor as a way to spark social change. They have used it as a way to comprehend the complicated events going on around them and learn about themselves in the process. Hanif Kureishi’s The Buddha of Suburbia is no exception. Through the author’s accounts of those around him, he is able to expose the faulty logic of their lives using humor. Each twist of the plotline prompts readers to think further about a character’s actions – asking themselves questions like: why does this seem strange to us? This style of storytelling serves as a social commentary. As readers, we notice the follies that the characters themselves fail to see. We serve as “all knowing” figures that have the ability to critique and consider the events we read about taking place in the world. In The Buddha of Suburbia, Hanif Kureishi uses satire to comment on the imperfections present in the world he lives in, especially society’s views on class and race.

Kureishi’s use of irony ridicules the sheltered way that the wealthy live their lives. This novel details the lives of characters existing in a spectrum of economic status – ranging from the social elite to those living below the poverty line. It also demonstrates the way that money can interfere in intrapersonal relationships and public perception. By incorporating Haroon and Eva’s relationship in his novel, Kureishi contrasts two very different lifestyles. Haroon is a lower class civil service clerk and yoga instructor while his wife, Eva, is a social climber whose interests revolve around improving her status and maintaining appearances. This harsh dichotomy between the perspectives of the two characters creates an interesting dynamic. Haroon’s precise job is to work on mindfulness and accepting life for what it is, while Eva is constantly striving for upward social mobility, never happy with where she is. Eva’s wealth and desires blind her to the reality of money, evident when she claims that, “‘when we run out of money I’ll get us some more’” (115). This behavior ridicules the naivety with which the wealthy view the world. Eva cultivates Haroon’s career and arranges instructing jobs for him, serving the upper-middle class. Her desire to “change” Haroon also exemplifies society’s views on the lower class. She wants to mold him to become what she deems is superior – an upper class citizen. Charlie’s character exemplifies the aspect of fame that comes with status. He is described to be exceedingly handsome and exceptionally talented. Before achieving his successes he announces that, “‘I am suicidal’…as if he were pregnant” (128). When his career was not doing well, he was very sad and bitter, thinking that death would be better than his life. It isn’t until he eventually achieves fame and becomes wealthy that he is finally happy. He claims that “I fell in love for the first time… I loved money… money and everything it could buy” (248). Charlie’s warped sense of happiness and love is rooted in the fact that he now has so much money. His belief that money is the ultimate good and all he needs is fundamentally flawed. The irony amongst the wealthy is shown through their augmented perspective of the world and the way they view their priorities.

Kureishi strategically uses irony to show the disparity between how lower class characters are seen by the world and how they wish they were seen. The meaning of irony precisely is something that is contrary to what one expects or assumes will occur. This is very fitting for these characters because their lives are not what they expected or assumed it would be. Haroon, for example, is the son of a wealthy family who came to London to study law, but found himself dropping out as a result of a drinking problem. Haroon’s attitude of superiority is contradictory because in reality, he has no status. Karim shares that “Mum was irritated by Dad’s aristocratic uselessness” (24). He carries with him an attitude of entitlement although he does very little with this life. He has no sense of how to take care of himself since he has had “women who would take care of him” throughout his entire childhood (24). This aspect of Haroon’s personality is ironic because he has never worked a day in his life, and in spite of it he still expects people to tend to his every need. Similar to Haroon’s attitude upon migrating from India, Anwar shares the same false aspirations. Anwar’s grocery store, Paradise Stores, carries with it a contradiction within itself. The name insinuates a calm, peaceful and easy-to-run shop, when in reality, they must work very hard in order for it to be successful: “Paradise opened at eight in the morning and closed at ten at night. They didn’t even have Sundays off” (51).

Although Anwar and Jeeta work harder than almost any other characters in this novel, their status does not reflect it. Kureishi includes their story to satirize the false hopes that many immigrants have about starting fresh in a new place; they assume they will thrive and achieve high status when this is not the reality at all. In order to succeed, one must dedicate themselves to their future, and even then, an exemplary work ethic does not always equate to endless successes. The disappointment that many immigrants and lower class members of society feel is similar to that of racial minorities.

Kureishi’s use of satire and humor in describing race reflects the harsh and discriminatory ways people treat those who appear to be different. From the very first sentence of the novel, it is clear that crisis of identity and belonging will be a central theme. Karim shares that, “I am an Englishman born and bred, almost” (3). He struggles to balance his half-Indian roots against his own race based insecurities, along with the discrimination and prejudice he is constantly facing. His use of humor when describing the injustices and hypocrisy he endures serve as a protection from his own pain. Satire is his tactic of survival through the racism that would otherwise corrode him. After a night spent at Eva’s house, Karim stumbles upon his father “speaking slowly, in a deeper voice than usual, as if he were addressing a crowd. He was hissing his s’s and exaggerating his Indian accent” (21). This is particularly bizarre because Haroon has spent his entire life trying to erase his Indian identity and appear as British as possible. This action, little as it seems, serves as a reminder that regardless of how Haroon is going to identify, Indian or British, it will be decided by the mercy of a white person. If Haroon wants to appear as an Englishman, it is so that he can fit in with the others, and if he’s going to seem Indian, it is for Eva. Even Karim’s aunts and uncles, Jean and Ted, prove to be racially ignorant. They ignore Haroon’s real name and insist on calling him Harry. Karim admits that, “It was bad enough his being an Indian in the first place, without having an awkward name too” (33).

By giving Haroon a new name, they are disregarding his true identity. Karim uses comedy, and instead chooses to call them Gin and Tonic, another way he conceals the pain and humiliation he feels from having his own family ignore such a large aspect of who he is. When Karim finally hits a break with his career and is offered a job, his employer, Shadwell, speaks to him in “either Punjabi or Urdu” (139). When Karim doesn’t understand what he is saying, Shadwell inquires, “‘Well?’ he said. He rattled off some more words. ‘You don’t understand?… You’ve never had that dust in your nostrils?’” (140). Shadwell acts in a blatantly racist way and makes it very clear to Karim that he must fit into Shadwell’s vision for what an Indian is supposed to be. In spite of this discrimination, Karim remains extremely positive about his new job, gleaming about how he is perfect for his role as Mowgli in the production of the “Jungle Book” (144). Karim’s outward happiness about his casting covers up for him knowing that the main reason he received this job is because he fits the racial standards for the character. Kureishi effectively uses comedy to serve as a protection for Karim against the violent racism that he faces on a daily basis.

Overall, satire and irony are embedded throughout the text of Buddha of Suburbia as a mask to cover the pain of an identity crisis. They serve the unique purpose of expressing issues with social institutions and behaviors. Kureishi uses irony as a vehicle to illustrate the way that social status dictates the way we see the world. In the case of the rich, it alters their perception of how the rest of the world lives and operates, and for the poor, it shows the unpredictability of life and our own trajectories. Kureishi’s application of humor to incidents and recollections of racial prejudice are incorporated to sugar-coat the anguish it brought him. It is clear that Kureishi intends for this novel to be more than just an autobiographical expose. Through Karim’s coming of age and self exploration, Kureishi yearns for his readers, like Karim, to learn a little bit about themselves and the world they inhabit.

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200

The Difference Between Parody and Satire

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Have you ever watched a film and got déjà-vu, recognising certain elements form a film previously watched? This may include characters, setting or even dialogue. If your answer is yes to the above, you may find this essay interesting. My main claim for the essay is to focus on how a source text is transformed into a parody and what the similarities and differences are there between the two texts. In this essay I will outline the differences between a parody and satire, define the term parody and compare parody to a brain, as it functions in two dimensions. I will also discuss how the incongruity theory is applied to the parody genre and why audiences find the genre humorous. For this essay I chose to do my case study on the Scary Movie franchise since it is the most known film when it comes to the parody genre and therefore I will define my argument with examples from the film.

The Difference Between Parody And Satire

Parody is a well-known genre in the world of movie goers; however some viewers are confused by the difference between parody and satire. According to The Sceptical Prophet, parody can be compared to a metaphor, and satires to a symbol in order to define the difference. A parody is like a metaphor, the viewer can clearly identify the connection between the source text and the parody. This is noticeable through the conventions of the original text, which Harries describes as the three axes of a text that I will explain further in the essay. A parody is told in such a way that there is no need for the viewer to make their own interpretation on what the premise of the film is. When a viewer watches the parody version of Scream, Scary Movie, they already know that the film is about a killer, trying to kill Cindy, since they can make the connection to the source text. However, satire can be described as a symbol. The viewer needs to make their own interpretation, as the message of the film is subtle and has no clear explanation. In one of the Simpsons episode, Homer is standing in the grocery store, hearing the shop assistant and one of the customers talking about how they killed someone and dumped the body. During the conversation they also confess that they are selling old donuts for profit. Homer is seen making notes, one expect him to take the story about the murder to the police, however he took the donut story. In the next scene police officers are seen standing in the court, and donuts lying on the table. However not making the message clear, but subtle the viewer should make their own interpretation such as that the police are caring about unnecessary thing, rather serious events such as murder. Therefore text comes from social events going on in the society and one can say the society produces the text. Satire is not based on a source text it is a story created on its own, mostly does not consist of humour, just realization.

Defining Parody

A parody can be seen as a simpler form of comedy, since it is made out of something already existing. Several theorists have different approaches to the term parody and how they classify a film to the parody genre. Among these theorists is Ben Johnson who defines it as “the imitation of verses which makes them more absurd”, while Friedrich Nietzsche claims it is as “a lack of originality” and Foucault expressing it as “critical of reality”. By taking the approach of these three theorists into account we can define parody as the process where intentional reproducing of a text, style or genre takes place. It is critical of reality, in order to create humour, through the use of exaggeration or irony, by keeping the three axes of the target text in mind (Bauser 2011:19).

According to King (2002: 115), Dan Harries claims that the text of a film can be divided into three axes in order to create logic for the viewer between the source text and the parody. The three axes include: Lexicon, which refers to the characters in the film, the costumes they are wearing and the set in which the film takes place. The second ax, syntax, refers to the narrative of the film, and the last ax, style, includes all the technical aspects of the text such as the sound titles, film techniques etc. To define the term with Scary Movie as an example one can state that: When a director decides to make a parody film, he or she first has to find a target text they will base the parody on. Therefore one can claim that Friedrich Nietzsche’s claim is accurate since the director uses the format and text of another film, only changing several elements. Furthermore, the director keeps the three axes of the film in mind by adding exaggeration or irony to one or more axes. After adding exaggeration or irony one can refer to Foucault’s claim that the parody version is critical of reality. This can be seen in the parody of Scream, when the film makes fun of people being killed, such as the scene where Drew is chased through the garden, the killer stabs her in the breast, a breast implant is revealed and she dies, which makes her death comical.

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144

Analysis of Political Cartoon by Mike Likovich

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The cartoonist for this is known as Mike Likovich. This cartoon describes a football referee who has gone on strike and subsequently replaced by one who has made some outrageous calls. This basically upends the team that is thought to be in a position to perform better than the first one (Green Bay) and thus giving points to the inferior team (Seahawks). The media and the pollsters had been publishing polls, writing articles, and writing words that indicated that Obama was a head of Romney but the situation turned out that on the head, Romney was the one who was a head or in the lead and was headed to winning the election. From the cartoon, the referees are symbolized by the referee shirts. The shirts also symbolize the pollsters or the media houses that make bad calls or who make wrong analysis of the political situation prior to election (Dewey, 112).There is an element of exaggeration as depicted by the cartoon whereby the referees are posed in a ludicrous or unnatural position such as balancing on one hand, straight up, and so on(Halloran, 98).This indicated how far they were willing to go ahead to make a call. In addition, the red lump in the cartoons with the word “Mitt” written on them were designed to make it look as though Romney’s head had vanished. This further alluded to a bias against Romney even though he managed to score a goal. This involves the aspect of labeling, which involves cartoonists using specific elements to signify specific importance or relevance. Labeling also points out what the cartoonist wishes or wants the audience to understand (Halloran,108). Words contained in the cartoon also portray the message that the cartoonist wishes to pass to the audience. From the cartoon above, the cartoonist has used images of people putting on referee clothes, with some people standing in upside-down positions while others are on upright positions, so as to pass a specific message.

It was obvious that the GOP was not able to hire its own referees but the cartoonist also alluded to the fact that they had the money to “buy the game” through paying off the pollsters. As much as the election is not a sport in itself, the cartoon has depicted it such that it looks like a spectator sport. This is a case of analogy since it involves the comparison of two things or activities that are not alike (election and sport). This concept involves a situation whereby a complex issue is related to a more familiar idea, concept, or activity (Kahn, et al., 92). For example, most people are familiar with or are interested in sports much more compared to election. Therefore analogy of sport is used to describe the political situation so as to create more interest and fun(Kahn, et al., 82). This also helps the audience understand better the kind of values or message the cartoonist is trying to pass across. The overall message contained in the cartoon was that the Republicans were desperate and would try anything or do anything within their reach to win the election.

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140

The Role of Satire in El Buscon Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Francisco de Quevedo was among the most famous poet and writers in Spain during the Golden Age. He was born in Madrid where his family formed the government. He lost his parents at an early age .He joined Alcala University where he studied humanities as well as theology in Valladolid. Quevedo learned many modern languages including Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. At the age of 25 years, he published his first poem. El Buscon novel is among the most famous works of Quevedo.

The novel was written in 1604 and published later in 1626.The book was however published out of Quevedos knowledge. El Buscon is a picaresque novel. These are fiction novels, which use satire in representation of ideas. In this case, the author is usually humorous through exaggeration of ideas. In these novels, characters use their wit so that they can survive in the society, which is usually corrupt.

This style of writing novels is widely used by writers in the modern literature. The style is very important because it makes literature works interesting.[1] Satire is a stylistic device in which the author uses irony or exaggerations in expressing ideas. Satire has played a major role in writing this novel. The paper shows how satire is used in the novel and how it helps in the development of the plot of the story.

Discussion

The novel El Buston revolves around the adventures of Don Pablos who is described as a buscon. This individual uses unfair means like cheating and stealing in order to obtain money or properties. Two things that Pablos wanted to achieve in life were that he wanted to grow as a person as well as learning good morals but he never achieved any.

Even though the novel satirizes Spanish life, it acted as a literary exercise for Quevedo who represented the different characteristics of these people but with exaggerations, which produced a comic effect. The novel profound the notion that children from honorable parents should be honored and never those whose parents are not .The author of the novel satirizes the Spanish society.

He also attacks the main character in the story Pablos, a character who always struggles to achieve a higher position.[2] Quevedo is against the idea of moving from one class to another because to him, it is a way of creating disorder in the society. Quivedo punished Pablos because of his attempts to be better placed. Pablos has believed that all human beings were equal.

The book is very important because it portrays many aspects of the society. Through the novel, we learn more about a thief. The book is divided into three main parts. Several themes are clearly portrayed in the novel, for example, the theme of family as well as legal and lawless cruelty. As the story begins, Pablos is a child whereas his father Clemente Pablos is a thief and a barber. Aldonza, Pablos’ mother is portrayed as a witch and a prostitute.

We learn through Pablos that his mother was a new Christian convert. Pablos had a brother who had been flogged to death in prison, as he was a thief. The characters in the story are satirized. For example, being a barber, we do not expect Pablos’ father to be a thief. He has a right way of earning his living. The character of the mother is also satirized because as a new Christian convert, she should not engage in prostitution.

Witchcraft is too not advocated for in the Christian life. Pablos was interested in studies and his parents allowed him to enroll in a school. Don Diego Coronel was Pablos’ best friend at school. He is faced with many challenges at school after which he decides to stop schooling.

He decides not to go back home again. Don Diego remains to be his best friend and he too leaves school. Don Alanso, the father of Diego decides to hand over the two boys as wards to Dominle Cabra in Segovia. Pablos and Diego suffer a lot in the hands of Cabra especially lack of enough food. The death of one boy due to starvation made Alanso to shift the boys from that school to Alcala to continue with their studies.[3]

As Alanso, Diego and Pablos travelled to Alcala, they came across a group of students who mocked Pablos. After the three arrived at Alacala, Pablos was separated from Don Diego and beaten up by some University students because he was not a person enough. Pablos shared his room with four other students who also beat him up during the night. Not being a person is not enough for one to be beaten up. It is ironical because he does not defend himself.

His reaction is funny because he kills pigs, which he does not own. He holds a party in which he tricks his property owner into giving two chickens in exchange. This is satirical because the value of a pig can never be equivalent to that of a chicken. Among the bad habits included stealing sweets from a merchant in the locality as well as swords. His friends laugh at him, because of the things that he does.

The author exaggerates his characters because a sweet is a minor thing to be stolen from a merchant. Pablos should have stolen things of greater value. During their stay in Alcala, Pablos got a letter, which informed him of the death of his father who had been hanged.[4] The letter also indicated that his mother was in jail. Don Diego also received a letter from his father who warned him against his friendship with the Pablos.

The friendship between Pablos and Don Diego ends. Pablos arranges to meet with one of his relatives who would arrange for Pablos inheritance of his fathers wealth who was already dead. The way in which the above problems occur to Pablos is satirical. His father is hanged, his mother is in jail and his best friend leaves him. It is not possible that all of these took place at the same time.

As he travelled to Segovia to claim his properties, he came across an insane engineer. They discussed many topics with the engineer. They went to an inn where he met with a teacher who tried to teach him a lesson. It is satirical that the characters that Pablos interacted with were mad. Does it mean that he did not come across mentally fit persons who he could share with what he had? On their arrival to Cercedilla, they played cards where Hermit tricked them and ended up as the winner of all the games that they played.

On arrival to Segovia, he met with Alanso Ramplomn his uncle. People celebrate in his uncle’s house at a great dinner where they ate and drunk. Pablos is however not involved in the party. As people enjoy, he moves around the compound. He returns to the house and drives away all the people present in the party except his uncle who was supposed to discuss the issue of inheritance.

It is funny that Pablos decided to drive his uncles visitors away and they did nothing wrong to him and his uncle does not seem to question him. The man who claims to be a person teaches Pablos of the expected behavior in court. He taught him lying techniques as well as some of the ways in which he could take advantage of other people in some situations.[5]

The main aim of the alleged hidalgo was to pass knowledge to Pablos on the way in which he could use unfair means in obtaining other peoples properties or even take advantage of other people in particular situations. Pablos is displayed as a character whose character traits are not acceptable in the society. Being corrupt is a vice discouraged by all societies.[6]

Pablos and the alleged person visited Don Toribio in his house. Don Torobio is another man who claims to be a man. In this house, Pablos met with deceitful and unreliable people like thieves and gangsters. Pablos is dressed in tattered clothes, which makes his appearance funny bearing in mind that he is one person who intends to be a gentleman.

Pablos was arrested and taken to the prison together with the friends he met at Toribios house. At the jail, Pablos befriended a jailer through whom he is not flogged. When Pablos told the jailer that he is related to his wife, he accepted and helped him. Does it mean that he is not aware of his wife’s relatives? “Pablos changed his name to Ramilo de Guzman and went to an inn where he pretended to be a rich man with the aim of winning Berenguela de Rebolledo, a daughter of the innkeeper.”[7]

He succeeded in his lies and Berenguela allowed him to visit her during the night. She told him climb at the top of the roof so that he can enter her room without other people’s awareness. The roof collapsed as he tried to enter the room after which the innkeepers wake up, beat him up and finally throw him to jail again. It is very difficult to access a room through the roof.[8]

As he was in jail, he suffered a lot as he was beaten up until two men one from Portugal and the other one from Catalonia saved him. Again, he changes his name to Don Felipe Tristan. Villa is the residence of the two rich women. One of the women has three married nieces and she wants Pablos to marry one of them.

Pablos falls in love with Dona Ana the most beautiful girl of the three. During Pablos’ picnic with Dona Ana, they came across Don Diego who recognizes Pablos at the first sight. Pablos does not however recognize him. Pablos stays behind until he changes to his new begging career.[9]

In his begging career, Pablos met with Valcazar a beggar who introduced him to the world of begging. He used the money he obtained from begging to buy new clothes. In addition, he bought a hat and a sword. He then migrated to Toledo where people did not know him.

In Toledo, he joined comedic actors where he worked as a scriptwriter. He was also a poet in Toledo. At this place, his new name was Alanso el Cruel. Unfortunately, the arrest of the group leader by the police led to the disintegration of the group. Pablos leaves the acting career and falls in love with a nun. Finally, Pablos travels to Seville and joins a group of gangsters.

The gangsters went out, drunk and ate together so that they lost control over their behavior. Pablos and the other thieves were fortunate as they managed to escape. It is satirical that Pablos and the other gangsters managed to escape from the police bearing in mind that they were intoxicated and therefore they did not have control on themselves. After this, they travelled to Indies to see if there will be any positive change in their lives. We however learn through Pablos that life was even harder for him in America.[10]

Conclusion

Satire is a very useful stylistic device. The use of satire makes works interesting such that individual feel like they should continue reading. As people read satirize works, they laugh and all their attention is drawn into what they are reading. For example, the reader of this novel will be interested to know the reason behind Pablos’ change of names. In many cases, people who change their names so that they cannot be recognized usually have bad motives.

The stages through which Pablos passes are satirized. He moves from being a beggar, scriptwriter and a poet, falls in love with a nun and finally joins a group of gangsters. In each stage, he changed his names. The novel is full of characters that are not morally upright. We have weared characters in the novel like witches and thieves who are not acceptable in many societies. Satire is used in development of the plot of the story.

Bibliography

Barnstone, W. (1997). Six Masters of the Spanish Sonnet: Francisco de Quevedo, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Hernandez. New York, NY: SIU Press.

Cruz, A. (1999). Discourses of poverty: social reform and the picaresque novel in early modern Spain. New York, NY: University of Toronto Press.

Dunn, P. (1993). Spanish picaresque fiction: a new literary history. London: Cornell University Press.

Quevedo, F. (1610). El Buscon, Francisco de Quevedo Villegas (1580–1645), Filología, 9, pp. 163–200.

Footnotes

  1. Barnstone, W. (1997). Six Masters of the Spanish Sonnet: Francisco de Quevedo, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Hernandez. New York: SIU Press.
  2. Barnstone, W. (1997). Six Masters of the Spanish Sonnet: Francisco de Quevedo, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Hernandez. New York: SIU Press. P. 22.
  3. Barnstone, W. (1997). Six Masters of the Spanish Sonnet: Francisco de Quevedo, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Hernandez. New York: SIU Press. P. 30.
  4. Barnstone, W. (1997). Six Masters of the Spanish Sonnet: Francisco de Quevedo, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Hernandez. New York: SIU Press. P. 45.
  5. Barnstone, W. (1997). Six Masters of the Spanish Sonnet: Francisco de Quevedo, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Jorge Luis Borges, Miguel Hernandez. New York: SIU Press. P. 70.
  6. Quevedo, F. (1610). El Buscon, Francisco de Quevedo Villegas (1580–1645), Filología, 9, pp. 163–200.
  7. Quevedo, F. (1610). El Buscon, Francisco de Quevedo Villegas (1580–1645), Filología, 9, pp. 163–200.
  8. Cruz, A. (1999). Discourses of poverty: social reform and the picaresque novel in early modern Spain. New York, NY: University of Toronto Press. P. 115.
  9. Ibid. p. 120.
  10. Dunn, P. (1993). Spanish picaresque fiction: a new literary history. London: Cornell University Press.
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Why is Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby a Satire? Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Authored by Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby is a must-read chef-d’oeuvre. It satirizes the events as they unfolded in the 1920s soon after World War I. Fitzgerald seeks to reveal the worthlessness and the futility of the remark ‘great’ as it stood in the Jazz Age, a period dominated by moments of sadness and destruction. As the paper unveils, Jay Gatsby’s contentment, prosperity, and collective recognition are no more than images that mask his sinful life.

Satire in The Great Gatsby

Satire begins right from the title of the novel. The Great Gatsby implies something ‘great,’ be it a person or a society. Therefore, the reader expects greatness from the book. However, Gatsby, the protagonist of the story, is not as great as the reader expects. He is a mere thief and an extravagant person who gathers people for bashes every Saturday, not to say something ‘great,’ but to win the heart of only one person in the crowd: Daisy.

Besides, the title might suggest a society that is upright from all perspectives, morally, socially, spiritually as well as politically. However, it is ironic that the title is a social satire addressing the ethical dissipation of American society with everything in pathetic conditions. Behind the title are issues concerning the unfulfilled American dream, its heightened corruption, spiritual decadence, and hopelessness, none of which denotes greatness and hence the satire.

Fitzgerald’s masterwork further reveals satire in another way that arouses laughter to the reader. The irony stands out through the way Fitzgerald points out the truth concerning Gatsby’s family background. Gatsby tries to induce some contentment through the way he describes his family. For instance, in his conversation with Nick, he points out that he comes from a well-able family located in a prominent place: Middle west and, in particular, San Francisco.

Further Research When and Why Did Gatsby Change His Name? 4.4 820 Why Did Daisy Marry Tom in The Great Gatsby? 5 214 What Was Gatsby’s Reaction to Daisy’s Child? 5 162 Is Nick from The Great Gatsby a Trustworthy Narrator? 5 98 In Which Point of View is the Great Gatsby Written? 4.5 92 How Did F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Novel “The Great Gatsby Reflect the Culture of the 1920s? 5 209

However, based on 1920s family situations, families underwent significant destruction, thereby leaving people in pathetic conditions subjugated by moments of sorrow rather than joy. The real terms of Gatsby’s family stand out when he reveals it in chapter six. The reader then realizes that Gatsby’s words are no more than a cover of the truth concerning the situations of families, not only of Gatsby but also of others as well and hence the satire.

Another aspect of satire in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby is the wealth associated with Gatsby, as the reader observes in chapter two. Here, the reader wonders about the great party organized by Gatsby. He invites many people, some of whom cannot explain where the money comes from.

Mr. McKee associates the wealth with the fact that Gatsby is a son to a prominent person Kaiser Wilhelm, a German Emperor. However, the truth of the matter stands out in chapter 6, which reveals the money as an inheritance from Cody. He is not rich as the reader might insinuate but rather a professional criminal involved with every sort of illegal activity only to get money to impress Daisy in the name of entertaining the other people like McKee.

The author further satirizes the education of the American people. The reader might mistake Gatsby for an educated person, as he points out in chapter four, where he tells Nick about his Oxford University education. Later in chapter seven, the truth manifests itself when Gatsby tells Tom that he cannot pass for an Oxford man. Through this satire, the reader realizes the truth concerning the American people who boast of being educated while in the real sense, they are not.

Lastly, in chapter four, Jordan Baker brings to light a house that Gatsby erected, thinking that it will help in bringing Daisy closer to him. However, in chapter five, where Gatsby shows Daisy his home ground, he instead realizes the vast distance between them.

Conclusion

It is ironic that the house that the reader expects to strengthen the love between Gatsby and Daisy ends up separating them instead. There is no love at all between the two but an illusion. The novel ends with Tom and Daisy reconciling but not Gatsby as the reader expected.

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Satire as a Tool for Fighting Political Impunity Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Communication and media are facing the need to say or do something different in a new way. This simplifies the efforts by communication channels to be unique in their presentations so that they can attract large audiences.

New ideas, new topics of research and advanced students have made this area not only innovative but also controversial (Hartley 2011). This research sets the pace for other academic and extensive research on this topic.

Danesi defines media as any productions, for instance, TV programs, radio shows, newspaper columns or advertisements (2009, p. 194). Producers use contemporary media texts to convey meaning to the audience. It is not certain, however, that the audience will receive this message as intended because the text could be misinterpreted or misunderstood.

Contemporary media channels (for example TV) use communicative codes that need decoding (Hartley 2011, p. 3). TV communicators know that their message could not be decoded the same way by all their audiences.

Therefore, research is vital to establish how the message sent can reach the target audience, and what to do to ensure proper decoding takes place. According to Hartley, textual (semiotics) and audience (sociological) analysis should be done to know how to use the media to reach a mass audience.

What challenges do satirists face in their fight against political impunity?

Satire is dramatic, literary, or visual art created to review folly or abuse. Even though it uses humor and wit, satire intends to shade light on the wrong deeds present in both the social and political circles. Parody, on the hand, is a stylist imitation serving to call attention to and ridicule original style (Boler & Turpin 2008, p. 401).

Irony is among the styles used in satire. In this case, a person says one thing but means a different thing. It brings out the shared cultural meanings in satire in order to create the jokes. There are stages where irony could be used, for instance, when issuing statements about news media, parody characters and performances at events.

In this study, I will focus on satire as a tool for fighting political impunity, and the challenges that the satirists face. Many countries experience political issues in one way or the other. These issues range from bribery and corruption, nepotism, ethnic divisions, misappropriation of public funds, racial discrimination e.t.c. When a producer creates a comedy show, their intention is always to entertain as well as educate the audiences.

Satirists have also used music to pass across their messages by composing songs that rebuke corruption in the government. Negus states that we corporate machines should not attempt to control creativity in the popular music just to satisfy their greed (McIntyre 2011). Both musicians and satirists should be left to express themselves through their talents. According to Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert, comedy shows are not news since they do not have partisan agendas, they just entertain their audiences.

The Daily Show is a late night comedy show in the United States and Canada. According to Boler and Turpin (p. 391), since real news shows do not confirm political claims against reality, fake news shows have taken over the role of revealing that many politicians tell lies.

McClennen (2011, p. 13) describes Colbert’s parody as Bill O’Reilley at White house dinner, where he gave a satirical speech as the most aggressive public confrontation of President Bush during his tenure in office. In his speech, Colbert revealed all the scandals in the government thereby exposing what the main stream media had failed to expose. This act made Colbert a legend.

Can a comedy show like The Daily Show be held accountable to journalistic standards and integrity? This is the question that lingers in people’s minds. According to Joe Stewart, comedy shows cannot be held accountable to journalistic standards since they engage in theater instead of engaging in critical journalism. He insists that news organizations should not look to comedy for “cues on integrity” (Boler & Turpin 2008, p. 395).

There has been a general public dissatisfaction with the main stream media personnel who concealing political vices in governments. The audience has thus lost trust in the main stream media and has now resorted to support satirists who expose the real issues in governments. Popular comedy hosts have been outstanding and recommended for their courage to say the truth and confront political issues without fear or favour.

An exchange between Stewart and Moyer in 2003 focused on journalism and satire in a contradictory way. Moyers questioned whether, Stewart practiced an old form of satire or the form of journalism. In his response, Stewart states that this issue could be determined by whether Moyers was speaking about news or comedy adding that we are living in the new form of desperation.

With the advents in media, people have been able to display their talents through social sites like YouTube. Satirists all over the world are creating satirical shows using the available digital equipment and posting them on YouTube for people to see.

Because of this, artists now have lucrative deals by leading companies who nurtured their talents and made them stars. Political satirists, like Chris Rock have also posted their work on social sites to increase public awareness on political issues.

Through the mass media like TV, Radio and the Internet, many people have come to know about scandals that they never knew. Many people have also learnt about their political systems through satirical shows. Peterson says that most Americans get to know their politicians through satirical shows (2008, p. 21).

The description of these politicians is so funny that it leaves the memory in people’s heads. There is evidently more political satire in democratic countries than in authoritarian regimes according to Leonard. This is because of the freedom of expression that exists in these democracies.

In reference to my question above, it is true that political satire can help in fighting vices in political systems, but the challenges are overwhelming. According to Freeman (2009), throughout history, the political jester can speak truth to power even though there is always censorship of some sort in this industry. This has made it difficult for the satirists to run their shows without restrictions by the authorities in their countries.

Another challenge that satirists face is the problem in finding and holding an audience since many people dislike like politics. More often, therefore, these shows tend to incorporate other jokes about cultures, personalities or ethnic groups’ social issues into their shows so that they can attract people’s attentions.

The negative attitude that people have towards satirists also hinders their work of fighting political vices through comedy. According to the Lake Victorian caricaturist and essayist Mac Beerbohm, a satirist is a person laying about lustily to hurt or injure those who according to him should be hurt and injured (Freedman 2009, p. 1).

Since no one likes to be ridiculed, political satire has often been labeled as a dangerous and uncomfortable field since the people one makes fun of may decide to sue them or pose a threat to their lives. Many US satirists believe that president Bush deserved to be hurt and injured.

They, therefore, went ahead to scorn and ridicule him on their comedy shows. Zerubavel gives an example of a satirist, who mocks an emperor by telling him that he is either blind, or the emperor is naked” (2006 p. 73). According to Freedman (p. 14), other targets for satire are Bill Clinton (the sex scandal) and George Bush (his leaders).

Different people react to satire different. While some will choose to laugh at the jokes and even appear at the shows, others get angered and cut off offending passages on the newspapers or ban the TV show and imprison or penalize the satirists. In the 1920s, for example, the Soviet Union, imprisoned Philipon and his colleagues and their magazines banned for satirically criticizing the government.

There is another challenge of maintaining the momentum in comedy shows. Satirists have to look for fresh jokes keep their audience entertained. This seems to be the biggest challenge for satirists since the audience is the most powerful person in their work. They thus need to carry out thorough research for them to reach a desired audience and get their attention.

Some of the Key Concepts that should be considered in order to overcome these challenges are as follows;

Censorship- Hartley (p. 38) defines censorship as the control of published content by official agencies in order to discipline the populations and render any dangerous thoughts and desires docile. It is thus essential for satirists to analyse their government systems and program their show in a way that they will speak up against the vices, but in a soft way to avoid censorship.

Communication- this is a meaning generating interaction between two systems or organisms by means of mutually recognizing signals (Hartley, p. 49). Satirists design and present their jokes with the intention of passing information.

This information could concern corruption in the government, the high cost of living or nepotism in the civil service. Text is anything that represents, expresses or communicates speeches, poems or programs. The text in satirical programs stands for the message that the producer wants to pass to the audience.

The Celebrity- The person that speaks at a show will affect the way a message is received. The public reaction to a joke or mockery will significantly depend on whom that person is. Celebrities in this case always have an upper hand to charm the audiences than regular people.

The reason behind this is that already they have a fan base hence they just need to tickle them a little for them to burst into laughter. Many people will attend a satirical show hosted by Chris Rock than one hosted by an unknown person.

Audience- Watson & Hill (p. 16) state that an audience is the receptors of messages sent. For a show to be successful, the producer should consider creating a content that will fit the audiences. Gender, academic level, religious background and language, will determine the approach to take in their presentation.

Context- Hartley (p. 61) defines context as the environment where we make a presentation. Political satire is not advisable in a country that is experiencing violence due to political difference since this will fuel violence. In 2008 Republican John McCain and his wife were victims of political satire during a talk show called The View, hosted by five female presenters.

The hosts saw that environment as the perfect opportunity for them to mock the presidential aspirant for approving of a message on advertisements that were propaganda campaigns against his opponent, Barrack Obama (Jones 2010, p. 3). This action signifies how democracy may turn around and hurt the same people who defend it through satire. This is evidently the reason behind strict restrictions by authoritarian governments on satirical programs.

Media- is any means of transmitting information according to Danesi (2009). For comedy shows to reach their target audiences, the producers should choose their media correct. Comic shows have adopted with the changes in media trend well. According to Kellner, mainstream media processes information, events and news as media spectacle (2009). It is this power of the media that has taken these shows to facebook, twitter, YouTube and MySpace.

These innovations have led to the work of writers like Hemingway (The Sun Also Rises) to be translated into films (Hay 2011, p. 24). Women have also decided to join the field of political satire as writers, cartoonists or performers. Maureen Dowd and Molly Ivins are among the noticeable number of women who have made their names as satirists (Freedman 2009, p. 2).

It is vital for both private and government institutions to support satirists carry out their self-imposed role of being watchdogs. This avenue could also grow to create employment opportunities to the youths.

Reference List

Boler, M & Turpin, S 2008, “The daily show and crossfire: Satire and Sincerity as Truth to Power”, in Megan, Boler, Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in Hard Times, MIT Press, USA.

Danesi, M & Berger, A 2009, Dictionary of Media and Communication. M.E Sharpe Inc, New York, USA.

Freedman, L 2009, The Offensive Art: Political Satire and Its Censorship around the World from Beerbohm to Borat, Greenwood publishing group, London UK.

Hartley, J 2011, Communication, Cultural and Media Studies: The Key Concepts, 4th Ed. Routledge, London, UK.

Hays, P 2011, The critical reception of Hemingway’s The Sun also rises. Camden House, New York, USA.

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