The Meaning Behind the Notion of Transposition D’art
Transposition d’art was a term used for the first time by Théophile Gautier, a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist and an art and literary critic; who lived between 1811 and 1872. The critics classify his works in the literary movements of Parnassianism, symbolism and modernism. Gautier used the term Transposition d’art to indicate a transformation of arts. This transformation consists in bringing to word an already artistic (or aesthetized object) – it could be a painting, a sculpture, a piece of music, any kind of artistic object – and by doing so, the object becomes doubly artistic (or aesthetic). It would be easier to understand this concept by looking at the painting of Gustave Moreau (1826-1898) called Galatée, painted in 1880 and it’s Transposition in the form of a sonnet written by Julián del Casal in 1976. Casal, inspired by the painting, reinterpreted it and transformed it into a poem.
There are essential differences between the modernist movement in Europe and the one in South America, nevertheless, the example of the Transposition d’Art is fundamental to understand what this research will be about. In fact, Casal’s sonnet is yet another proof, that art is constantly influencing other forms of arts. Knowing how the Transposition d’Art operates, one could ask him or herself if there is also an inverse procedure. If one considers that art is continuously evolving, changing, and moving from one artist to another in form of inspiration, then it should be possible to start from a literary work and transforming it into something else, something new.
It could be very interesting to apply this theory to the European Modernist movement. It is important to consider all the new experimental techniques used by the European modernist writers (as for instance, the stream of consciousness, the internal monologue, or the epiphany) and then ask ourselves how other artists were influenced by these techniques and, above all, how they could transform this new form of writing into a new artistic form of art.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Paris was considered the intellectual capital of Europe. Many different artists (like Pablo Picasso, Gertrude Stein, and Ernest Hemingway) visited the city or settled there, inspired by the intellectual environment of the capital and influenced one another. In this stimulating atmosphere, James Joyce published in 1922 what would later be considered his masterpiece, Ulysses. The novel was revolutionary in a literary sense, because of Joyce’s experimentation with the writing technique. Obviously, Joyce’s novel would influence, many artists across the years.
Jimmy Baca and His Poems of Protest
The author Jimmy Baca plays an extraordinary role in his poem of protest by showing how hypocritical Americans are of Mexicans since they categorize Mexicans with the discernable stigma of being corrupt/lying, idle laborers who only desire to come to America to abduct jobs. For example, in a sort of mocking and mordant tone, Baca explains how Americans view Mexicans as individuals who are sneaky criminals because they take away jobs. Baca asserts, “I hear Mexicans are taking your jobs away.
Do they sneak into town at night, and as you’re walking home with a whore, do they mug you, a knife at your throat, saying, I want your job” (7-11)? Through merely these four lines alone, not only does Baca mock Americans by saying they act like victims when they are not, he also demonstrates the bigotry of Americans. Americans affluent in wealth condemn to poverty-stricken ‘foreigners’ by taking their wealth from them.
The hypocrisy is typified by the Americans mistreating their own people adversely because they are colored and their avarice is mirrored in the poverty of the lowest social class for whom they have no affinity. Basically, he is demonstrating the ‘urban myth’ of how Mexicans are perceived by Americans. More specifically, Baca expounds, “I see the poor marching for a little work, I see small white farmers selling out to clean-suited farmers living in New York, who’ve never been on a farm, don’t know the look of a hoof or the smell of a woman’s body bending all day long in fields” (24-29).
This renders that it is not that Mexicans are being sneaky and taking jobs from Americans, it is that Americans are too busy and occupied doing other things to see what Mexicans could be doing. Americans don’t want to work in the fields sweating. Baca’s bitter statements are backed up with sensory images when he refers to the smell of a woman’s body who’s been working in the fields all day which suggests that this is hard physical work which obviously produces sweat. This is very different than the cool, clean board rooms of New York, and the executive that “clean-suited farmers living in New York” know little or nothing about the labor of really running a farm, nor do they care.
Therefore, Baca plays a massive role in protest because he calls to question many of the issues surrounding our (USA) southern border neighbors. There are numerous issues/ social injustices in our country that should be tended to, and thanks to writers like Baca, these topics reach a wide audience and draw the attention to a large demographic group poised to fix them.
How Rukeyser’s Poetry Portrays the Treatment of the Suffering of the Human Body
The Rukeyser’s treats the human body as the core of her poetry. She makes use characters whose physical experiences motivates them to look for an artistic form as well as a holistic vision which mitigates the corporeal and the conceptual aspects within their lives. The thesis of this essay is the Rukeyser’s mitigation of disparate factors of existence via the human body image as well as the practical experience she encountered as life experience as described in her poetry. In her 1940s’ poetry, tension is seen in the artist personal life as well as in her art; she tries to resolve this mystery by adopting an artistic stand which incorporates her everyday experience (Dickinson 8). This continues in her poetry in the 1950s to 1970s, whereby physical experience, illness, she despise as well as imprisoned protagonist which go through a development process that perceives a different focus to their identity and try to widen their perspectives of the prevailing situation by reconciling them.
Rukeyser had an interest in reconciling attitude. In a memoir which she wrote on she went to Spain during the Spanish civil war, she considered how issues in the modern world have become so interrelated such that any effort to isolate them would not succeed and it would be very unrealistic. The thing was becoming more tragic such that our lives could not be shredded by anyone, be it athletes, women, poets, travelers, tourists or even refugees. She was holding on to this perception that the various aspects of our lives have to be identified in the form of everyone to others. This confirmed her desire that we should not allow our lives to be eroded by anything. There is an interaction between distinct aspects as well as areas in her poetry has led to scholars to come to a conclusion that the academic requirement to come up with a specific genealogy in her to be constructed with caution.
The reconciliation focus by Rukeyser is incompatible elements to her poetry. It is elaborated through the human body motif which insights her poetry, and therefore her poetry is an organic entity. It is an inclusive and a holistic fact which drives her creativity as well as inspires the artist’s relational vision. Through poem, we can understand her interest and focus on physical human experience which is not separate from the concrete facts of existence. With her female identity, she is in a position to appear as a character in her poetry; this stands for a maternal body, productivity, giving birth, and the innovation which combines various stylistic devices.
A unique aspect of Rukeyser’s poetics is how she shows the reconciliation of the awareness is part of a solid world that surrounds her and the idea of individuality which enables to reform her world into her distinctive imagination. The interaction of this two aspects can be elaborated via Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological approach. He works out two apparently ironical qualities of perception by which the perceived item is not in a position to be foreign to its perceived. His theory shows that if inference which stands for an own personal understanding of who they are and the things to observe, and superiority shows the things above her reach within her environment. An individual only makes sense of the surrounding by involving some aspects of her perspective and admit the distance which separates her from them.
In the context of Rukeyser’s poems evaluates the way whereby the two elements of Merleau-Ponty’s perspective in human perception reinforce each other regardless the tension between them. Inherence as well as superiority that is reconciled through the way she treats a personal body and its practices, daily experience to be the source of inspiration as well as a factor which enables the poet to have artistic imaginations which reflect her personality and connects the contrasting factors of her identity. Meanwhile, such experiences encourage the author to see her experiences as related to with other individuals as well as the world in its different realms which include the social and the political environments. Rukeyser understands herself as being distinct, unique vision, a social individual who shares and affected by various situations as well as perceptions that are experienced by other individuals.
The author analyses Rukeryser’s ‘The Book of the Dead’ with the approach of inherence and uniqueness as elaborated in the theory of perception by Merleau-Ponty’s. The poem connects personal voices of witnesses to those of victims in a distressing industrial occurrence, making use of a documentary format which shows the disadvantages of their representation of the event. This style is connected with an emotional mode that the author wishes to deal with the faults of a personal character’s dimensions (Middleton 151).
This methodology enlightens the strain between these structures and the way in which they may supplement each other similarly that inherence and amazing quality both constitute the demonstration of human discernment. In the primary part, the author shed light on Rukeyser’s symbolism of the body in her verse of the 1940s, where her heroes experience a pressure between a distraction with the tangible part of their physical encounters and an endeavor to amplify its hugeness by connecting it to different parts of personality, for instance, its inventive potential and its association with the general population world (Gelpi 123). The heroes perceive the more extensive ramifications of their individual experiences and try to augment their vision by grasping them, in spite of the contention that this exertion includes.
In spite of the central point that the artist’s body involves in her work, and regardless of the expanding number of expositions and monographs, after a time of disregard, expounded on her poetry since the 1990s, there has been no review dedicated to the importance of the body in the poetry. A criticism frequently majors on her style in connection with her women’s activist subjects, a case of which is Susan Ayres’ ‘outlaw Against the Thinking Fathers.’ Therefore, these academic endeavors don’t address in adequate detail the way in which these issues are associated with the body in her poetry (Shaw 47). This proposal puts these subjects with regards to what Rukeyser viewed as the wellspring of her imagination and a variable that has a conspicuous nearness in her poetry. Along these lines, the author trust that my exposition will energize and facilitate endeavors at focusing in transit that Rukeyser’s body and her own, physical encounters shape her vision and the topics and style of her poetry.
Presently the turns to a point by point depiction of each piece of the thesis. Rukeyser’s shows the style in ‘The Book of the Dead.’ The author concentrates her method for exhibiting the fundamental point of the poem, the Hawk’s Nest occurrence, through the different viewpoints of characters associated with the occasion, both to uncover their blemishes and recommend, by assembling them, their correspondence. The author analyzes her juxtaposition of the narrative and expressive structures. These two styles supplement each different as parts of the writer’s perspective on the issue (Barber 130). The Rukeyser’s multifaceted perspective of the issues encompassing the primary subject in the light of Merleau-Ponty’s concept of discernment as described by the two aspects of innateness and amazing quality. In ‘The Book of the Dead,’ the narrative substance is given through the viewpoints of the different characters, who keep up an inalienable connection to the part since the majority of whom are straightforwardly or in a roundabout way required in it.
The realities demonstrate the complexities of the circumstance, indicating it inside its particular recorded setting and both its starkly negative and subtle perspectives. The writer’s expressive voice rises above and supplements this arrangement of points of view by managing a visionary perspective of the issue past the cutoff points of its actualities, tending to the subject of its gathering by future perusers of the poem (Coleridge 57). The creator draws motivation for that vision from the ideas of nature, science, and innovation, which are embroiled in the occurrence. From one viewpoint, these powers are viewed as casualties to industry’s exploitative practices; on the other, they are seen as sustainable assets which will discover a method for augmenting their reality similarly as the disaster’s casualties will be memorialized long after the occasion being referred to.
In conclusion, Rukeyser’s treats the suffering body within her poetry. The poetry analyzed in this essay is from the volumes of the 1960s and 1970s. The leading character of this poems goes through the experience that disparate factors of their identity as well as life are reconciled. Over the span of these encounters, the characters likewise consider issues past their real conditions; this makes enduring a conciliatory component that develops their vision and changes their lives. The central segment of the section manages Rukeyser’s portrayal of the evil body. The connection amongst ailment and the regulating body is rethought, and both are seen as associated. Sickness supposedly is an indispensable piece of life and calculate the improvement of a man’s character (Adkins 24). In some of her self-portraying sonnets, disease prompts the author to scan for a shape to express it and in this manner change her specialty. With her poetry, she investigates the loss of agency when ill. One of her poems, she regards disability as her source of inspiration, because it brings the protagonist and unconscious aspect to relate.
The Poem “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes
If you would be the son in the poem “Mother to Son” by Langston Hughes, what would be the promises you may give to your mother? Well, simply I, as her son, the promises I would give are:
First, I promise to pick the right choice in my life, why? As John Maxwell said, “Life is a matter of choices, and every choice you make makes you.” It definitely means that our life is composed of many choices, we are the one whose manipulating and controlling what would be the choices we would choose. We as a human have what so called the Equilibrium of life, simply it means that every decisions and choices we’ve made are judged and weighed on a scale where we check if what choice is more superior, preponderant and dominant. We are able to know what is wrong from a right and what is right from a wrong. Imagine, you are harvesting inside a mango tree plantation, will you choose a raw fruit rather than a ripe and fresh fruit? Well literally, we would pluck the ripe fruit. It’s just that, the ripe fruit symbolizes the right choices and the raw fruits are the wrong choices we’ve made. We will be able to pluck or pick a right choice rather than a wrong choice. We are able to know what choice will give us the best benefit. As the son, i would promise to my mother that I should pick the right choices in my life.
Second, I promise that I won’t climb the stair she took because I know for myself that the mistakes of my mother which reflected to me will never be done again. I won’t let my life be miserable. I won’t let myself to climb for a wooden stair. That’s life! We soar for the best and not for the worst. My mother did that, so I would never take the wrong path she did because it definitely told the outcome of that choice. I won’t let myself be drowned by my mistakes and just surrender in life. I must think for a better future not just for my mother but also for myself.
Third, I promise to climb a path with good deeds because the goodness you may give to others can cause positivity in your life. Honestly, me, as a person is very overwhelmed when I gave something good and that something is too much appreciated by the receiver. The simple smiles, the thankful words he/she might say, the smiley faces which is barely seen to his/her face can make my life harmonize, wonderful, marvelous and definitely can add a delight and positivity to my life as I ascent to the path I an walking upon.
Lastly, I promise to take the obstacles and challenges in life as a motivation to continue climbing for a crystal stair. As a quote says, “Life is full of challenges, but these challenges are only given to you because God knows your faith is strong enough to get through them.” Well, definitely life is accomodated by many many challenges that tests our faith to never surrender. These challenges makes us strong, it makes us tough, it makes us learn, it makes us fight, it makes us live, it makes us to continue, it makes us an unbreakable glass, it makes us an uncuttable paper and it makes us to have a faith and conviction to God. Why would you give up on something when you’ve started it? Take these challenges as the hurdles you can jump upon. Whatever the case, you can move toward your own success. We can overcome this challenges because we have a strong hold, a mind that functions and controls our whole well-being to continue climbing for our goals.
I therefore conclude that all of these commitments and assurances are not as simple as climbing a literal stairs where you can just skip on any levels you want. We may face challenges, barriers and obstacles in life but its not a valid reason for us to surrender. Its very clear that we can pick the right choices in life. Its very obvious that we can prevent choosing the wrong choices in life. Our life is metaphorically compared to a stair where we have the freedom to pick a stair of crystals rather than a stairs made up of a wood. Promises are meant to be broken but this promises aren’t meant to be. Its what we are targetting, we have a bulls eye to shoot for a best life. We have a musicians mind to hit the right notes in our life. We have a teacher’s mind to teach ourselves. We have a basketball player’s ability to shoot for a great life. We have a mother, a mother who tells us what we need to do for our own sake. We have ourselves that manipulates our mental, physical, spiritual, physicological way of thinking to neither give up nor surrender on the storms of life.
Poet’s Journey with Fancy and Death as Presented In- “Ode to a Nightingale”
ANS: This journey with fancy and death has started from the first stanza where the poet tries to make us think that the poet is drunk and uses “hemlock”, “opiate” and a kind of unique drink that tastes like “tasting of Flora”. All these refer to the trance situation of the poet who is having the imaginative journey and is trying to escape with the nightingale. The journey starts with a pain “heart aches”, refers to the symbolic heart that is having the drunkenness because of the spiritual drug from the nightingale’s song. The title of the poem gives a touch of poet’s journey, where the “Nightingale” is not only bird’s name rather it is used to refer the symbol of celebration of life, which is about the ‘fancy’ of the poet and the symbol of ‘death’.
Poet’s imagination of fancy gets powerful when he gives the description of metaphoric wine by “blushful Hippocrene” that leaves the mouth with “purple” stain. He wants to sip this pure wine, the source of artistic skill that will trigger a poet’s intellect of literature. In the poem, he expresses his desire to transcend from the boundary of harsh reality by “world unseen” but he is unable to do so due to his illness that is reminding him and making his brain perplexed and dull which does not let him to fully concentrate in writing. Keats is longing for the escapism from the world because it is full despair, which has been expressed in the third stanza by “palsy”, referring to the old people suffering from the paralysis and by “spectre-thin” referring to young people growing thin as a ghost then die. For these, he thinks the nightingale’s world is much better that is why he wants to flee with nightingale. Thus he celebrates life’s simplicity in listening to that enchanted song of the nightingale.
For the journey, the poet uses a metaphor for referring flight by “wings of Poesy” means with the help of his own poetry wings he will run away with the nightingale in the middle of the night where is “no light” mentioned. In the journey with fancy and death, the poet expresses the darkness of night by “embalmed darkness” referring to both artificial and natural process, one is mummification process and another one is about the forest fragrance. The beautiful description of the forest is another attraction for the reader to understand the fancy of the poet, where he uses “White hawthorn”, “pastoral eglantine”, “violets”, and “musk-rose” in the fifth stanza. Poet also uses “Darkling I listen” to put emphasis on the darkness of the night.
There is a beautiful expression of the poet about death in the poem by “half in love with easeful Death” referring to the welcoming gesture of the poet who is not afraid of death rather he calls it “soft names” because he thinks if he dies while writing, the pain will be less than not being able to write due to the sickness. He wants to flee with the nightingale, which he thinks such a relief expressed in the poem by “ecstasy”. Poet also imagines his death and compares nightingale’s song with a musical composition in the poem by “requiem”, which is performed during someone’s funeral.
In the poem, the nightingale is shown as a symbol of the everlasting beauty, which is an “immortal bird” and free from all the sufferings expressed in the seventh stanza by “hungry generations” that “tread” the human beings down. In the middle of the seventh stanza, the poet realizes that the immortal bird is not meant for death and the song he is listening to is the same song that has been heard by the Ruth and also others from the primitive time expressed by “self-same song”.
The poet gets consciousness about his own mortality which is expressed by “sole self” in the poem. In the eighth stanza, he compares the fancy with a wicked elf who likes to bluff people and which is making the poet think that he could flee with the nightingale to become immortal. The poet bids the nightingale in the poem by “Adieu!” and he is confused between his fancy and the death, where he ends the ode asking two stylistic questions about his thoughts whether an illusion, expressed in the poem “a waking dream”.
The Woman Who Shopped
Duffy’s title ‘The Woman Who Shopped’ displays women to be predisposed to a loss of identity, whereby they are objectified or dehumanised to fit social convention. The poem initially establishes a woman’s desire for materialistic acquisitions over interpersonal relationship. Duffy warns against the dangers of modern day consumerism, which extends to all modern capitalist societies, to prevent females from being consumed themselves. The poem is potentially ‘an indictment of western consumerism and our addiction to shopping’ (1)
Duffy’s strategic structuring of her poem is able to inform women of the dangers of consumerism and how it can transform you into an image of feminine stereotype. Duffy undertakes an almost balladic form, which consists of enumeration coupled with enjambment and few caesuras, creating a fast pace and a tone of breathlessness, elucidating how women don’t stop to think about the consequences of consumerism and they just merely act on impulse, building up to the climax. This transformation is rather comical and it can be viewed as Duffy’s criticism of modern day consumerism.
A key message Duffy attempts to convey is the inevitability of punishment as a result of what can be considered a sin. The opening quatrain reveals a biblical illusion of the “apple” reflecting the Garden of Eden. God warned Adam and Eve that if they were to eat from the tree they would die, however Eve disobeyed his demand, eating the fruit of the tree and thus she was punished with pain in childbirth. This biblical connotation is perhaps Duffy’s way of foreboding that consumerism is a sin, guiding modern day women to deviate from social convention before they can be stereotyped as consumerists. Similarly, Duffy’s ‘The Diet’ from her ‘feminine gospels’ collection also makes biblical reference to the “apple” denoting women to be guilty of original sin. Duffy’s message for women to transform is once again reiterated through various poems in her collection.
Furthermore, a rapid pace is created via the internal rhyme of “silver shilling” and its sibilance creates a harsh sound, demonstrating that time will move at such a speed without being able to realise it. It’s clarified that women need to stop obsessing before it physically destroys them. Physical destruction as a result of obsession is something Duffy focuses on in her ‘feminine gospels’ collection. In her poem ‘The Diet’, Duffy hints at the pressures on the female body and in this case, how their bodies are used as commodities. The media is a modern day issue, which presents us with the ‘ideal’ body type, creating an immense amount of pressure on women to appear in a particular way, in order to ‘gratify the senses of man’. (3) It was acknowledged, “Should they be beautiful, everything else is needless” (Wollstonecraft, 1792) (6), yet still to this modern day, there still appear to be issues with femininity and women being defined purely by men, and objectified as possessions. Duffy’s ‘The Map Woman’ also follows a lyrical, rhythmic tone. As seen in ‘The Woman Who Shopped’, a great emphasis is placed on a woman’s physical appearance. This is achieved through the listing “dress…shawl…hat”, whereby when the woman is visible to other people, she is expected to conform to societal values, appearing in a presentable manner that is socially accepted.
‘The Diet’ uses sibilance, “she starved on, stayed in, stared in the mirror, svelter, slimmer” also to emphasise the cruelty of expectation and its harsh sound reflects the pain of her body physically disappearing. Through the regularity of dynamic verbs, “willing”, “applied”, “flew”, Duffy is evidently suggesting that women are ultimately in control of their own bodies and should not be lead into temptation to please men. This further consolidates women’s’ obsession with money and how the cycle of consumerism manifests feminine life. A parallel idea is portrayed again in ‘The Diet’, where the dynamic verbs “rolled”, “crawled”, “raved”, all implicate the importance of women making a positive transformation before they can be defined by society.
Moreover, the listing of “furniture, travel goods, luggage” and consecutive caesuras are reflective of the excessive compulsion to buy new objects. The frequent enjambment here, adds to the feeling of frenetic purchasing, which seems to be cyclical, with no end, just like the lines of poetry. Furthermore, there is no consistent rhyme, suggesting a lack of control in her expenses, yet the poem adopts a stringent 12 syllable rhythmic structure, alluding to the consistency of the shopaholic’s addiction. Thus Duffy is successful in presenting the dangers of addiction and how it inflicts a lack of control.
In order to reduce and generalise consumerism to all females, Duffy is extremely strategic in her reference to “her” and “she”, maintaining a third person narrative throughout. It is evident that the woman had “unopened cartons, over-stuffed bags”, the juxtaposition of the amount of items she owns with the emptiness she actually feels, is a stark contrast created by the prefixes “over” and “un”. Moreover, due to the colloquialism and listing of “a fiver, a tenner”, it can be suggested that every woman is guilty of at least some consumerism and it dictates how it is an inescapable continuous cycle. A Semantic field of gambling is apparent “shuffle” and “deal”, confirming that the woman is blinded by the effects of her consumerism and its danger. When gambling, there’s always a risk present and conceivably she only sees it as a game.
Overall, from Duffy’s collective responsibility placed on women, she is able to encourage women to make a positive transformation within their behaviour, rejecting societal views that are forced upon them through patriarchy. Duffy’s collection is able to illustrate the injustices placed upon women throughout history to our modern day society.
Analysis of the Poem “Kubla Khan” by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
The poem “Kubla Khan”, by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, is full of various auditory devices such as assonance and alliteration. Also, it defines the intimate emotionalism of romanticism and is considered a musical poem, as seen in the opening five lines:
“In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.”
The fact that in some parts, the poem sounded sorrowful and lively at times, that had the intention to encourage its listeners to be amazed of Coleridge because of the repetition of a, e, and u sounds continues throughout the poem with the a sounds dominating. Afterwards, the assonance in the line “As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing” makes the effect of breathing. In the poem, as each line closes with it: “Kubla Khan,” “pleasure-dome decree,” “river, ran,” “measureless to man,” and “sunless sea.” the alliteration is exceptionally prevalent in the opening lines. In particular, the effect is almost to hypnotize the reader or listener into being open to new ideas to the marvelous visions about to appear. Notably, the other ways of using alliteration includes juxtaposition of “waning” and “woman wailing” to create a sound of sadness. Incidentally, “Five miles meandering with a mazy motion” literally sounded like the movement it described. The repetition of the initial h and d sounds in the closing lines creates an image of the narrator as haunted and doomed:
“His flashing eyes, his floating hair!Weave a circle round him thrice,And close your eyes with
holy dread,For he on honey-dew hath fed,And drunk the milk of Paradise.”
Ergo, with the assonance and alliteration, the impact of the last rhyme of the poem and from the established a sensation of movement to reinforce the image of the flowing river with the shadow of the pleasure dome floating upon it. Moreover, such images stimulate a vision of Xanadu bound only by the reader’s imagination.
Particularly, without being so specific, the imagery of “Kubla Khan” tends to evoke that it contradicts the magical, dreamlike effect for which Coleridge is striving. The “gardens bright with sinuous rills,” “incense-bearing tree,” “forests ancient as the hills,” and “sunny spots of greenery” are intentionally vague, as if remembered from a dream. As to mention that Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote this work of literature because he was deprived of opium. He took opium for medicinal purposes.
Analysis of ‘search for My Tongue’ by Sujata Bhatt
‘Search for My Tongue’ by Sujata Bhatt is a poem about the feelings and experiences that an individual may encounter when they move to a foreign country, significantly different from their home country and cultural background. In the poem, Bhatt skillfully describes her personal struggle of embracing a new culture and “tongue” while having the ongoing fear of deserting the core details of her true identity in the process. She portrays her situation in ways that create desperation to hold on to the ‘mother tongue’, however, towards the end, her fear of “losing” it is proved to be unfounded.
In the first stanza of the poem, the “two tongues in Bhatt’s mouth” are referred to as her “mother tongue” and “foreign tongue”. This creates a strong contrast between the two languages the poet speaks and portrays the struggle she is facing with managing to speak these distinct languages. Furthermore, with the usage of conversational tone, Bhatt implies that this is a universal topic, hence allowing multiple readers to relate with her situation. In lines 10 and 13, Bhatt insists that “living in a place where you have to speak a foreign tongue” would make “your mother tongue” “rot, rot and die in your mouth.” The repetition of the word, “rot,” exemplifies how horrific Bhatt believes the damage to be as stating the verb once is not sufficient enough to get the point across.
At the core of the poem, the stanza written in Gujarati, Bhatt’s “mother tongue”, represents her true identity. The positioning of these few lines as being implanted between the “foreign tongue” stanzas, symbolizes that her true culture/nature is implanted in an irreversible way within her.
In the last stanza, the implanted concept from the previous lines “grows” into the final idea of the poem. The notion that her mother tongue’s “bud opens” represents new life. Essentially, with this concept of life, Bhatt finds that even when she “thinks she is forgotten” it, she learns that her “mother tongue” is still alive and well within her. This process of forgetting and remembering alludes to the natural elements that are at play within this section. Plants have a cycle of life that leads to “buds” and “blossoms,” and similarly this circular pattern – feeling as though “the mother tongue” has “rot” only to discover that it is alive – continues to endure in Bhatt’s life.
The Legacy of Christina Rossetti
People have been reading, listening to music, and admiring paintings and sculptures all the time, such as grotesque thoughts such as cultivating sentiment, learning knowledge, and philosophical philosophies. It’s as if we are reading a book to learn the ability to show off to people; listening to music is to get a pass for the society; to appreciate painting is to let their so-called “taste” over others. The first thing people think of when writing is that there must be law. A certain method, if you do it, you can write something that is amazing. People will draw a circle, circle themselves and some people, and the people in the circle will follow each other step by step, rejecting the idiots outside the circle from the bottom of their hearts. They thought that the mystery of everything was imprisoned in this small circle, like mosquitoes trapped by mosquito nets, screaming and inspiring big bags on their stupid heads.
Some people think that beautiful things are beautiful, beauty is not a broom to clean the soul; art is art itself, not the golden sand that people try to filter gold from. That vulgar and shallow art will make people analyze, like anatomizing dead bodies, dig out the belly to see what color. Art should be seamless. People don’t need to prepare anything, they don’t need to know anything, but they can be infected with it. Without resistance, that is the really great art.
Christina Rossetti is such an artist. Her poetry seems to be her child. She does not think about it or think about how to create it. The poems flow out on their own, and she naturally understands the elegance and perfection of these poems. But like the stories that are said to be rotten, great art always takes time to shine. Christina Rossetti was not as anonymous as Kafka, but she was far from the acclaim she deserved. This kind of work seems to be appreciated by only a few people in the same period. The superposition of the times will cover up countless works, and only such works become more vivid with the superposition of countless times.
“Goblin Market,” tells a very simple story: Laura and Lizzie are sisters. The little goblins in the forest that sell fruits, the pure girls can hear the screams, see the weird elves, and smell the seductive fruit. The heart-wrenching Laura did not withstand the temptation to eat the fruit that the goblin sold to her, but she did not know that she had broken into the trap of the little goblin. The fruits were poisons that poisoned people, and the curse had invaded the blood. The girl who is tempted and eats the fruit will dry up every day until the life is burned, but she can no longer hear and see the little goblins, and the anxious heart cannot stop the fresh fruit sold by the goblin. This is a kind of torment.
Sister Li Qi saw her sister Laura breaking into the curse and was anxious to make a move to find the little goblins, lift the curse, and save her sister. She ignored the danger and followed the voice of the little goblin, she was entangled by the little goblins, but she did not eat their fruit, the goblins were angry, persecuted her, and finally Lizzy resisted the temptation and defeated Leprechaun, sister Laura was rescued. It is filled with amazing plots that will make you feel the emotions of words and tell the temptations in life. The unique sentiment expresses the awareness of life and the understanding of life, and easily touches the heart through a fairy tale. It can be seen as a transitional representative poet of romanticism and reality. Talented and unadorned, a painful tasting and a belief in heaven and blessing.
D.G. Rossetti evaluates his sister: “She never let go of her, and she will not voluntarily mention any of her achievements. In the mediocrity of the house, her response seems to be the most mediocre, just like everyone. The most unobtrusive one.” Virginia Woolf described her as a woman who talked a little bit, and her appearance was unremarkable, and her life was restrained and pious.
A woman, if she decorates all her good-looking clothes and jewelry on her, she can’t be beautiful. The white translation is like a clever woman, discarding dazzling choices, if a decoration that is most in line with its own temperament, it is unbeatable. The phrase “And if thou wilt, remember, and if thou wilt, forget.” give people more and more plain and simple feelings. The lonely grave of “I” does not need decoration, and the simple language does not form a vivid image in the human brain.
Finally, it is still sloppy, and it is so ruthless to say when it is dead. There is only death, darkness and silence in front of me. The only thing I think about is that she remembers or forgets. You have forgotten, that is, the toughness and clarity of everything after death. If you remember, remember that she is already dead, and in the grief, there are few soft lines of compassion that understands, forming a huge life and death and love. The contrast of hate. A marriage that yearns for freedom and happiness is trapped by its profound religious beliefs and must give up love. All kinds of images are displayed, it is a beautiful sadness, but also calmly facing death. Expressed as a devout believer who is willing to give up his love for faith, her heart is strong and strong, but also has a small woman modality. Close your eyes and fall into the eternal tense of death. It is quiet. When you realize the disappointment of “I”, the world has lived again at that moment. This strong metaphysical imitation has a far better aesthetic. Indulge in obsessive enthusiasm. Death is a moment of cleanliness, focusing on the manifestation of death and the looming nostalgia.
On Turning Ten by Billy Collins & the Lighthouse by Arturo Vivante
How many times have you heard the sentences “You’re just a child, you have nothing to worry about!” or “You’re young, you need to enjoy life”? Those sentences emphasize the idea that life is beautiful when you’re young, but not so beautiful when you grow up. Usually, growing up connects to maturity, since naturally people tend to be mature when they age up. However, people can mature even at a very young age, often by being exposed to significant events which affect their perspective on life. In the poem On Turning Ten by Billy Collins and in passage II from The Lighthouse by Arturo Vivante, the narrators express negative feelings about growing up. There are some differences in the content of these passages, but they both convey the idea of losing the innocence and the light that is inside us when we are young. This essay will focus on comparing and contrasting the narrators, the setting and important objects in the narrators’ lives.
Both passages are told by young boys, who actually share the experiences of the authors in their childhood. In Collins’ poem, the young boy expresses a very mature perspective on life although he not yet turned ten:
…there was nothing under my skin but light If you cut me I would shine But now when I fall upon the sidewalks of life I skin my knees. I bleed (29-32)
It is way similar to the young boy in the passage of The Lighthouse, who also has an adult understanding of the ravages of time.
Vivante concludes, “I felt I never could—never could possibly—be as nice as I had been a year before” (93-94).
These two narrators radically emphasize the difference between being young and being adult, that they nearly consider their new selves to be different (and less magical) people that their younger selves.
The poem is set differently from the prose piece. The poem is set entirely in a single location, which is the narrator’s house, with no specific time indication. The narrator expresses a magical reality that he experiences in this place, but everything comes to an end when he is about to turn ten. In his poem, On Turning Ten, Collins writes:
At four I was an Arabian wizard I could make myself invisible by drinking a glass of milk a certain way At seven I was a soldier, at nine a prince (13-16).
This child could be everyone he wanted, and actually believed it was possible. But, from the point of view of a mature person that he is now, he considers it as metaphors to his childhood dreams. Considering the different setting of the prose piece, it is set in Italy and Britain, before and after World War II. The lighthouse that the boy used to come to is a metaphor to his inner light and his innocence, which disappeared after the war. In addition, a lighthouse symbolizes knowledge of where the danger is and guidance away from hazard, therefore it also symbolizes the clearer understanding of adult reality that the boy gained after he got matured.
Each narrator uses different objects, which were significant for them in the early childhood. They are part of the imagery which reminds the readers of their own childhood. The narrator of the poem uses words like ‘blue bike’ and ‘tree house’, which make a joyful childhood image where a kid rides his bike and playing in a tree house. But, when he is about to turn ten he sees those objects as negative ones. In his poem, Collins writes:
…and my bicycle never leaned against the garage as it does today all the dark blue speed drained out of it (21-23).
The way his bicycle leans against the garage with all of its speed pizazz gone is similar to the narrator’s feeling. Also, the choice of blue is intentional here, since it shows the feeling of sadness that progressively gains throughout the poem. At the same time, the prose uses words like ‘seagulls’, ‘kites’, ‘roller skating’, ‘lighthouse’, ‘sea’, ‘fruitcake’ that give the reader an image of a very fun childhood. The fruitcake that he sent to the lighthouse keeper symbolizes happiness and celebration. The fact that the lighthouse keeper doesn’t remember the boy, but mentions the cake as a memory from him, means that the boy has changed. He is no longer a happy innocent child, but a mature sad adolescent.
To conclude, On Turning Ten and The Lighthouse have a tone of melancholy and thoughtfulness. The narrators reflect thoughtfully on their sadness about growing up. In his poem, Collins writes:
…time to turn the first big number (27)
According to the passage of Vivante, The boy says he “couldn’t see this change, this awkward period in (hi)myself, of course, but, standing before him” (92-93).
The narrators also reminisce about the happiness and playfulness of their early ages by using images, metaphors and symbols. Although they feel painful about growing up, they accept the fact that they have changed and this is where they reached true realization of life.