Industrial Revolution

Manifest Destiny

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

The rise of steel in the late 19th century marked an imperative time for the advancement of American society in ways that are inevitably reflected everywhere on the grounds that encompassed this modernized nation to this day. Agriculture began to decline as the nations primary source of the workforce, main prolific economic means to raking in funds from the nation that were in cahoots with the United States. The vast rural agricultural developed homesteads shared by towns scouring the united States large plains and habited areas were sufficient to say the least in the late 1800s.

One concern was the means for transportation limiting a means for bartering and expansion of the goods to metropolitan vacinities. This would show discontinuation contributed by the mass production of steel and then was incorporated into the vast railways which allowed for bulk transferring of goods and supplies to lay a base for what expedited the nation of sheer competence known so well today across the globe. Revolutionizing countless realms of the upbringing of a powerful nation, steel, being produced at a mass level provided the means to simply hail it as the turning point of this point in time.

Manifest destiny had never been so prevalent than the times when immigrants flooded the New York harbors in a means for labor and seeking a desired better life for the immigrants with a family or ones seeking for a more reliable region to do just that, with the economy booming and steel being the ignition of said boom echoing throughout the whole country during the period. Approaching the 1920s workers in agricultural jobs met the industrial scene one to one with workers in either fields.

That being the case it was a massive spike in numbers compared to just half a century before with the numbers of agricultural-industrial workers being three to one. Growth of the population ultimately expedited the growth of railways and micro production of goods with the help of steel making it all plausible. The growth of populations was concentrated in the urban sections of the nation. Cities expanded from previously holding only around one quarter of the national population to more than one half of the entire population. The 23 million children of immigrants played a role in this, also including the 14 million immigrants, this means that over one-third of the American population was considered to be the immigrant community which covers the first and second generations of immigrants.

In the 1880s, when the agricultural industry had for the most part disappeared, still almost half of the American workers were still farmers and only about 15% worked in manufacturing of any sort. The industrial industry consisted mainly of small workshops that relied on artisan own hands to produce tools and other artefacts. Except for the towns that had railroads running through them or access to the ocean for exports and import business, isolation and the large costs of transportation forced these communities to be for the most part self sufficient with their food, clothing, and many other everyday life objects.

This however, changed a lot in the early 20th century, as the increased supply and lowered costs of manufactured goods which changed the world for both urban and rural consumers. Not even a few decades ago these goods didn’t even exist. With the help of the nations rapidly growing system of railroads and highways they were transported all over faster than ever. By 1920, one half of people in farms had cars and phones, and furniture, and other goods from local markets. Many small industries, such as traditional grain mills and sawmills were located in rural areas close to flowing rivers in order to power machinery. After the technological revolutions of the early industrial age, workshops and small industries were supported by the large factories that engaged in mass production. Commercial electricity allowed factories to take advantage of the large labor supply in cities were people were concentrated.

The new jobs for the average middle working class were in the cities. In this way the Industrial Revolution converted the United States from a rural society to an urban society. Young people who grew up in a poor farm saw the greater opportunities available in the cities and moved there, just like millions of immigrants that came from Europe.

Housing for all the new people of cities was a problem, this resulted in many workers living in urban slums. They lived closed to open sewers that ran alongside the streets, and the water supply was often dirty and contaminated which ended up causing disease. These horrible urban conditions made the people angry which gave rise to the Progressive

Movement which was many new laws that would protect and support people. This event would change the relationship between how the government and the people interacted. Inventors of American origin such as Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Alva Edison created a long list of new technologies that improved communication, transportation, and industrial production. Edison made improvements to existing technologies for the telegraph while also creating revolutionary new technologies such as the light bulb. Bell explored new speaking and hearing technologies, and became known as the inventor of the telephone.

In conclusion, in the 1880s the industrialization movement depended much more on mechanization which means the replacement of people with machines to increase production as well as profits. Henry Fords assembly line was a key factor and the rise of mass production only strengthened this effect. As a result, both the steel industry and the immigrants played an equal amounts of importance in creating the Industrial Revolution. They were significant in society because they changed many things that remain the same to this day. Many inventions that are parts of our daily lives were created during this period proving their importance. 

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Industrialization Began Quickly

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Starting around 1760 America changed dramatically with the start of the industrial revolution; the country went from largely agricultural, relying on animal and human power to an urban industrial society with the invention of machinery. This was a major turning point in history, affecting nearly every aspect of society and daily life.

Industrialization began quickly in Britain with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, during the 1800s steam power and iron production grew rapidly, eventually moving to the United States in the early 19th century with mechanized textile production. Fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas were utilized replacing the human and animal power previously used. In the early 18th century people began using coal for heating and cooking, during the process of mining the coal their mines would fill with water so, in 1776, James Watt designed a coal-burning steam engine to pump water out of coal mines when using horses hauling buckets took too long. As others began to improve on his design and put it to other uses, steam-powered machinery was becoming more popular leading to factories and rapid urban growth with many moving to these new cities to become employed. Before the factory system, products were made one at a time, by hand, by skilled workers in their home or a small workshops.

People lived off the land as either landowner and self-employed farmers or laborers moving from job to job. They made their own clothing from yarn they spun and cloth they wove, families would also weave textiles to sell at markets, people and small towns were mainly self-sufficient through the cottage industry. As industrialization progressed and machinery became larger, factories formed around them and business owners hired unskilled workers to run them in the centralized workplace.

The spinning Jenny was another groundbreaking invention patented in 1764 by James Hargreaves that allowed workers to spin many spools of wool at once. Workers could spin up to 120 spools at a time increasing the productivity of mills and furthering the industrialization of the textile industry. In 1789 Edmund Cartwright patented his second power loom which served as a model for inventors to improve upon. Cartwright also patented a wool-combing machine and a rope making machine in 1789 and 1792. Most, if not all, inventions during this time period mainly benefitted the business owner.

In 1733 John Kay patented the flying shuttle. Prior to this, a weaver was needed on each side of a broad-cloth loom, the flying shuttle required fewer workers. Where multiple people in the past wouldve been used to make one piece of fabric, a machine operated by one worker could make much more.

Instead of farm families cleaning the wool and spinning it into yarn, a carding machine would comb it and Samuel Cromptons water-powered spinning machine would spin the thread; Instead of using a skilled yarn weaver, Cartwrights power loom would weave the thread into cloth. A handful of machines like Cromptons, which could produce a finer quality thread at a lower cost, ran by one or two unskilled workers each, replaced entire families and towns of skilled workers. As textile inventions and innovations became more productive and reliable, the demand for cotton increased.

This demand inspired Eli Whitney to invent the cotton gin, a machine that removed as much seed from cotton in one day that a woman did in two months. During this time many of the workers were women and children because they would work for lower pay compared to men, they worked in filthy, dangerous conditions. Children were healthy before being sent to work and often became sickly over time or were severely injured at work. Factory owners and merchants became more and more wealthy while laborers lives were incredibly rough. During this time there were no laws or regulations for the new industries, 80% of society were working class who had no power with their employers or over their jobs, and 12-14 hour days with only Sundays off were normal.

The population continued to grow but there werent enough food supplies to go around, malnourishment was common as people went hungry. Since so many people moved to the cities so quickly, adequate housing wasnt always available so many moved into already overcrowded slums. Infant mortality was high, diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and tuberculosis spread quickly, and skilled workers such as hand weavers were unemployed where previously they were solidly middle-class citizens. These patterns continued until the early 19th century when laws and regulations were made to better society. New public health acts were put in place to regulate things such as home construction, sewage, and hygiene.

In 1854 an English physician, John Snow, was able to trace a cholera outbreak to feces from a homes cesspit contaminating the public water supply and although it would take a few more years for his theory to be accepted, his work changed the way public water and sewage systems were designed. Water pipes went from being made from wood and relying on gravity to using iron pipes and steam pumps; literacy increased when the paper machine was invented and steam power was used for the printing process allowing for the expansion of publishing. The industrial revolution was the first period in history when population growth and increased personal average income happened at the same time. The life expectancy of children increased as safety practices were put into place, transportation improved along with railroads and steamships toward the end of the revolution, and remarkable mechanical advancements were made.

As the industrial revolution went on amazing progress was made. Cement was starting to be used on a wide scale for buildings, making them safer and longer lasting. Gas lighting also became popular allowing factories and shops to stay open longer then lighting the streets and alleys for workers to find their way home. A paper machine made by Nicholas Louis Robert made one continuous sheet of paper in what is known as the continuous production process and its design is still used today and inspired the process for other industries like iron and steel. Transportation was made quicker, easier, and more organized when steamboats and steam engine locomotives were invented. People were able to develop timetables for when locomotives would arrive and depart while steamboats made transporting goods across the ocean easier and faster.

Canals were used to transport heavy goods from city to city and as the revolution progressed they were improved when curves were straightened and they were made wider and deeper, canal networks were made which then served as a basis when constructing the railways. This network can still be seen in Britain today. The industrial revolution may have been over since the mid-19th century but its effects are still being seen today. These days, most things are made in factories around the world and transported by machines with the modern version of engines. Cities went from having only 3% of the world’s population in 1800 to having more than 50% today where buildings are safer, water is clean, and sanitation measures are put in place.

The inventions patented during the revolution have been improved many times through the years but without them, we would never have the things we have now. People are generally safer working in factories due to laws and regulations made after seeing some of the horrors from the early days of the industrial revolution, child labor laws were put into place when reports were written spreading the word of children losing limbs, being crushed, and young factory girls developing what was known as phossy jaw while working in matchstick factories and trade unions were organized in order to allow workers to have some say in their working conditions and pay.

In many companies around the world, trade unions are still utilized to ensure fair conditions for the workers. Unfortunately, the environment has suffered from the effects of industrialization through air pollution but efforts were made when societies and groups were founded to study these effects and figure out how to help. Today most governments are concerned with the quality of air and water so many new developments in clean production have been made. The industrial revolution made the world a more efficient place while also improving our quality of life, just about everything used today can be traced back in some form to the industrial revolution. 

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Revolution Was A Life-Changing

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Introduction: The Industrial Revolution was a life-changing event happening almost all over the world. The Industrial Revolution first began its movement in England in 1780 with steam and coal engines, improvement of factory machinery, and transportation. In the United States the Industrial Revolution began in 1790 this was due to the fact that there was a lot of lands and not many people to work it.

Eventually, this leads the U.S to start developing agriculture machinery first. As well during this time, the wage system increased, and more women were demanded to work for the reason being that women would get paid less than men. The Industrial Revolution ended in England in 1850 and in the United States in 1840.

To conclude, this led to an increase in workforce and production of materials. Hypothesis: Regardless of the improvement done in the Industrial Revolution, England will have more fatalities and a shorter lifespan than the United States. Methods and Materials: In this experiment, 200 individuals will be collected by the used of an online cemetery resource. The 200 individuals will be divided into two groups, 100 individuals would be used for the United States of America and the other 100 individuals for England. The collection of the individuals would be recorded in a cemetery data sheet which includes: sex, birth year, death year and age at death.

This information will be found in interment.net or findagrave.com. when on the website click on cemeteries and find the United States a start to collect the 100 individuals from the years 1790-1840 and as for 100 individuals from England follow the same steps, but the years will be 1780-1850. Individuals can be born within those years or died within those years as well. Once the completion of the 100 individuals from each statistic will be done to find the ex. First must find the age of death for each one and marked in the correct number of death group from 0-4, 5-9 .115+. Then comes finding nx, lx, ax, log base 10*lx, dx, qx, Tx, and ex (equations would be found in resources.) A survivorship graph will be done using the ex of each of the 200 individuals, one for the United States and one for England (this could be done using excel.)  

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Changes In US Society After Civil War

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

America has compressed the probabilities and continued as a multiracial and multicultural, and become the most powerful nation in the world. Diversity is a treasure of this country and unity is the countrys strength. The United States of America has a long and brief history of its independence.

The economic development helped the country to become a leading nation in the world. Modern U.S society is the result of achievement from the Civil War and the laws and the amendments are the results of some hardiness the country had suffered in the past. In this paper, I will explain five major topics that we have covered in the class to describe how US society changed and how the lives of individual people were altered.

Contents

  • 1 1.Reconstruction:
  • 2 2. Industrialization:
  • 3 3. Progressivism:
  • 4 4. Jazz Age:
  • 5 5.New Deal:

1.Reconstruction:

The Reconstruction Era was the years after the Civil War. It was the era to rebuild the lesions that were imposed on the Nation. However, these years were very turbulent. President Lincoln was assassinated, and President Johnson was impeached. After the Civil War, President Lincoln came up with a plan to reinstate the Union back to how it was. This plan was very empathetic on the South and after his assassination, Johnson also followed this plan. One of the requirements for the Confederate states to come back to the Union was to endorse the Thirteenth Amendment, marking the end of slavery. Although free, Reconstruction did not do much about the racial inequality present. The voting rights for freedman was refused by Johnson, showing this inequality early on.

At the end of Reconstruction, Southern states began to announce unfair laws, such as the Jim Crow Laws, that caged these now free men in the South. White supremacist groups, like the Ku Klux Klan, also formed to scare these free men into being controlled. President Lincoln was on the path of doing an excellent job with his Ten Percent Plan. ” Finally, the slaves were free but once they free there were rules put in place such as the “Black Codes” and “Jim Crow Laws”. They did this by killings and hangings of those that supported racial equality. This racial inequality was seen in segregation for almost a century until the civil rights movement began leading to racial equality. Today, The United States of America is a racial free country. Barack Obama became the first black president of the United States because of the American people turned their backs on a past of slavery and segregation and elected the first African-American to the US presidency.

2. Industrialization:

The Industrial Revolution had finally started in the late 18th century leading to the early 19th century, in the US which permitted for the foundation of many different types of opportunities. While there were a few overall negative impacts on different categories of people such as immigrants, the rise in both wealth, technology, and job opportunities had increased for the common man. The invention of types of technology helped the factories to start producing smaller and replaceable parts for larger products and created both more jobs that helped to increase the value of certain things within society. The major influence in the industrial revolution was the usage of Lowell Mills which allowed for people of all ages, gender, and race to work which would increase the amount of wealth in each family household, and these jobs did come with negative impacts such as long hours, dangerous environments, and low pay but it eventually benefited the people of the U.S. Industrialization introduced to a New Society. The Industrial Revolution perceived the growth of large urban centers, such as Boston and New York City. Without industrialization modern, America would not flourish.

3. Progressivism:

The United States faced several Issues after the industrialization era. The progressive movement emerged and brought many changes. They pushed many political reforms always looking to protect the wellness of the society. One of the ideals of the progressives was that they wanted democracy for a better America. The Progressive struggled against the corruption and manipulation from the big corporations and many politics. Progressive believed that the problems of the society had solutions and they wanted to improve the moral behavior of the people. They accomplished the goals by promoting reforms in the economy, politics, social wellness and moral. One of the reforms with morality was the prohibition of alcohol.

This reform was supported by the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Anti- Saloon League. The Progressive obtained the victory over this reform in 1919 with the passage of the eighteen amendment, which prohibited the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol. Between the 1890s and 1920s. The Progressive movement aimed at spreading many different types of new social and political ideas that included things such as a better work environment and basic human living conditions. President Roosevelt also set up workman’s compensation, which is a payment that employers had to pay employees who get injured on the job. President Wilson helped the economy by establishing a Federal Reserve Bank. Modern America is still benefiting from the Progressivism.

4. Jazz Age:

The 1920s was a decade of success with a great change in both socially and culturally. The increase of financial stability in the 1920s allowed many Americans to be able to spend more on entertainment such as movies and music. Entertainment and movies became a large part of American culture. New styles of music and dance helped to push social norm, especially for the young generation. A long-term rebellious action finally ended in the 1920s and the US acquired the Nineteenth Amendment in the Constitution and females achieved their rights to vote. The Jazz Era was noticeable less by relaxation and consumption than by creativity and motivation. The alteration from print-based broadcasting to electronic media began in the 1920s. The opposition between newspapers and radio was minimal, as the latter was not so far, an active news medium. In 1920s Radios were first promoted for household usage. The United States converted to a consumer society in the 1920s. Modern advertising acquired origin in the 1920s when advertising agencies started to take shape. The consumer of modern US society still depends on advertising that started in the Jazz Age.

5.New Deal:

The New Deal programs enhanced the life of numerous people over providing works for the unemployed, lawful guard for labor unions and non-unionized industrial workers, existing salaries for the working poor, current services for rustic America, and price constancy for farmers. The New Deal changed the relationship between the government and the nation. The New Deal has constructed everywhere the belief that the federal and state government must interfere in and regulator the economy and reliably funding the people in need. Numeral social assistance plans that are today in the United States have a footprint of gift to the New Deal era. Unemployment insurance, old age pensions, support for the disabled, farm subsidies, support for children in the poorest families, subsidized public housing, all were the programs under the New Deal plans which were designed to support the needs of the over-all people with numerous entitlement necessities. The most prominent social aid program known as Social Security System was initially recognized by the New Deal legislation. Modern US society is enjoying the benefits from every reform that included in the New Deal.

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Impact Of Slavery

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Many depict slavery as a regional institution of cruelty in the South, however, it is also certain that it is the minds behind the broader American economic prosperity in the north. The slave economy in the south had gradually expanding influences all through the whole U.S. economy, mostly due to a lot of merchants in Boston, New York City, and anywhere else arranging the exchange of slave-developed agrarian items and getting very wealthy.

Cotton was offering a purpose behind business merchants and creators in the north to manufacture factories in such places as Lowell, Portsmouth, Rhode Island, etc., creating a connection between New England’s Industrial Revolution to the advancing Deep South. During the years of slavery in the American Republic, cotton impacted the economic development of not just the South, but the North too. Although the United States of America had acquired much of Europes innovations at the time of the Industrial Revolution, an exceptional amount of American innovations and technologies came about at the beginning of the early nineteenth century that would greatly impact the north. These inventions impacted manufacturing, communication, and especially agriculture in the south (Lecture, 10-22-18). Modern technologies and innovations offered ascend to the Cotton Kingdom.

The Cotton Kingdom demanded constant growth, and slavery would likely have spread if not for the Civil War (Lecture, 11-9-18). Cotton fiber is famously and historically known to be difficult to separate from the seed by hand. Eli Whitneys cotton gin separated the fiber from the seed quickly and efficiently; and in the 1790s, led to the expansion of cotton plantations in the following years (Lecture, 10-24-18). With the cotton gin and with steam engines moving production, the manufacturing of cotton cloth suddenly became affordable as the 18th century turned into the 19th century (Lecture, 10-24-18). The cotton gin enabled more material to be generated. Whitney couldn’t have anticipated the way by which his development would change society for the even worse. The most important, the development of slavery. While the thought is to demonstrate that the cotton gin lessened the work of removing seeds, it didn’t diminish the requirement for the slaves to grow and pick the cotton, but did indeed impact the north for the better.

Cotton developing turned out to be so beneficial for the plantation owners that it significantly expanded their interest for both land and slave work (Lecture, 10-24-18). Demand was powered by different innovations of the Industrial Revolution, for example, the machines to turn and weave it, and the steamboats to transport it (Lecture, 10-22-18). Midcentury America was growing seventy-five percent of the world’s supply of cotton, its majority dispatched to England or New England where it was produced into fabric (Lecture, 10-22-18). And, it was all due to the invention of quality steam engines which had the impact of an enormous increase of cotton production (Lecture, 10-22-18). Steam engines, in theory, were the back bones of the industrial revolution. Before steam engines were invented, manufactories were limited. However, with the modern innovation of the steam engine, mills, and manufactories could be located in so many more locations. As cotton was becoming a tremendous cash crop, slavery was given a new role.

If the cotton gin, steam engines, and other technologies were not created, slavery may have been able to slowly go away. With a new huge demand for cotton at this time, much more land and labor was needed, meaning that this new face of slavery was to spread across even more southern states, and especially impact the north. Slaves were often owned by affluent families who benefited from a thriving economy. One of these families was the Goodwin family; specifically Ichabod Goodwin, a successful merchant. Goodwin soon became a merchant in Portsmouth, New Hampshire and becoming master and part owner of several ships, and eventually the owner of banks, railroads, and textile factories.

Cotton production and cargo was the main power behind these technologies, specifically Goodwins ships and textiles factories. Cotton cargo being sent to the north gave these ship captains and textile manufactures in the north immense wealth. With all this wealth in merchants hands, slaves were clearly not given reciprocation for their work nearly as much as the merchants and northern businessmen. An important part of Goodwins history is documented in the University of New Hampshires Special Collections as a letter sent to a ship captain from Goodwin himself, gives great insight to how cotton production fueled not only his wealth, but the northern economy (Goodwin and Coues, Letter to William Parsons.) In 1838 from Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Ichabod Goodwin sent a letter to William Parsons, a ship captain. At this time, Goodwin was a business merchant and sailor himself, asking Parsons about the best price he can get for a shipment of cotton cargo and whether it would be better to ship it to a Portsmouth mill or to Liverpool (Goodwin and Coues, Letter to William Parsons.)

This primary source is a great document to exemplify how cotton from the south effected the economy in the north through profits off of cotton cargo shipments being sent from the south to the north. Indeed, New England manufactories were taking in large amounts of southern cotton as the mills advanced the U.S. as the second greatest textile producer in the entire nation. During the years of slavery in the American Republic, cotton impacted the economic development of not just the South, but the North too. Amid the 1850s, the U.S. economy developed quickly, driven by offers of open land, cotton creation, and manufactories of textiles. In 1860 the south produced more than a couple billion pounds of cotton (Lecture, 10-22-18).

Additionally, cotton trades represented sixty percent of the nation’s fares, the majority of which were dealt with by New York City, the newer outlet for the United States. The South provided eighty percent of the cotton for materials produced in Britain and the majority of the cotton for materials made in New England’s factories. The economy of America at the time was in-between a transition headed to the Civil War. The economy was first almost purely agrarian, which would then transition into an industrial revolution, making America a great leader for industrial power. The North was now well on its way to making huge impacts from slavery and production of materials from the south. Slavery was indeed the driver behind American economic prosperity in the north. 

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About A Technological Unemployment

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Self-checkout machines have been starting to show up everywhere, from the local Walmart to stores across the globe. Before these machines came to fruition, those areas used to house employee operated check-out machines. Those employees were eventually replaced for a faster and easier check-out method. Knowing that your livelihood and job can be deterred by a simple, inanimate object is a hard reality. Every new machine developed to increase industry productivity leaves hardworking individuals being left without a job and it is seemingly only going to increase.

Ever since the Industrial Revolution, technological improvements have been a great value to employers over the country. Before the Industrial Revolution, agriculture work was a massive source of employment. There was such a high demand for the products and it required a substantial amount of work for the farm to make a profit. The agriculture industry, along with many others, exploded with new innovations whenever machines made their first appearance in the workforce. Harvesting machines such as the cotton gin and spinning jenny have allowed producers to rapidly produce their goods while saving the cost of labor. While the machines did make the farmerr’s jobs easier, there was also a huge decline in the number of farmers needed. This forced the workers to work in industrial jobs, which fueled the Industrial Revolution even more so.

Technology has been improved and modified for centuries with the goal of improving workplace productivity. However, current circumstances are relatively unique than in years past. The human population is spreading like wildfire, every few years increases the population by billions. Business owners want their businesses to be as cost-efficient as possible. A machine does not need a paycheck, vacation, sick days, or even rest. Naturally the business will save more money by replacing their workers with advanced machines. These newly potential workers could be left without a job. Potentially no job is safe from replacement if the rate of technological advancement carries on as it has for the past couple years.

If machines continue to grow at this extraordinary rate, the nation could collapse from a horribly skewed balance of wealth. Productivity will reach an all-time high from all sectors. However, unemployment will also skyrocket. There will then be an all-time low in purchasing power. This is especially true if the labor market is inflexible. For example, coal mining used to be a huge source of labor and wealth, especially during the 1920s. As the coal runs out in the area, and better energy methods started to appear, these coal miners started to lose their jobs. These miners often cannot take up a new job due to an occupational and/or geographical immobility. They most likely do not have the necessary skills to work a new job, and they might live far away from the workplace. This resulted in a temporary unemployment surge until they could learn the skills required or could move to a more prosperous part of the area.

An alternative idea of technological change is that it will not cause unemployment. Technological change in the food industry means we can produce food with fewer workers. It is then cheaper, to produce food and the price to buy food will fall. This means that a smaller income percentage will go towards buying food, so they have more money for other goods and services (especially manufactured goods). This increased demand for manufactured goods causes higher demand, therefore there will be a higher demand for workers. This is just innovation with technology, the types of jobs will change not be replaced. If labor productivity increases, we can then enjoy a greater range of goods and services.

Businesses and corporations have been integrating new technology and advanced machinery into their work procedure for over a century, resulting in less workers needed. The laid off people just needed to learn new skills to work the machinery. If the robots become capable of doing the same job the human once did (such as the check-out machines), they will no longer have a role in the workplace. It is unsure how increased technology will shape the job market in the future. The only thing certain is that integrating new machines make the business/production process run more effective and cost-efficient.

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Communism: Existing Economic System of Capitalism

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

The Industrial Revolution in western Europe provided the context for economists and political writers of the 19th century to promote three different economic plans designed to meet the needs of workers and entrepreneurs. Communism was first proposed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels as a reform plan for the existing economic system of capitalism. The major tenets of communism include economic determinism, proletariat revolution, and a classless society with no need for government.

Although there were many advantages including benefits and economic prosperity, there were also disadvantages including the lack of motivation and slow development.. The economic system of communism was first implemented in Russia in 1917. It was unsuccessful because there was never a withering away of the state. The economic system of communism did not address the needs of both entrepreneurs and workers because while it promised equality under the state, it disregarded human nature.

The Industrial Revolution provided the historical context for a new economic plan, communism, which was promoted by Karl Marx. The Industrial Revolution started in England around 1750. This completely changed the method of production with the domestic system. The domestic system was the widespread method of production during the 17th century. They created goods by hand as they travelled from home to home, slowly coming together along the way. After that they had the factory system. The factory system was when the use of machinery relieved the amount of time for the production of a product. The use of these two systems took place in Britain in the 18th century (“Industrial Revolution” par. 1). Britain had a head start on the whole industries and tried to keep there monopoly, they forbade the export of skilled workers, machinery, and manufacturing techniques. But the spread of ideas eventually going to happen and there ideas would appear around the world. (“Industrial Revolution” par. 4). During this time period there were many technology advancements. They started using iron and steel, which was used in many of the new inventions. These became good resources and they relied on them a lot. They used new energy sources like coal, steam, electricity and petroleum made things better. The steam engine was one of these inventions that helped dramatically. The steam engine was a vehicle in the creation of the steam locomotive and steamboat; two very influential means of transportation. The creations of power loom and spinning jenny both helped production of weaving. These few intentions helped a lot and also increased the production rate of the goods and were cheaper because there was more of it (“Industrial Revolution” par. 2). Without these creations it’s clear that productions rates and everything else would have been slowed down during this era.

With all the development of all these inventions it has decreased the amount of people in the rural community, and brought them to the city to work. With this now there has been more people in the cities and now women and children have been implemented in the factories for poor wages (“Industrial Revolution” par. 2). With the urbanization of all of these people to the rural to the cities became overpopulated. The cities turned into the slums. It had poor living conditions, it was over crowded, and they didn’t have a sewage system. This brought disease to city. They had all the factories in the city so they also polluted the air. Then the crime rate wet up in the cities (“Industrial Revolution” par. 2). The workers were being abused in the factories and it has changed their lives. “At the time when you were beaten for not keeping up with your work, were you anxious to have done it if you possibly could? — Yes; the dread of being beaten if we could not keep up with our work was a sufficient impulse to keep us to it if we could” (The Sadler Committee, Mr. Matthew Crabtree). This is what one of the workers said, it was like he was scared to go to work because he was beaten if he couldn’t keep up and that should never happen. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were working on reforming previous economy of capitalism. The key characteristics of communism included the ideas of economic determinism, a proletariat revolution, and a classless society with no need for government. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were viewed as the founders of this economic system. They developed ideas on society in response to the abuse of workers under capitalism. Karl was a German revolutionary philosopher and theorist who developed his ideas through influential writings. Friedrich was a friend of Marxs and helped him a lot during his life, and is most known for helping Marx in the creation of The Communist Manifesto in 1848 (“Friedrich Engels” par. 11). In this they talked about their views on society, and how to get the best outcome. Starting with socioeconomic theory of economic determinism, they talked about the idea that societies are divided into competing economic classes whose influence in politics is determined by their ranking. Marx was concerned because he believed it locked the proletariat in an endless class struggle. This would lead to the capitalist system being overthrown to break free of the abuse. “We have seen above, that the first step in the revolution by the working class, is to raise the proletariat to the position of ruling as to win the battle of democracy” (Marx 622). Violence will always happen and you can’t stop it once the government is gone, communism will replace it. Marx’s also had another major idea for communism to establish a classless society with no need for government. The class structure leaving was was going to get rid of the abuse and the revolts that occur under capitalism. If all of the people were equal they wouldn’t need to be a government because the power is the people that work. This would make people that don’t work to work because the workers would want the best for the everyone. While Engels and Marx believed this would have ended up good, they ended up being bad. The advantages of communism did not outweigh the disadvantages because communism fails to address human nature.

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How did Isaac Newton start off the Scientific Revolution?

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

When the Apple fell on Newton’s head he discovered that gravity existed. “This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.” He’s stating that the universe is the force of gravity As a periodization, the Scientific Revolution has grown increasingly complex. As it has attempted to take account of new research and alternative perspectives, new additions and alterations have been made.

The emergence of modern science during the early modern era, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy), and chemistry transformed societal views about nature and medicine. This was the change of medieval ideas of science occurred for four reasons: collaboration, the derivation of new experimental methods, the ability to build on the legacy of existing scientific philosophy, and institutions that enabled academic publishing. Daston stated This was “the most important transformation in human history” since the Neolithic era.

The Britannica editors state that “The Neolithic era is the final stage of cultural evolution or technological development among prehistoric humans. It was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, dependence on domesticated plants or animals, settlement in permanent villages, and the appearance of such crafts as pottery and weaving.” This event was when humanity was thought to reach its peak by developing craftsmanship. What we call today as Modern Science and Technology is in fact not modern, but was born nearly half a millennium ago during Renaissance era in Europe. According to Wotton, the scientific revolution began in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance Era lasting from the 15th century to 18th century. Ancient people who were considered the first scientists at the time called themselves “natural philosophers” or “practitioners of a skilled profession” or as “followers of a religious tradition” this. Both institutionally and conceptually, science was not an independent practice, in fact, it was looked down upon and considered witchcraft and what we see today wouldn’t have been possible in the past. Much of what we know as science today was originally undertaken by priests and monks, and scientific knowledge was taught in temples and monasteries not through self-study or thought in schools like our modern world today. This caused a domino effect which was started by Newton. If it wasn’t for Newton we wouldn’t have modern day physics or have the evolution of science.

The Scientific Revolution was not marked by any single change, but it was a century-long process of discovery that further elaborated and developed the findings of those who had come before us —from the scientific learning from the ancient Greeks to their scholarly contributions of the Islamic thinkers, and the work of the late medieval and early Renaissance Europeans. The Medieval Islamic Science period lasted from 7th century to 15th century and it was the biggest contribution to our society, during the time Muslims were the leading scholars and the heirs to the scientific traditions of Greece, India, and Persia. The Islamic Science suffered a gradual decline in the early 12th century which provided the Europeans an opportunity to seek and translate the works of Islamic philosophers and scientists. Beginning in the late 11th century and the next two centuries the Islamic world was under pressure by The Crusades and Mongol conquests, during which libraries, observatories, hospitals, and universities were destroyed to show the superiority of the Crusaders and Mongols. In addition to Mongolian invasions and the Crusaders, political mismanagement and the stifling of ijtihad in the 12th century in favor of taqlid thinking played a part. The destruction of the intellectual center of Baghdad the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in 1258 is traditionally seen as the approximate end of the Islamic Golden Age a majority of their most important documents and schools were also a majority of their population was there. The translation of the Islamic texts into Latin occurred during the 12th and 13th centuries and had a great impact on the European Renaissance and it helped Europe seize the initiative from the Muslims when the political conditions in Islamic world brought about a decline in Islamic science. By the end of the 18th century, the Scientific Revolution had given birth to the Industrial Revolution which dramatically transformed the daily lives of people around the world. During the 19th century, the practice of science became professionalized and institutionalized in ways that continued through the 20th century.

According to History.com, the scientific revolution was the prelude of a much bigger transformation, the Industrial Revolution which began in the 1760s. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history and a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and mass production. The iron and textile industry, agriculture, and the invention of the steam engine played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw major changes in transportation and banking systems. These changes had a profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions in England, and then subsequently spreading throughout the world. The first Industrial Revolution which took place from 1760 to somewhere between 1820 and 1840 evolved into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850 and continued through the 19th century. However, the date of origin is still a highly debated topic among historians. While it is difficult to explain all of the examples of how technology has influenced culture and vice versa, reviewing a few examples from the last few centuries it is clear that the technology developed during and after the Industrial Revolution has changed cultures from simple farming villages to modern hustling cities and sprawling suburbs.

What then is the relationship between Science, Technology, and Culture? It is an intricate relationship that forms a figurative circle of influence with no real start or end points. Science, Technology, and Culture continue to influence one another as they evolve and change over time. From the 19th century onward science, technology and culture have significantly influenced one another. As cultures change so does the technology they develop. A contemporary writer Raymond Williams, in his book Culture and Society, regards the concept of culture as consisting of four jointly applicable meanings: Culture is thus the totality of the technological, sociological and ideological features of a given society. Rationality, utility, ethics, freedom, and sociality are the central cultural elements of our societies. Because science and technology rest on these central cultural elements, the adoption of new knowledge and new devices does not always imply their acceptance. We often accept an innovation owing to its evident utility at the individual level, and then criticize it for its consequences at the collective or cultural level. Science and technology can contribute to the preservations and advancement of culture. At the same time, they can also help cause its mutation and destruction. Science has contributed a great deal to human welfare. It has produced miraculous cures for diseases which for a long time, were regarded incurable. It has brought the marvels on industrialism, technology and space exploration. But science has created as many problems as it helped to solve. It has led to undue stress on materialism and economic barbarism in the absence of controlling mental and moral ideas. The knowledge and power of science need to be harnessed to the service of man through the culture the finer sense and sensitivity of man.

For instance, beginning in the mid-1950s, the post-war years in Western Germany were marked by enormous obstacles. Due to extensive bombing destruction and dismantling of factories, various cultural and traditional supply networks were destroyed. Under this circumstance what role did culture play in the technological development of Western Germany? Stokes had argued that the way Western Germany approached technological change bound economic miracle both German past and to the country’s present-day industrial structure. The Western German approach, in other words, has drawn upon a set of German technological traditions that emerged in the large 19th and early 20th centuries, major characteristics of which include a drive for technical excellence tempered by gradual implementation of new technologies.

Every human society possesses its own distinct culture so that the members of one society behave differently in some significant respects from members of every other society. Furthermore, human societies are also distributed over very varied regions differing markedly in climate and environment. There also appears to be a very large ethnic, social and cultural differences between the various human communities and their economic conditions. In recent years the impact of culture on technology in most traditional societies has tended to bear on two opposing directions at once. On the one hand, western technology is being sought virtually without limits, on the other hand, there is opposition to certain aspects of western lifestyles, attitudes, and value. This phenomenon is termed as the techno-cultural gap between traditional values and western technology. Now, if we take these issues into full consideration, we are left to conclude that what is needed at this moment is not just an increase of international technology transfer nor even the setting up of a screening mechanism permitting only appropriate technologies to be transferred, but rather a major at two levels: the domestic and the international.

At the domestic level, it is important to build a popular technological awareness crossing the borderline between the so-called indigenous and modern technology people should become aware of the issues in culture and technology and they can improve their livelihood by modifying and improving indigenous and modern technologies.

On the study of science and technology in schools, scientists, technologists and science educationists of different cultures, languages and social systems must build new paradigms for science and technology education from a multicultural perspective. Science and technology must be seen as existing in all cultures, the issues must be taught and the potentials of these must be explored in situations of everyday life.

There is a growing awareness of the consequences of the interaction between science, technology, and culture. However, we are just beginning to understand how to reconcile the benefits of science and technology such as higher standards of living, longer life spans, more leisure time, and improved communications with the possibility of reshaping, many cultures and possibly redefining fundamental aspects of society. As science and technology continue to advance, the ways in which people communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge and attitudes toward individuals, as well as local, national, and international communities, will continue to undergo radical change. The continuing development of science and technology is not inherently bad. However, it has the potential to endanger our diversity and traditional knowledge. We must work together to determine how to preserve and foster our cultural heritage at the same time we embrace the future.

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One Of The Main Supporters

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Karl Marx was one of the main supporters for the condemnation of materialistic capitalism. Karl Marx was born during the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution brought with it new economic policies, modes of production, and social structures.

New agriculture technologies caused an increase in food and materials supply, and new industry practices caused a growth in efficiency, production and, thus, an increase in profit. The growth in food supply was able to support a larger population, causing an expanse in industry. The potential for profit to be made resulted in what was once shared land becoming private property. The land was owned by a small percent of individuals, allowing a division to occur in society between different classes.

The Industrial Revolution was sparked by capitalism. Capitalism enabled individuals to invest in new organizations, such as, the blast furnace which revolutionized the railroad, and gave rise to the transportation of technology to greater distances. The class an individual belongs to is designated by the individual’s relation to the means of production. The division of labor developed during the Industrial Revolution created differing class interests,such as, varying political, ethical and ideological opinions. Marx believed the bourgeoisie had a high level of influence on the government and society’s systems.

Marx wrote, the ideas of the ruling class are, in every age, the ruling ideas; the class which is the dominant material force in society is at the same time its dominant intellectual force (The German Ideology). The ruling class has control of material production and mental production by controlling the media and education system to maintain the class’s powerful position.

For example, America’s current education system was developed during the industrial Revolution. The main goal of the Industrial Revolution education system was to prepare students for factory work by teaching them necessary skills such as, reading, writing, and arithmetic. The goal of the current education system is memorization in lieu of invention and imagination. This system of school to work is still influencing American students.

Marx was a conflict theorist who argued that every economic system except socialism produces forces that eventually lead to a new economic form (Ewell). Marx thought new classes developed with new forces of production that would inevitably diverge from the old bourgeoisie systems that rely on older forces of production. With the new class appears new interests and ideas; these opposing interests would lead to a revolution, the development of new social relationships, and an overthrowing of the capitalist system.

Competition is a key component of a capitalist society as it allows the capitalist to expand their industries and, in turn, make a profit by exploiting the ever-growing group of workers. Workers are exploited by being paid a low wage and working long hours, generating a surplus value. This instinctive desire on the part of both the capitalist and worker to push the rate of exploitation in opposite directions creates a constant tension in capitalist society: the class struggle (McCabe). The tension between the bourgeois and proletariat is especially obvious during times of crisis revealing the power of the proletariat: their key involvement in production.

The workers are the group that will create a socialist and then communist society. In 2011, the 99% occupied Wall Street to fight against economic inequality, and the power corporations have over policies. Ruth Milkman states, the big success of occupy Wall Street was to thrust the topic of inequality into the public conversation and into popular consciousness in a way that it hadn’t been before. The occupy Wall Street movement helped diminish false consciousness. The ideologies and institutions in society that deluded the working class were being attacked and demonized.

Occupy Wall Street still impacts today’s political society. For example, in the 2016 elections Bernie Sanders was widely supported by young Americans, winning almost 3X more votes than Hillary Clinton (Blake). Young Americans are destroying the taboo of supporting socialism. The Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) has endorsed 62 candidates for local, state, and federal office (Waxman 2018). Past Socialist Party leaders advocate for workers’ rights and other social movements. Marx’s writings on capitalism are incredibly accurate, and we can already see a push for change in the American capitalist economy.

American false consciousness can cause citizens to excuse lack of change in the economy. Many workers in the movie Rodger and Me supported and defended Reagen, excusing his behavior and solutions as a failure of a set system. This is similar to low-out put communities supporting Trump. Trump has made wide claims about bringing back manufacturing jobs. However, a closer look at the data shows that on Trump’s watch the pace of the U.S. job growth has slowed since he was elected (Schaen 2018).

Trump tweeted, One new and great FACT African American unemployment is the lowest ever recorded in the history of our Country. So honored by this.. While African American unemployment was the lowest every recorded in the history of our country, it promptly rose to double that of white Americans. This system of defending capitalism is beginning to fail as more and more people become educated. False consciousness may have diminished in the U.S., but it is ever present as people hold onto hope.

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Industrial revolution & management theory

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

The crucial importance event that formed the world into the shape we now see around us was the industrial revolution which began in the late eighteenth century. Before it, most societies were based on small-scale, agricultural production, with the vast majority of the population, living in the countryside. After the industrial revolution, the reverse became the case. In the industrialised countries, most people living in urban centres. The great importance  development of the industrial revolution  was the creation of factories. During the early part of industrial revolution, most of production was carried out by occupation based on family units. As demand increased, some men and women became specialist in a certain job. In that time, It was the owner who began the move towards the factory system. The management based on two basic propositions: 1-   Labour is unreliable, lazy and will only work when tightly controlled and closely supervised. 2-   The main controllable business cost is labour, therefore the key to increased profits is to make it cheaper and increase its productivity by getting employers work harder or for longer hours for the same or less money. Fredrick Winslow Taylor made a major contribution to the development of managerial theory and practice in the twentieth (lock, 1982: rose, 1988) Taylor believed passionately in the need to reform managerial authority: to base it on competence rather than the power to hire and fire. Taylor’s approach required a radical change in managerial behaviour. The objective of his system was to improve the productivity and efficiency by management. According to Feyol (1949), it is the prime responsibility of manager to achieve the organisations aim, he prescribed the main duties of managers as follows: 1. Planning : examining the future, deciding what needs to be done and developing plan of action. 2. Organising : bringing together the resources, human and material, and developing the structure to carry out the activities of the organisation. 3. Command: ensuring that the employees perform their jobe well and in the best interests of the organisation. 4 .Coordination: Verifying that the activities of the organisation work harmoniously together to achieve its goals. 5. Control: establishing that plans, instruction and commands are correctly carried out. Mc Greoger(1906-1964) In his book the human side of enterprise argued that decisions taken by managers on the best way to manage people were based on their assumptions about human nature. He maintained that there are basically two views of human nature, a negative view (theory X) and a positive view (theory Y ). The managers who adhere to theory X will use a combination of methods to control there subordinates. Those managers who adhere to theory Y will adopt a more open and  flexible style to management. Nothing is inevitable until is actually happens and even it may be reserved. In this days organisations dominate our lives, where they appear to be more powerful than ever before, The role and performance of managers will be crucial. manager will need to recognise that in the future, as in the past ,regardless of the particular issues involved, the environment in which their organisation operate will continue to change. managers will have to recognise that the appropriateness  of their decision will be judged by a wider set of criteria and a wider range of stakeholders than in the past. At the same time management will continue to have to find ways of ensuring that their organisation and its environment and the other constraint under which it operated, are, as far as possible keep aligned. Managers seek to influence the constrains under which their organisation operates and the pace and timing of change to make them more favourable to their preferred way of working. The biggest challenge facing industrial management today is globalisation. The creation of a unified world market place Allied to globalisation, however, are three other challenges ;how to achieve sustainability in a world of dwindling natural resources and increasing environmental pollution ;how to manage an increasingly diverse workforce, at a time when business leaders are considered less trust worthy than ever before, how to manage ethically. It has never been easy to define the role of manager, though this has not prevented a great number of attempts over the years. Definition of the role of management have ranged from attempts to list basic tasks: plans , organises, directs and controls on proprietors or on behalf, an industrial, commercial or other undertaking, organisation and  co-ordinates the work of departmental managers or other immediate subordinates.( Quoted in Dakin and Hamilton, 1990:32) To more ambitious attempts to define the essence of the manager’s role : the manager has the take task of creating a true whole that is larger than the sum of its parts, a productive entity that turns out more than the sum of resources put into it.(Drucker 1985:53) Drucker  (1985) also linked the manager to the conductor of symphony orchestra. Handy (1986), on the other hand, linked the manager to a doctor: the manager is the first recipient of problems. The manager’s role is, therefore, to identify the symptoms in any situation, to diagnose the disease or cause of the trouble; to decide how it might be dealt with, through a strategy for health; and to start the treatment. Duncan(1975) has a holistic view of the role of the manager. He identifies three distinct levels of management activity : philosophical(goal information), scientific(goal accomplishment and evaluation); and art(implementation of decisions). At the philosophical level the manager is mainly concerned with the effects of the actions and reactions of other individuals and groups which the organisation is set. At this level,  managers formulate clear and precise strategies that can result from the set goals. It is also at this level that the ethics of managerial behaviour, values and priorities of the organisation are formulated and established. At the scientific level, Manager develops plans, methods and techniques for achieving set goals. The art level is concerned with the implementation.This is the level at which tactical and administrative decision are made to deploy the organisation’s resoyrces. Mullins(1989) argued, that management is both a science and an art. By its very nature, management is forced to deal with both, science-based activities, such as the design and operation of manufacturing, and less rational, more intuitive activities, especially those concerning managing and motivating people. Mintzberg(1973,1975), He concluded the role of managers as follows: All managers do have regular, ordinary duties to perform. Rather than being systematic, reflective thinkers and planners, managers simply respond to the pressure or demands of their job. Managerial activities are characterised by brevity, variety and discontinuity. MIntzberg(1973) also found that managers’ role remarkably similar and their work can be described in terms of ten vary important roles that can be categorised under three headings: Interpersonal roles, informational roles, and decision-making roles. Interpersonal roles: One of the most time-consuming and important aspects of managerial role is to work with, direct and represent  people. International roles: Those in managerial positions have unique opportunities to obtain and disseminate information. Decision making roles: One of the main parts of any manager’s role is to take decision. Yokl(2002) notes, though these roles are common to most managerial jobs, the emphasis and importance of these roles varies between managers depending on a range of factors such as organisation size, level of management, level of managerial independence, and the stage the organisation had reached in its life cycle. Stewart(1976,1982) drew particular attention to demands, constraints and choices in shaping managerial roles .Demands-these are the expectations that those in positions of power have for a role holder. .Constraints-these are factors peculiar to the organisation and its environment that limit a managers freedom to manoeuvre. .Choices-though managers are limited in what they can do by the demands and constraints of their jobs, all managers have a degree of discretion (choice) in what to do and when to do it. Hales(1986:102) in the researches on the managers role, concluded that: what manager do is, of necessity, an unreflective response to circumstances. The manager has to react rapidly to problems as they arise, take decision in situ and develop a preference for concrete activities. Mintzberg (1975:49) pointed out: if you ask a manager what he does he will most likely tell you he plans, organizes, co-ordinates and controls. Then watch what he does . Don’t surprised if you can’t relate what you see to those four words. Managers have to able to change their style of management and exhibit different styles to different parts of their organisation at the same time. Managers can and do adopt both the planned and emergent approaches to change management either alternately or simultaneously as the situation requires. Managers have to capable under certain conditions, especially when faced with a crisis of restructuring their mental models of how the world is and how they should respond. Mintzberg(1976) offers some clues as how managers can be successful managers. He concluded that effective and proficient managers are ‘whole thinkers’. On the negative view, Managers van act to hold back organisations, prevent beneficial change and create a climate of blame and wrong doing where in fighting and discrimination are tolerated. On the positive view, managers can identify opportunities for progress, promote ethical behaviour, recognise the opportunities that diversity brings and create sustainable organisations which achieve harmony with their environment. good managers can create the conditions for growth and prosperity. Effective managers, are, therefore, for very positive reasons, important to organisation. However they do not operate in isolation or have a totally free rein. Industrial managers have to rely far less on their personality, important though this maybe, and far more on their knowledge, skills, creating and experience. They are called to perform a wide range of duties and activities. Managers sometimes may choose or be required circumstances to change their organisations radically and quickly; sometimes they may choose to influence the context to promote or reduce the need for such changes. In other cases, change may take place more slowly and over a long period. The key factor in all this is to make conscious decision. Those who manage organisations to question and challenge their own and other people’s assumptions. Even where choices are identified, managers should not assume that exercising choice is easy or that the results will be beneficial for all concerned, including themselves. For this reason, managers have a responsibility in making and implementing choices to consider the implications not just for themselves, not just for their organisation, but for society as well. Therefore, organisations face many challenges and choices. Some organisations will find that their room for manoeuvre is very limited. Others may find that there is considerable scope for discretion. It is the role of managers to ensure that all available options and choices are identified, and that the choices made take account of both the short and long term interests of all their stakeholders whether these be shareholders, employees,  the managers themselves or the community at large. The worst managers may not be those make poor choices; it may be those who fail to recognise that there are choices to be made.

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