11 September 2001
The September Attacks
On September 11, 2001, the United States endured the worst terrorist attack in American history. This series of four organized suicide attacks were carried out by nineteen members of the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda. Before this devastating event, America was dominating with the economic, technological, and military advancements that they had been making, unlike many surrounding nations.
Despite America’s stability and success at the time, the country remained vulnerable to strikes by hate groups and raging anti-Americans. No matter how large their military budget was or what advancements they were making, America would’ve never been able to prepare themselves for the attack they would undergo on that quaint Tuesday morning.
The morning of September 11, 2001 was just like any other day across the country. At 7:59 a.m., American Airlines Flight 11 departed from Boston’s Logan International Airport to go to Los Angeles, California. At 8:14 a.m., another plane, United Airlines Flight 175, takes off for the same route. In the midst of this, two more planes depart from other airports with destinations including Los Angeles and San Francisco, California. After only five minutes in the air, flight attendants aboard Flight 11 became aware of the 5 hijackers on the plane and alerted ground personnel of the use of mace, bomb threats, and several stabbings on the plane. The names of the men who took control over this plane were Mohamed Atta, Abdulaziz al-Omari, Wail al-Shehri, Waleed a-Shehri, and Satam al-Suqami. Crew members, along with the innocent passengers, began to panic and had no idea what was about to happen on what should’ve been a routine flight. After flight attendant Madeline Sweeney made the last known communication from the plane, hijacker Mohammed Atta makes his first two attempts to control the plane at 8:24 a.m. and begins the worst terrorist attack the United States will ever endure.
In New York, this Tuesday was seemingly normal, the skies were clear, citizens were going to work, kids were being dropped off at daycare, and the morning was anything but out of the ordinary until tragedy struck. At 8:46 a.m., Flight 11 was flying extremely low and crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center loaded with 92 people and 20,000 gallons of jet fuel. The plane, a Boeing 767, was traveling at nearly 496 mph near the 80th floor of the 110 story skyscraper and instantly killed hundreds of people and trapped many more on surrounding floors. The people in the streets were shocked, they had no idea what they had just seen and instantly went in panic. Many people who were in the building that didn’t get killed at the initial impact were stuck in the building and trying to escape but had no way out. Those able to escape began evacuating the tower and fled into the streets in an attempt to reach safety. Shortly after, the scene was broadcasted live on many television networks to update the nation on what was thought to be a freak accident. This, however, was not a just a mishap, but it was the first of four different crashes that would occur over the next several hours.
18 minutes later after the initial hit, United Airlines Flight 175 struck the south tower of the World Trade Center at 9:03 a.m. This plane was another Boeing 767, carrying 65 people and the 5 al-Qaeda terrorists Marwan al-Shehhi, Fayez Banihammad, Mohand al-Shehri, Hamza al-Ghamdi, and Ahmed al-Ghamdi. Flight 175 had only been traveling for thirty minutes before the hijackers took over the cockpit and changed the route of the plane. Due to the numerous amount of newscasters on the scene, the crash into the south tower was caught on camera and televised live on global news. The collision led to a massive explosion in the building, which led to the building’s collapse less than an hour after the hit. These skyscrapers were built to withstand nearly anything including large winds and fires but were not able to survive the thousands of gallons of burning jet fuel. Debris from the crash fell onto surrounding buildings, in the streets, and floated throughout the air. At 10:30 a.m. a little after the south tower collapsed, the north tower came crashing down with it and killed 1,400 people. A small amount of only six people were able to survive the collapse of the towers and nearly 10,000 were left severely injured. The World Trade Center was not the only building that was destroyed as a result of this, several buildings surrounding the towers were severely damaged as well. Hundreds of search and rescuers assessed the scene and risked their lives by exposing themselves to harmful particles in the air as well as falling debris in efforts to save citizens from the buildings. Unfortunately, not many made it out alive and the lucky ones who survived suffered from extreme injuries.
As if the chaos in New York wasn’t enough, a third plane was added into the equation. American Airlines Flight 77 departed from Washington Dulles International Airport at 8:20 a.m. with 6 crew members, 53 passengers, and 5 hijackers. 35 minutes into the flight, hijackers forced everyone on board including pilots and crew members to the back of the plane. At 9:45 a.m., the plane was flown into the west side of the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia which led to the collapse of a section of the U.S. military headquarters. Every person on board of Flight 77 along with 125 people were killed in the Pentagon, many being military personnel. The impact of the plane also caused a huge fire that took firefighters several days to extinguish. After news of the Pentagon crash, the Capitol building, as well as the White House, were evacuated to take safety precautions.
The fourth and final plane that was hijacked in this American hate crime was United Airlines Flight 93. This plane, that was intended to take a routine flight from the Newark International Airport in New Jersey to California’s San Francisco International Airport, contained 33 passengers, 4 hijackers, and 7 crew members. When the hijackers initially tried to overtake the cockpit 46 minutes after takeoff, the pilot and first officer deactivated autopilot in order to make taking control of the plane more of a difficulty to the hijackers. The intended destination of Flight 93 has not been determined but theories are the Capitol Building in Washington D.C., the White House, or one of the many nuclear power plants on the east coast. When passengers and flight attendants heard news by phone of the attacks that had been made earlier in the day on the Pentagon and World Trade Center, they made an attempt to regain control of the plane. The people aboard knew that there was no possible way for the aircraft to return safely to an airport so their mission was to crash the plane into a place where no one but the members of Flight 93 was injured. Passengers and flight attendants were making phone calls to their family telling them what was going on and saying their last goodbyes to their loved ones. As a group effort, passengers fought against the four hijackers and eventually gained control over the plane, crashing it at about 500 miles per hour in a field about 20 minutes flying distance away near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:10 a.m. Despite the tragedy and loss of 40 innocent people, without their bravery and heroism Flight 93 could have taken the lives of hundreds or even thousands of more people.
The events that occurred on 9/11 had nearly immediate effects on people all across the country. Rescue workers from all over the nation such as policemen, firefighters, and missionaries stopped everything they were doing and traveled to New York City to help with damage control from the fallen twin towers. Their goal was to find as many survivors as possible as well as reconnect them with their loved ones. Americans across the country were doing anything they could in order to help ease the pain and sorrow they were feeling from this tragic event. In total, nearly 3,000 people died as a result of the September 11 attacks including women, men, and children. Memorials and vigils were held all over the world to honor those who lost their lives and photographs of people were posted near the remains of the World Trade Center for friends and family to try and identify those who were either killed or still missing. Not only were there memorials for victims of the World Trade Center attack but also memorials for the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and one for Flight 93 in Shanksville. The Pentagon Memorial consisted of a park with 184 benches facing towards the Pentagon as well as a memorial inside the building where Flight 77 crashed into. The memorial in place for Flight 93 is what is known as a Wall of Names that is placed on a hill. Although there are many remembrances and memorial sights all over the country, these are the most well known.
The nineteen terrorists who participated in the suicide attack were from Saudi Arabia along with other Arab nations. The attack was carried by terrorist organization al-Qaeda who were led by Saudi Arabian Osama bin Laden. Supposedly, the motive for this attack rooted from America’s support of Israel and their ongoing military presence in the Middle East. Some of the terrorists prepared for this attack by taking flying lessons while some just participated to help harm the crew members of each flight to gain control of each plane. Each of the planes was strategically picked to ensure all of them had an abundant amount of jet fuel to worsen each crash tremendously.
President George W. Bush was in office at the time of this American tragedy. When he first heard news about what was going on it as 9:05 a.m. and he was in Sarasota, Florida giving a reading lesson to second-grade students from Emma Booker Elementary School. Occupants of the White House were told to go to the underground bunkers of the White House to be safe just in case they were to go under attack. Shortly after the crash into the Pentagon, the U.S. Capitol building and White House are evacuated. After a long day of President Bush moving around the country to keep him concealed and away from any possible threats, he returns to the White House at 7 p.m. and delivers a televised address at 9 p.m. In this address, he states, Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but cannot dent the steel of American resolve. In efforts to lessen the risks of future acts of terrorism, the National Security Agency was given more powers in order to more effectively protect the U.S. On December 13, 2001 the U.S. government released a tape where Osama bin Laden takes full responsibility for the attacks that occurred on 9/11. America’s quest to extinguish Osama bin Laden’s terrorist organization began less than a month after the attack and lasted nearly 10 years until they finally found him and killed him on May 2, 2011.
September 11, 2001 is a day that America will never forget. To this day, 9/11 is still the biggest hate crime ever conducted against the U.S. Not only did thousands of innocent civilians pass away in the result of this attack but also many policemen, firefighters, and rescue workers lost their lives to save others. As the country mourned the loss of the victims, their patriotism flourished and unity was brought across the nation.
The Effects of September th on our Country
Terrorism is the unlawful use of violence or intimidation against civilians, in pursuit of political aims. September 11th, 2001, marks one of the biggest terrorist attacks against the U.S. Four planes had crashed, two into the twin towers, one into the pentagon, and one crashing into a field when passengers fought back against the terrorist pilot.The results of this attack were devastating, thousands died, buildings were destroyed, and family and friends of the victims mourned for the tragic death of their loved ones.
After such a horrific tragedy, it is hard to even imagine how such an event could ever be beneficial to the U.S. in any way. But after 9/11, the security of the United States greatly improved. The fact that September 11th was tragic is not up for debate, but what is commonly overlooked is the fact that it had positive effects on the United States; it increased airport safety, began several counterterrorism measures, and it united the U.S. and other countries against the common enemy of terrorism.One of the positive effects of 9/11 was the increase in airport security and better regulate immigration into and out of the United States. Immigration laws included the Control Act of 2005, which aimed at stopping terrorist from entering the country illegally through enhanced documentation verification (Ciment 688-90). The increased funding towards the Coast Guards in order to improve coordination with other port entities and provide increased protection for high-risk vessels and coastal facilities (Michael, George, and Ciment 294-301).
And the Homeland Security Act, which better organized immigration agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (Ciment). The Transportation Security Administration was also createdInstituted new security procedures and also managed screening at all commercial airports aroung the country (Green). The FAA set had enforced aviation security rules, their layered defense system was set up so if a criminal where to get through one of the security layers, it would not be fatal because of the additional layers he or she would have to go through. Although this system seems efficient, it was flawed prior to the terrorist attack of 9/11, because of this, the U.S. knew they would have to change and improve the system(9-11 Commission Report: Chapter 3.).Changes in airport safety included the Aviation Transportation Security Act, a provision to secure airports and airlines from criminal and terrorist activity (Mullins 18-21).
And the In-Plane Safety Act, which reinforced cockpit doors with steel; in order to stop gunfire from getting through, made rules that all cockpit doors must be locked and closed before the plane takes off, and must remain that way until the flight has ended; which prevents terrorists from getting the opportunity to take control of the plane like they did during 9/11, pilots and flight crews had to receive training to defend in order to protect against any terrorist threats (Mullins 18-21) Worst case scenario, pilots were also allowed to carry weapons on the plane in case of any terrorist attempts (Villemez). By installing new programs that encouraged the prevention of aerial terrorist attacks and the immigration of possible terrorist, these effect of 9/11 had positive impacts on U.S. citizens by preventing further attacks.The outcome of this event also created organizations in order to improve our counter terrorism prevention and responses. It gave more power to the FBI and created Domestic Surveillance Provisions which aimed to bring existing wiretap into the modern communications age by allowing for warrants that targeted individuals across multiple communications platforms, from landlines to cell phones to Internet connectivity(Ciment 688-90).
And the Sneak-A-Peek Warrant which allowed investigators to search private premises without knowledge or consent from the owner, in order to obtain informationthe warrants did not allow for the seizure of evidencebut this evidence would later be taken with the use of a warrant(Ciment 688-90). The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Act of 2004, included reorganization of the government, aimed at correcting the lack of coordination among the intelligence-gathering agencies, which some experts claim that this lack of communication was the reason 9/11 occured, the act created the new position of director of national intelligence, to oversee the various intelligence-gathering agencies, and the National Counterterrorism Center, to coordinate government activities in that area of security (Ciment 688-90). The defense against bioterrorism focused on three areas; strengthening infrastructure by improving the state and local health systems, enhancing the federal government’s capabilities to communicate with state, local, and private agencies in the event of an attack, developing new vaccines, medicines, and diagnostic tests through increased research and development (Michael, George, and Ciment 294-301). To meet the requirements for these new efforts, President Bush’s 2003 budget called for $5.9 million in funding for defending against bioterrorist attackswhich is a 319 percent increase from the 2002 level(Michael, George, and Ciment 294-301). By creating specific programs to combat terrorism, 9/11’s impact was positive because it created ways to detect terrorists in and out of the country, and does not only just connect to aerial attacks.This tragic date united the American and non American people against terrorism and forced them to help each other in their time of need.
During 9/11 there was no riots or panic, instead, this event brought people together by taking care of victims, and honoring those who have died.From around the country and the world, they sent rescue units from fire and police stations as a symbolic gesture in order to honor the sixty police and 343 firefighters who died to save over 25,000 people (Jensen), the American Red Cross received so many blood donations that they had to turn people away (Roleff 43), and an unprecedented outpouring of contributions to numerous charities occured (Roleff 44).Families who lost loved ones started nonprifit campaigns to improve the lives many people in many significant ways, such as the Feal Good Foundation,Peter C. Alderman Foundation, and the Todd Ouida Children’s Foundation (Davis). In addition to the civilian involvement after September 11th, many civilians had become involved in the further prevention of terrorist attacks. There are multiple examples of this statement, such as; the Medical Reserve Corps, which was comprised of health-care professionals to augment the efforts of local health officials in areas affected by a crisis, Operation TIPS (Terrorist Information and Prevention System), which allowed transportation workers, postal workers, and public utility employees to identify and report suspicious activities, Community Emergency Response Teams, which enabled individual Americans to participate in training in their local communities to prepare for and respond to crises, Neighborhood Watch programs, the Volunteers in Police Service Program, in which citizen volunteers were permitted to assist their local police in performing non sworn functions and, in doing so, free up police to perform vital frontline duty in the event of an emergency, and the Patriot Readiness Center, which helped retired federal workers return to active service(Michael, George, and Ciment 294-301).
In addition to american citizens, other countries also rallied to help the U.S. in it’s time of need. They provided everything from troops and bases to intelligence cooperation and overflight permission. This included help not only from NATO, but opponents such as Russia and China (Walsh and Ciment 891-96). Other countries also grew more aggressive with counterterrorism efforts of their own, resulting in several overseas terrorist arrests. Bush stated that Every nation in every region now has a decision to make. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime, by saying this, President Bush pushed strongly encouraged the support and involvement of other countries after September 11th (Johnson 887-91). It encouraged the involvement of civilians and drew aide from foreign countries, this is positive because it it unites not only the people of the United States, but other countries as well to fight back against terrorism.Overall, 9/11 was tragic but led to the improvement of the United States security against terrorists. The event was beneficial because it improved air security while making immigration more strict, it created programs to combat terrorism, and brought support from citizens and other countries. The argument that 9/11 is beneficial is extremely important because it helps others come to the realization that such a tragic event was not for nothing and makes us more appreciative of the safety precautions we have to protect us on a daily basis.
September 11: A Day To Remember
September 11th, 2001. America was doing fine. The World Trade Centers in New York City, also known as the twin towers, were standing tall and proud for they were the tallest buildings in the world. The Pentagon and Washington DC were also doing well. Nothing could be better. No one knew that in a couple of hours, America’s greatest landmarks would be destroyed. Everyone everywhere from the West to the East, the North and the South would be in a crisis.
Al-Qaeda, a terrorist group founded by Osama Bin Laden that took refuge in Afghanistan, were the people who attacked the nation. The main operator of the attack was a man named Khalid Sheikh Mohammed. During an interview with a reporter, he claimed to be planning to blow up some dozen American planes that were in Asia at the time. The plan failed, yet his hatred for America never died out. By joining Osama bin Laden, he realized that his dreams could become a reality. The 9/11 plot took place and obtained help from areas all around the world. There were meetings in Malaysia, flight lessons in the U.S., plot coordinators in Germany, money transfers from Dubai, and recruitments for people from all over the Middle East. This was a big operation, and Al-Qaeda wasn’t limiting it to one or two areas (Brittania Library).
92 passengers had no idea that when boarding American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767 aircraft, they would be colliding into the northern twin tower at 8:46 am. This plane had departed from Boston and was headed towards Los Angeles when it made a slight detour. Everyone was confused. Why would anyone crash into one of the twin towers? It must be a mistake. That was the belief, but it was no deniable fact that 9/11 was going to be a very memorable day. 8:14 am, United Airlines flight 175, another Boeing 767 aircraft, departed from Boston and was also headed to Los Angeles. But it was hijacked and at 9:03 am, 17 minutes after the first plane had crashed, this plane hit the southern twin tower. The world was in shock. It was decided that, for the first time in a long while, America was under attack. At 9:43 am American Airlines flight 77, a Boeing 757 aircraft, flew into the Pentagon, killing at least 100 people in the outer ring of the building and the 64 passengers on the plane. But some 44 citizens showed their true bravery when they attempted to stop the hijackers from taking over United Airlines flight 93, a Boeing 757 aircraft, and trying to destroy the US Capitol or White House. The plane, however, flew into a field near Pittsburg, killing everyone on board (Lerner). At the time of these attacks, President Bush was speaking to a 2nd-grade class in Florida. He left quickly, but before returning to Washington DC, he stopped at Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana and Offutt Air Force Base in Nebraska. Later that day, he made a speech saying that America would track down bin Laden if it was the last thing they’d do (Brittania Library).
On October 7, 2001, the U.S. sent warplanes and cruise missiles to Afghanistan as a purpose to attack al Qaeda military and terrorist camps supported by the Taliban. Great Britain joined the strikes, with the help of France, Germany, Canada, Australia, and many others In all, about 40 nations joined with the United States. The president distinguished the fight against terrorism by military commitments, financial actions, legislative and diplomatic actions, and law enforcement actions. On October 8, 2001, he issued an Executive Order establishing the Homeland Security Department, to “coordinate the executive branch’s efforts to detect, prepare for, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States.”The air attacks against Afghanistan were followed by ground attacks. The United States cooperated with the Northern Alliance, a foe of the Taliban. By December 2001, the Taliban had been removed from power, and the United States and other nations began the rebuilding Afganistan. Although bin Laden was constantly targeted during the attacks, America failed to capture him during the attacks on the Taliban.
In December 2001, U.S. officials raided the offices of Muslim charities headquartered in Illinois, the Global Relief Foundation (GRF) and the Benevolence International Foundation (BIF). These organizations were thought to have contributed money to terrorists who planned the 9/11 attacks. The hardness on these groups was because the U.S. government belied that bin Laden and the al Qaeda network use charitable groups, credit card, and manufacturing companies to raise money for their operations. This became a strategy for the US to crack down on terrorism. Congress responded to the attacks, and with the urging of the president, passed the USA PATRIOT ACT OF 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135, and other legislation designed to provide protection against further attacks. The United States has continued its attack on terrorists and the nations that harbor them since 9/11. In March 2003, the United States attacked Iraq, purportedly for Iraq’s violation of resolutions banning its possession of weapons of mass destruction. The Bush administration suspected that the Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein, gave support to bin Laden and al Qaeda, and the attacks on Iraq have been seen as a continuation of the War of Terrorism. The September 11th attacks also had an impact on the U.S. airline industry.
American Airlines and United Airlines each lost two planes during the attack, and the U.S. government ordered that all planes in the country remain grounded for a week following the attacks. In response to the losses incurred by the airlines, Congress enacted the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act, Pub. L. No. 107-42, 115 Stat. 230, which was signed into law 11 days after the September 11th attacks. The act was designed to compensate air carriers for their losses during and after the attacks and also to preserve the continued vitality of the air transportation system in the United States. Despite this legislation, United Airlines filed for BANKRUPTCY in 2002, and American Airlines bordered on bankruptcy during the time following the attacks. The attacks had a greater impact on the victims of the attacks and their families. As part of Public Law Number 107-42, Congress enacted the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund to provide a form of recovery for the victims of the attacks. The U.S. Attorney General’s Office administers the fund through a SPECIAL MASTER. Recovery under these provisions is limited to those who were physically injured during the attacks, so victims of non-physical, economic loss cannot recover. As of May 2003, fund administrators had issued 495 award letters to victims of the attacks and their families. The average award to the family of a deceased victim is $1.44 million (West’s Encyclopedia of American Law)
September 11th, a day that would be taught to every child in America. A day that would be remembered forever. A day that marked an important place in America’s history. A day that has many memorials, and now a museum. Many innocent lives were lost that day, and for America, many things changed. The United States now has better securities, different rules for airplanes, and hunts down terrorists and tries to stop terrorism around the world. By all accounts, it will be no wonder that Americans will remember 9/11 forever.
Terrorism on and after September
Terrorism is a violent strategy used by various people and groups to achieve a certain goal. It’s important to understand that not all violent acts are terrorist acts. Terrorism is more of a strategy than just a random act of violence, as it always includes some sort of political, ideological or religious motivation on the part of the perpetrators.
From what I understand growing up terrorism was not a big subject. I knew we had our military in different countries, here in the United States fighting to protect us. Every so often we would hear about the soldiers going to war with another country through the news. During this time security going through the airport, going into the white house and things like that was a little more relaxed, less complicated. That was because we didn’t have to worry about any. September 11, 2001 was the day that changed a lot in the United States. (September 11, 2001 Al Qaeda terrorists aboard three hijacked passenger planes carried out coordinated suicide attacks against the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., killing everyone on board the planes and nearly 3,000 people on the ground. A fourth plane crashed into a Pennsylvania field, killing all on board, after passengers and crew attempted to wrest control from the hijackers.) — https://www.history.com/topics/21st-century/9-11-timeline
Since what happen in Sept 2001, the government has made terrorist a number one priority on their list. As it should be. There are a lot of strict rules, things you can and cannot do, even going to war with other countries are happening more frequent to keep the lives safe here in the United States. On September 11, 2001 that was a day I will never forget granted I was not an adult, I was in high school. At the time I did not understand the severity of the attack the United States had on us. It did hurt me so deeply that a lot of innocent people lost their lives. The United States did received a lot of support from the other countries. But people were torn about going to war. Some wanted to go to war and capture the head leader to get peace and justice. Others wanted to make peace with the other countries and non-violence. I was torn because as I stated earlier I was a kid. So of course I thought retaliation for our country and what we suffered should have been a main priority. And it was the government sent the troops to go and look for the head leader. We eventually caught him, which I am sure made a lot of families that were mourning the loss of their love ones happy, or at least at peace. Because I am older now, and I would have to say that nonviolence is the way to go. I can’t explain why I feel that way.
Maybe it’s because peace brings peace, or because of all the families that were looking for their love ones needed our attention and support more. Those are just my feelings. Now a days you got some people that can hop right on the computer internet or telephone and try to become a terrorist. Why would they want to do something like that? You have to know that whatever terrorist group out there that’s inviting you to join with them. Does not care an ounce about you. They are just trying to finish out their missions. I will say that one pro about internet and telephone and street cameras is that the government is listening and catching as many as they can these people before any violence can occur and throwing them in jail and they will have their day in court. The news/media is also doing their part on terrorism they are bring forth and exposing the terrorist (Many Americans have not yet come to grips with the meaning and function of terrorism in the modern world. During President Bush’s administration, federal officials described terrorism as a war and they responded accordingly. The military even developed an acronym for it GWOT for Global War against Terrorism. Things changed with President Obama. Officials were loath to even utilize the term terrorism, preferring legalistic jargon about violent criminal extremists. All of this is understandable because terrorism is not a physical object that can be touched and measured. It is an abstract idea that means many things to many different people.)– https://www.huffingtonpost.com/jonathan-r-white/confusion-about-boston_b_3128995.html
It has been said that with all of our technology that terrorism or the intent to terrorism, will never go away. It will always be here because even if the terrorist from other countries can’t get to the United States they can recruit within the United States. People today should never try and stop a terrorist if you suspect. Terrorism is essentially a matter for law enforcement and the criminal justice system. Terrorist have no pattern it’s wherever a large group of people are that they can injure. It has been said that terrorist will examine their activities from afar. Some has even been on tape from the street cameras. They have a person enjoyment watching their work being carried out. Given these complexities, the psychology of terrorism is marked more by theory and opinion than by good science, researchers admit. Terrorist cannot be talked out of committing an act of violence, and the United States has made it known on several occasions that we do not negotiate with terrorist. Our government is now more aware of what is going on in today’s society with terrorism. But us as people of the United States can also have a helping hand in helping to prevent terrorism as well by staying alert and calling the terrorism hotline or just your local authorities to have them to investigate. You may not think that you did anything but you have saved a life if something was to ever come back from that investigation. Having to deal with the many terrorist attacks in the United States have brought America closer.
HIST Black September Organization
The Black September Organization was a Palestinian terrorist organization that was founded in 1970. It was lead by the Fatah political party, of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The most notable attack that was conducted by the Black September Organization (BSO) was the Munich Olympic Massacre, where the BSO kidnapped and murdered eleven Israeli athletes during the 1972 Summer Olympics. The BSO was a very short lived group, formed in 1971 and dissolved in 1973, one year prior to the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) receiving observer status in the United Nations.
The events of the Munich Massacre directly resulted in the creation of permanent specialized counter-terrorism forces in major countries, such as the French GIGN or German GSG9, along with more specialized training for existing units such as the British SAS. Today, counterterrorism is a focus of many special operations units, and many large taskforces are trained to handle domestic and international terroristic events. All branches of the United States Armed Forces have training available for counter terrorism operations, and special forces units within.
The origin of the Black September Organization was the Black September Conflict, in which the King Hussein and the Jordanian Armed Forces fought against the PLO and Syria. The PLO sought to rule Jordan, after gaining an upsurge in support in Jordan after achieving perceived victory against Israel in the Battle of Karameh. In the time leading up to the Black September Conflict, the PLO attempted to assassinate King Hussein twice and the Dawson’s Field Hijackings. In the resulting military actions of Jordan, the PLO was ousted and fled to Lebanon. The expulsion of the PLO from Jordan resulted in a small cell of people determined to take revenge upon King Hussein and Jordanian military, eventually becoming the BSO. One commander, Abu Ali Lyad, continued to fight even after PLO forces withdrew. He was captured and executed, which angered many of the Palestinians, as he was reportedly tortured to death and then his corpse was dragged through several villages while tied to a Jordanian tank.
The BSO was formed to take revenge upon Jordan. It operated in a mainly leaderless organization where operatives worked within small, air-tight cells. The cells were kept purposefully ignorant of other cells and existed throughout the world, mainly in Europe and the Middle East. The cells each consisted of local Palestinians and Arabs who had lived in their countries for many years. This system of operation ensured that the apprehension or surveillance of one cell would not threaten others. It also offered plausible deniability that Fatah was in league with these BSO cells.
The point of the BSO was to organize clandestine attacks that Fatah did not want to be openly associated with. This included strikes against Jordanian politicians and military to exact vengeance for attacking and expelling the PLO and the death of Abu Ali Lyad. Many international operations were conducted by the BSO to put pressure on the US, Europe, and Israel and raise the visibility of the Palestinian cause and upstage rivals such as the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
Fatah is the leading Palestinian political party, formed by Yasser Arafat, who was also the third chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The Palestine Liberation Organization is a secular-nationalist organization composed of several political parties and is recognized as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people by over 100 states. Initially, the PLO was described as a terrorist organization whose goal was to liberate Palestine via armed conflict, but peace efforts between Palestine and Israel slowly changed this viewpoint. Initially, the PLO’s charter stated that it wanted to prohibit. the existence and practice of Zionism, and called for the right of return and self-determination of the Palestinians. Fatah is the largest faction that composes the Palestine Liberation Organization. Combined with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the two factions comprise more than half of the PLO, almost half of its legislative council. While it is unclear how much control Fatah or the PLO had over the BSO, the BSO was formed as a splinter group of Fatah after the Black September Conflict, and both inside and outside sources claim that the BSO worked indirectly for Fatah.
The most notable attack made by the BSO is the Munich Massacre.
Horror Of the September 11
On September 11, 2001 the hopes of the American Dream were taken away from many people due to the actions of a certain group, many people come to America with with the hopes of getting the American Dream they have always heard about and been offered bt when they come to America nobody will give them a job, they are discriminated, and they are looked down on because of the actions of radicals in their religion. After the event many people shied away from Muslim people in as whole because they were afraid tat even though only a radical group took it upon themselves, that they were all bad people. Xenophobia is discrimination against and hatred of foreigners, targeting outsiders and strangers or more often those who are in effect part of one’s own society but are perceived as incommensurably different from the majority population.(International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 1).
The description of Xenophobia tells what the increase in fear of Muslim people was after the attacks on September 11, 2001. People questioned for a while why this attack was planned and why this group, known as Al Qaeda, decided to attack the nation in such a drastic way. When people began looking back on what else this group has been apart of it was shown that this group was targeted and tried to warn America before, that if we did not do what they wanted us to do something much bigger would be coming our way. The day of September 11, 2001 was an awful and scary day for just about everyone in the United States of America, the horrific attacks that were committed on the biggest city in this country was not only a surprise but a sign of the beginning of war for our country against the one they are based in. After this day everything changed, not only for Americans but for the different groups that had come to America for the hopes of the American Dream that they cannot now not accomplish. What happened after this day proved that the American Dream is only offered and available for certain groups of people in The United States of America.
Leading up to September 11, 2001, there was many signs given by Al Qaeda that hinted if we did not start listening to them and their demands, that their was going to be major conflicts. That attack on the towers was not the first attack that had taken place in one of the buildings. Al Qaeda had attempted to bomb the World Trade Center only a few years before by bombing under the building. They had set up attacks in other locations around the city of New York, but nothing as big as what they would do to the World Trade Center on September 11. America had been in the country of Afghanistan for a couple years, and many of the Afghan people wanted them to leave them alone and get out of their country. Osama Bin Laden, the leader of the Al Qaeda group, spoke out on his beliefs and and dislikes about Americans being in his country, he did not like it one bit and wanted them to leave, he believed the attacks he had planned would finally get the US to leave his country and leave them alone for good. He gathered people who he knew were on his side and recruited people to join his terrorist group, Al Qaeda. The 19 perpetrators were all Arabs, mostly of Yemeni or Saudi Arabian origin, some recruited in Germany. All belonged to Osama bin Laden’s al-Qaeda terrorist network. The chief plotter was jihadist Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, a Kuwaiti who had joined al-Qaeda in Afghanistan in 1996. Al-Qaeda trained the terrorists and financed the operation. Some of the terrorists smuggled box cutters past airport security, using these weapons to overcome the crew and the pilots. Others, trained as pilots, entered the cockpits, shut off the communications systems, and headed for the targets. (9-11 and Its Aftermath Update 1). Osama Bin Laden made sure to train his men so that he could accomplish what he wanted all along, to bring down the United States of America. They targeted one of the biggest cities and one of the main buildings for our military to go. For them this was their way of getting our country out of theres and trying to prove a point that they can take us down, though they were very wrong.
For many years after the attack on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, Osama Bin Laden denied his involvement and his group involvement in the attacks of September 11, 2001. Al Qaeda was not known as a terrorist group to the world until after the attacks had taken place, even after the attacks and they were suspects it took a very long time for them to come out and admit to what they had done and why. Interrogations were going on in secret in many places around the United States and other countries, but still they could not get Osama Bin Laden or his men to admit to having any parts in the attacks they did in fact commit. It was not until 2006, five years after the heinous attacks on september 11, that Osama Bin Laden admitted to what he and his group had done and he wanted everyone to know h had no regret to it and was proud of what he did.we are free … and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security, we undermine yours (Osama Bin Laden admitting to his crimes). When he spoke those words he was saying when we were undermining them protecting themselves and by being in their country, they were able to undermine our security and our feelings of safety by planning this attack and going through with it. He saw the United States as weak because of him and he wanted everyone to know that he was behind all of because he had now seen the full effects it had on the country in a whole. It was not until another six years later on September 10, 2012 that Osama Bin Laden was found during a raid in Pakistan and shot by a group of Navy Seals.
The day of September 11, 2001 changed everyone in the United States and all around forever. The morning started off normal and the next thing everyone knew a plane was flown into one of the Twin Towers in New York City. Not even an hour later and second plane ent through the second Twin Tower leaving everyone inside and outside the buildings horrified and questioning what to do now. Throughout the morning firefighters, cops and first responders traveled into the bg city to come and help save as many people as they could from the bulinings that were about to go down. Not two hours after the first plane hit the first tower, the building began to go down, trapping hundreds of people inside and killing many outside. Not long after the second tower came down faster than the first and nobody knew what they were going to do. What nobody knew at this time was that there was two more planes heading for the Pentagon and the White House in Washington,DC. Another plane hit the Pentagon and wrecked only a section of the building, and still sadly, leaving few casualties. The fourth plane set to hit the White House in Washington was taken over by the passengers on the plane, when they found out what the plan was, and instead of crashing into the white house was crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Although killing all the passengers on the plane, the passengers of that plane saved many more lives from being taken if the terrorists had succeeded and hit the White House. A total of 3,000 people were killed in these attacks, including police officers and firefighters.(9-11 and Its Aftermath Update 1). Many people lost their lives on September 11, 2001 because of the point Osama Bin Laden and his terrorist group, Al Qaeda, was trying to get across to the United States. These attacks not only took the lives of many people but changed everyone’s lives all in the United States and many other places.
The day of September 11, 2001 not only goes down in history for being one of the biggest terrorist attacks ever, but also for being the day that changed the lives of not only Americans but for every Muslim worldwide. The attacks in New York City and the Pentagon left many living in fear and not knowing who they can trust. People began to fear all Muslim people near and around them, afraid that they had direct correlation to the terrorist group that just tore apart the nation. Muslims are now afraid to go out, because of a group of extremists in the same religion. As a result, they know that they are going to face a lot of hate and criticism simply because of the religion they choose to believe in. Xenophobia is discrimination against and hatred of foreigners, targeting outsiders and strangers or more often those who are in effect part of one’s own society but are perceived as incommensurably different from the majority population.(International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 1). Many people after September 11 got the fear of Muslim people, worried that something may happen again that will leave our nation is a heap. With many being afraid of Muslim people and their culture, when Muslim immigrants come to America with the hopes of getting the American Dream that had always heard of and were promised, they are denied it when they get here because many people fear them and what they believe they will do. The American Dream is always offered to people from other countries and when most Muslim people enter America they are discriminated against and because of that are not given jobs and therefore cannot conquer their hopes of the dream they originally came to this country for. The letters arrived in March. Sent anonymously to multiple communities, the letters with words in bold at the top declared that Tuesday, April 3, would become “Punish a Muslim day” in the United Kingdom.
Sent to homes, lawmakers and at least one business, the documents detailed a disturbing point-based system that would award attackers for acts of hatred and violence: 10 points for verbally abusing a Muslim; 500 points for “butchering a Muslim using a gun, knife, vehicle or otherwise.”(‘Punish a Muslim Day’ generates anger, fear and solidarity in Britain 1). Even though this did not take place in America, this shows that these attacks have caused others to view Muslims in negative ways. This shows that even though Britain was not directly attacked during September 11, they still have had terrorist attacks increase and many of their citizens have a fear and do not know how to handle it. An American writer speaks about his experiences in America and how he has been being attacked by Islamophobes because of the religion he practices. With the increase in attacks towards Muslims since the September 11 attacks, many Muslim people who have always worked in America have now been being targeted for hate crimes.
I began my work as director of the Arab American Association of New York in the wake of the horrific attacks of 9/11. As crisis after crisis struck Arab and Muslim communities, from the backlash to the “Ground Zero mosque” to the anti-Muslim hearings held by Rep. Peter King, R-N.Y., to the rampant surveillance of New York City’s Muslim communities, I became more vocal about Islamophobia’s terrible impact on my community, city and country. Because of that, I become a target of the Islamophobia industry, a well-funded group of organizations and spokesmen who fuel anti-Muslim sentiment through misleading narratives, propaganda, local policies and the vilification of Muslim activists and public figures.(Islamophobes are attacking me because I’m their worst nightmare 1).
Since the attacks almost seventeen years ago, Muslim Americans have been facing much hate because they are directly associated with groups they do not involve themselves with. This is direct proof that because of the attacks on September 11, Muslim people are treated and given less opportunities than they once were.
The attacks on September 11, 2001 left America and much of the rest of the world not knowing how to go on. Due to these horrific attacks Muslims who were once offered the American Dream are now not given it. Muslims come to America with the hopes of creating a new life and are not aloud jobs, are discriminated against, and are targeted for hate crimes constantly just because they are directly associated with the extremists in their religion. This shows that though the American Dream is offered to many people it is only offered to certain groups.
- “Xenophobia.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by William A. Darity, Jr., 2nd ed., vol. 9, Macmillan Reference USA, 2008, pp. 158-161. U.S. History In Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3045303004/UHIC?u=mlin_w_ludlow&sid=UHIC&xid=b26d321a. Accessed 2 May 2018.
- Sarsour, Linda. “Islamophobes are attacking me because I’m their worst nightmare.” Washington Post, 10 July 2017. U.S. History In Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A498249166/UHIC?u=mlin_w_ludlow&sid=UHIC&xid=0f87f4b2. Accessed 2 May 2018.
- Kaplan, Sarah. “In New York, the deadliest terrorist attack since 9/11 stirs old memories, strengthens resolve.” Washington Post, 1 Nov. 2017. U.S. History In Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A512712654/UHIC?u=mlin_w_ludlow&sid=UHIC&xid=a6cd539f. Accessed 2 May 2018.
- “9-11 Commission Report: Chapter 12.” The 9/11 Commission Report, The 9/11 Commission, 2004. U.S. History In Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/BT2359090013/UHIC?u=mlin_w_ludlow&sid=UHIC&xid=8b42934a. Accessed 2 May 2018.
- “9-11 Commission Report: Chapter 3.” The 9/11 Commission Report, The 9/11 Commission, 2004. U.S. History In Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/BT2359090004/UHIC?u=mlin_w_ludlow&sid=UHIC&xid=a2775106. Accessed 2 May 2018.
- “9-11 and Its Aftermath Update.” Gale U.S. History in Context, Gale, 2017. U.S. History In Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/FXSRHG925695278/UHIC?u=mlin_w_ludlow&sid=UHIC&xid=2238e8ba. Accessed 2 May 2018.
- Hassan, Jennifer. “‘Punish a Muslim Day’ generates anger, fear and solidarity in Britain.” Washington Post, 3 Apr. 2018. U.S. History In Context, https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A533136664/UHIC?u=mlin_w_ludlow&sid=UHIC&xid=f817b130. Accessed 2 May 2018.
9/11: A Day Full Of Tragedy
It was a day just like any other, claimed many Americans, however, it ended like no other. The tragic events of September 11, 2001 will never be forgotten. The effects of what has now became known as the worst terrorist attacks on American soil were life changing in many different ways.
On September 11, 2001, 19 militants associated with an Islamic extremist group known as al-Qaeda hijacked four U.S. airplanes in the effort to target the United States. They targeted domestic flights that had few passengers, flew coast-to-coast with full fuel tanks, and were departing at approximately the same time. (9/11 in Pennsylvania) These militants had plans to target the north and south towers of the World Trade Center, Pentagon, and an unknown destination believed to have been the U.S. Capitol; however the fourth plane was crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Nearly 3,000 people died on that day, and as many as 400,00 people are estimated to be have been affected by diseases, such as cancers, and mental illnesses linked to the the attacks of 9/11. This date will forever be remembered as a day that transformed America as a country. As a result of the terrorist attacks of 2001, security and safety guidelines have been revamped in an effort to avoid the recurrence of such an event.
Like any normal day I arrived at about 7:15 in the morning. That particular day was more or less flawless weather–beautiful day, blue sky..I don’t recall any extraordinary events that morning until 8:46 and change. wrote Brian Clark when describing his tragic experience of 9/11. (A Twin Towers’ Survivor Story) At 8:46, a plane known as Flight 11 impacted floors 93 to 99 of the North Tower of the World Trade Center located in New York City. (FAQ) According to History.com, many people thought this was just a freak accident until 17 minutes later when the second plane, Flight 175, impacted floors 77 to 85 of the south Tower of the World Trade Center. Of the 16,400 to 18,000 people in the towers, the majority got out safely. However as workers ran out of the building to safety, first responders ran into the building in the effort to save people who were still trapped or injured. (FAQ about 9/11) Over 300 firefighters and paramedics, 20 New York police officers, and 30 Port Authority police officers died in the line of duty that day. Including the first responders, 2,763 people died at the cite of the twin towers. (history)
With the jet fuel, the floors on fire were about 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit causing the steel beams of the building to weaken. When the planes struck the building, the floors impacted by the plane began to collapse on top of themselves. Less than fifteen minutes after the first attack, the south tower collapsed into a cloud of smoke due to the weight of the collapsed floors and heat of the fire. The collapse of the north tower followed at 10:30. The collapse of the buildings created a mushroom cloud of smoke and debris. It looked as though a blizzard had hit New York. Everything was silent. You didn’t hear the fire or police sirens. You heard nothing. exclaimed a bystander. (CNN Tribute: America Remembers) Out of thousands still in the building, only six survived the collapse of the buildings. (History) Out of the seven buildings of the World Trade Center complex, all were destroyed by the damage sustained when the twin towers fell. Thousands volunteered to help with the rescue, recovery, and clean-up efforts, however the project took over six months. The last piece of World Trade Center steel was ceremonially removed on May 30, 2002. (FAQ about 9/11) The 9/11 museum now stands where the twin towers once stood in remembrance of the tragic events on September 11, 2001. (Lacayo)
The third plane struck the Pentagon, the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense. Flight 77 left Dulles International Airport bound for Los Angeles, California at approximately 8:20 with a ten minute delay. The last routine radio communication with American Airlines Flight 77 took place at 8:51am. It is a common belief that the plane was hijacked between 8:51 and 8:54 am while flying over eastern Kentucky. The plane turned south immediately following the take over and then turned eastward near the junction of West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky. The transponder of Flight 77 was turned off at 8:56 am and the hijackers refused to answer the radio, making it very hard to track or contact the plane. (9/11 at the Pentagon)It was not until the plane crossed the path of a ground-based radar that aircraft controllers were able to locate Flight 77.
The plane turned South headed for the Pentagon at 9:33 am. Immediately, the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport tower passed the word to the Secret Service Operations Center in Washington D.C. that an aircraft is coming at you and not talking with us. The plane then turned south just below Alexandria, Virginia, circled back to the northeast, and flew toward Washington for a second time. At 9:37 am, American Airlines Flight 77 impacted the west side of the Pentagon. Immediately, the Pentagon’s on-site firehouse responded to the crash. Within minutes, firefighters from the nearby Reagan National Airport and Virginia’s Arlington County Fire Department arrived to access the situation. Many civilian employees and military personnel began to evacuate building shortly after the impact, however others rushed into the burning structure in the effort to rescue trapped and injured colleagues. On that day, 184 people died at the Pentagon. The oldest being seventy-one. The youngest being three. The physical damage sustained by the impact of the plane was rebuilt within less then a year, however our nation is still recovering 16 years later. (9/11 at the Pentagon)
The Horrific Terrorist Attack Of September 11th
The horrific terrorist attack of September 11th, 2001, will never be forgotten. This attack was a terrible side swipe in history. Nobody saw this coming. Nobody could ever fathom the extent of anger, sadness, and confusion, this would bring amongst the citizens of america.
One of the worst days in America’s history saw some of the bravest acts in Americans’ history. We’ll always honor the heroes of 9/11. And here at this hallowed place, we pledge that we will never forget their sacrifice. President George W. Bush.
It was right during the morning rush hour, in New York City, on the morning of September 11th. The North tower was hit first, by an airplane that was scheduled to go from Boston to Los Angeles. Most of the nation thought this was an accident crash, and everyone was in disbelief. That was only until the second airplane struck the South tower, and the disbelief slowly started to dissolve. This was an attack. Within the walls of the South tower, it had restaurants, stores, and offices. Thousands of citizens, workers, moms, dads, sisters, aunt, uncles, grandmas, grandpas, were all going to work like normal. This came as a shock wave to all of america.
Shortly after the twin tower attacks, the Pentagon was struck as well. In result, it killed 189 people. The pentagon is the United States Department of Defense. The irony between the attack and the pentagon is crazy. The Department of Defense was struck in a way there was no way to defend themself. At this point the States feel unsafe, vulnerable, and scared.
There was another plane, Flight 93, that was hijacked. The flight crashed into an open field in Pennsylvania. Thirty- three passengers were killed as well as seven crew members. All four of the hijackers died as well. This plane was only 20 minutes out of Washington, DC.
There was 19 hijackers. These hijackers, were all in the al Qaeda, which is a terrorism group. The leader of this group was Osama Bin Laden. Osama was found and killed on the spot. He was the mastermind behind this attack. All 19 hijackers, were killed in the process of killing americans.
During the first two strikes, it seemed as if there was no way to help. The damage was so substantial. It was all hands on deck at this point. The goal was to help even if there wasn’t much to help. There were thousands of people trapped in elevators, stairwells, offices, restrooms, and other places. The emergency services were slammed after the storm passed. People trapped in the towers, had no other choice but to jump to there deaths. The building itself, couldn’t sustain all the pressure and debris, that it crumbled to the ground. This caused a great black cloud over the city of New York.
Firemen, sprayed the towers in hope to calm the fires. Paramedics treated as many people as they could. Police men, scrambled to get people out and into safe places, for nobody knew what was to come next. Chaos was everywhere. In the still, serenity of the moment, people cried out for help. Sadly, this attack took roughly around 2,973 lives.
So why did the terrorist strike the Twin towers and the Pentagon? That is a question america is still asking. These acts were complet shocks. Nobody knew that is was so easy for an attack to happen. These terrorist men, were willing to lose their life for the further damage of americans. There were many lives taken, but some survived. Those survivors were willing to tell their story. Their stories will never be forgotten.
Today, there stands a memorial for the souls lost in this horrific attack. The memorial is in the exact place where the towers stood. It has all the names of the ones that died. It also has a pool in the middle of both memorials. There is a museum regarding the 9/11 event. I was only one year old when 9/11 happened. I do not remember anything because I was so young. When I became older, in school, my teachers would always tell us about the attack, and how we must honor the ones that perished. We would watch videos, or write letters to the survivors, or even have a moment of silence.
Needless to say, September 11th, 2001, reshaped america, as a whole. The ones that did this to us, have paid for what they have done. Justice is settled for the terrorists, but not for the loved ones lost. Those innocent people did not deserve this punishment. This heinous act of rage, will always be considered to be the worst thing to happen to america. We have stood back up from this fall, in hopes of making sure something like this is to never happen again.
9/11:One Of The Horrific Events In USA
On September 11, 2001, 8:45 am American Airlines Boeing 767 crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The impact left a huge flaming hole near the 80th floor, instantly killing hundreds of people and trapping others on higher floors. Moments after people were racing to the towers to help those escape from the towers.
News and all other broadcasting channels were talking and recording what was going on. Then, about 18 minutes after the first plane hit, a second Boeing 767 United Airlines appeared out of the sky and turned sharply toward the building and sliced into the South Tower on the 60th floor. As millions of Americans watched what was going on in New York City, over tv news broadcasts. Later on that Tuesday American Airlines flight 77 circled over Washington D.C., then crashing into the west side of The Pentagon.
An estimated 125 military personnel and civilians were killed plus the 64 people on the airliner. Less than 15 minutes after in lower Manhatten took a catastrophic turn when the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed in a massive cloud of dust and smoke. At 10:30 a.m., the north building of the twin towers collapsed. Almost 10,000 others were treated for injuries. Meanwhile, a fourth California-bound plane Flight 93 was hijacked about 40 minutes after leaving Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey. The plane had been delayed in taking off. Passengers on board learned of events in New York and Washington via cell phone and Airfone calls to the ground. The passengers fought the four hijackers. The plane then flipped over and sped toward the ground crashing in a rural field near Shanksville in western Pennsylvania at 10:10 a.m. All 44 people aboard were killed. Its intended target is not known, but theories include the White House, the U.S. Capitol, the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland. A total of 2,996 people were killed in the 9/11 attacks, including the 19 terrorist hijackers aboard the four airplanes.
At the World Trade Center In New York City, 2,763 died after the two planes slammed into the twin towers. That includes 343 firefighters and paramedics, 23 New York City police officers and 37 Port Authority police officers who were struggling to complete an evacuation of the buildings and save the office workers trapped on higher floors. At the Pentagon, 189 people were killed, including 64 on American Airlines Flight 77, the airliner that struck the building. On Flight 93, 44 people died when the plane crash-landed in Pennsylvania. Osama bin Laden, the mastermind behind the September 11th attacks, remained at large until May 2, 2011, when he was finally tracked down and killed by U.S. forces at a hideout in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
My Reflection On 9/11
More than enough people are still terrified that the world is in danger when it comes to dealing with terrorists and their threats. Today people make it seem like we’re in harm’s way and that authorities aren’t doing anything to protect us. When it comes to 9/11 the people that were younger back then are now in college and are old enough to remember the tragedy that happened.
It’s been over a decade since thousands of innocent lives were lost. This day was and still is a tragedy for family, friends and loved ones of the victims. Many authorities rushed down to help the victims and try to get them out of the buildings before they collapsed more than what they have. In the article We’re safer post-9/11 Eric Holder argues that today we’re working together like never before to share information, tactics, and training to fight terrorists to stop them from putting their plans to practice. ( PA, pg. 707)
Throughout the article, the author uses many successful sources which strengthens their credibility to law enforcement and constructing their argument. These sources include National Suspicious Activity Reporting Initiative and the National Security Division and the FBI’s National Security Branch. (PA, pg 708) Citing the sources gave the author more credibility by showing that they have facts to fall back on and having someone else’s opinion to support their claim. The author is giving us logical information which is going to lead us to believe that we’re better off now than before 9/11. The author’s style is to basically tell us about information that we would never know, especially the people that don’t care to know or don’t care to do research on the topic. Within this article, you can tell that there is some change of tone and that there is a good bit of emotion within what is being said. He goes from being upset and in distress about what happened on 9/11 to having confidence that law enforcement is doing something to prevent these attacks.
The strengths that the author has throughout his article is that he doesn’t go back on his word or change what he’s saying. He is consistent about what he believes in and nothing is going to change his mind. Holder holds a firm argument about America today. He also talks about how American was before and is comparing it to how it is now. The weaknesses of this article are that he has facts, but it may not be enough to convince everyone else into what he believes. The audiences that Holder may be trying to reach are most likely adults or parents. Adults are the ones that are more likely to be more interested in this topic. They may also be the ones that are more scared of what can happen on American soil today, especially if they have children. To reach out to this type of audience, the author must have a personal connection to the audience. He may be an adult or maybe a parent that is trying to create peace. In this article, it seems as if it’s not completely biased, but it can be justified as so because not many people think how he does.
My position is that we’re safer now after 9/11 than we would be before or during. The simple fact behind that is before 9/11 terrorists were already plotting and planning on taking down the towers before it happened. They already had the intentions to make thousands of people suffer they just didn’t know how to right away. The law enforcement is taking the time to make sure nothing suspicious is happening and making sure there are 0 signs of a terrorist attack. They may not be able to stop every attack or catch all threats but they are putting forth some effort.