11 September 2001

86

The Elements Of Realism In The Novel Ethan Frome

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

Particular events in a person’s life can shape who they are as a person and their irrational decisions later on in life. In the novel Ethan Frome, author Edith Wardon takes the reader on a journey through the development of each character. When a married-man named Ethan Fromegets tangled up in an affair with his wife’s cousin and caretaker, his life becomes complicated.

Throughout the novel we see Ethan struggle with his love for Mattie while still being married to Zeena, his wife. Ultimately Mattie and Ethan decide to end their lives in order to be together. Unfortunately, their plan fails leaving them slaves to their own misery for the rest of their lives. Wharton’s novel reflects many elements of Naturalism including showing the environmental aspects that shape the underclass characters and the representation of life as a grim struggle.

The author’s focus on underclass characters helps build depth for each specific person along the course of the story. For example, the narrator describes Mattie as “a poor girl without friends or money” (Wharton 102). From beginning to end of the novel, the reader is able to progressively see more detail as to what Mattie’s life is like as an underclass citizen and gives her a more in depth characterization. Furthermore when describing Ethan, Wharton says that “Frome was poor” (11) and “You’st a poor man’s wife” (100). Both quotes bluntly state that Ethan is and underclass citizen much like Mattie. This is one of the most obvious similarities between the characters. This continuous theme of poverty described by the author characterizes both Ethan and Mattie as the story progresses.

In continuation of the focus on underclass characters, the environment in the story also greatly contributed to their characterization. Ethan’s wife Zeena was surprised with her living situation once married because her “native village was slightly larger and nearer to the railway of Starkfield… on an isolated farm was not what she had expected when she married” (Wharton 97). Zeena was not expecting to live on a farm in Starkfield once married. This shows one difference between her character and Mattie’s. Zeena’s living situation was different prior to marrying Ethan therefore shaping her character as the novel continues. Another example as to how the environment has shaped characters is how the author describes the town of Starkfield.

Wharton says how “after the trains began running nobody ever came by here to speak of” (55). This quote expresses to the reader that Starkfield has been running backwards for a long time. Meaning, the town is very different from any other neighboring town and gives a sense of loneliness and isolation. This gives an explanation for the behavior of Ethan throughout the novel. His soul purpose for staying in this lifeless town is to stay close to his mother while she is ill. The countless cruel winters in Starkfield keep Ethan from his freedom, which can symbolize his loveless marriage.

The author’s portrayal of life as a grim struggle in the novel helps continuously shape each individual character. A big turning point in the novel is when Zeena begins to suspect the affair between Ethan and Mattie, “All I know is… I can’t go the way I am much longer” (Wharton 93). This quote helps show the reader Zeena’s shift in character. This changes her view on her marriage with Ethan and continuously alters her characterization through the end of the novel. Furthermore, at the end of the story the author describes Mattie’s appearance as, “Her hair [is] gray as her companions, her face bloodless and shriveled” (164). Mattie’s aged figure reflects her decisions made early in her life. Her choices to get involved with Ethan infinetly affects the later years of her life, specifically after their failed suicide attempt. Ultimately, the struggles in the lives of the characters drastically change each of them.

The author’s portrayal of the environment, underclass characters, and representation of life as a grim struggle help the characterization throughout the novel. The reader follows the development of main characters Ethan, Zeena, and Mattie as the story progresses. Environmental factors such as the town of Starkfield gives each character a sense of loneliness and poverty. Additionally, the personal life struggles of each character affect their overall development in the story.

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76

The Impacts Of Society Oppression On The Main Character In The Novel Native Son

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

“Violence is a personal necessity for the oppressed…It is not a strategy consciously devised. It is the deep, instinctive expression of a human being denied individuality.” (Wright, PAGE 45). Native Son (1939) is a novel written by the American author Richard Wright. It tells the story of 20-year-old Bigger Thomas, a black youth living in utter poverty in a poor area on Chicago’s South Side in the 1930s. Richard Nathaniel Wright was born on September 4, 1908 at Rucker’s Plantation. Bigger Thomas is a poor uneducated, twenty year old man in the 1930’s Chicago, that lives in a house with his little sister and brother and his mom in a one bedroom apartment in a poor neighborhood in Chicago. Bigger does not have the same opportunities as whites because of his race. To get money Bigger and his gang have robbed many black owned businesses. He does not own white business because he knows if he rob any white business the cops we come looking for him and won’t stop. He knows that if he robs blacks business the cops won’t care as much and won’t really do much. Bigger mom preteches to him about getting a job working for the rich white man Mr. Dalton. Bigger gets the job he started working as a chauffeur and one day Bigger places Mary on her bed, Mary’s blind mother, Mrs. Dalton, enters the bedroom. Though Mrs. Dalton cannot see him, her ghostlike presence terrifies him. Bigger worries that Mary, in her drunken condition, will reveal his presence. He covers her face with a pillow and accidentally smothers her to death. In native son the factors that greatly impacted Bigger’s perspective on life was his friends,family and his employer and jail.

In addition, to that Bigger’s family is one thing that puts a big impact on his perspective of life. Bigger’s mom is very supportive of him because she only wants the best for him and emphasizes alot to him about talking about the job that the Daltons are offering, and she wants her son to stop hanging out with the gang of boys he spends time with because they are no good.They are no good because they have robbed people and cause fights in public places. Bigger’s mom said to Bigger, “You’ll regret how you living some day,” she went on. “If you don’t stop running with that gang of yours and do right you’ll end up where you never thought you would. You think I don’t know what you boys is doing, but I do. And the gallows is at the end of the road you are traveling, boy. Just remember that” (Wright ,20). This shows that Bigger’s mom is caring, she wants the best for him, and only wants him to be an active member of society. Bigger’s mom also always brings the job for the Daltons so Bigger can help bring in money for their family and reiterated she doesn’t want him hanging out with that gang. Bigger’s mom expresses her desire for Bigger to become more for himself and the family by telling him, “If you get that job,” his mother said in a low, kind tone of voice, busy slicing a loaf of bread, “I can fix up a nice place for you children. You could be comfortable and not have to live like pigs” (Wright, 21).

Most Importantly the thing that impacted Bigger’s perspective on life is the Daltons and facing jail time. When Bigger was in jail he said,“You asked me questions nobody ever asked me before. You knew that I was a murderer two times over, but you treated me like a man” Max has an understanding of Bigger’s feelings to the extent of why Bigger acted the way he did. Max does not understand Bigger’s new feelings at the time near his death. Bigger had shared feelings with Max that he had not ever been honest with himself. The white people at the jailhouse and in the courtroom did not classify him as a human being, they called him a ‘black ape’. Max was a white lawyer that was trying to help Bigger because he understood where he is coming from even though Max knew Bigger killed Mary and Bessie. Max is the only person that treated Bigger like a man as he genuinely held a conversation with Bigger. While Bigger was thinking to himself, he said, “I didn’t know I was really alive in this world until I felt things hard enough to kill for ’em…” (Wright 295). This thought shows that threw out Bigger’s life he did not have much feelings for life and that all of his life he basically felt like he was not a person that people respected. Also Bigger having the feeling of always be powerless.

In Conclusion Bigger perspective on life gets changed dramatically throughout the book, he faces oppression from society and denial. Which had a big impact on the choices he made, which was robbing with his gang for money. Bigger did this not for fun but to help his family get out of poverty. But people didn’t really understand his state of mind and respected him as a human being so they couldn’t really get this viewpoint on things. In addition Max was the only person that respected Bigger as a human being .In native son the factors that greatly impacted Bigger’s perspective on life was his friends,family and his employer and jail.

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70

Equality Vs Equity In The Book Native Son

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

Bigger Thomas is African-American from Chicago who is convicetd of the rape and murder of a white women. Bigger Thomas is also a man who lives in poverty and is uneducated. It’s the 1930’s in Chicago and a family of four is living in a cramped apartment on the south side in a neighborhood known as “The Black Belt”. Bigger’s mother insists he take the job with Daltons, a wealthy white family who have offered him a way to live outside of making plans to rob a white man’s store. Bigger becomes fearful and doesn’t follow through and instead goes to the interview for the job. Bigger can’t take it anymore and he does something that would change his life forever. Hiding the remains, asking for money and being on the run. Bigger eventually gets caught after yet another homicide. Bigger Thomas got a job as a chauffeur with the Daltons and he ends up killing their daughter and he is trying to get money out of it to better support his family. In Native Son, poverty, fear, and racism have the greatest impact on Bigger’s perspective by acknowledging how fast things can change someone’s life for the worst based on the way they are living and their color.

For starters, poverty plays such a big role in Bigger’s life because he struggles financially and would do anything for his family to see them not struggle anymore. Bigger Thomas suffers from Poverty that his family lives in a cramped up apartment they have to turn around when the girls are changing and vise versa that he feels he is the sole one that can take his family out of that situation and into a better one. ”Three of us’ll go in, see? One of us’ll throw a gun at old Blum; one of us’ll make for the cash box under the counter; one of us’ll make for the back door and have it open so we can make a quick get-away down the back alley. . . That’s all” (Wright,24). “… and the tiny, one-room apartment galvanized into violent action” (Wright, 4). Bigger at this point is planning to rob Blum’s so that he can get money for his family. They are born into poverty and find it extremely difficult to get themselves out of it. Bigger Thomas and his family clearly portray a typical family stuck in the ways of poverty. The Dalton’s offer jobs to African Americans so he is definitely helping their society. The problem is that he is only helping one out of hundreds of people. He cannot end poverty through one person. Bigger will do anything to help his family good or bad.

Similarly, fear is a huge role that Bigger experiences after commiting murder he takes precatuion so he doesn’t get caught. Bigger knows that he’s killed Mary and now his goal is to blame someone else and for that he needs to be careful with what he says and does. ”Fingerprints! He had read about them in the magazines” (Wright, 88). “Quickly, he wrapped the head in newspapers and used the wad to push the bloody trunk of the body deeper into the furnace. Then shoved the head in. The hatchet went next” (Wright,92). Bigger kills Mary and he feels power because he had killed a white woman. Fear also plays an important role in the way that society is organized in the way that it is the white people who fear the black people which causes them to seek the control of them.

Equally important, racism is a big part of the way that Bigger views the way that the world works. Racism is a bad thing that is very unfair because the color of skin determines everything which isn’t right because some get better treatment than others. ”They would say he had raped her and there would be no way to prove that he did not” (Wright, 227). “The people in Ernie’s Kitchen Shack knew him and he did not want them to see him with theses white people” (Wright, 71). The color of his skin is the reason why they said he raped her. If he murdered a person of the same color they wouldn’t have made it a big deal. If a White kills a White then nothing will happen. African-Americans are in the suffering of economic oppression and forced to act compliant before their dictator, while the media consistently portrays them as animals. However, Wright emphasizes the vicious double-edged effect of racism. Bigger’s violence grows from racial hatred, it only increases racism in American society, as it confirms racist whites basic fears about blacks.

Thus, the way that Biggers life changed at a very fast pace was unexpected even for him and that just shows how one’s actions need to be taken serious because one bad one and the whole thing can come tumbling down. Bigger working for the Daltons and making 25 a week was good enough to support him and his family but didn’t matter to him he wanted to live better and ended up killing but not for money at first it was accidental but after realizing the position of power he was in he wanted money. In Native Son, poverty, fear, and racism have the greatest impact on Bigger’s perspective by acknowledging how fast things can change someone’s life for the worst based on the way they are living and their color. Bigger’s view of the world impacted him in a bad way because he ended up doing a lot of bad things in the book such as murder two times.

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82

The Peculiarities Of Epic Style In Paradise Lost And Beowulf

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

Is it fair for a reader to make assumptions correlating and dissecting two great works together, because they are both classified as epics? Paradise Lost and Beowulf, written by John Milton and an unknown author respectively, fall into this category. Beowulf, the oldest surviving poem of the English language, and Paradise Lost written in the 1600’s, have centuries separating their every detail. And yet, both are presented as great epics stretched past their origins, while maintaining a clear boundary between the protagonist and antagonist; one is based off a nonfiction tale, and the other a true story from the bible, further displaying their general themes and motifs consistently contrast each other. Despite written as an epic, the legacy each poem leaves behind could not be more different.

Perhaps easily spotted from the very beginning, both epics are embellished way beyond the original meaning of the poem. Beowulf pummeling a large dragon can be immediately deemed as fiction, in the same way the opening narrative of Paradise Lost portrays a great spiritual battle in which the emotionally motivated angels have the appearance of humans. Thoroughly executing his “life purpose”, Milton gave Genesis a new meaning past the Bible’s intentions. Many theologists have deemed that because Beowulf was originally spread as an oral tale, it is incredibly likely Beowulf started as a simple man fighting an earthly force, or even his own mind. Following the same narrative, Paradise Lost has been deemed as an epic based on the Bible, and not an extension of it; simply an intellectual’s perception of the truth. Stretched past their origins, Beowulf and Paradise Lost have been embellished in order to pursue the author’s narrative.

Another major similarity entwining the two poems is a clear contrast between antagonist and protagonist. Beowulf, the mighty hero defeats incredible threats of the monsters battering helpless minor characters.

“I’ve never known fear; as a youth I fought/ In endless battles. I am old, now,/ But I will fight again, seek fame still,/ If the dragon hiding in his tower dares/ To face me” (Beowulf 606-611)

Similarly, the original contrast laying the framework for all great literature; where the theme of good and evil is portrayed, is showcased through God and Satan. Paradise Lost is no exception, following the precedent established by the Bible. The righteous new humanity is protected and loved by God, while tempted and tainted by Satan.

“See with what heat these Dogs of Hell advance

To waste and havoc yonder World.” (Paradise Lost 616-617)

Easily establishing how the plot will prevail, the authors of the two epics prepared the reader for a well known contrast, by displaying the clear battle between good and evil.

While the origins of Paradise Lost and Beowulf began as truth and devolved into fiction, the general themes of the poems differ wildly. The Knight’s Code, and more specifically loyalty to the code is engraved into the reader’s brain again and again. If one thing stays consistent in Beowulf’s life, it is his dedication to staying faithful to the Hero’s Code, putting all other ideals on a lesser importance.

‘My days/ have gone as fate willed, . . . / As I knew how, swearing no unholy oaths,/ Seeking no lying wars. I can leave/ This life happy; I can die, here,/ Knowing the Lord of all life has never/ Watched me wash my sword in blood/ Born of my own family.’ (Beowulf 2694-3182)

Contrastingly, the prevailing theme portrayed in Paradise Lost is Milton’s obsession with disobedience. Starting with Satan’s disobeying God, leading up to his rebellion, Milton uses the mistakes Satan makes to show the similarities between humanity and Satan. In the same way Satan rebels, Adam and Eve disobey God’s one rule by listening to Satan’s temptations, consuming the forbidden fruit. Even when Milton writes the narrative for Satan’s backstory, Milton effectively portrays his own issues with disobedience onto Satan, enforcing Satan’s obsession with hierarchy; making further disobedience possible. Following a heroic code, and the act of disobedience, the themes of these epics could not be more different.

Lastly, the most important contrast between Beowulf and Paradise Lost lies in the legacy the poems leave behind. Revolutionizing the way storytelling occured in England, Beowulf forever changed literary history with the introduction of the epic style, the anonymity of its author, and becoming one of the first tales to be made into a historical account by a monk, who started the trend of placing christian values into the old epics. Regardless of the original plot of Beowulf, the poem has embodied the perception of who told the story for decades. On the other hand, Paradise Lost leaves a legacy perhaps more influential the Beowulf. While Milton intended to stir up religious questioning in order to influence the reader to have a personal, spiritual encounter with Christ; Paradise Lost’s legacy has given the reader the ability to take into account another perception of the Bible, and not just the original story they were taught. Particularly important during the time of the Protestant Reformation, this realization influences the reader to push the boundaries of their own beliefs, further bringing them closer in their own spirituality, while denouncing principles they believe to be wrong. Ageing as two of the most influential poems in all literary history, Beowulf and Paradise Lost further immortalized the necessity of the epic.

Comparing two seemingly similar styles of poem can be dangerous to the reader if the correct context is not taken into account, but also holds the ability to evaluate classical works without the pressure of their reputations. Beowulf and Paradise Lost compare and contrast in their own ways, while remaining within the style of an epic poem. Written in completely different time periods, the poems have managed to be embellished beyond original intent, portray clear struggles between good and evil, while having separate themes and legacies. Beowulf and Paradise Lost remind the reader of the importance of taking a literary work within its context, and evaluating it through all possible boundaries.

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77

Themes And Writing Style Of Henry James In Daisy Miller

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

Daisy Miller’ is a story of a young American lady, whose name is Daisy Miller, and her family members who are vacationing in Europe. Daisy is in a new world and is trying to find a way to learn and adapt to her new surroundings. She is trying to intergrate with the high class society but due to her lifestyle’s differences she is not accepted in their world. The passage tells about Daisy’s final decline from respect to death, as she becomes overly incautious and indiscreet. It tells also, with details, the events and feelings of love, confusion and disappointment experienced by Winterbourne towards Daisy.

The themes that were the most discussed in this passage are : innocence, as Winterbourne loves Daisy for her childlike qualities because he is still very much a child himself. Morover, adulthood in this novel is characterized by a capacity for manipulation, which proves that Daisy is hardly innocent. Then, respect and reputation as Daisy thought that she lived only one life, so she decided to do solely what she likes, regardless of what is said about her. However, that made her look disrespectful. Daisy Miller is written in a realistic style that includes the smallest details. Furthermore, It includes a plot of tragedy, especially the untimely death of the beautiful lady which lead to the end of the story.

The events in the present excerpt take place in EUROPE, more precisely, in Rome, Italy during spring and summer where Daisy Miller makes a scandal of herself in Rome by cavorting with a handsome Italian man, Mr. Giovanelli. She is snubbed by Mrs. Walker. Winterbourne, meanwhile, is torn between the disdain he shares with Mrs. Walker for Daisy’s impropriety, and a curiosity and longing for Daisy and all that she represents. Daisy contracts malaria while spending an evening alone with Giovanelli at the Colosseum. Winterbourne begins to realize that Daisy may have had eyes for him all along and was just using Mr. Giovanelli to occupy herself and make Winterbourne jealous. All of this knowledge comes too late: Daisy dies of malaria and Mr. Winterbourne goes back to his lackluster life in Geneva.

The main character focused is Winterborn, a 27 years old expatriate American bachelor considered to be fairly quiet but highly educated. However, Daisy sees him as being “stiff and lifeless” and this shows the two worlds that collided; Daisy the American and Winterbourne the European. The other major character is Daisy Miller, a native and flirtatious young American lady that has always wanted to live in a high society and enjoy every moment of her life in her own way, but without the restrictions of that society. Other minor characters were mentioned in this passage such as Mr.Giovanelli the charming Roman man, Mrs.Miller and Daisy’s mother, she is a model of America’s loosely controlling mother figure ; Mrs.Walker and Mrs.Costello, Winterbourne’s aunt, she is the typical older European woman of prestige.

The events of this excerpt are narrated from the third person point of view such when saying ‘He turned away towards the entrance of the place; but as he did so he heard Daisy speak again’. The author uses some figures of speach to make his story attractive and vivid. Example of these include : metaphor ‘they don’t really care a straw what I do’ as a description of whether or not they are interested in what Daisy does. A simile ‘I have noticed you. But I noticed you were as stiff as an umbrella the first time I saw you.’ As he compare Winterbourne’s rigidity and straightness to an umbrella. At last, one can easily notice Henry’s talent in the art of writing. Indeed, his writing is influential and exhorts the reader to follow the flow of the events due to suspense created within the story as a whole. One this basis, one can come up to the conclusion that Daisy’s innocence triumphs and the lasting message of the novella is Daisy’s innocence and the cruelty of the society which condemned her to death.

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74

The Main Ideas And Characters Portraits In The Book The Alchemist

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

Introduction

The Alchemist is a fiction novel written by a Brazilian author, Paulo Coelho. This novel is based around the story of a shepherd boy who dreams about a treasure and sets on a journey to find it. The book’s main idea is to find one’s destiny. This is fantasy book and involves supernatural incidents. The protagonist is out on an adventure in his quest to find the treasure he dreamt of.

The main plot of the alchemist takes place in the Spanish pastures, the Spanish town of Tariff, the city of Tangier in North Africa, and the Sahara desert.

About the author

Paulo Coelho was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Paulo Coelho always dreamt of becoming a writer. Coelho was opposed by his family; his parents used to think of the world rationally and were realist while Coelho was an optimist. He studied law on the wish of his parents, but dropped out after a year. He travelled from place to place and worked as an actor, journalist and theatre director before he could pursue a writing career.

Paulo Coelho published his first book “Hell Archives” in 1982. Next in 1986 he wrote a book but then dropped it off. Later in 1987 he published “The Pilgrimage” after making a pilgrimage to Santiago-de-Compostela, and the following year he published “The Alchemist”, his international bestseller.

Body

Plot

The novel is story of a boy named Santiago who is confronted by a dream that there is a treasured near some pyramids. Santiago, who is a shepherd and thus a traveler, had never seen the pyramids before, and the recursive appearance of this dream, decides to set on a journey to find the treasure. The writer has described a very interesting plot on how he sets out on this journey, the motivation behind his adventure to come. During the plot writer has focused on the narration of ancillary characters but always returned back to Santiago’s story. Although the author made use of too much spiritual terms and happenings, the way he described them, no confusion was left behind and the plot became clearer with time. The details that the author has produced for each part of the journey, detailed description of surroundings and settings helps one create a perfect imagination of how all those places must have looked like. As you read it, you will dive into the story. You would start believing that you yourself are the main protagonist, going through all the adventures and moving onwards to a quest that is your own.

The writer has greatly maintained the plot of the story. Although he has added supernatural activities, he fits them with the story so well that they feel like a part of the story, but more than that like real life.

Throughout the story, the writer has talked about the things that we usually do not pay much attention to. These are the personal quest, the awareness of omens, the soul of the world, and the idea of listening to one’s heart as a guide. He has described the story around these particular ideas. The writer leaves a great influence of what he wants to describe on his readers.

The main idea that the writer has highlighted throughout the plot is destiny and the universal language. Destiny is a pre determined course of events, plays a large role in the novel. It is the driving force that guides Santiago on his journey. The writer stated, “When you want something, the entire universe conspires in helping you to achieve it.” One must follow through his destiny and never give up; is the point that the writer focuses on and explains it in the novel. Next is the universal language and soul of the world. The writer says that all the elements in the universe are connected by some means and that is the soul of the world. The writer states that all the elements share the same common soul and it is our heart that connects our soul to the soul of the world. In the statement “Wherever your heart is, there you will find your treasure.” By the story point of view; the writer is talking about Santiago’s treasure; but in literary context; the writer is referring to destiny. Wherever the will of your heart lies, is where you will find your destiny.

The other things that the writer has focused on are omens and personal legend and nature. Omens as the writer has stated are the signs through which the universe guides you towards your treasure or destiny. Throughout our life, we see different omens (signs by the universe), motivating and guiding us to our destiny. Moving through omens, the writer slightly moves towards nature. Coelho slowly develops the concept that nature and man. Man can communicate with nature through the universal language of soul. The writer has described natural scenery throughout the story, the deserts, the types of wind, the grass, the oasis and so on.

The overall story plot did not seem confusing and was clear although due to too much talk about the soul of the world and use of deep solitary language and spirituality, it becomes confusing, especially to those who don’t care about things like solitary and dreams. The writer has planned the whole story on the basis of a single dream which occurs in recursion. In my personal opinion the plot was not much confusing but in a general and critic opinion, there was overuse of symbolic words and supernatural happenings and spirituality which become confusing at points.

Final Thoughts

The book itself is a nice piece of literature and deserves to be on the international bestseller list. The story was touching at some parts, and the way it was told, was attractive and attention gathering. I liked the character of the crystal merchant. He lived his whole life wishing that someday he will be able to get to Makkah for the pilgrimage which is a must on every Muslim who is capable of going on a pilgrimage. The merchant was a positive character, as helped Santiago get a job in nick time when Santiago was in need of it. Secondly he also had a deep and great understanding of omens and a little about the soul of the world and the needs of the heart. He was one of the greatest sources of Santiago’s motivation towards his destiny and provided him with his full support. He appeared at the plot twist where Santiago was planning on cancelling his journey and returning to his old life as a shepherd. I liked his quote that “I am not going to Makkah and you are not going back to being a shepherd” where he explained how one’s heart needed to keep following his destiny in order to be in peace and live happily.

The characters of the story all seemed real except for the alchemist and the King. They both seemed to be the same person as their talks and the way they both appeared in the story resembled. So it can be said that the character of the alchemist was not described apart from the King but in resemblance to the King. The rest of the characters all seemed real and were well defined. The story had a great impact on me and it kept revolving around my mind during the time I was reading it.

My favorite part of the book was when Santiago decides to move onwards to his journey towards his destiny rather than living his life as a shepherd. After working one year at the crystal merchant’s shop he finally decides that he is going to go and discover his treasure waiting for him near the pyramids. And then in the end, he finally gets there gets his treasure, and realizes that his real treasure or his destiny was not to find the buried treasure but to get closer to the soul of the world and find true love for himself. I liked this part the most as it shows how one should just not give up on his goals after going through some small losses. And that one should look beyond what they see. One should look at the things, which mostly goes by unnoticed but are the guiding stars towards their destiny. Our destiny is not always what it seems to us; sometimes we are just so concerned with things happening around and forget what’s important to live in true peace.

The story was a type of tragedy and adventure but with a happy ending. It was so grabbing that once I started reading it, I couldn’t hold myself from reading further.

Conclusion

I would sum up by saying that The Alchemist is a fine piece of literature and spirituality. It is worth reading, especially for those who are optimistic in nature. Although the story could turn confusing at times but on reading it for the second time, all the confusion is cleared. This novel is worth reading.

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81

Theme Of Mental Disorder And Symbolism In The Bell Jar

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

Published in London one year before the author committed suicide, The Bell Jar, is a semi-autobiographical look inside a year in the life of a young women dealing with depression. With some of the names of places and people changed, the author, Sylvia Plath chronicles her life at age twenty through the character Esther. Esther is a poet who tries to end her life when she should’ve been having the time of her life. In The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath, the deterioration of the main character, Esther’s, mental health is a theme presented throughout the story and best illustrated in relation to her change in location throughout the novel. The symbolism used to show a characters change as a parallel to their literal change in location is a theme Thomas C. Foster explains in chapter 19 of How To Read Literature Like A Professional.

The Bell Jar, begins in New York with an ominous lightness. Esther has won a writing contest and along with 11 other “lucky girls” is gifted a luxurious paid for experience that anyone would envy. Much like how Foster said “when writers send characters south, it’s so they can run amok,” it is safe to assume that sending Esther north to New York was symbolic of improved life and higher class. Esther details the positive experiences she is having and the abundance of free gifts she is receiving. Enough to please anyone. This should all be a dream come true, except Esther can’t seem to feel happy. She does things to try and escape reality. In these moments she tells herself “New York is dissolving, they [the girls] are all dissolving away and none of them matter any more.” She understands her yearning to escape is not normal and she longs to be like the other girls who are not battling these heavy thoughts. Esther understands that she is “supposed to be having the time of [her] life” however she can not escape the dark. Things were not great for Esther in New York, however the worst parts of New York for her were nothing compared to the lows she experienced when she left.

The story grows darker with Esther’s move back home to Massachusetts from New York to live with her mother. In How To Read Literature As A Professor, it is explained that characters often “see their home as can be magnetic, elusive, or suffocating, and many characters travel to either find it or escape it” which was a part of what led Ester to pursue the contest in New York. Ester’s home life is most accurately described by Foster as “suffocating.” New York was an escape from the bleakness realty of life at her home with her mother. When Ester reluctantly returns to her home, the reader can understand her dread when Esther says “as the houses grew more familiar I slunk still lower”. Esther progressively slips into madness as time progresses when we see her find it difficult to complete everyday tasks. She reaches an all time low when her depression leads her to a suicide attempt. The lightness she experienced a few times in New York completely disappeared from the narrative at this point when “the silence drew off, baring the pebbles and shells and all the tatty wreckage of my life.” Esther hit the bottom and it was apparent that a change in location was necessary.

The Bell Jar closes just as Esther enters her exit interview at the psychiatric institution where she has spent the past few months recovering. This location was a catalyst for positive change in Esther’s mental health, as Foster pointed out in How To Read Literature Like A Professor, “geography can also define or develop a character” which is exactly what the change in location to the institution did for Esther. The story ends without telling the reader outright what is in store for the characters. However a hint the reader gets about Esther’s life after the end of the story is that for a ‘long time afterward,’ she couldn’t bear to look at the free stuff she got at her summer internship, but when she was ‘all right again’ she brought the stuff back out, used the free lipstick still and ‘last week’ gave a plastic starfish from a free gift “to the baby to play with”.

The change in Esther ́s location was a symbolic way for Sylvia Plath to chronilize and tell the change in the state of Esther’s mental health. Depression and mental health is a recurring theme presented throughout the novel and best illustrated in relation to her change in location from New York, when things are okay on the surface but clearly something is going on beneath. To her home when her mental state really deteriorates and she reaches the low point in her life (attempting suicide). Then finally the mental institution where she is able to pick up the pieces and regain some hope. Underneath Esther’s sarcastic shell, as she narrates this story of her past self, you can still feel young Esther’s pain and agony, especially as she deals with her suicidal depression all throughout the novel.

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99

The Topic Of Racism In The Book Between The World And Me

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

​“Between the World and Me” is written by a journalist, educator and writer; Ta-Nehisi Coates. This book is a form of letter written to his son Samori about what is like to be a black man in America. The author starts by telling his personal story about growing up as a black man in Baltimore and how dangerous was his surroundings. Coates mentions about Queen Nzinga and her bravery stories, which inspired him. Coates attended Howard University, which he refers as “my Mecca”.

Coates read lots of book and he usually stayed at the research center, where his grandfather worked. By seeing different people in university, Coates felt less worried about racism. The author started to get more involved in books and finding new vocabulary words. During the university time, he learned about the black history and tackle his unfit understanding of black history. Coates started to figure out how black bodies lacked value and respect in America and can be killed or destroyed in any random act. Coates attended poetry reading and met lot of young writer like him. Coates struggled everyday about his identity and blaming him for not doing anything to change the society. Sometimes he felt like taking break, but he thought about Malcom, which was his favorite writer. He felt classroom was like a jail and library was the only place for him because it was open minded and full of various information. He started to more and more involved in reading and writing during that phase.

During his school time, he met Samori’s uncle Ben, who had a same thought about like the author did. the author found library as a place of freedom compare to the classroom. Coates started to feel uncomfortable by his knowledge and started to think more beyond the Howard. After various of research, he reveled that many people were considered part of black history but in the lowest number possible. Coates felt very hard to believe on the fact that he saw and felt like there is a lot of struggle being in a black body. The author started to participate in different lectures, poetry reading and book signing events. He stared to write poetry which he considered as bad poetry and presented at open mics in local café, populated by older and wiser people than him. He talked about Dream that thrives on generalization, on limiting the number of possible questions. Coates started to learn about how certain things can hurt him as he moves forward. During this poetry time one of the older poets introduced him to an artist like Bubber Miley, Otis Redding, Sam and Dave, C.K. Williams, Carolyn Forche, which pulled the energy from the void.

The author felt mentioning their names because they played a big role in his life. Coates also mentions about the lines from Robert Hayden’s “Middle Passage”, the author was real touched how he could bring joy and agony without literally writing the words. The author admires the works done by Hayden because he learned the craft of poetry. The author describes poetry as not only simple transcription of notion but beautiful writing that can touch millions of hearts. He thinks that poetry is the way of processing he thoughts until the slag of justification. Coates wrote lots of poetry which came up from different places including small things which came from his families and cities he is been through. The poetry carried a lot about the truth of black body, and the cruelty faced by most black people. The author was also in shocked after the dead of his friend, which made him even more conscious about the surrounding he is living in. Coates also mentions about of the little chance that dreamer will make slowly and will see changes in coming up days. Coates followed as the poets and followed his dream and argued about the current situations. He also learned to live in the disquiet which he felt in Moorland-Spingarn in his mind.

He was not really impressed by the society dealing with the black people and how judgmental they can be. The author wrote this book as knowledge to his son, so that he can understand the reality of the world towards the diversity.

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153

The Main Ideas Of The Short Story The Necklace By Guy De Maupassant

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

“The Necklace” was written in 1884, during the Realist Period which spanned from the mid 19th century to the early 20th century. The Industrial Revolution had changed the landscape of western civilization. Technological developments such as the cotton gin, inspired farm workers to move to more urban areas looking for better jobs. Over-crowding in cities and poor working environments provided ample material for Realist artists and writers who concentrated on displaying the reality of individual life, particularly the common man who was most affected by these changes. Increasing literacy rates made literature more popular and also more influential.

“The Necklace” tells the story of Mathilde, a malcontent housewife who imagines herself deserving of more prosperity and societal influence. “She suffered ceaselessly, feeling herself born for all the delicacies and all the luxuries” (Maupassant, 1880). She receives an invitation to a ball and must have a new ball gown and borrows jewels from a friend. Unsurprisingly, the necklace is lost and, rather than explain the mishap to her friend, Mathilde convinces her husband to borrow a significant amount of money to purchase a replacement. They then spend ten years working in a deprivation that she had not experienced before. At the end of ten years, Mathilde is haggard and defeated. She runs into her friend who wonders at her appearance. Mathilde explains the whole ordeal to which the friend exclaims, “Oh, my poor Mathilde! Why, my necklace was paste. It was worth at most 500 francs!” (Maupassant, 1880)

The overarching theme is that of dissatisfaction and the dangers inherent in false self-fashioning. It is a true to life cautionary tale that still applies today. Ironically, in Mathilde’s desire to “prove herself worthy” she loses what little she has and finds herself worse off. The piece explores the differences between classes in a style accessible to a broad audience. The implied warning is, be satisfied with what you have and be honest about your station in life. This demonstrates the period’s preoccupation with social class disparity and the increasing interest in character development.

Guy de Maupassant was a prolific writer of short stories, novels, and verse. His first published story, “Boule de Suif”, (1880) is considered one of his greatest works. One of his most important contributions to the Humanities is as one of the originators of the modern short story genre. “Literary theorist, Kornelije Kvas wrote that, ‘along with Chekhov, Maupassant is the greatest master of the short story in world literature’” (“Kvas, 2019). Maupassant was heavily influenced by the dawn of psychology and his works explored the human mindset and condition, often portraying them grimly.

References

  1. Maupassant, G. (1880) The necklace. Retrieved from: http://www.isd518.net/webstes/isd518/files/Content/3804973/GUY_DE_MAUPASSANT.pdf
  2. Kvas, K. The boundaries of realism in world literature. Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Lexington Books. p 131. ISBN 978-1-7936-0910-6

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67

Animal Farm: Mocking Of Soviet Union And Revolutions In General

May 18, 2022 by Essay Writer

George Orwell uses allegory to incorporate numerous symbols that represent elements and ideas of our world. Through his novella, Animal Farm, he sardonically mocks the Soviet Union and revolutions in general. Orwell demonstrates his view that control over the intellectually inferior combined with a government’s dismissal of its policies for personal interests can have drastically adverse impacts throughout the text. Firstly, he portrays the pigs’ command over the intellectually inferior enables them to do as they please without consequences attached, as well as conveying Orwell’s perspective on the importance of education. Furthermore, Orwell conveys that a government’s rejection of its principles leads to irreversible damage to them and the ones they exercise their ruthless authority over.

Firstly, Animal Farm’s recurring theme of the pigs’ control over the intellectually inferior allows an insight into George Orwell’s perspective on the importance of education. The theme of control in the text corresponds to Tsar Nicholas II and Joseph Stalin exercising their ruthless authority over the people, which led to disarray, as well as totalitarian governments as a whole. The greed of the Russian Elite, specifically Tsar Nicholas II, who continuously enslaved people to work for him, is demonstrated by Orwell’s use of repetition of rhetorical questions in Old Major’s speech “Man is the only creature that creates without producing.” Old Major places emphasis on how fruitless the animals’ work is, highlighting the sin and evil of man for the animals to join his dream of rebellion. George Orwell alludes to Joseph Stalin, using cumulative listing to satirise his attempts to create a divine image of himself in the paragraph “Whenever anything went wrong it became usual to attribute it to Snowball… the whole farm was convinced Snowball had thrown it down the well.” Napoleon uses Snowball as a scapegoat to relieve attention from his horrible deeds, therefore allowing him to execute some of the ‘traitors’ on the pretence he was ridding the farm of their enemies, further manipulating the animals. Orwell further mocks governments through the quote “Emphasising once again that the friendly feelings had subsisted, and ought to subsist, between Animal Farm and its neighbours.” He uses satire and irony to show that the original aim to get rid of the humans was forgotten, suggesting that all totalitarian governments are the same as they share the same goal- to maintain power by oppressing and exploiting individuals, especially those of the lower class.

Furthermore, the pigs’ governments’ dismissal of their policies leads to irreversible damage to them and the ones they exercise their ruthless authority over. This portrayal allowed Orwell to satirise the Soviet Union as a whole as well as revolutions in general. Through the lines “From now onwards Animal Farm would engage in trade with the neighbouring farms: not, of course, for any commercial purpose but simply in order to obtain certain materials which were urgently necessary.”, It reflects Stalin’s hypocrisy and revisionism. Napoleon undermines animalism, of which the basis is humans are the enemy and are not to be trusted. This betrayal demonstrated that he did not seem to believe in the greater good for which he made his people work so tirelessly. Symbolically, it represented the start of the USSR trading with the west. Finally, the last quote of the book, “The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again, but already it was impossible for them to say which was which” is satirised by George Orwell. He incorporates situational irony and analogy to portray his view that the majority of revolutions (such as the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917) end up failing because the leaders of them take power for themselves, manipulating the very people they promised to help. He comments that no society will be perfect because in any political system there is corruption. It describes how the pigs have become indistinguishable from a man after Old Major explicitly warns the animals not to become what they despise. They come to represent the animals greatest enemy, being seduced into the human traits of greed, control and deceit. In the end, they exchanged one tyrant for another- a bitter ending, but one that has played out many times over.

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