Modern Political History
The many aspects of one’s life aids in the creation of an identity. The way an individual defines themselves showcases what matters in his or her life. Religion, gender, employment, and more recently political affiliations have facilitated in determining one’s identity.
The term identity politics supports this idea of an identity being associated with a political party. More recently within history, choosing a political party to support does not necessarily need to coincide with what you believe in but focuses more on the person that you think you are. In other words, the idea of identity politics focuses on the idea of supporting a group not for the message that the candidates preach but instead the social group in which people identify with.
In modern political history, identity politics has made its way into the past couple presidential elections. While having a bias over a certain candidate may not always be the most reasonable but in the case of Hilary Clinton in the 2016 election, her supporters mostly being female is defensible. For many females, Clinton was able to give women a voice and was seen as an advocate for all of the female endeavors throughout history. On the contrary, there are many disagreements to go against the reasoning behind the immense female support and to showcase all of the wrong within identity politics. To sum, Clinton provided females with a sense of hope which is why she gained so many females devotees; however, after her defeat, Clinton and her female supporters were equally disappointed, and the loss had an impact on the female community.
The large amount of female support for Hilary Clinton in the past presidential elections stems down to the large amount of oppression that females have faced. Over the course of American and world history, women have faced oppression in almost every aspect of life. In roughly every culture, females are seen as less powerful compared to males.
This has created an undeniable hierarchy between the two sexes. The demand for equality officially began in 1848, when 300 women and men signed the Declaration of Sentiments at Seneca Falls wanting an end to the segregation and discrimination against women. Before this, women were treated poorly and only seen as the caretaker of the home. Their main duties involved caring for the family, child bearing, cooking, and cleaning. On the other hand, the role of the man was to support the family economically. Many females have stood up for this cause and have started a feminist movement to gain female power. Activists such as Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott were some of the first females to share their voice and to speak on behalf of the entire female community demanding for more rights and equality of the sexes.
This new wave of feminism also created the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 which further expanded and strengthened the fight. The goal of this organization was to fight for an amendment that granted women with the right to vote. Earlier that same year, the 15th amendment was established allowing black men the right to vote. This change added fuel to the fire and inspired many females to keep fighting for their cause. In 1869, Wyoming territory was the first to grant females twenty-one and over the right to vote. This again motivated members of the National Woman Suffrage Association to keep fighting for their goal. Eventually, Colorado, Utah, and Idaho implemented this right. By 1918, approximately seventeen more states and territories permitted women to share their voice and were allowed to cast their ballot in elections.
Numerous speeches, parades, walks, meetings, and various other forms of demonstrations eventually caught the eye of President Woodrow Wilson and other government officials over the course of the long fight that the women have sustained. During these events to raise awareness for women’s right, many females were injured or served jail time. Despite the pain and the loss of time that some of these women endured, all felt that it was a necessary inconvenience in order to reach their end goal. In 1918, Wilson showed female support foreshadowing the end to the female injustices.
One of the most important break throughs for female rights is the right for females to vote. Voting allows for people to have their voice heard and to be a part of a change. To emphasize, one of the greatest gifts about living in the United States and having a government based off of elections is being able to share an opinion on the issues effecting both males and females. Almost one hundred years of fighting finally granted US women the right to vote. On August 26, 1920, Females were permitted the right to vote under the addition of the 19th amendment. After the females gained the right to vote, over eight million females shared their voice in the election of November 1920.
The opportunity for women to vote created an alliance amongst all females.
The unity over fighting for equal rights has created a political identity amongst women over any candidate that expresses female rights and showcases what women fought over for decades. Hilary Clinton embodies this dream that females once thought would never be possible which is the main reason why her past presidential election gained so many female supporters. For so many years, women were fighting simply to share their opinion on who they thought should be president; however, none of them ever imagined a female being in the oval office. Nevertheless, the one-hundred-year fight that women endured for their right to vote created a union and bond amongst women which is evident in the immense amount of female support of Hilary Clinton in the presidential election of 2016.
As previously mentioned, the historical context of women oppression has paved the road ultimately creating a strong female community. Hilary Clinton used this knowledge to attempt and gain all of the female supporters for her political elections. Clinton knew that females wanted to see a change after all of the hardships that they needed to undergo to simply receive the right to vote. In other words, if a female was in the oval office, then there could be real changes and the female vision would be completed. Clinton started making her feminist army during the 1995 World Conference for Woman. At the time, she was the first lady of the United States; however, females still viewed her as a link to women’s rights.
During Clinton’s speech and plea, Clinton refers to herself as the voice for all of the females that do not have a voice. She strategically mentions all of the endeavors that females have had to endure such as female abuse, prostitution, and the right to have an abortion trying to bring out the sympathy and also the anger within women to demand a change. Additionally, the speech is to motivate females and to have them thinking about their lives. Clinton does not want the females to have at peace with their current situation and instead, she wants them to have an uprising. She finalizes her speech by leaving female empowered and ready to make a difference:
As long as discrimination and inequities remain so commonplace around the world — as long as girls and women are valued less, fed less, fed last, overworked, underpaid, not schooled and subjected to violence in and out of their homes — the potential of the human family to create a peaceful, prosperous world will not be realized (Hillary Clinton’s Plea for Women’s Rights)
As a consequence, Hilary Clinton was linked to the female voice. Through the many years that led up to her running for president, Clinton spoke many times about the same subject. Each speech gained her more followers and ultimately allowed her to have a huge female following.
In a like matter, Clinton based her election promises focusing on females and minorities and for the most part excluding the rest of society. Her audience targeted those that have little confidence not to speak on their own. She assured many changes to the female community that would allow them new freedoms and more rights than they have never had. She focused mainly on the single mom community because they were fragile and have been hurt before. Clinton wanted to be the one that these individuals could look upon for comfort and security, to bring them out of their lows in life, and to boost their moral. She worked to reduce the pay gap which has been a persistent issue since men and women have been working together. More specifically women of color have been affected by this the most, so she gained the African American women’s support. She worked greatly to pass the Paycheck Fairness Act to give equality in the workplace.
Moreover, Clinton worked to help single mothers not only have the choice to create a family but to be able to properly pay for it. Many single mothers were struggling to support their family so Clinton stepped in to be the one that a single mom can rely on. She became the face of Planned Parenthood, an organization that helps provide reproductive care for females that they might not be able to afford otherwise. Clinton donated thousands of dollars for the cause and was even showcased on some of their advertisements. In addition to this, she was forming her campaign off the idea that she will promote affordable contraception as well as safe and legal abortions. Her opposing presidential candidate was anti-abortion which gave her a majority of the votes for females since the mass of women community wanted to have the rights over their own body.
She additionally, plead for the rights of women to have paid leave especially after welcoming a new baby to a family. Clinton showed her understanding of the difficulty of a single mom by expressing her sympathy of how expensive childcare can be. In fact, she worked to promote the Affordable Care Act to emphasize her commitment to mothers being able to afford child care and to support a family. The numerous speeches and endorsements that Clinton was involved in showed the public her devotion to female rights.
Despite the many arguments that Clinton had for the female community, many of her supporters did not follow her campaign and simply voted for Clinton based off of her appearance and what she was to the female community: a woman.
While there are many reasons why someone would vote for Clinton, one of the main reasons is simply because she would be the first female president. One of the listeners on a radio station called National Public Radio, sent in a clip from a conversation he had with his eight-year-old daughter Penelope. In the clip she marvels at the fact that there is a potential woman that could be the first female president of the United States. Penelope also mentions to her father, You should vote for her, after her father asks why she responds with, Because she’s a girl (Kurtzleben). Even though this is the mindset of an eight-year-old girl, many people of various ages felt this same way. Making Hilary Clinton president would change history and many people wanted to be involved with the change.
The question of why the United States which is a majority female, has never been run by a woman still persists today. Identity politics plays a huge role in how people chose their candidate for the past election. Many people could identify with Clinton and what she embodied as change for America. Seeing oneself in a potential candidate for the president of the United States would create some bias and fog up judgment. In regards, The question at issue here may well be whether “the issues” and identity can really be separated from each other. For someseeing yourself represented in office can itself be an issue(and) some women’s and minority groups’ issues haven’t gotten as much attention as they might with a more diverse government (Kurtzleben). Political Identity will always be present within elections because voters want to see themselves in future elected members.
As mentioned in the quote, separating identity and issues can be an impossible task that would interfere with the future success of choosing a president based off of their promises and simply not just their appearance.
On the other hand, the use of identity politics creates a diversion within the United States. For many years, women have been fighting to be seen as equal compared to men; however, by creating this feminism organization, it hinders all progress. Clinton used the female supporters simply for votes; however, she never could understand the issues that females have been faced with due to her extremely privileged life. To start, Clinton was an advocate for single moms; nevertheless, was not a single mom herself. This fact makes it hard for females to believe what she was preaching to be true. Many of her supporters caught on to this idea that Clinton might not be the right person to fight for female rights. Visually, Clinton was the ideal candidate to embody what the feminist movement stood for; however, was not able to relate to these women due to the privileges that she had within her life.
A majority of the candidates for the past couple presidential elections have been associated with a specific group simply based off of their appearance. Despite the ability to identify oneself with a candidate, political identity creates corruption within the election system. Choosing a future leader of the United States should be based strictly off of their moral and their promises for the future. With the ideology of political identity, candidates would not need to speak a word and they still would have supporters. The corruption that comes with political identity is not beneficial to the state as a whole and only the only benefit is the creation of sub groups.
The United States has a thirteen-letter traditional motto that embodies the main idea of what the nation stands for. E Pluribus Unum which translate to Latin: Out of Many, one. Over the course of history, this motto has been threatened by the growing division within the states. The idea of political identity aids in this division by not unifying larger groups and only creating smaller subgroups. The ideology of political identity is inclusion to division. This idea works to unify races, genders, and religions but fails to create one United States. Linda Chavez, a FOX News Analyst, talks about the importance of our motto and recognizes how the saying no longer is representative to America as a whole. She further discusses the evil within the elections and how the candidates try to portray mistrust on the other members running for office:
Hillary Clinton plays to her constituencies among minority voters and women, stirring fears that the Republican Party would turn back the clock to the Jim Crow era and deny equal pay for women. Donald Trump stokes resentment among whites that Mexicans and others are stealing their jobs and infesting their neighborhoods with crime (Chavez)
Chavez paints the picture how these presidential candidates are only trying to gain the support only of the people that identify with each. For Clinton, she specifically targets women and minorities. For trump, his audience targets white males. Both candidates, determined to win, create fear and hysteria in order to gain the supporters of their intended subgroups. This fear and resentment last longer than the presidential election. Riots, marches, and speeches stem from this fire created between both of the presidential candidates. Instead of putting water on the flame, they both continue to add oil, hoping it will benefit them when it comes to counting votes.
Since the beginning of America, individuals have been searching to be more than just a skin color. Later on, females wanted to be seen as more than just a housewife and wanted to be in the same position as males. More recently, immigrants and minorities wanted to prove their loyalty to the United States by showcasing that they can be hardworking citizens that is more than just what they were labeled with. These groups that faced oppression no longer wanted to be identified with a name that discrimination them. Instead, all of these subgroups desired to identify as an American and to live with the same rules and respect as other citizens. Through time, this progress has hindered, and individuals are wishing to go back to their previous identity. In the most recent elections, people are voluntarily discriminating themselves and forgetting what their ancestors have worked so hard to receive.
The most obvious downside to political identity is the inequality and the injustices that is creates within the United States. In regard to the 2016 presidential election, Hilary Clinton devoted her time to gaining the support of females and being the voice that these women could count on. This creation of a female subgroup of her supporters caused them to be segregated from the rest of society. Her empowerment caused them to identify with female instead of American. If Clinton were to win, this could help females regain their voice and to feel the power that they have lacked throughout history; however, her loss showcased the diversion and inclusion they created on their own.
In an article preceding the results of the election, Jacobs reveals how the loss for Hilary actually led to a hinderance for women in the workplace.
The article highlights how the devotion of females towards Clinton lead to the belief that female power is still not as great as male power. Since all of Americans knew the intention of Clinton to boost the morale of females and to inspire them to reach heights that they never knew was possible, when Clinton lost, it showcased how females are unable to have the capability to achieve such great heights. If there were to be a scatter in the supporters for Clinton and not just a majority of them female, Americans after the election might not have the same feelings and emotions towards the group.
Susan B. Anthony A Historic Feminist Reformer
Susan B. Anthony is known as one of the most dramatic and charismatic of feminist rebels, but she wasn’t always such an outgoing advocate (Barry 4). She was largely influenced by her upbringing, which shaped her feminist side at a young age.
Anthony was born to Lucy and Daniel Anthony on February 15, 1820 and grew up in a traditional Quaker household with a father who ultimately molded her into the reformer she became (Barry 10-11). Anthony’s father was a Quaker at heart who cut out any toys or distractions from religion from his children’s lives, but filled their place with self-discipline, principled convictions, and belief in their own self-worth (Barry 11). While her father’s parenting methods mainly influenced Anthony’s pathway towards reform, she was also impacted by her teacher Mary Perkins. Mary Perkins was a young school teacher who held a position in society that was normally designated for men, offering an invigorating sense of feminism to young Anthony through her position as well as her actions by teaching the children music, which was considered a waste of time in society at that time (Barry 21). When Anthony came to the time in her life to choose a direction, she was offered the family farm by her father to independently run, but went towards reform to avoid being subordinate to men in her position, even as an independent entrepreneur (Barry 58). While Anthony’s childhood was not carefree, it helped set her on the path to become a reformer.
Even though other women such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton started the women’s rights movement, they held traditional female roles that prevented them from fully carrying the feminist message, which is how Anthony became almost the sole proprietor of this movement. Based on the influence of Anthony’s father, she began her reform work in the area of temperance, which she found to be a common-ground for women, sparking her interest in the women’s rights movement. Anthony soon realized her true calling as an independent woman was to the feminist charge, joining those that had come before her speaking up for their own unalienable rights, such as the Grimké sisters (Gurko 35). She made her first speech for the Daughters of Temperance in 1849 (Barry 51), fueling the start of Anthony’s Woman’s State Temperance Society, helping her become a political reformist for the women’s suffrage movement (Barry 66). Taking legal charge, Anthony set out not only to act on behalf of women, but to mobilize women to act for themselves (Barry 70). She helped women not just in New York, but all over America realize how corrupt the laws were and how they must stand up for their beliefs since “cautious, careful people, always casting about to preserve their reputation and social standing, never can bring about reform (Sherr, Failure is Impossible 48).
During this historic time period, the meaning of childhood itself shifted dramatically in society, even being defined by many as the age of the child (Barry 11). Family sizes decreased and an emphasis was placed on raising children, which fell to the already-suppressed women in society, not helping to resolve the existing problems with women’s rights (Barry 17). Young girls were taught their place in society as below that of men or boys, who ultimately made the decisions that the determined their future. It was acknowledged that women’s place in society was due to their invaluable skills as housewives, which shouldn’t be corrupted with knowledge or politics that men in society solely controlled such as voting (Gurko 22). This created a sphere system that separated women from the rest of society by the degrading label of marriage, which caused many women to seek refuge in female seminaries (Barry 132). Female seminaries and other entities allowed women for the first time to experiment – even in limited ways – with creating their own identity (Barry 29). Just as reformer for the women’s rights movement Lucretia Mott once commented, we deny that the present position of women is her true sphere of usefulness; nor will she attain to this sphere, until the disabilities and disadvantages, religious, civil, and social, which impede her progress, are removed out of her way (Gurko 47). Due to the feminine sphere, Anthony chose to never marry and remained true to her cause for equal rights for women throughout her lifetime.
Despite the fact that the women’s suffrage movement was Anthony’s primary focus, she realized many key similarities between the abolitionist and suffrage manifestos and how, just as women had been confined to their private sphere by marital feudalism, blacks were confined to their master’s property by slavery (Barry 132). Through Anthony’s engagement with the anti-slavery movement, she found many common allies that supported the women’s rights movement, such as Fredrick Douglass. He was a former slave that helped promote abolition and black rights through his black newspaper North Star, as well as a dear friend to Anthony (Sherr, Failure is Impossible 29). Anthony publicly acknowledged this invaluable relationship between oppressed African Americans and women in society, claiming that the Anti-Slavery Society was the only organization on God’s footstool where the humanity of woman is recognized and these are the only men who have ever echoed back her cries for justice and equality (DuBois 81). While the suffrage and abolition movements worked together for many years to collectively advocate for their causes, the movements eventually realized some major conflicting differences, with black women going on to form their own women’s rights movement (Burns 185). Although the abolition was a different movement entirely from women’s rights, Anthony found common ground between the two and used this to advance the women’s rights movement.
In the fight for equal rights for women, the First National Woman’s Rights Convention at the Wesleyan Chapel in Seneca Falls, New York was a major turning point (Gurko 96). Organized by Lucretia Mott, Martha Wright, Jane Hunt, Mary Ann McClintock, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the Seneca Falls Convention formally introduced and discussed the social, civil, and religious rights of woman, formally introducing Anthony to the women’s rights movement (Gurko 3). These five organizing women directly went off of the commonly-known Declaration of Independence as the basis for the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, which was a modified Declaration of Independence that adopted the idea of equal rights for both men and women (Gurko 96). The convention addressed many resolutions and discussed how men didn’t have the right to assign for women a sphere of action (Gurko 97). While many felt that the resolutions proposed were justified, almost everyone opposed the proposition of women’s suffrage, citing that women didn’t possess the mental capability or responsibility to accept such a high role in society (Gurko 101). Although Anthony was not present at the convention, it marked a major turning point in the women’s rights movement, sparking Anthony to become the powerful feminist reformer she did.
After the Seneca Falls Convention, in 1850, Stanton and Anthony were introduced and instantly became friends (Colman 59). At first, Anthony had been much more interested in the abolition and temperance reform movements, but was intrigued by Stanton’s speech at the Seneca Falls Convention (Colman 56). The two became close friends quickly and, after the birth of Stanton’s eighth child, Harriet Eaton Stanton, Anthony took over most of Stanton’s responsibilities in the fight for women’s rights (Colman 83). Stanton and Anthony were very close friends from the time they met in 1851, with Anthony becoming the face and the brains of the movement and Stanton becoming the political advocate who voiced her ideas and speeches through Anthony’s societal presence (Colman 86). Despite the fact that Anthony and Stanton fought tirelessly for their cause until their deaths both at the age of 86, it would take another fourteen years of unremitting effort under a new generation of leadersbefore the Nineteenth Amendment granting votes to women was ratified in 1920 (Gurko 303). If not for the tireless efforts of Stanton and Anthony, the dynamic duo of the women’s rights movement, women may still lack the unalienable rights and suffrage awarded to men.
A largely opposed as well as a largely advocated part of the women’s rights movement was the fight for women’s suffrage, many claiming that women couldn’t vote because they were not well-educated, which was a direct result of the sexist laws by men that banned women from receiving a higher education (Barry 132). However, the women that fought for their suffrage thought otherwise, with Anthony claiming that women will never have equality of rights anywhere, she will never hold those she has now by an absolute tenure, until she possesses the fundamental right of self-representation (Sherr, The Trial of Susan B. Anthony x). Even at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1850, the topic of suffrage for women was discussed, but highly opposed due to its radical nature, with many women even dismissing the idea as absurd. So, Anthony protested the restrictions on women’s suffrage by voting in the 1872 presidential election, finding a major loophole in the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Under the Fourteenth Amendment, citizens had the right to vote and Anthony questioned election official Mr. Beverly Jones at the voting booth, claiming that she wanted to know if she was a citizen and had a right to vote (Confrontations for Justice 1). Anthony was arrested and stood trial for her act of protest against the laws preventing suffrage for women, ultimately being arrested under the Enforcement Act that was a series of laws designed to put teeth into the Reconstruction amendments and insure the voting rights of freedmen (Sherr, The Trial of Susan B. Anthony xv). However, Anthony’s valiant efforts helped to win the battle for suffrage for women, eventually granted by the Supreme Court fourteen years after Anthony’s death.
After Anthony was arrested for voting illegally in the presidential election of 1872, she stood trial, marking a salient event in the woman’s suffrage movement. At her trial, Anthony claimed that the Declaration of Independence was supposed to protect people’s rights rather than grant them (DuBois 153). Even the trial proved that Anthony didn’t do anything to deceive officials, with election official Beverly W. Jones testifying that she was dressed as a woman (Confrontations for Justice 5). This trial didn’t just serve as a trial for strong-willed reformers, but was a call to action for many women, showing the obscene aristocracy men had created towards women in society. This call to action was only carried out by fifteen women that day, but was heard by women nationwide. Rather than women viewing suffrage as a radical subject, they now thought of it as a societal injustice and a local newspaper even confirming their beliefs by publishing that the nine ladies at Rochester showed their capacity for an intelligent exercise of the franchise by voting for Grant and Dix, proving once and for all that men’s assumption of women’s intellect was a sexist hoax (Minor Topics 1).
Even though Anthony was an unlikely reformer in the women’s rights movement, through her and Stanton’s lifetime efforts, they eventually gained the independence essential for all women (Barry 39). Anthony felt that reform was vital, but more than anything, Anthony believed in women’s ability to assume their moral imperative and bring about a greater good in society (Barry 51). She compelled people to rally around her for the overall success of womankind, going down in history as one of the greatest reformers. Even when standing trial for voting illegally because she was a woman, she voiced to her followers the importance of standing up for one’s beliefs and values no matter what, and that resistance to tyranny is obedience to God (Sherr The Trial of Susan B. Anthony 85). Anthony left the movement with her death, leaving women everywhere with these historic words, failure is impossible! (Sherr Failure is Impossible 324).
Life of Susan B. Anthony
Mid-19th century America was a period of evolution and reform. People were voicing their beliefs and sharing it to the public to try and make the United States the best country they felt it could be. That was certainly the case for activist Susan B.
Anthony. Anthony was born on February 15th, 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts, and she grew up in a large family with 6 other siblings. When she was 25 years old, her family moved to a farm in Rochester, New York. It was here where she began a career as a teacher. But her passions extended farther than just education, Anthony began immersing herself in the rising Women’s rights and suffrage movements, as well as abolitionism. From first dipping her toe in those subjects out of interest, she started to become an integral part of the progress of these reforms. Susan B. Anthony was a driven and strong individual, so to no surprise, she had set some impactful goals. She strove to work towards suffrage for the women of America, union protection for working women, overall more equal treatment of women and men, and abolition in the States.
Women’s Rights was one of the main focuses of her campaigning efforts. Susan B. Anthony spoke up about the right for women to own their own property. She went as far as to rally others in support of her reform ideas and voicing them to the New York legislature. The result of this was a new law that allowed women who were married to have their own property and personal wages. Anthony became involved with a union for teacher’s and learned that the salary gap between men and women was a whopping $7.5 per month. This motivated her to become an outspoken member of the worker union she was in, to give women the same protection men received. She made more efforts by becoming a delegate in the National Labor Union, which held the philosophy of helping the lower class workers grow to become more powerful than those of the upper classes. She eventually formed several completely female labor unions, one of which was the Workingwomen’s Central Association that collected reports of the working conditions and gave working women education. But her work at this was cut short by strong opposers. Although her efforts certainly made a notable amount of progress in the women’s rights movement.
An even bigger women’s rights reform Anthony fought for was suffrage. Along with her philosophy of equality for women and men, she felt that if women were to truly have a powerful hand in the nation, they would need to be able to vote. The basis for her tactic in getting the vote for women was in the formation of the American Equal Rights Association. She worked with fellow women’s rights activists to write a newspaper in New York, called The Revolution, that advocated women and men being equal in society. This somewhat spread the word, but the true impact came from when Anthony began to travel the country with her association, and give live speeches about women’s suffrage. Their strategy was to work at motivating the people, one state at a time until that state made it legal for women to vote. Anthony was truly passionate about what she was supporting and went to extreme lengths to make as big an impact as she could. “The only change women have for justice in this country is to violate the law, as I have done, and as I shall continue to do.” (Susan B. Anthony, 1873) Anthony and her sisters decided to cast their vote for the Presidential election of 1872, despite suffrage for women not being legal yet. She was arrested and taken to court. The result of her trials did not produce an immediate constitutional change on women’s suffrage, but the drastic measures she took to prove a point gave motivation to others who support women’s voting rights, to make a big deal of the reform and actively make a difference.
Alongside being a strong Women’s rights advocator, Susan B. Anthony was also an abolitionist. Anthony’s whole family were abolitionists and held weekly meetings on their farm in New York for fellow anti-slavery citizens. Anthony joined the American Anti-Slavery Society, where she made speeches and handed out papers supporting the abolishment of slavery. This was not received well by many, but her philosophy of equality and justice for all kept her striving to make the movement grow. In collaboration with other female abolitionists, Anthony organized the Women’s National Loyal League. Their main concern was to petition for abolishing slavery, which they worked towards very actively. They were able to collect almost 400,000 signatures on petitions to end slavery in America. Anthony became involved with the underground railroad to aid slaves on the run to freedom. A few years later, she blames the New York agent of the American Anti-Slavery Society. With this role, she organized meetings and spread her ideas with banners and posters across the state.
Anthony’s efforts in all the reforms she supported, certainly made a difference. By the end of her life, women had suffrage in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho. Married women were given more of the rights that individual men always had, and a notably larger percentage of the workers in different professions were women. There also were around 36,000 women enrolled in colleges and universities across America. After her death, the movements of women’s rights and abolition did not stop growing. Eventually, women gained suffrage and many more legal rights nationwide. Women were later able to apply for almost any job, and there became almost equal educational opportunities for men and women.
Susan B. Anthony was a catalyst in several reforms of the late 1800s. Her efforts were spent pushing and progressing towards a nation where all genders and races were to be considered equal. Social justice is so prevalent in her works in many associations and alongside other powerful activities. Anthony’s name will go down in history as one that never gave up or held back in pursuit of her philosophies for women’s rights, women’s suffrage, and abolition.
Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
After a few days of the convention, The Declaration of Sentiments and resolutions was addressed and resolved. The Declaration argues that women are separated by the government and the society of which they are a part of and it insists women to be considered full citizens and to have the same rights as men (Cokely). The Declaration of Sentiments was written by Stanton and it had a similar fashion as the Declaration of independence with 12 resolutions, but Stanton included that women is men’s equal (Bogue).
She would not stop explaining the similarities between women and men until everyone started believing what the government and society is doing to women. After this event, there was declared Women’s Equality Day. Since Stanton spoke out against the laws of the social, civil and religious condition and rights of woman in Seneca Falls, N.Y, the convention became very popular and women hit a very big milestone in history.
The 19th Amendment guarantees women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a difficult struggle. Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters, such as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of the Constitution. Eventually, the House of Representatives passed the amendment, and 2 weeks later, the Senate followed (19th). It took women since the 1800s to get the 19th amendment ratified and this happened about 120 years later. In the 1800s, Susan B. Anthony picketed to win the right to vote. When Anthony gave her speech in 1873 she questioned herself about if she’s really a person or women persons because being persons, then, women are citizens; and no state has a right to make any law, or to enforce any old law, thar shall abridge their privileges or immunities (Anthony). She made it very clear that women are people too and should not be subjected by gender. Also, she showed everyone that the government should not make laws that are against women, race, or any diversity. Women are different from men physically, but some women are smarter and can handle the jobs men do. After her speeches, more women wanted to have this right and pitched in to help. We had decades of women fighting for the right to vote. A few years before 1920, almost all women and major suffragists were united behind the goal to have women’s rights. At the time Wilson was president and he became on board and changed his position to support the women and the amendment. With Anthony and Stanton starting this years long work to fight for women’s rights, the 19th Amendment finally got ratified in 1920 and changing american culture forever.
Stanton also showed her determination with wanting to accomplish this goal. Now the coming 100th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment in 1920 is going to take place in a few years (Gordon). Stanton made all of this possible by her bravery and dedication to women. Without a leader like her to guide us in the right direction, women may still not have equal rights to men and we would not know how to fight it. She vowed that it shall come to pass afterwards, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and you daughters shall prophesy (Stanton). She made it her mission to make the younger generation learn about how women should have the rights like men do. She wanted to make sure women became confident enough in themselves to fight for what they believe to be right. With her efforts, people continued to fight for women’s rights until her goal was accomplished and after the goal was accomplished women still fought for their rights until the world knew how strong they all were when they worked together.
Voting is important in the United States because its shows that we are united that allows us to vote for whose best for running our country. Women were denied the right to vote for years because men and the government felt that they were not an important part of decision making in America. They believed women were already busy with raising children, taking care of the home, and bring like a slave to our husbands. They all thought women could not handle the pressure of voting. Also, women were excluded from many jobs and educational opportunities because men could not think they could handle it. Over the past 100 years women have proven them wrong and they will continue to do things superior to men. Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton both started this outreach for women back in the 1800s. Sadly, they ended up passing in the early 1900s, but their legacy remains. Their actions affected the events in the 1920s and they were the key for other women to have the courage to pursue what they would have wanted. In today’s world the laws created and the right established are still put into effect. They both made women’s suffrage grow and by the 1920s the right of women to vote became reality with the ratification of the 19th Amendment.
Who is Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony born on February 15, 1820 in Adams, Massachusetts. She was raisedby a Quaker family where ladies were viewed asequal with men under God, who additionally had along queue foractivist’sconventions.Anthony nevermarriedand turned into an instructor.
In the wake of instructing for a long time, she came back to the familycultivates. There, she metvariousactivists, who passedby her family, including abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass. This aroused her enthusiasm for change and she ended up associated with the moderation and abolitionist bondage developments.She was known for being an American social reformer and women’s rightsactivist whoplayed asufficientrole in women’s suffrage movement. At the age of 17, she collected anti-slavery petitions.Early in her life she haddevelopeda sense for justice and was an active leader to women around the world during her time. She showed bravery, equality to all women not based on skin color but she was determined to get rights for women.Sinceshe was alady,amidthat time women couldn’ttalkatsocialaffairs,soit was aconstrainedto where she couldtalkat. Hercolleague andcompanionElizabeth CadyStanton,droveher to join the women’s rights movement in 1852. Soon after, she was involved in the womensuffrage.
Susanvoyaged, address, and peddled over the world for votes while been mishandle. She additionally, was battling for the nullification of bondage, the privilege of ladies to claim their ownproperty, and she battled for ladies’ work associations.In 1900, Susan convince the university of Rochester to accept women.Susan and her family moved to Rochester, New York in 1845, they were involved in the antislavery movement. The Quaker people who were antislavery would meet at their farm almost every Sunday, where they were joined by Frederick Douglass. In 1848, Susan BAnthonywas a teacher in Canajoharie, New York and became elaborate with theteacher’sunion when she found out that male teachers had a monthly salary of $10.00, while the female teachers receive $2.50 per month.Her involvement with the instructor’s association, restraint, abolitionist development, and Quaker educating, laid profitable ground for a vocation in ladies’ rights change to develop. Meeting Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the beginning of her appealin women’s rights, but it is Lucy Stone’s speech at the 1852 Syracuse convention that is believed forconvincingSusan to join the women’s rights movement.In the time of 1853 Anthony battled for ladies’ property rights in New York state, talking at gatherings, gathering marks for petitions, and campaigning the state governing body. Anthony circled petitions for upheld ladies’ property rights andladies’suffrage. she tended to the National ladies’ Rights tradition in 1854 and asked more appeal to battles. In 1854 she kept in touch with Matilda Joslyn Gage that” I know slavery is the all absorbing question of the day, still must push forward this great central question, which underlies all others”.
She was fighting for theabolishmentof slavery because she knew whatthe right thingwasto do even if others wentagainsther, she never stopped.Champion of moderation, abrogation and African American rights, the privileges of work, and equal pay for rise to work, Susan B. Anthony eventually ended up a standout amongst the mostunmistakablepioneers of the women’s suffrage development in thenineteenthcentury. Anthony ventured to every part of the nation conveying discourses and gambling capture for the sakeofwomen’ssuffrage by endeavoring to vote. Anthony and Stanton helped to establish theAmericanEqual Rights Association and in 1868 the two women became editors of its daily newspaper, the Revolution. Anthony hit the address circuit for along timeto fund the daily paper and suffrage crusades.In 1869, Anthony andStantoncontradicted the fourteenth and fifteenth corrections to the US constitution, which gave voting rights to dark men yet did not stretch out the establishment to ladies. Their position prompted a crack with otherwomen’s’ suffragists. Therefore, the combine established the National Women Suffrage Association, looking for a protected alteration ensuring women’sentitlement to vote. Anthony was captured for voting in 1872 and was attempted and sentenced, a move that focused on national the suffragecauses. she additionally drove a ladies’ dissent at the 1876 centennial conveying a “Declarationof Rights” composed by Stanton and Matilda Gage. she composed and distributed, with Stanton and Gage the exhaustive History of ladies Suffrage (1881-1885).
By 1888, Anthony assisted with the re-unification of the suffrage affiliations, which combined under the new pennant of National American Women suffrage Association. she managed this gathering until 1900. Anthony assembled marks on suffrage petitions at the state and national levels and embraced exhausting state visits to sort out suffrage battles in the states and broadly. Called “The Napoleon of the Woman’s rights development”, Anthony campaigned yearly before congress. she stayed dynamic in the development until her demise in 1904, 14 years beforewomengot the privilege to vote. The nineteenth Amendment, which shields ladies’ entitlement to vote, was nicknamed in her respect, the Susan B. Anthony Amendment.Susan should be anadmirationand figure model to all women because throughout hercircumstances she never gave up for what she believed was right. Even froma young age she was already fulfilling acts of bravery and knew the fight for herself and for womenwasn’tgoing to beaneasy road. During, this time Susan couldhadbeen really hurt or even killed because many had hatred towards women who even showed power or tried to speak out asa woman. Susan was sent to jail just because she spoke at a gathering was unfair not only to her but womenbynot letting them have freedom of speech just like man had during that time.In1846, atthe age 26, Susan B. Anthony took the situation of leader of the young ladies’ area of expertise at Canajoharie Academy, her initially paid position. she instructed there for a long time, earning110 dollars every year.
In 1853, at the stateinstructors’ conventionAnthony called for ladies to be admitted to the calling and for better pay for womeneducators. shelikewise,requestedwomento have a voice at the tradition and to expect advisory group positions.In 1859, Anthony talked before thestateeducators’conventionat Troy, N.Y. what’s more, at the Massachusetts educators’ convention, contending for coeducation and assertingtherewere no contrasts between the brains of men and women.Anthony called for rise toinstructive to opendoors for allrace, and for all schools, colleges, anduniversitiestoopen their ways to womenand individuals who had been enslavedshe additionally battled for the privilege of offspring of individuals who had been enslavedto have the capacity to go to government funded schools.In the 1890s Anthony served on the leading group of trustees of Rochester’s state Industrial School, crusading for coeducation and equivalent treatment and open door for young men and young women.In the 1890s Anthony brought $50,000 up in vows to guarantee the permission of womento the University of Rochester. In a very late push to meet the due date she set up the money estimation of her insurance policy. The college was compelled to make great its guarantee and womenwere admitted for the first time in1900. This shows howdedicatedSusan was to put her own life on the line for thousands of strangers to her, shewantedto make astatementacross America that women deserve to have the same education, privilege, and job pay as men. She fought hard and long for women rights and never gave up when shecould’vestopped but she kept going and going until she reached her goal. She was a very strongindependentwomen who saw the greatness andpotentialin women even if others didn’t see what women canaccomplishedin theworld.
Susan B. Anthony’s paper The Revolution, first distributed in 1868, supported an eight-hour work day and equivalent pay measure up to work. It advanced an arrangement of acquiring American-made merchandise and urging movement to remake the south and settle the whole nation. DistributingtheRevolution in New York got herincontactwith womenin the Printing exchanges.In 1868, Anthony energized working ladies from the printing and sewing exchanges in New York, who were rejected from men’s exchange associations, to shape workingwomen’s Associations. As a delegate to the National Labor Congress in 1868 Anthony convinced the advisory group on female work to call for votes in favor of ladies and equivalent pay for break even with work,even thoughthe men at the gathering erased the reference to the vote.In 1870, Anthony framed and was chosen leader of the workingwomen’s Central Association. The Association drew up gives an account of working conditions and gave instructive chances to working ladies. Anthony empowered a helpful workshop established by the sewing Machine Operations Union and supported the recently framedwomentypesetters’ association in The Revolution. Anthony attempted to set up exchange schools for womenprinters. at the point when printers in New York went on strike, she encouraged managers to contract ladies rather, trusting this would demonstrate that they could carry out the activityandmen, and accordingly demonstrate that they merited equivalent pay. At the 1869 National Labor Union Congress, the men’s Typographical Union blamed her for strike-breaking and running a non-association shop at TheRevolutionandcalled her an adversary of work.In the 1890s, while leader of the National American Women Suffrage Association, Anthony underlined the significance of picking up the help of composed work.
She supported Florence Kelley and Jane Addams in their work in Chicago, And Gail Laughlin in her objective to look for assurance for working womenthrough exchange associations.Susan B. Anthony was raised a Quaker. Her family thought drinking alcohol was corrupt. while Anthony was filling in as leader of the young ladies’ division of Canajoharie Academy she joined the Daughters of Temperance, a gathering of ladies who attracted regard for the impacts of tipsiness on families and battled for more grounded alcohol laws. she made her first open discourse in 1848 at a Daughters of Temperance dinner.At the point when Anthony came back to Rochester in 1849 she was chosen leader of the Rochester branch of the Daughters of Temperance and fund-raised for the reason. In 1853 Anthony was denied the privilege to talk at the state tradition of the Sons of Temperance in Albany. she cleared out the gathering and called her own. In 1853 Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton established the Women’s state Temperance society with the objective of requesting of the state lawmaking body to pass a law restricting the offer of alcohol. The state lawmaking body dismissed theappealbecausethe greater part of the 28,000 marks were from womenand children. Anthony chose that womenrequired the vote with the goal that lawmakers would hear them out. she and Stanton were reprimanded for speaking excessively about ladies’ rights and surrendered from the womenstate Temperance Society.In the 1860s Anthony and Stanton attracted thoughtfulness regarding the instance of Abby Mcfarland whose tanked and oppressive spouse, Daniel, shot and murdered the man she had separated from him to wed. They dissented when Daniel was absolved of murder on a request of impermanent madness and given guardianship of their child.
In the 1870s Anthony bolstered the Rochesterwomenassociationof the ladies’ChristianTemperance association,althoughshe disclosed to them that womenneed to get the vote to achieve their objective. she declined to help restriction since she trusted it reduced consideration from the reason for womensuffrage.Susan B. Anthony was persuaded by her work for balance that womenrequired the vote if they somehow managed to impact open undertakings. she was acquainted by Amelia Bloomer with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, one of the pioneers of the women’srights development, in 1851, and went to her firstwomen’srightstradition in Syracuse in 1852. Anthony and Stanton trusted the Republicans would remuneratewomenfor their work in building support for the Thirteenth Amendment by giving them the vote. They were severely frustrated when this did not occur. In 1866 Anthony and Stanton established the American Equal Rights Association and in 1868 they began distributing the daily paper The Revolution in Rochester, with the masthead “men their rights, and taking note of additional; ladies, their rights, and nothing less”, and the point of setting up “equity for all”.In 1869 the suffrage development split, with Anthony and Stanton’s National Association proceeding to crusade for a sacred revision, and the American Women Suffrage Association embracing a system of getting the vote in favor of ladies on a state-by-state premise. Wyoming turned into the primary domain to give womenthe vote in 1869.In 1877, she accumulated petitions from 26 states with 10,000 marks, however congresslaughedatthem. she showed up before each congress from 1869 to 1906 to request entry of a suffrage revision.
In the vicinity of 1881 and 1885 Anthony, Stanton and Matilda Joslin Gage worked together on and distributed the History of womansuffrage. The last volume, altered by Anthony and Ida Husted Harper, was distributed in 1902.In 1887 the twowomen’ssuffrageassociations converged as the National American lady Suffrage Association with Stanton as president and Anthony as VP. Anthony moved toward becoming president in 1892 when Stanton resigned. Anthony crusaded in the west in the 1890s to ensure that domains where womenhad the vote were not hindered from admission to the association. She went to the International Council of womenat the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago.In 1900, matured 80, Anthony resigned as leader of NAWSA. In 1904 Anthony directed the International committee of womenin Berlin and wound up privileged leader of Carrie Chapman Catt’s International Woman suffrage Alliance.Thisextortionarywomen had manyaccomplishmentsthroughout her life time that she is now remember as a hero, leader, and outstanding strong individual. Anthonyrelates to many people we have discuss in class by many others who fought for what was right for all race not just one race.SusanB. Anthony wasknownfor fighting for women rights and it was a struggle because many who men who had power laughed in her face because they took women as a joke. The important fight she was known for was be able to have women vote in the late 90s, this is something that she didn’t give up about because she believed that women should have a voice also. Now, I’m going to talk about the voting rights for women,gone by congress June 4, 1919, and approved on August 18, 1920, the nineteenth amendment conceded womenthe privilege to vote.
Accomplishing this point of reference required an extensive and troublesome battle; triumph took many years of disturbance and challenge.Now, I would want to introduced Anthony’s friend Elizabeth Cady whoalsoplayed a role in helping women gain their rights.Conceived on November 12, 1815, in Johnstown, New York, Elizabeth Cady grew upduringriches and benefit, the little girl of Daniel Cady, a noticeable judge, and Margaret Livingston. She went to the Progressive Troy female Seminary, where she got the best educationaccessible. After her graduation in 1833, she moved toward becoming drenched in the realm of change at the home of her cousin Gerrit Smith. There she began to look all starry eyed at the abolitionist Henry Brewster would turn into her most essential tutor in her improvement as a women’s activist, the abolitionist Lucretia Mott. At the point when the Stanton’s moved from Boston to the town of Seneca Falls, New York, in 1847, Elizabeth experienced the absence of a scholarly group. From this sadness developed and three other ladies, Elizabeth led the principalwomen’s’ rights tradition in Seneca falls in July 1848. At this get-together, she displayed their Declaration of Rights and resolutions requested social and political equity for all ladies, including its most questionable claim, the privilege to vote.In 1851, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton left on a cooperation that developed into a standout amongst the most gainful working jaguar sends in U.S. history. As political and social state ofwomenin American culture. Stanton was the main voice and savant of the womenrights and suffrage developments while Anthony was attempted to win the poll for American women.The ladies had initially met in 1851 when Anthony headed out to an anti-slaverymeetingin Seneca Falls, New York, where Stanton had sorted out the principal national lady’s rights tradition there in 1848.
The two ladies were in their thirties: Anthony had been educating, and Stanton was hitched to abolitionist Henry B. Stanton. Their association in the abolitionist development had developed a common enthusiasm for more extensive balanceissuesandwas enthusiastic about the privilege of ladies to partake in the representing procedure and have control over their ownlives. Anthony was roused by Stanton’s vision for propelling ladies, and Anthony’s sorting out aptitudes were soon evident to Stanton, who had youngchildrenand couldn’t travel routinely. Together, they propelled a national lady’s suffrage development, distributed the daily paper The Revolution, and addressed, campaigned, and challenged for measure up to rights.As they were hanging over the reins to another age of suffragists, America went to war with Spain, picked up control of new island domains, and set up governments that restricted women rights. on the territory, a post-Reconstruction reaction against African American social equality was becoming more grounded in the south. By the turn of the century, Anthony and Stanton stressed the battle for uniformity was going in reverse.generally speaking, votingidealsfor anybody other than white men were ending up more limited, not less. Ladies’ increases in the working environment as state funded teachers, for example were likewise under flame. What’s more, the senior suffragists didn’t know their young colleagues comprehended the risk. One such test came in mid 1896, when delegates at the NAWSA tradition passed a determination to revile Stanton’s two-volume work The Woman’s Bible, a gathering of analyses by Stanton and others on religion and ladies’ enslavement. In the disputable success, Stanton broke down sacred texts and refuted the individuals who utilized the book of scriptures to legitimize denying women rights.
Some moderate individuals from the suffrage affiliation objected to the book, and others thought it reduced their suffrage objective.Response to The Woman’s Bible, alongside weakness, detached Stanton from the suffrage development toward the finish of her life, yet Anthony remained her eyes and ears on the ground. Stanton kept on composing, and her unwavering investigates of religion and different points that Anthony felt were distracting to suffrage, energized a progressing difference between them. ” It is fifty-one years since we first met, and we have been busy throughevery oneof them, stirring up the world to recognize the rights of women”, Susan B. Anthony wrote her friend Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1902. In memory ofSusan B. Anthony who died March 13,1906 at her home on Madison Street in Rochester due to the sickness ofpneumonia. All American grown-up womenat last got the vote with the Nineteenth Amendment, otherwise called the Susan B. Anthony Amendment, in 1920. And her beloved friend Elizabeth Cady Stanton who died on October 26, 1902 in New York city due to a congestive heart failure.
Marilyn Monroe: Changing History
- 1 Marilyn Monroe and Her Effect on American History
- 2 Marilyn’s Biography
- 3 Body Confidence
- 4 Women’s rights activist
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Works Cited
Marilyn Monroe and Her Effect on American History
To all the girls that think you’re fat because you’re not a size zero, you’re the beautiful one, its society who’s ugly. (Goodhousekeeping) Marilyn Monroe insists that every girl is beautiful no matter what their size is. She made a positive outlook on so many people’s lives. Marilyn Monroe was a strong women’s right activist in a time women had little to no rights. She was also the first women to get a scripts and director approval in her films.
Marilyn Monroe was born June 1, 1926 in Los Angeles, California, USA. Her birth name was Norma Jeane Mortenson. She was an American actress, comedienne, singer, and model. Marilyn became one of the world’s biggest iconic figures and was remembered for her beloved and embodiment of the Hollywood sex symbol and her personal and professional complications within the film industry. Her childhood was very hard because she did not have a father and her mother had a turbulent mental state and struggles to cope with taking care of her children. For the first six years Marilyn lived with her foster parents Albert and Ida Bolender in the town of Hawthorne, California. Her mother Gladys tried to take back Marilyn, but she suffered a mental break down and Marilyn was moved from foster home to foster home which made her shy and bottled up. She passed away August 5, 1962 in Los Angeles California, USA from a drug overdose. (imdb)
Marilyn Monroe seemed to be very confident with her body, but behind the scenes she is not self confident. She spent most of her life with a low self-esteem and a range of mental health issues, which is caused by her tough childhood. Instead of learning from her bad past, the world glorified her sadness, which turned her sadness into an amazing icon of glamour and misery.
Women’s rights activist
Marilyn Monroe is a protofeminist. A proto-feminist is a person who anticipated feminism by living before the term was coined. Feminism is the belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes. Feminist activism is the struggle for that equality. Monroe is a fighter, unwilling to back down, and she carves an identity for herself in a male-dominated Hollywood. She believes every women should have their own rights and freedom. Marilyn taught us about how to be a leader, speak out, intersectional feminism starts with advocating for equal. Since Marilyn was such a complex character, she found herself stuck in the middle of two different types of women: those who were disgusted or intimidated by her, and those who loved her body and look just the way she was. In 1959 Marilyn shared her views on the subject: I’d like to be known as a real actress and human being, she said, but listen, there’s nothing wrong with glamour either. I think everything adds up. I’ll never knock glamour. But I want to be in the kind of pictures where I can develop, not just wear tights. (LAMAG)
Marilyn changed the american history is so many different ways. She was the most beautiful women that had ever lived. The first legacy she carried through was being the first real women to support short bleach-blond hair, shorter clothing, and to just show the real you by being who you are and also still being polite and proper. The second legacy she carried was her own production company. She was the first woman in history to own their own production company. Marilyn Monroe Productions. (Marilynmonroesj) Her clothing line was established with 101 shares of stock. Her role was to star in films that were selected by the company. Marilyn’s production company made her extremely successful. Marilyn had left more that just a legacy with this production. She proved to people who did not believe she was a hard worker, that she in fact was. The third legacy Marilyn carried through was changing the life of a black woman. In the 1960’s racism was a very big issue and that was also when Marilyn Monroe was known. Ella Fitzgerald was a famous jazz singer. Her voice is recognized by millions around the world, also had a big impact on the world of arts and music. Very few people know about her friendship with Marilyn though. Just like every other black musician who was raised in that period, faced a lot of adversity because of her race. She couldn’t go into just any hotel, or bathroom, and not just sit on any bus like other blacks. Until one night Marilyn changed it all for the better. In the 50’s Ella always want to play at the new popular spot called Mocambo, but she was black so she was not allowed. They did want Marilyn Monroe to play though. When Marilyn heard of this she called the owner of the venue and that changed her career. She demanded they let Ella perform and Marilyn could sit in the front row if they did and she also said she would give the venue a bad review if they did not. As of then they let Ella in and from there on Marilyn left a legacy through helping one of the best jazz singers in history to even get noticed. Ella said these exact words after Marilyn changed her life,
I owe Marilyn Monroe a real debt she personally called the owner of Mocambo, and told him she wanted me booked immediately, and if he would do it, she would take a front table every night. She told him – and it was true, due to Marilyn’s superstar status – that the press would go wild. The owner said yes, and Marilyn was there, front table, every night. The press went overboard. After that, I never had to play a small jazz club again. She was an unusual women – a little ahead of her times. And she didn’t know it. (Ella Fitzgerald)
- Social Affect. How Marilyn Monroe Affected History, mariylnmonroenhd.weebly.com/social-affect.html.
- How Did Marilyn Monroe Change the World? Immortal Marilyn, 10 Aug. 2015, dna. (2018). Marilyn Monroe: A bombshell, a feminist. [online] Available at: https://www.dnaindia.com/lifestyle/report-marilyn-monroe-a-bombshell-a-feminist-1763110 [Accessed 17 Dec. 2018].
- Michelle Morgan. Was Marilyn Monroe a Feminist. Los Angeles. 2018. April 3, 2018
- Wikimedia Foundation. The legacy left by Marilyn. Web. May 10, 2015.
- Elizabeth Blair. Monroe’s Legacy Is Making Fortune, But For Whom. 2012. Web. August 3, 2012.
- Pettinger, Trejvan. Biography of Marilyn Monroe. 2009. Web. December 1, 2009.
- 10 Interesting facts about Marilyn Monroe you probably didn’t know about. 2014. Web. June 8, 2014.
Education and Women’s Right
In Mary Wollstonecraft’s book, “A Vindication of the Rights of Women”, she covers a broad range of topics in each chapter concerning the equality of women compared to men. To be clear, Wollstonecraft is not indicating that male and female are made mentally and physically the same but wants her readers to understand that both are equal when it comes to acquiring an education and their position in the workplace. This is a point that she debated with opposing theorists’ statements against women, proving their perceptions were wrong.
At one point, Wollstonecraft becomes upset about the way women are perceived through statements made by society like, “Men are brainstormers that could hold a career and women are pretty trophies that could bare children” (). The writer gives readers no choice but to understand that women share the significance as men: women are not just beautiful housewives capable of raising kids. With that being said, how does a woman acquire such authority? What helps a woman be seen by her spouse, boss, and society as equal? An education. Many times, women are denied certain job positions or seen as the inferior in a work setting or even a relationship. However, an education is a necessity, as well as a bonus for women when it comes to acquiring self-empowerment, equality, and authority in the workplace and the home.
?What is the true definition of empowerment? Although it can be defined several ways, empowerment is the process and steps for becoming stronger and more confident. Whether it is for directing one’s life on a better path, or claiming one’s rights, empowerment is that push, or confidence needed to achieve at a higher level. Therefore, empowerment and education work hand in hand. For decades, unequal opportunities between genders have halted and delayed the woman’s ability to improve themselves. In “Gender, Change and Identity: Mature Women Students in Universities” by Barbara Merrill, she says, “To what extent, therefore, does learning as a mature woman student result in fulfillment, self- realization and a changed identity? The dialectic between structure and agency becomes a crucial dimension in analyzing how women’s lives are both shaped by structural forces and their own actions” (Merrill 3). The phrase “changed identity” is very important because any woman in the process of receiving a degree will be different after taking in new skills and intelligence. Education is the key and tool utilized to empower women with knowledge, skill, and self-confidence, resulting in equal rights. “Hence, womenfolk are indispensable in growth and development of a nation, the study therefore recommended that women should be allowed access to quality education so as to be adequately empowered” (Taiwo T, Opubiyi, and Ramat). A woman who has obtained an education puts herself in a position to not only be a threat and leader in the workplace, but also become a better parent and citizen. Men become afraid of a woman who can acquire the same job as them, which may mean a higher pay grade. Although the economic opportunity is a perk of receiving a degree, it also gives a woman the confidence to not only excel in the classroom or university halls, but also adds a vibrant sense of assertiveness. Wollstonecraft states, “Consequently, the most perfect education, in my opinion, is such an exercise of the understanding as it best calculated to strengthen the body and the heart. Or in other words to enable the individual to attain such habits of virtue as will render it independent” (Wollstonecraft 160). Education starts with the feeling of wanting better for oneself; to grow as a better individual in all aspects. Striving for an education allows room for goals to be set and surpassed, for a man or a woman. However, a woman without an education could simply be seen as lesser or lack skills that may make her good for nothing but being this “pretty trophy” that Wollstonecraft’s opposing theorists mention. A woman who has worked for everything and took the time to receive an education, learning new skills and work ethics will not settle for being a man’s eye candy. The degree not only adds authority and confidence to a woman’s demeanor, but also forces society to see her as equal.
?In the book “Love’s Labor” by Eva Feder Kittay, the author covers essays on women, equality, and dependency in many aspects from politics to parenthood. The author states, “Equality-based politics have failed women in the public arena as well as in the private sphere, neither achieving their goal in representation in political office nor in sharing of domestic chores and childrearing responsibilities” (Kittay 3). Political equality ensures that everyone receives equal treatment under law, however according to the author women not receiving this fair treatment are affected in the workplace, as well as the home. The most efficient way for a woman to achieve equality is to acquire an education. Women with an education lower the gender wage gap especially in this day in age because of the number of women receiving a bachelor’s degree over men. “Detours on the Road to Equality: Women, Work, and Higher Education”, an article by Jerry A. Jacobs, backs up this statement well. In the article Jacobs states, “Women are earning college degrees in increasing numbers, but entering male-dominated occupations at a decreasing pace. These two developments are linked. Work barriers may be leading women to take a detour to college” (The Inequality Reader Chapter 45, Jacobs 1). Although women are not entering these fields quickly, the point is women are turning to education before doing so. A woman must have the confidence to enter these male-dominated occupations. With that being said, it stems back to empowerment. An educated woman who now feels empowered and confident has a high self-esteem walking into any job, demanding equality for herself; whether the job is male, or female, influenced.
?Well-known author Cheng Cheng said, “In nuclear households, women with a higher level of education have a higher probability of having the final say in household decisions” (Cheng 1). A nuclear household consists of a husband, wife, and in some instances a child. In relevance these more serious relationships, duties like maintaining the home’s wellbeing, paying bills, and both making money to pay these bills. Not only does an education for women show different results in the work place, but also shows with the amount of authority and “say so” at home. Throughout history there has always been this stereotype that women raise the children, and men bring home the money. Women cook and clean, while men rest and enjoy television after a long day of work. However, if a woman possesses a higher education there are very important love and duty factors changed in the household. This could cause a high sense of insecurity and low self-esteem for the husband in some cases, raising the question of does salary and education matter in a relationship? On the other hand, in the workplace, men are more likely to receive high respect and authority. In an article titled “Authority at Work: How Men and Women Differ” by Martha S. Hill, she states, “Men enjoy a more positive wage effect from attaining authority than women do and men are more likely to attain authority than women” (Hill 1). In a way it seems as if women must work two times harder to get equality when competing with men at the job. Hill comes back to say, “Higher education produces the skills or credentials for higher position socializes individuals to the work habits for higher positions and through an ideology of rule by expert’s education legitimizes inequalities of power” (Hill 1). The only way for a woman to be seen as equal is to acquire a higher education, which will lower the gender wage gap in due time.
?It has been observed that the more educated a woman is, the happier and healthier she will be in all aspects. The key to growth and sustainability comes from a woman’s education, creating genuine choices over the lives they want to live. “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” by Wollstonecraft also says, “Strengthen the female mind by enlarging it, and there will be an end to blind obedience” (Wollstonecraft ). There are several ways a woman could become stronger and empower herself, but education is the best solution. Wollstonecraft’s opposing theorists are very wrong in their perceptions of women, saying they are just “pretty trophies”. However, the only way these theorists are right is if a woman chooses to not receive an education, becoming inferior to their spouse and just responsible for the children. The women with no education or goal of excelling will always be just a housewife. If any female wants to pursue equal rights and opportunity an education is the answer! Only an educated woman stands a chance being seen equally by her employers when it comes to the workplace and it can be shown through the number of women in male-dominated fields. The higher the education means the higher the opportunity of receiving equality, certain positions, and authority. It starts within the woman to want it for herself. Once she is empowered and determined, opportunity begins to open up. After she has the confidence and drive to succeed because of her higher education, receiving equality will not only be essential to her, but it will become a necessity and priority.
Female Reformers in The Progressive Era
The Progressive Era began in 1890 and ended in 1920. Females played a very important role during this time. Many women joined national organizations such as the National American Woman Suffrage Association, National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage and National Association of Colored Women.
All women chose to join no matter their diversity. Being rich, poor, white, black, or immigrants did not separate them from joining. Women were considered leaders in the social and political movements from 1890 to 1920. Women participating in public and political movements was highly discouraged. The main goal of these female reformers was to end political corruption and improve the lives of the people. Female reformers took normal social roles and turned them into public roles and because of this, they began to win increasing support for women’s votes.
- 1 Women as Reformers
- 1.1 The Fight For Change
- 2 The Progressive Era Comes To An End
- 2.1 Years of Devotion and Dedication Conclude
Women as Reformers
The Fight For Change
Women very quickly became leaders in many different social and political movements as they were arguing for their rights. Reformers in the progressive era had intentions to end the uprising and help to make the lives of the people improve as well as protect their citizens. Female reformers in the progressive era began groups such as the National American Woman Suffrage Association, The National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage, and The National Association of Colored Women. Women were allowed to participate no matter their skin color, race, religion, or economic status; every woman was welcome. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Movement is greatly known as the attempt to make alcohol illegal in which became successful in 1919. The suffrage movement was a very important part of the progressive era.
Legacies of Women Reformers
Jane Addams is known as a settlement house founder and a peace activist. She established the Hull-House in Chicago. The Hull House was a settlement house that provided education and needed services to local immigrants. Her quote Action indeed is the sole medium of expression for ethics is a great representation of the reason why women were fighting for their freedom.
Ida B. Wells-Barnett is described as a very famous journalist, activist, and researcher. Growing up, she dealt with many forms of discrimination and violence. She is known for leading a campaign against the killing of African Americans. Her famous quote, The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth upon them is important as it represents the fight to earn voting rights for women.
Abigail Scott Duniway is referred to as Oregon’s Mother of Equal Suffrage and The Pioneer Woman Suffragist of the great Northwest. She was the Veteran Equal Suffrage Leader of the Pacific Northwest. She was a lecturer, writer, and editor who spent forty years fighting for women’s rights. Abigail helped pass a law in Oregon that gave women the right to vote. Her quote She flies with her own wings shows us that in order for women to obtain the freedom they had to do it themselves. The fight was not an easy task and each woman had to use their own voice to make it effective.
Susan B Anthony played a very key role in issues regarding temperance, abolition, the rights of labor, and equal pay for work. She was one of the most known people in the progressive era. Susan was arrested for voting illegally in the presidential election in 1872; She went through trial and was fined $100 for the crime. She gave her entire life to fighting for women’s rights. Her famous quote There will never be complete equality until women themselves help to make the laws and elect the lawmakers is a perfect example of the struggle that women went through in order to obtain equality in society.
Margaret Sanger is known for founding the first birth control movement and trying to prove that it could improve family life. Margaret believed that in order to control family size, birth control was beneficial and it was a way to end poverty among women. Sanger founded her own feminist publication in 1914 with hopes of spreading the news about birth control but was charged with violating laws. She is famous for many quotes but one, in particular, stands out. The quote reads When motherhood becomes the fruit of a deep yearning, not the result of ignorance or accident, its children will become the foundation of a new race. This quote can be perceived in a variety of different ways but the meaning behind it is the simple fact that when a woman had the desire to become a mother and chose to become one, that their children would become the new race of people who did not discriminate like the current day people did.
Charlotte Hawkins Brown is known for fighting to allow black children to obtain a good education. She was a teacher and founder of the Palmer Memorial Institute. Charlotte fought against the Jim Crow Laws in hopes to gain more educational rights for colored children. Charlotte’s famous quote I must sing my song. There may be other songs more beautiful than mine, but I must sing the song God gave me to sing, and I must sing it until death shows a true representation of the way that people thought during this time frame. Charlotte’s quote states that no matter the situation, you have to keep going and do your part even if things disagree. She states that even though everyone disagreed with the progressive era and colored children gaining educational rights that she would continue to speak out and fight for equality.
Florence Kelley was known for dedicating her life to social change. She fought to have laws that protected women while at work. Kelley also worked with child labor laws. She helped to create the Women’s International League for Peace. Kelley is known for her quote stating This position is untenable, and there can be no pause in the agitation for full political power and responsibility until these are granted to all the women of the nation. Kelley was very unhappy with the lack of women’s rights and fought a very long time in hopes of gaining the right to vote for all women.
The Progressive Era Comes To An End
Years of Devotion and Dedication Conclude
When reflecting on the issues that women fought for and observing the achievements made, we remember problems with public health and safety, child labor, and women’s work. Issues with public health and safety enforced things such as the Factory Inspection Act, the first heat detector, the Pure, and Drug Act, the FDA, the Federal Meat Inspection Act, and the United States Department of Labor. Issues with child labor enforced things such as the Fair Labor Standards Act and the Keating Owen Act in order to prevent children from working in dangerous conditions while a minor.
Each of these reformers devoted a very large portion of their lives to fighting women’s rights and the issues regarding public health and safety, child labor, and women’s work. They used the idea of taking women’s everyday social aspects and making them public and political. The focus on topics appealing to women helped to promote awareness upon the level of injustice towards them. Even though women did not have the right to vote, they discovered new ways to build arguments about the issues. In return, these women won more and more support for women’s voting. Each of these outstanding women is known for a quote that was documented at one point in the progressive era and although they are all different, they all address the same issue and that was women’s rights and equality.
Impact of the Progressive Era on Our Culture Today
The Progressive Era in America is usually defined as the first two decades of the 1900’s when economic changes brought millions of people to cities, creating many changes and problems in society. This era has had an impact on our culture today in many ways, including the growth of consumerism, the rise of women’s rights, and the relationship between the people and the government. Job opportunities during this period caused many immigrants and people from rural areas to move to cities.
However, many of these jobs did not pay well, which resulted in bad living conditions and the formation of ghettos. Many Americans thought that only the government had the resources to be able to improve these miserable conditions, such as installing water and sewer systems or passing laws to protect them.
Moving to cities eroded small town values and made people, especially women, more independent. This newfound independence, however, clashed with the cultural perception of the time that women were fragile. Moving to cities also created a new consumerism, since more people had discretionary income and created a demand for consumer products such as automobiles. Although consumerism raised America’s standard of living, it also made debt commonplace in urban society. There was a difference of opinion between reformers on how to handle problems in this era, causing both more democratic and oppressive measures like allowing women to vote, but not African-American women.
My parents think the impact on our culture today is that the government plays a bigger role in solving economic and social problems, that women’s rights have expanded, and that consumerism is an important part of America’s culture. There is still a debate raging on whether the private sector or the government is better suited for solving our problems. The government has been very involved in trying to make things better with funding improvements in cities and protecting people by passing legislation. We have also come a long way in women’s rights, but there is still an inequality that people are trying to address. The rise of the Me too movement is one current example where women are fighting to get rid of sexual harassment in the workplace and get equal pay for equal work. Consumerism is an important part of American culture today, where trends in fashion, the latest it thing to have, like an iPhone, and other latest consumer products causes Americans to spend money more than they save it. In summary, the Progressive Era brought many important changes to American society, and its effects are still being felt even today, such as the role of the government, women’s rights, and the importance of consumerism.
Significance Of Sexism Today
Sexism is the discrimination or devaluation based on a person’s sex or gender, as in restricted job opportunities,especially such discrimination directed against women. Just as race and class have created schisms within our culture, sex, and gender have also been a source of great conflict within the United States. The working environment is the region in which sexism is most usually found.
About four-in-ten working women in the United States have faced discrimination based on their gender on the job. Enactment is currently set up in numerous nations that precludes unreasonable treatment of staff on the grounds of their sex. The issue with this enactment is that they are regularly hard to apply.
There is a long history of sexism throughout the ancient civilizations of how women are treated as property at home and lacked the equal rights as those of men, in areas including everything from voting to education. The term sexism emerged during second-wave feminism paralleling the term racism, but this was by no means the first time sexism occurred (Berlinsky-Schine). The Declaration of Independence has sexism embedded in it by saying, all men are created equal, with no mention of women. The women’s rights movement allowed women to make significant strides in terms of their political, social, and socioeconomic status (Berlinsky-Schine).
The idea that the women is subject to the man, was even evident in many of the tv shows from the 1950’s. Women had a job in the B.C. times, it was a time to have kids, preferably boys back then to educate and raise them, cook, clean, control the servants, ect. Husbands could beat and rape their wives with little worry of recourse; in 1910, the United States Supreme Court denied wives the right to prosecute their husbands for assault (Campbell). Women believed it’s legitimate to have a lower status. Numerous individuals think that males have advantages over females when it comes to occupations. Even though this may be accurate, in some cases it is in fact exactly the opposite.
On average, women earn less than men having the same occupation. In 2017, female full-time, year- round workers made only 80.5 cents for every dollar earned by men, a gender wage gap of twenty percent (Pay Equity and Discrimination). There have been laws put into place to eliminate unequal pay. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) ECOA guarantees an equal opportunity to obtain credit and prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of sex, religion, race, ect. (Find Law). Sex discrimination, harassment in tech, and in science is a major reason why women leave the field. Those women who do make it to the upper positions are frequently informed that they were just given that job because they are female, suggesting that the field is conceding less-meriting ladies essentially to expand their numbers. On average women are more likely to work part-time, be employed in low-paid jobs and not take on management positions.
Women are not only discriminated against for being pretty or provocative they are also discriminated against for being not pretty enough, too old, or, in some positions (especially sales and public relations) for not being sexy enough (Wolfe). Men usually get more benefits, more time off, and better compensation packages than women. This is based on gender bias and is also illegal and discriminating. There are still many people around the world that think sexism towards women is not an issue. Many believe that that gender equity has been achieved and no longer needs to be addressed. Some women were found to believe in a hierarchical system and believed it was fair to occupy a lower status than male. According to social constructionist theory, men behave in a sexist manner towards women in order to remove them from male-dominated spaces, regardless of social status (Kasumovic, Kuznekoff). Most of these women also feel a greater need for men as their protector and provider.
The issue with sexism is that at a youthful age, young men are shaped into acting like men; the moment they’re conceived they cannot demonstrate any feelings or convey what needs be in any sort of way. It’s constantly intense love. Doorman gives a prime precedent utilizing his children, he has a child and girl in which he shows that when there’s a contention with his child, they talk man-to-man, yet with his little girl it’s in every case alright for her to let out her feelings. Indeed, even around friends, young men are constrained into doing things that would make them naturally a man. Notwithstanding with regards to sex, men could have numerous sex accomplices, and he would be recognized as a man, however in the event that it was a lady who had different sex accomplices, she would be named as a prostitute, or skank.
People do not like when women are angry. This is partially because angry women violate prevalent gender schemas which require women to be kind and nurturing (Salles). Society justifies men’s anger as a result of external forces as they are trying to make an attribution to the women’s frustration. Sexist behavior is in response to a threat to a male’s position in a social hierarchy. Women who are peeved and assertive are thought to be less hirable and competent. Rules for men and women are not enforced universally because of shifting standards.
There have been many women to question men’s superiority in modern times. One of these women was Susan B. Anthony. She was arrested for illegally voting in a presidential election in 1872. Fourteen other women were additionally arrested, yet only Anthony’s activity was introduced as evidence. She was charged a $100 fine that she refused to pay, and never did. She also persuaded the University of Rochester to admit women to their college and raised $50,000 in pledges, which was reimbursed back to her. Susan was the first women to appear on a U.S. coin for her outstanding bravery. Anthony was asked if women would be given the right to vote in her lifetime and she replied with, It will come, but I shall not see it It is inevitable.
We can no more deny forever the right of self-government to one-half our people but come it will, and I believe within a generation (Anthony). Women were granted the right to vote because of the courage of one women.
There is as yet far to go, in any case. In many societies around the globe, men are still bound to hold places of monetary, social, and political power and gain the greatest compensations. One obvious model can be seen at the simple best: of 193 part conditions of the Assembled Countries, only 12 have a female head of government. Any individual who questions the presence of the man centric society has a pile of comparative observational information to contend their way finished.
This is not really an ongoing situationand sexual orientation imbalance has been much more awful previously. Be that as it may, with developments like #MeToo and individuals from varying backgrounds communicating disappointment with the present state of affairs, the development for sex correspondence at long last is by all accounts winning the contention. This makes now a decent time to inquire as to why the male centric society exists and for what reason does it continue? There is no lack of clarifications. Most are political, social or financial. Yet, there is additionally a decent arrangement to be picked up from looking at these inquiries from a logical viewpointparticularly the transformative sources of disparity and the brain science of sexual orientation, sex and power.
Sexual orientation jobs in Western social orders have been changing quickly as of late, with the progressions made both by developmental changes in the public arena, including monetary movements which have adjusted the manner in which individuals work and without a doubt which individuals function as an ever increasing number of ladies enter the workforce, and by maybe weight conveyed to make changes as a result of the recognition that the conventional social structure was discriminatory. Sex relations are a piece of the socialization procedure, the commencement given the youthful by society, showing them certain qualities and making in them certain standards of conduct worthy to their social jobs. These jobs have been in a condition of transition in American
Sexism is by no means close to an end in today’s world, but men and women are contributing to make strides against it. Although there is no real cure to sexism, we can still make an effort to help mild it. By just being kind to one another and addressing the situation can really decrease sexism in the United States. It would be helpful if employers were to educate their employees on how to handle sexism in the workplace.