Robinson Crusoe

Robinson and his Friday: How Does Robinson Crusoe Treat Friday

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Robinson Crusoe is a young Englishman from York. His father wants him to study for counsel and live a quiet life, but the young man wishes to pursue an existence of adventures. After a couple of failed attempts to enlist in the crew of a ship, he finally manages to embark to Guinea on one’s crew. On one of the trips they suffer the attack of a Turkish Corsair who takes Robinson as a slave; But after a while, Crusoe manages to escape, and embark on a Portuguese ship to Brazil. He resides in Brazil as a landowner for a while, and manages to Irle well.

On a trip to Africa to buy more slaves, his ship wrecks, and Crusoe manages to reach an island near the mouth of the Orinoco River. He realizes that he was the only survivor, and that the shipwreck was among the rocks near the coast. He began to swim to the wreck of the ship to rescue what would be useful: weapons, appliances, food and even some animals. He did this until the ship was finished sinking. With the recovered and with the materials of the environment, Robinson Crusoe was made of a residence as to his taste and customs as one could. He cultivated cereals and ate the meat he was hunting. On a certain occasion he became ill, and the trance of fevers made him rediscover his religious faith. The years went by, and sometimes he resented solitude, so that he sometimes explored the island, as much as he could. In one of the explorations, he discovers human footprints.Following them it is found that they belong to a group of natives who captured prisoners to cook them and to eat them. In fact, they had a prisoner for a young man who managed to escape before he was killed.

Crusoe helps the young man, killing his persecutors. From there he takes it to his service, calling it Friday.Crusoe and Friday begin to build a light boat to escape the island, but they see that the cannibals had two more prisoners who were going to eat. They rescue them, and they see that one was the father of Friday, and the other a Spanish sailor. This one tells them that there are more prisoners on Cannibal Island. They decide to rescue them. The rescued prisoners turned out to be sailors from a ship where there was a mutiny. Robinson and his new allies manage to recover the ship, leaving the mutineers on the deserted island not to be hanged in England. Crusoe manages to return to his country with Friday, and recover his properties in Brazil, after having been missing for more than 28 years. Conclusion What i think about this book is that: Its a very interesting book but in some pages it repeats the same thing.

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Friday, Saturday and Sunday – and Very Funny Boy

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Written during the age of discovery, Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe is often regarded as an embodiment of British imperialistic values and is widely acclaimed by its narrative and realism in its depiction of the narrator’s psychological and spiritual development. In this essay, the major themes in this novel, that somewhat serve as divisions in the story, will be exposed and examined more closely to give an insight on Robinson Crusoe’s ‘hidden’ messages. Survival, self-awareness, spiritual growth, self-sufficiency and colonialism; these topics are present in the novel and none of them are devoid of real meaning and each one passes through a lesson that can be applied to our real world if we look more deeply into the book.

One of the first themes we will find in the novel is the one of survival. Robinson Crusoe has found himself in a deserted island and now has to fend for himself, since he is the only man left alive in this unknown place. His main concern is survival. Being shipwrecked, Crusoe must think about what is absolutely essential for physical survival: tools, shelter, food and water.

At first, he has no clue on how to create and use tools, but he has to rely on his wits and courage, otherwise he will just be one more casualty born from this ill-fated voyage. His determination to live makes him learn how to make things on his own. With his own hands and what little he had with him upon arrival, he starts building a makeshift shelter for himself for protection against wild animals (which were non-existing on the island) and starts salvaging what he can from the shipwreck. With his newly-acquired skills, he slowly improves his crude shelter and starts making his own tools. With basic survival guaranteed, he lets his imagination fly, and that takes us to our next theme, self-sufficiency.

Having secured his basic needs and safety needs, Crusoe starts spending more of his time on improvements to his cave and fortifications. He expands the cave, making more room for moving around and storing his provisions and materials. He builds furniture with the tools he had saved from the ship, and builds shelves on the wall of the cave. He starts making more use of the island’s flora and fauna so as to make his life easier and more comfortable. He grows barley and fields of corn, plants grapes, breeds pigeons, tends goats and milks them, and makes his own clothing.

Recapping, Crusoe lands in a desert island in dire conditions and through a lot of hard work makes it his home. Although he has few supplies available to him, he succeeds in using what little he has to build a comfortable and safe home on the island. Crusoe moves from pure survival in the wild to leading a comfortable and even happy life on an unwelcoming environment, which raises him to a kind of relative prosperity. He even goes as for as to build a ‘country house’ which he calls his ‘castle’ as a means to escape from his ‘cave-dwelling’ routine. This only demonstrates that Robinson Crusoe has ‘conquered’ the island; he explores it, builds in it and hunts in it. He has achieved control over his own fate, something that he had been longing for before he had decided to set out into his maritime (mis-)adventures.

Moving on from self-sufficiency, we get to the theme of self-awareness. Being on the island for a long time does not make Robinson Crusoe go back to a basic life controlled by purely animal instincts. Instead, he manages to keep himself sane and, conscious of himself and his situation at all times. In fact, the time spent on the island removes him from the ‘civilized’ social world and makes him pay more attention to himself, therefore deepening his self-awareness. In the island, Crusoe learns things about himself that he probably would not have ever known had he not left home. There, he goes through a process of personal growth and maturation.

The novel’s focus on self-awareness is due to the Presbyterian doctrine that Daniel Defoe took seriously throughout all of his life, which has as one of its key points the careful reckoning of the state of one’s soul. We can notice Crusoe’s concern for his own state of mind in his mundane daily activities. He eagerly keeps himself in check in several ways. For example, Crusoe keeps a journal to write down every move he makes ever since he set foot on the island. It does not matter how insignificant his activities are, he records everything from simply gathering driftwood by the beach to staying inside his shelter waiting for the rain to stop. Another example is Crusoe’s makeshift calendar. One would think that the calendar’s purpose is to simply mark the passage of time and nothing else, but in reality, it serves to count the days he has spent as a castaway. In other words, it focuses on himself, it is a sort of self-conscious calendar. One last example is what Crusoe teaches his parrot: “Poor Robin Crusoe…Where have you been?” This sentence alone confirms his need for staying aware of himself.

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Robinson Crusoe: Two Sides Of The Same Coin

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Robinson, the common hero, extremely practical, self-made, and self-reliant has become a world-famous character since Daniel Defoe published the novel Robinson Crusoe in 1719. One of the most interesting points of the novel concerns the conflict existing between Robinson’s economic motivation and his religious salvation. Crusoe is indeed the embodiment of various, although quite controversial, ideologies. As the literary critic John Richetti points out, there are two main interpretations of the novel taken into consideration over the years. From one perspective, “Robinson represents the capitalist ideology, driven to acquire, control and dominate but, on another hand, Robinson also embodies a religious ideology by seeking a spiritual definition and divine pattern in his life”. Crusoe constantly displays an eager willingness to achieve liberty and exercise power which opposes the religious morality that defines individuals as less than autonomous, subordinate to God’s authority.

A hybrid character, Robinson “is neither exclusively a masterful economic individual nor a heroically spiritual slave.” The island becomes, at the same time, a Purgatory where he purges his soul and a place where he becomes master of himself, achieving and glorifying his power and independence. Once Crusoe is shipwrecked on the desert island, he undergoes a slow conversion, realizing how weak his previous life was and how the spiritual deliverance is greater than the physical one, “Deliverance from Sin a much greater Blessing, than Deliverance from Affliction”. He comes to a point where he “sincerely gave Thanks to God for opening his Eyes, by whatever afflicting Providences, to see the former Condition of his Life, and to mourn for his Wickedness, and repent.” The island thus becomes an experience of redemption, the occasion to strengthen his faith and devote himself to God’s willingness and authority. However, alongside the conversion, Crusoe masterfully imposes control over the island, which he calls his “little kingdom”. Robinson proudly says: “I pleas’d, I might call my self King, or Emperor over the whole Country which I had Possession of. There were no Rivals. I had no Competitor, none to dispute Sovereignty or Command with me.” By identifying himself as a King, or more magnificently, as an Emperor, Crusoe displays an individualistic and commanding attitude, which is contradictory with his religious ideology. In fact, Robinson “the king” has a conflict with Robinson “the Christian” because, by saying that no one commands him, he negates the uncontested and absolute authority that God exercises upon men. Critic Leopold Damrosch comments on the novel that the solitude of the island “exalts autonomy instead of submission” resulting in an “immortal triumph of wish fulfillment.”

As soon as Robinson meets Friday, he decides to convert him to Christianity, feeling the necessity to “bring him to the true Knowledge of Religion”. From this perspective, Crusoe may be seen as a missionary or, as he defines himself, as “an Instrument under Providence to save the Life, [..], the Soul of a poor Savage”. Robinson, after his experience with Friday, believes that God has:bestow’d upon them the same Powers, the same Reason, the same Affections, the same Sentiments of Kindness and Obligation, the same Passions and Resentments of Wrongs, the same Sense of Gratitude, Sincerity, Fidelity, and all the Capacities of doing Good, and receiving Good, that he has given to us. However, despite this religious observation, he considers Friday the “most faithful, loving, sincere Servant” he could ever have had. Robinson affirms that God has made all humans equal, however, he establishes a hierarchical relationship with Friday: Crusoe is the master, Friday his servant. As George Orwell would argue many years later, “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”

The fact that Robinson has converted Friday to Christianity and, at the same time, the imposition of mastery upon him, suggests that the conversion is a way to merely command the native, who indeed becomes diligent and submissive to his master Crusoe. This hypothesis is even reinforced by the fact that Robinson himself says that he “was greatly delighted with him, and made it his Business to teach him every Thing, that was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful”. Additionally, Crusoe literally objectifies Friday when he considers him as a mere means, “I might find an Opportunity to make my Escape from this Place; and that this poor Savage might be a Means to help me to do it”.

The dichotomy between the religious salvation and the economic motivation come to a “crescendo” towards the end of the novel when Robinson is finally rescued and rewarded once in England.Such things as these were the Testimonies we had of a secret Hand of Providence governing the World, and an Evidence, that the Eyes of an infinite Power could search into the remotest Corner of the World, and send Help to the Miserable whenever he pleased. I forgot not to lift up my Heart in Thankfulness to Heaven, and what Heart could forbear to bless him, who had not only in a miraculous Manner provided for one in such a Wilderness,* and in such a desolate Condition, but from whom every Deliverance must always be acknowledged to proceed.

When Robinson is delivered, he thanks God as never before, realizing that he is finally saved. The rescue is the definitive proof that God’s Providence controls the world and that he has been rewarded for having been a devoted, diligent, and faithful Christian. Back in England, he learns that his plantation has made him rich and as soon as he receives this notice, he becomes so ill for the joy that: The sudden Surprize of Joy had overset Nature, and I had dy’d upon the Spot. Nay after that, I continu’d very ill, and was so some Hours, ’till a Physician being sent for, and something of the real Cause of my Illness being known, he order’d me to be let Blood.

Crusoe feels he could die from the excitement, manifesting an exaggerated attachment to money. From this moment on, money seems to be the strongest source of joy and his strongest drive. During his stay on the island, Crusoe regretted the relationship he had with money in his previous life, so much so that when he found it on board he became quite nervous, “O Drug! said I aloud, what art thou good for?”. However, back in England, he has the same restlessness and willingness to accumulate more money. In fact, in order to assure his finances, he starts to stipulate contracts and administrate his wealth as a successful businessman. The crucial point occurs when he decides to go to sea once again, abandoning his home and the place where God has placed him. It is here that the conflict struggles to find a plausible resolution. On the island, he regretted that he was “not being satisfy’d with the Station wherein God and Nature has plac’d” him, recognizing the choice to venture as his “original sin”. Nevertheless, after his conversion and salvation, he decides to venture again. By the time he goes to sea, he has “three Children, two Sons and one Daughter” but his “Inclination to go Abroad” prevails and he sails again. As a son, he left his home disobeying his father’s “law”, and now, as a father he leaves his home, refusing his paternal duties and responsibilities. From my perspective, the prevalence of his individualistic attitude, which pushes him towards a self-realization, proclaims the victory of self-achievement instead of Christian acceptance and religious devotion.

However, we must consider the historical context of the novel, especially the strong influence of the Puritan work ethic during Defoe’s lifetime. By the end of the 17th century, “A specifically bourgeois economic ethic had grown up. With the consciousness of standing in the fullness of God’s grace and being visibly blessed by Him, the bourgeois businessman, as long as he remained within the bounds of formal correctness, as long as his moral conduct was spotless and the use to which he put his wealth was not objectionable, could follow his pecuniary interests as he would and feel that he was fulfilling a duty in doing so”. The individual is therefore urged to work since work is intended to be a “call” from God: “God helps those who help themselves.” From this perspective, Robinson’s productiveness, self-reliance, and independence are justified since they have guaranteed not only his survival but his salvation too. Weber’s thesis suggests that economic motivation and the religious salvation “are inseparable, if ultimately contradictory, parts of a complex intellectual and behavior system”. Nevertheless, where individualism ends and religious submission to God’s authority begins, remains open to debate.

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Character Development in Robinson Crusoe

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Robinson Crusoe’s Character Development

Throughout this novel, we witness Robinson Crusoe’s character going through a series of changes. These changes do not occur over a short period of time, but rather over the course of more than thirty years. Crusoe gets shipwrecked on an island off the coast of Trinidad and is only left with the items he has found on the ship. He experiences religious clarification and realizes that God has put him on this island to deliver him from his earlier sins. Crusoe begins to feel more optimistic about being on the island, declaring himself as king. He spends the first few years on this island in peace until coming across a footprint one day, a turning point in his emotions.

Crusoe talks about the element of evil during the times he was captured by the pirates. “That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house – which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune” (Defoe 23). The choice of being evil is not some foolish decision that one person decides to make. To be evil is a choice that one makes with a morally iniquitous influence over him or her, according to Crusoe. Also, since Crusoe is such a curious individual especially in the beginning of the novel, evil makes Crusoe its passive victim. This involves Crusoe’s apathy, one of his biggest internal enemies. The idea that he acted out against his father in an evil way enhances his religious side. He goes into great detail about the Portuguese captain of the ship that took him to Africa, where he was enslaved. “…under whom also I got a competent knowledge […] as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant” (25). The captain’s name is never told to us, yet Crusoe spends a great deal of time going over what the captain has done for him. The gifts and rewards that the Portuguese captain gives to Crusoe suggests that this was the start of Crusoe seeing himself as becoming a potential king or leader of some nation. This is because those same gifts provided him with enough resources to be able to escape his slavery and establish an independent name for him, so that he could avoid going back to that situation again. Crusoe’s character changes from one who needs help to being able to help himself pretty sufficiently; that is, until his ship gets caught up in a sea storm.

He still appears as the caring individual, even while on the island. He recalls the storm that sent his ship wrecked and how he lost his two friends. “The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that with such force, that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance” (70-71). Just when he thought he had his plan figured out, he gets stranded on an island as the sole survivor. This is where Crusoe has his religious awakening, another character change. He thanks God multiple times for saving his life. While thanking God, he starts to wonder why he was the one who ended up living and being stranded on this island. Crusoe’s relation to material possessions is a prominent topic to further explain this.

Crusoe repetitively suggests that his shipwreck is a punishment for his greed for earning profits and that his desire for having more possessions is what led him to feel this misery. Crusoe experiences several other religious experiences throughout his stay on the island. One example of this forgetting occurs during his illness; his turn to religion seems profound and lasting. He has a hallucination of a wrathful angel figure that threatens him for not repenting his sins is a major event in his emotional life. When he falls on his knees to thank God for delivering him from his illness, his faithfulness towards religion appears to be sincere. He tells himself that this island may not be a place of captivity, but a place of deliverance from his earlier sins. He thus redefines his whole landscape and eventually his whole life optimistically. This is a great character change compared to how earlier in the novel he says, “I made many vows and resolutions that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more” (10). He held such a negative connotation of life and blamed it on his distaste towards his father. Crusoe decides to make the most of his time while on this island. He declares himself as the king of this island and makes all the necessary changes to fulfill this. “I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast away upon that island without being driven […] I had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven” (98). The reason that he decides to amend up the island as he wants is because he sees this as his pass to get into Heaven. At this point, Crusoe feels so satisfied with himself and has forgotten about his previous yearning to go back home, though he does wish he could meet someone else.

With his survival no longer in question, Crusoe begins to redefine himself not as a poor castaway, but as a successful landowner. He begins to refer to his island dwelling as his “home” and his “castle,” and when he constructs a shady retreat inland, he calls it his “bower” or “country seat.” Both of these terms have upper-class undertones. He refers to the entire land as his “plantations” and calls his goats “cattle.” This suggests that his relationship to the island is becoming more proprietary, involving a much greater sense of proud ownership than before. Naturally, he still has low-spirited moods in which he complains and views the island as a prison. His complaining becomes a less frequent occurrence, the more he works with the island.

Crusoe also has to deal with a lack of human contact on this island. He catches a parrot on the island, after seeing an abundance of them, and takes the time to make it learn how to speak. “I brought it home; but it was some years before I could make him speak; however, at last I taught him to call me by name very familiarly” (173). Clearly, much effort was put in to make this parrot speak, which proved unsatisfactory for Crusoe. One would think that when Crusoe saw the footprint on the island, he would get excited and find out who else is here. Crusoe’s initial reaction is fear. This has to deal with his developing into an independent leader and the idea that he has potential competition. He terminates all his activities on the island until an individual begins to approach him. Following him are cannibals, whom Crusoe attacks and rescues the individual who he names Friday. “I likewise taught him to say Master; and then let him know that was to be my name” (328). Even though Friday goes beyond to obey Crusoe, this does not satisfy Crusoe. Every time in the novel that it appears Crusoe is going in a positive direction, he once again slumps; there are some moments where he slumps harder than others, however. As the bond between Crusoe and Friday becomes stronger, the similarities between the two men’s cultures gain more importance than their differences. When the ship is recovered and ready to take him home, Crusoe learns that most of his family passed away. “I found nothing to relieve or assist me; and that the little money I had would not do much for me as to settling in the world” (445). He takes it as a negative sign initially, but then realizes that this might be God’s way of thanking him for his patience, as Crusoe is gifted with possessions to help him adjust.

Crusoe comes off as a greatly negative person in the beginning of the novel. We witness him go through his ups and downs of adjusting with life as a slave, escaping slavery, living on his own for more than thirty years, and dealing with foreign presences on a land he once thought was his own. Coming off the island, he is a much more positive person with a closer relationship with God. He does have his flaws that must be accounted for, like being materialistic and enslaving Friday for example. This character change is due to a religious clarification and a mental discovery of himself, while spending so long in solitude.

Personal Reflection:

It was mentally a nice and pleasant experience reading this novel. I was able to relate myself in different scenes and I found it easy to understand for the most part; some scenes required deeper reading and more looking over than others. This novel is one of few novels that made me want to get to know the character in person, though for Crusoe, I may stop at a certain extent to avoid becoming his ‘slave’. I will definitely reread this novel many times after this course is over.

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The Theme of God’s Mercy in Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

As a shipwreck and the only crewmember to outlive a savage storm, the story of Robinson Crusoe delves into mankind’s instinctual capacity to survive. The young man’s search to cope illustrates the complexities of spiritual and individual truths, as he is suddenly “divided from mankind” and “cast upon a desolate island.” Crusoe is tormented by his own faith and questions the prospect of divine intervention. At times, he views his remarkable escape from death as a blessing and actively exclaims God to be the source of this salvation. However, Crusoe approaches his fate with the notion that his circumstances were of no other cause than bad luck. He finds comfort in the rational pursuit of basic necessities but often falls prey to self-pity and torment. The daily records of his experience become an embodiment of the patterns that build a characterizing tone of constant change. Most prominent in the position of helplessness, the weak and desperate side of Crusoe is spiritual. The man’s cries for help occur in instances of severe doubts towards his mortality and arise a sudden need for comfort through God. Forced to live with a constant reflection of himself and his circumstances thus far in life, Crusoe’s adventure is the coupling of both biblical and existential considerations.

Crusoe’s psyche repeatedly depends on utilizing mechanical distractions, as he is more focused on thoughts of his exterior challenges. As one characterizing mode of thought, he uses problem solving to his own advantage. The factual tone combined with a methodically organized timeline within his journal reveal his tendency to be logically driven, even going as far as making a pros and cons list to categorize his circumstances on the island. In moments of vulnerability, which often “forced tears from (his) eyes,” the motives of his pains are self-serving. In one instance, he experiences a longing for “comfort and company,” as he is now alone in the strangeness of the seemingly unoccupied island. Instead of sorrowing for the lost lives of his crew, Crusoe mourns objectively, turning their tragedy into a mere inconvenience of his solitary lifestyle. Immediately, he feels lonely, complaining of being “wet… having no clothes… nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort” (41 Defoe). Eventually, he choses the most rational course and “considers the next day.” Crusoe describes this mode of thought as using “reason” to “master” any “despondency” that inevitably found its way into his psyche (57).

Constantly questioning the truth behind his placement on the island, Crusoe succumbs to a religious foundation in multiple instances. When experiencing an overwhelming bout of sickness, Crusoe desperately calls for God’s help and cries, “‘Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!’” The sudden yearn for God’s aid and compassion is circumstantial, lacking the qualities necessary for true repentance. However, fleeting moments of triumph and relief are often accompanied with a spiritual origin, suddenly claiming God to be an active participant in his fate. The perspective shifts. The shipwreck is an act of God, which “wonderfully sent the ship near enough to the shore” so his “singled out and separated” condition is now blessing. Crusoe contains the capacity to view God in a virtuous; however, the thoughts are inconsistent and often followed by his abatement of their validity in opposing beliefs. If used as a last resort or bout of joy, prayers become a mere mechanism to ease the realities of his rigorous conditions.

The subtle reference to Jonah and the whale parallels Crusoe’s conscience with the scripture’s overall cautionary objective. Jonah is aboard “the ship of Tarshish” (15) and Crusoe is “on a ship bound for London” (9), both faced with a storm so strong it becomes a personification of God’s wrath. Death for both was suddenly approaching; as the ocean’s power provoked a terror so deep in body and mind that penitence overcame their thoughts. In a position of inner condemnation, the sins of their past were “overtaken by the Judgment of Heaven,” now guided by desperate exclamations and promises to fix their sinful natures in the chance of survival. Jonah and Crusoe’s motives differ slightly; Jonah is fleeing from God’s demands while Crusoe is abandoning the boundaries of a life devoted to this higher power. As a means of religious intervention, the placement of Crusoe on an island without other human interactions is a consequence of his faltering faith, only prevalent when his demise is near. The cost of God’s mercy is through repentance, only possible through a genuine conviction that one’s punishment is just. Crusoe’s fortune is the less fortunate of the two. His erratic appeals of self-serving intentions lead him into “the deepest Gulph of human Misery that ever man fell into.” Crusoe becomes a prisoner to a jarring environment, filled with constant reflections of him and simultaneously overcoming the exterior obstacles of the natural world.

Crusoe begins his reflections describing himself as the “poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,” inhabiting the most “dismal” and “unfortunate…Island of Despair,” illustrating one aspect of his tendency to be childish and self-absorbed (60 Defoe).

The back and forth pledges to God by Crusoe begin his pattern of a constantly changing system of beliefs.

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Robinson Crusoe, Fight Club, and the Issue of Self-Fulfillment

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

I am Robinson Crusoe’s wasted life: The Comparison of Fight Club and Robinson Crusoe regarding the theme of self-Fulfilment.

When asked, most people would say that money is not the important aspect of life. In the case of self-fulfillment, this is a very true case. Money alone, after-all, can not bring a feeling of self-fulfillment to someone. Or can it? Many materialistic items are able to be used to achieve one’s own feeling of fulfillment. When thinking of materialism we often think of money as being on top of the list, this of course being rightly attributed to the notion that anything of material value can usually be attained with money. The process of self-fulfillment is one that goes hand in hand with finding one’s purpose in life and achieving happiness.

Money is often referred to as “the devil”. It arguably is something that goes along with greed, materialism, and corruption. However it is also the same thing used to purchase food for a homeless man and allows scientists to work on cures for deadly sicknesses. One’s sense of materialism can be an integral point that determines whether or not they achieve a feeling of self-fulfillment. Whether or not this is achieved morally is up for debate however morals aside, it is important for the development of a character as well as a real person to achieve this. In Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe, the process of self-fulfillment is a prominent theme however the way its is achieved is a bit different. This case in Robinson Crusoe is similar to the process of self-fulfillment seen in the development of the main character in Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk.

Robinson Crusoe is an engaging story that has many dynamic aspects akin to an adventure, religious, or philosophical novel. The main character and the work’s namesake Robinson Crusoe is a very tantalizing character. His story is full of dramatic ups and downs and quite complex. We see him through various points in his life and each part of his life comes with it’s own issues moral and otherwise. At it’s core, the story of Robinson Crusoe is that of self-exploration which leads to self-fulfillment. Robinson is a man who basically had his life drawn out for him and he decided to leave his vanilla wife and family to see if there was more to life. He came from a long line of law enforcers who all had a decent living in the colony they lived in. After failing repeatedly, Robinson’s family, being very religious, attributed his failure to God sending him a sign. They told him that God’s message was that there were only hardships ahead. They cared for Robinson and said this to persuade him to come home and stay. Robinson however saw his failures rather as God testing him and opted to return to sea. This part of the story is where we first notice how religious beliefs play a role in his decisions and how they affect his sense of materialism and self-fulfillment. Even though he could have chosen to stay home amongst his family and cophysical comforts. He rather chose to abandon his cozy lifestyle for a life of adventure on the open sea in order to hopefully achieve self-fulfillment.

He sets sail once again and successfully makes it out to sea only to get attacked by pirates. When he escapes them he befriends a slave named Xury. They both manage to survive for a time and although he and Xury had been through a lot, he sells his friend to secure his freedom and obtain some capital. This is an interesting point in the development of Robinson. He went from an adventurous energetic sailor with a strong belief in God who didn’t care about money to a man who sold his friend for his own personal and monetary benefit. When he left the place he was being held, he managed to obtain a plantation using some of the capital he acquired from selling his friend. The plantation ends up doing well and he accumulates enough money to retire and live off of his plantation if he wanted to. However, after all of this, he still doesn’t feel fulfilled in his life and decides to set sail again. When it comes to his own sense of fulfillment, it doesn’t seem to coincide with his sense of materialism. He repeatedly manages to do very well financially and yet always feels as if it isn’t enough. Money seems to lack importance to Robinson in comparison to other priorities of his. Even though he sells his friend for money and freedom, when he’s safe and making good money running a plantation he still feels a lack of self-fulfillment. This leads him back onto the sea once again in search of adventure or something that can manage to fill the hole in his heart. Something always felt like something was missing in his life and that something is not money. When he sails once again he ends up getting caught in a storm. After the storm subsides, Robinson finds himself on a beach of an island he doesn’t know and realizes that his ship is wrecked beyond repair sinking somewhere in the ocean. As he travels into the island in search of food, water, and possible civilization, he comes across a group of natives performing a ceremony of human sacrifice. He manages to save one of the native men that were about to be sacrificed. After they get to safety they attempt to communicate and once he realizes he can’t communicate with the man he saved, he names him Friday. Friday becomes his very close friend on the island and after managing to teach Friday some english, he starts to teach him about Christianity and God.

After some time of showing friday the ways of christianity and pushing to convert him, Friday speaks of his own religion. The religion of the natives on the island was a very savage and violent one in which those that ate certain things were believed to be granted power. Friday tells Robinson about it was taught to him that if you eat more fish you become a better swimmer, if you eat lizards you get better at climbing, and lastly if you kill a man and eat his heart, you become strong. Robinson, being offended that the one he was teaching about God would speak of such a religion says Friday is speaking blasphemy. This causes the two of them to have a falling out and they stop speaking with each other for weeks if not months. They even isolate themselves from each other to avoid interaction. The reason that I brought up this part of the story is because even as Robinson is stranded on an island he does not know that he is most likely cohabiting with natives who would literally rip his heart out, he chooses to alienate his only friend over a difference in religious upbringing. Robinsoe Crusoe is a very complex character. In this paper I am speaking on the importance of money to people and whether it or other things bring characters self-fulfillment however when referring a character such as Crusoe, his sense of fulfillment and the importance of material items vary in different times. Through all of this it seems, when he has nothing of true material value on the island and an obviously lacking of self-fulfillment he most likely was receiving by converting Friday to christianity, one difference in upbringing and religious views was enough to make him throw all of it away for a term of isolation. Eventually the two characters get over their mild conflict however this short term in their lives holds quite a piece of significance in character development of course but also in observing what it is that Robinson holds dearest to him. He didn’t really care about money and it’s affect on him nor did he show great consideration for those close to him. Rather whenever his ideas or beliefs were challenged he stood firm in their defense. When his family told him his failures at sea were signs from God to do something else at home and avoid hardship, he stood with his belief that his failures were instead signs from God as a test of his worthiness. Now when Friday challenges Robinson’s beliefs with his own from his culture, Robinson feels the need to defend his faith especially because he had been attempting to convert Friday to christianity. When he gets back to England he gives his entire fortune to his sisters and marries. When his wife passes away he goes back to sailing and leaves everything behind once again. For Robinson Crusoe, materialism isn’t very prominent for him however when it comes to his feeling of self-fulfillment, it is his religion coupled with his need for adventure that seem to affect him most.

In the novel Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk, the main character who is not named in the novel but states that he is “Joe”. Joe starts a club where men can go and relieve their stress and feel a pleasing rush of adrenaline, testosterone, and dopamine. This is done through two members of the club taking part in the brutal, yet classical art of hand to hand combat. The story opens up in the regular day to day activities of average Joe. He has a decent job and has the basic essentials to that a person in their mid-twenties should have. He ends up meeting a character by the name of Tyler Durden. Tyler is the polar opposite of Joe. Where Joe is more reserved and polite, Tyler is open, bluntly honest, and straightforward. Joe works a nine-to-five job during the week he’s come to hate but needs the money. Tyler is unemployed and goes with the flow. Tyler gets in the head of Joe and convinces him to change his ways. To be more exploring and reckless and to not care about what people think. Tyler ends up convincing Joe to destroy his house with him as well as giving him the necessary mindset to wreck his boss’ office and quit his job. Tyler shows Joe he doesn’t really need much to live, that money is not as necessary to live daily as he had thought. Tyler takes Joe under his wing and shows him how to play by his own rules and to live in the moment. Joe and Tyler move into an old house that Joe describes as “huge but terrible”. Tyler and Joe then begin a cult with the men who participated in the fight clubs. Even though Joe is the protagonist of the story, he watches Tyler commit commit all of the vicious crimes he does and can’t seem to stop it. Morality plays a large role in this novel mainly because the morality of one’s actions can be decided on the point of view you decide to view the story through. While Tyler’s actions may not be morally sound by traditional means, his rationalization often strikes the reader as sound and somewhat reasonable.

This story tends to play with the idea of materialism quite a bit. The main characters live in an old beaten down home with the bare necessities and while neither of them have been the type to want much, seeing them live day to day doing the interesting crimes and other activities they manage to do by living in the moment and not worrying about normal issues you or I would consider important. It’s a fascinating tale of self-fulfillment that examines different parts of the human mind. As the story continues, the reader learns that Joe and Tyler actually are not two strangers who met and began a crime spree leading a cult of recruited fighters. Tyler and Joe are actually the same person. Joe has two personalities living in him and his alter ego Tyler Durden, being the polar opposite of him, is one formed from a need to achieve self-fulfillment. Without Tyler, Joe would still be the average guy walking down the street, working his nine-to-five job barely getting by without a bit of excitement in sight. Tyler Durden however, is a persona that embodies everything that Joe wants to be. Tyler is tough, charismatic, intelligent, suave, and a natural leader. Through Joe’s own feeling of lacking meaning in his life, Tyler Durden was born.

All of the crimes Tyler committed, the fight club, the cult, the fights he got into, and even a plan to blow up buildings housing credit card companies were all him. He became tired of being told how to live and act. He got sick of needing to work every day to continue a meager existence. When Tyler had revealed to Joe his plan to blow up buildings housing credit card companies he at first thought it was insane. Over time, although Joe did not agree with committing an act of terrorism, he still saw the rationalization of Tyler Durden. The self-fulfillment so sought after by Joe only came from one thing, freedom. The freedom to control one’s life without the need for societal norms to tell you what’s right or wrong. When Joe realizes that him and Tyler are one in the same, he has an epiphany as to why he did all of the things that he did. He states “The things you own end up owning you. It’s only after you lose everything that you’re free to do anything.” By blowing up the credit card company buildings housing the records, the world would become filled with Tyler Durdens. Millions of people would be debt free and be allowed a fresh start in life. There would no longer be anything owning them and they would go out into the world without concern. Joe realized that following the norms of everyone else, and living the regular life of a normal person, wasn’t fulfilling. It wasn’t until he became Tyler Durden, a classless citizen with no laws or restraints that he was finally getting what he and many people truly yearned for. Freedom.

Robinson Crusoe and Joe both have very similar paths. They both realize that there is more to life than monetary possessions. They both realize that money isn’t everything by going so long without it. Going through what both of them respectively did allowed them to see the side of life not governed by money. That’s the side of life where you have more freedom than you realize. When living like that you no longer have to achieve the societal norms expected of you. Robinson Crusoe and Joe both had their own ways of escaping the world in search of themselves. In the end, both of them were only fulfilled when they were free from society. Even when he went back, Robinson Crusoe always felt the need to go back out at sea, to see what was out there and what adventures he can get into. In a more modern world, the case was still the same for Joe. He may not have been sailing the sea, but by developing the persona of Tyler Durden, he subconsciously found an escape from everyday life and responsibility. It was this freedom that the two of them sought after and it was this that allowed them to achieve their own self-fulfillment by realizing there is more to life than making money and being a regular citizen. You need to have a sense of individuality.

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Divine Providence from Robinson Crusoe’s Perspective

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

In Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, appropriately titled after its main character, young Robinson is a middle-class man in search of a career. Though pressed by his family to study Law, Robinson yearns for oceanic adventure, longing to escape to a life at sea. Against the will of his father, his subsequent rebellion and decision to board a merchant vessel further damages his already fragile and undeveloped view of God, which withers completely as he joins company with godless sailors. Crusoe’s assessment of Providence’s sunshine is foggy at best, and he seems to label God’s justice as merciless, rather than merciful and forgiving. This fledgling faith is nurtured as life experience unfolds, especially during his island experience. Robinson Crusoe journeys in his attitude toward Divine Providence from a rebellion against what he perceives as a disinterested authority early on, to an initial repentance and conversion through the vision-dream, and finally, to an active and mature faith in a loving God, Who protects and guides all things, by the end of his stay on the island.

As Crusoe’s adventures began to unfurl, his outlook on God remained sheepish, and he retained a certain reluctance to accept the all-wise plan which God held for each and every one of his flock. Crusoe’s infant devotion is revealed as, on his maiden voyage, the ship nearly founders, and he prays to God for the first time from a place of distress. As his first passage involves a near-death experience, he concludes that it must be his heavenly Father’s will that he obey his earthly father’s will. Nevertheless, the ocean beckons, and his view of God as a chastising power fails to develop for several years. Crusoe’s hazardous life is filled with risk, and reward and retribution travel hand-in-hand. Just as things seem to be going perfectly, Robinson finds himself the sole survivor of a shipwreck, and, beaten by the waves, he is washed ashore an exotic island. Despite his initial thankfulness for his salvation, loneliness overwhelms him and he is filled with ingratitude at his misfortune. During this time Crusoe views himself as the author of his own miseries, believing his misadventures to be the merchandise of his past misbehaviors, and would oftentimes sit and weep as he pondered “why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures and render them so absolutely miserable.” Just as Crusoe was shipwrecked physically, it seems he was also shipwrecked spiritually, searching for a trustworthy island whilst struggling for survival in waves of doubt.

Various events lead the shipwrecked swashbuckler to take on a new attitude towards Providence, and he begins to appreciate his deliverance onto the island. In a dream he realizes his need for repentance, and he wakes in tears as he realizes his ingratitude. Robinson recognizes the “stupidity of soul” (p.81) with which he has been living, and his prayers turn from ungracious to thankful. His thoughts of self-pity are now followed by thoughts of self-rebuke, and the Bible begins to affect him profoundly. Shameful of his past ways, Crusoe launches into vigorous reading of the New Testament. Joined by a new companion, Friday, Crusoe is finally again in the company of his own kind, and he redevelops his understanding of humans as he observes Friday’s humble servitude.

The arrival of mutineers and their ousted captain to the island further challenge Crusoe and, as he works with the captain to reclaim the ship, his eyes are fully opened to the completeness of God’s plan for him. Believing himself to be playing a significant part in work of Providence, Robinson takes on a poise and governance which reflect the maturity of the faith he has come to understand. His willingness to come to the aid of others is quick and gracious as he comprehends the willingness of God to come to his own aid and for the first time he truly places the Will of Providence at the center of his life.

Crusoe’s approach to God matures throughout his life as he mutinies against the desires of his loved ones, is brought to repentance by what he views as a Divine intervention, and mellows into a lively and developed faith in a loving God who defends and attends to all things. The marooned mariner who arrived to the island is now a jubilant instrument in the work of Providence, and appreciatively indebted to the Savior he has come to know. The faith which began with fear now rests in exultation, and continues to remain as the centerpiece in the thoughts and decisions of the liberated castaway. Robinson Crusoe follows a seemingly perpetual design of sinning, disregarding God’s forewarnings, hardening his heart to God, repenting as a result of God’s favor and forgiveness, and undergoing a soul-wrenching conversion.

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The Aspect Of Reality In Robinson Crusoe By Daniel Defoe

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Fiction is defined as being ‘invented or untrue’, however fictional texts can represent reality; authors have created the illusion of real life through fiction by obscuring unreality using realistic occurrences. Robinson Crusoe is an example of this, with Daniel Defoe claiming the text to be a work of non-fiction for a year after publication – citing himself as an editor. Works of fiction are often built from life, hence why they reflect a sense of realism. Being realistic is representing ‘things in a way that is true to life’; authors can create texts with elements true to life, just simply not true of life.

The aspect of reality is especially displayed through how Crusoe establishes himself whilst marooned. He collects useful possessions from the ship, then tries to create items that he could not acquire – like pots to store corn. This process is described in great detail, making readers feel as though Crusoe really experienced it. Defoe also writes how Crusoe initially failed at this venture. ‘It would make the reader pity me what ugly things I made; how many fell in pieces I could not make above two large earthen ugly things in about two months’ labour. ’ Crusoe’s misfortunes show him to be human; whether that is a human that existed in reality or solely in text. If all of his attempts had been successful the first time, readers would have been able to tell immediately that the tale was falsified, so Defoe builds him as a protagonist with flaws, partly to make him more endearing but mostly, to showcase how easily Crusoe could be a ‘’real man’’. Defoe has Crusoe live a solitary life, surviving using basic human instinct; this creates a survival story rather than an adventure story which is more relatable – and therefore more realistic.

Fiction being obscured to appear as reality is shown in Robinson Crusoe. Eighteenth century authors ‘concealed fictionality by locking it inside the confines of the credible’ – done by Defoe. Although inhabiting a desert island seems improbable, Crusoe’s isolation is understated so that it appeared plausible, particularly shown at the beginning of Crusoe’s habitation on the island. Crusoe recounts his first night was spent in an ‘apartment in the tree’. Sleeping in a tree builds an image of being truly stranded, a tree being his only source of shelter. This commits credibility to Crusoe’s account by exhibiting his aloneness and how he is forced to turn to his own ingenuity to live.

Defoe obscures the implausibility by focusing the reader on Crusoe’s humanly characteristics, like his desire to survive. Yet, this practice reveals the fiction, establishing the idea of ‘revealing and concealing fiction being one and the same process’. The journal section displays this, as it was intended to add authenticity, but retracted from it. Crusoe begins his journal to keep track of life on the island, however it becomes an aid to his recounting, rather than a part of it. The journal is initially a day by day account, but extremely detailed as though Crusoe is just experiencing it not recounting it. It also then begins to straddle tenses as it reverts from past to present, with ‘’current day’’ Crusoe interjecting with additional details. Crusoe writes ‘I worked’, rather than I work. The past tense ‘worked’ shows that Crusoe is not writing the journal in the moment, but after the fact. Crusoe is also often thought of as an unsavoury character for how unfeeling he is and his manner of ‘acknowledging his absolute power’ over those he finds on his travels.

All of these things add up to Crusoe remaining just a character in a novel. Though eighteenth century authors of fiction were ‘accused of fraud’, Robinson Crusoe is thought of, not as fraud in the sense it was accused, but as truthful lying, because, although the events did not happen to a man named Robinson Crusoe, they could have happened to a man that lived in the eighteenth century.

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Robinson Crusoe History

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Robinson Crusoe was born in 1632 in York as third son. Robinson Crusoe is an English man from thane town of York who is the youngest son of a merchant of German origin. His parents wish him to study law and would like to see him as a great lawyer but Crusoe has some other plan. He shows his wish to go to sea, but his family, especially his father is against his wish. His father tries to convince him to give up his dream to go to sea but Crusoe is determined.

His childhood went by, and he was always looking at ships. He always wanted to go far away, so he accepted to be a salesman and a sailor. He went on his first sail. It was so terrifying that he changed his mind and decided to ask his father for forgiveness. When the storm settled, and the journey became pleasant, he forgot about that decision.

He was thirsty for money and fine, so he went to Guinea to make a sale. It went successfully so he moved towards Africa, but the Moorish pirates attacked the ship and he is made a slave in the North African town of Sallee. One day while fishing, he and another slave named Xury. Xury escape and sail down to the African coast. One Portuguese captain helps them; he buys Xury from Crusoe and takes him to Brazil. He visits Brazil. And he suggested Robinson visit his friend who had a sugar plantation. Robinson bought some land and started a sugar cane plantation. After four years he went back to the sea. After 12 days of peaceful sailing, the ship encountered a storm. From all of the sailors, only Robinson saved himself.

He ended up on deserted island and didn’t know where he was, but for him the only important thing was that he is still alive. He started looking for a shelter and found a cave where he made a calendar so that he would know what year and day it is.

He began making his own clothes and everything else that went to waste with time. He tried to make a boat several times and save himself, but he never succeeded. After a few attempts to run away, he got caught in a storm and barely made it out alive. Unfortunately the ship the nearby didn’t have that luck, and every one died. The only survivor was a dog who Crusoe named Jack. Crusoe learned a lot of new things for example how to hunt. He made some chairs and a table started a diary learned how to make different how to make different tools. It all kept him from going insane.

In the next four years he managed to plant some rice and wheat. After he had taken care of food and shelter he went on exploring the island. His peaceful stay in the island. He found out that there are turtles on the island. He never gave up his wish to escape the island. So he built another boat. It was too heavy, so he built a canoe to help him sail around the island. When the wind almost carried him to the open sea, he gave up on his escape from the island.

After spending about fifteen years on the island, Crusoe found a man’s naked footprint. He was taking a walk when he heard some noise and saw a man who was defending himself from the cannibals. Crusoe saved him and because it was Friday he named him Friday. Crusoe and Friday made plans to leave the island and, accordingly, they built another boat. Crusoe also undertook Friday’s religious education, converting the savage into a Protestant. Crusoe has a friend to talk and share. After some time the cannibals again come with some captives whom again Crusoe reuses. One is a Spaniard and the other turns out to be Friday’s father. With the information given by the Spaniard they all set out to save other sixteen Spaniard who have been marooned. After eight days, they see the sight of the English ship approaching the island. Crusoe is suspicious. Friday and Crusoe watch that eleven men held three captives onshore in a boat. Nine of them start to explore the island and two of them stay there to guard the captives. Friday and Crusoe overpower the guards and release the captives, one of them is a captain of a ship which has been taken in a mutiny. Crusoe and Friday shout from different places so as to confuse them and make them tire running from here to there. Eventually they confront the mutineers’ telling them that all may escape with their lives except the ringleader. The men surrender. Crusoe and the captain pretend that the island is imperial territory and the governor has saved their lives in order to send them all to England to face justice. Keeping five men as hostage, Crusoe sends the other men out to seize the ship.

On December 19, 1686 Crusoe boards the ship to return to his homeland England. There he finds his all family members have died except two sisters. The widow has kept his money safe. Knowing that his plantation in Brazil has been in great profit he sells them and earns a very good fortune. He donates some portion to good widow and his two sisters. Being so restless he considers returning to Brazil, but the thought of being a Catholic prevents him to go. He marries and his wife dies. Crusoe finally goes to East Indies as trader and revisits the island the island where he finds the Spaniards are governing the island properly and it has become prosperous colony.

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Christianity’s Role as a Colonizing Force in Robinson Crusoe

August 22, 2019 by Essay Writer

Christianity played a tremendous role in the 18th century European colonization of the New World, as exemplified by Robinson Crusoe. The story of Crusoe’s isolation on the island, especially concerning his “missionary” attempts with a savage named Friday, shows the importance of Crusoe’s religion in his life. Christianity allows Crusoe to see many things about Friday and his fellow savages, such as the similarities between Friday’s people and the Europeans. But it also keeps him blind to other aspects of Friday’s life, for instance, his not wanting to change to another way of life. The following will show the two sides of Christianity’s affects on Crusoe’s way of life and thought process during the time that he spends on the island. Christianity is a strong force in Crusoe’s life, particularly during the years that he spent in isolation on the island. The thirty-five years spent away from European society gives him a chance to reflect on what God means in his life. He goes from a distant relationship with God when he is first shipwrecked on the island, to complete devotion and a want to spread this to others who do not “know” God. He receives this chance to spread the Word of God to a savage he names Friday. Through his “missionary” attempt, Crusoe discovers many characteristics in Friday that are similar to his own. For example, he finds that God “has bestowed upon [Friday’s people] the same powers, the same reason, the same affections, the same sentiments of kindness and obligation,…and all the capacities of doing good and receiving good, that He has given to us” (212), and this thought comforts Crusoe. He has no reason to fear Friday because of these similarities, they broke the barrier between Crusoe and Friday as well. Crusoe puts aside his apprehensions and attempts to learn from Friday. By gathering information, he can better understand Friday and further their relationship. Among the similarities that Crusoe discovers is that Friday has similar religious beliefs to his own. One similar characteristic is the belief in one Almighty being; the European version is God while Friday’s is Benamuckee. There are also similar types of religious hierarchy, and Crusoe once observes during a conversation with Friday “that there is priestcraft even amongst the most blinded ignorant pagans in the world” (219). This hierarchical structure helps Crusoe’s attempts to rule Friday because of Friday’s faith in his “savage” religion. Through his talks with Friday, Crusoe expands his mind and begins to see that Christianity, or elements of that religion, can be found all over the world, and this helps the various peoples understand one another. These characteristics also help his mission to convert Friday. With a foundation already laid, Crusoe merely needs to “Christianize” what Friday already regards as truth. Friday believes that Crusoe’s teachings are fact and therefore wants to model his life on Crusoe’s. With these new discoveries, Crusoe sees that Friday wants to learn, for “he was the aptest schollar that ever was” (213). With great care, Crusoe shows Friday that the European way of thinking is the best and he must therefore follow Crusoe’s lead. Friday takes a submissive role, allowing Crusoe to become his master. The determining of the savage’s name symbolizes Crusoe’s extreme power over Friday, for Crusoe “made him know his name should be Friday…[and Crusoe] likewise taught him to say Master” (209). The name “Friday,” given to him because that was the day he was saved by Crusoe, is generic and shows what little worth he is to Crusoe; that is, he is only a reminder of the calendar that Crusoe keeps. Crusoe also teaches Friday to live properly, or according to European ways. This means that Friday is expected to give up his savage ways, especially his cannibalism, for Crusoe “found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature…[and] by some means let him know that [he] would kill him if he offered [the flesh to him]” (210). All in all, Crusoe displays a great amount of patience with Friday, aside from the cannibalism that Friday has a tendency toward, but his other characteristics and habits. This is mainly because Friday is changing his life to suit Crusoe’s and does not inconvenience Crusoe in the least. Along with this patience that Crusoe exhibits, there is also intolerance for Friday’s way of thinking. Crusoe does not allow Friday to have a say in what he is being taught. Crusoe takes his position of Master to Friday seriously and “[makes] it [his] business to teach him everything that was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful” (213)–proper, that is, according to European rules. With Friday being servant to Crusoe, there is a great loss of freedom, freedom that he had known throughout his whole existence. Although he is not a slave by formal definition, Friday feels obligated to serve Crusoe because he saved Friday’s life. This debt to his master makes Friday’s conversion something that he has to do to please his master. This submission suits Crusoe’s life perfectly. Being European, he naturally feels superior to Friday and welcomes this opportunity to be master of someone. Because this story is written through Crusoe’s eyes, there is no way of knowing exactly how Friday actually feels, but Crusoe never wants to know in the first place. If he knew how Friday felt, his Christian conscience would stop him from his missionary attempts, and he would once again be alone on the island, with no one to control. Although Crusoe sees that there are similarities between his own religion and that of Friday’s, Crusoe wants to re-teach Friday about religion. He wants Friday to learn Christianity and delete all knowledge of his own beliefs, but he finds that “it was not so easie to imprint right notions in his mind about the devil, as it was about the being of a God” (219). Without an already present image of European notions, Crusoe has a difficult time showing Friday the European way of thinking–one being that there is a being with almost the same powers as God, a foreign thought to Friday. Friday’s religious beliefs are “wrong,” and Crusoe wants him to realize this and change his ways to those of a true Christian. Along these same lines Crusoe finds Friday ignorant, not just because of his savage ways, but also because Friday knows nothing about Christianity or how important it is to live a Christian life. Crusoe has found God in everything on the island, and he wants to see Him in Friday as well. This religious faith is a strong force that pushes Crusoe, and he does not want it to leave him either. Through this strong faith in God, Crusoe belittles Friday and shows once again how he is master of this savage. Even though Friday learns quickly what Crusoe is teaching him, he will never be as smart as Crusoe wishes him to be. Crusoe will always be looking for perfection in Friday, and he will never be satisfied with the results. Crusoe also compares himself with God, He being the ultimate Master. As a master, Crusoe wants his follower to be the best example of his authority. Through the eyes of Robinson Crusoe, readers are invited into the world of the colonizing European. This colonization was overshadowed by the strong faith of Crusoe in Christianity. With this faith, Crusoe was able to successfully convert the savage Friday. Through his “missionary” attempts, Crusoe was able to see the similarities between himself and Friday, but also turned a blind eye to other aspects of Friday’s life. Through this novel, Daniel Defoe comments on eighteenth century Europe, a supreme power that showed its mastery over other countries much in the same way that Crusoe did with Friday. Literature gives its audience a view that could not otherwise be seen.

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