Lesson of the Moth Essay
In life, there are certain sacrifices that need to be made in order to pursue prosperity and contentment. A sacrifice can be doing something fulfilling that will ultimately have dire consequences, or giving up something in order to avoid the consequences. For example, one might take a risk by pursuing a career that offers a significant monetary reward but forces them to spend time away from their family. In Don Marquis’ poem, “Lesson of the Moth”, through the utilization of symbolism, personification, and extended metaphor, there is an exploration of the spectrum of personal sacrifice and how individuals are willing to live a life of safety because it ensures longevity, however by being so ‘civilized’, individuals often neglect happiness and fulfillment. The definition of sacrifice is the act of giving up something that is valuable and important for the sake of something else or for others.
In “Lesson of the Moth” the speaker, “Archy” notices a moth buzzing around a lightbulb trying to fry himself on the wires. When Archy asks the moth why he would want to do such a thing, the moth replies with a profound statement saying “It is better to be burned up with beauty than to live a long time and be bored all the while”. This aspect of personal sacrifice reveals one’s true values in life. The moth would have rathered that he was happy for one moment than live his life to its fullest extent but be full of regret for not taking that one significant risk. The irony in this statement is that a moth is an insignificant creature that wouldn’t appear to be wise and philosophical, yet the moth was willing to risk everything to fulfill his purpose in life, which was to immolate himself, sacrificing his life for one moment of beauty.
Contradicting this seemingly reckless and dangerous way of living life is the preservative lifestyle that the speaker lives with. Archy states that he would rather have “half the happiness but twice the longevity”, which shows how people’s values can be remarkably different. Archy has a much more conservative point of view and he believes that his life would be better if it was longer rather than happier. This opinion is based on the fact that a longer life means more time to spend with family and friends which can also provide a sense of fulfillment. An anonymous quote that relates to this dilemma is, “If you don’t sacrifice for what you want, what you want becomes the sacrifice”. If one chooses to live a life of safety, always fearful of the consequences, they end up by sacrificing their goals and aspirations in return for a longer life. Archy chooses to preserve his life, but what is his life worth if he doesn’t seek out the maximum level of enjoyment. One definitely should not risk their life for a short amount of beauty but the extended metaphor of the moth shows that devoting time and energy towards something important, rather than something boring and routine can provide a sense of attainment and fulfillment to an individual. Marquis employs heavy use of symbolism in “Lesson of the Moth”. He personifies a plain and uncomplicated creature, the moth, to symbolize life and sacrifice. The personification of the moth in this instance allows us to believe that the moth is on an equal level as the speaker because the human, “Archy” was having a deep conversation with the animated moth although insects aren’t able to speak to people.
The judgemental statement made by Archy at the end of the second stanza, “have you no sense?”, articulates the human perspective of life and how it should be preserved at all costs. With this judgemental attitude, Archy is unable to understand the inflexible perspective of the moth that revolves around sacrifice in order to attain whatever it is that it wants. The moth was striving to get into the light bulb which was being used to symbolize happiness and fulfillment. One could even say that the light bulb was a symbol for heaven to which the moth was desperately trying to enter. Another symbol used is the small unsightly cinder that the moth turned into after incinerating himself on the cigar lighter. The shift from a living breathing creature into a small pile of ash represents the irreversible nature of the sacrifice that was made.
Although the moth was able to achieve what he finally wanted in life, he ended up worse off than he was before. Ultimately, in the poem “Lesson of the Moth” by Don Marquis, there is an exploration of how one’s willingness to sacrifice a certain aspect of their life depends on their personal values and definition of happiness. Some people believe that a longer life is a happier life but others consider a long life full of routine and safety unfulfilling and boring. Both the views of the moth and Archy aim to accomplish the same thing; a happier, more fulfilling life. For the moth, the purpose of frying himself in the flame was really discovered in the pursuit of it rather than in the end result. Although it seems as if the moth was seeking death, in reality, it was seeking life.
Faiz Ahmed Faiz as a Marxist and Romantic Poet
Urdu writer Faiz Ahmed Faiz is eminent for his dynamic and progressive works and as it should be. The considerable writer likewise composed on affection the all-inclusive subject that pulls in all. What’s more, composed broadly on it.
Pakistan’s best writer and, ostensibly the world’s ideal, regularly runs over to individuals as a complex and unobtrusive craftsman who favored talking in analogies, expressions, and likenesses with incredible felicity for imagery and symbolism. Most likely, Faiz was an ace skilled worker of dialect playing and toying with words and expresses and saturating them with new implications and thoughts, and subtleties. His felicity with dialects and his specialized prevalence raised him over the group of the best on the planet. Faiz composed romantic poetry imbued with a progressive energy.
Craftsmanship is noteworthy to individuals. It has dependably been so from the soonest human social orders. Craftsmanship includes shading to a dreary world. It gives a light of expectation and hopefulness to lives without importance. Craftsmanship in the entirety of its structures influences us to lift up our eyes, if just for a short lived minute, over the dull ordinary presence, and empowers us to feel that there is something more to life than this, that we can enhance our self than we are, that individuals can act much superior to anything they are, that the world could turn out to be more quiet and cultivated than it is. Thus, workmanship is the total dream for mankind, the surge of a significant inclination that our lives are not what they ought to be, and an eager, if oblivious, trying for something else. Hence, Marx referred to in considered workmanship as general and asserted that each essayist is the result of his age what’s more, craftsmanship, in this way, ought to be contemplated in social, political and social foundation of a craftsman. Verse is a vital workmanship which has been utilized by hundreds of years by the artists to express their sentiments furthermore, musings. Distinctive writers manage diverse topics in their verse. A few writers are admirers of sentiment and magnificence, while others compose verse for progressive purposes. Progressive artists are of the assessment that the earlier condition for the headway of mankind is the fight for the communist difference in the public eye on a world scale. Furthermore, artists, craftsmen what’s more, authors can assume a fundamental part in this battle.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz was conceived in the jatt family line on thirteenth February 1911, in Kala Qader (Faiz Nagar), District Narowal, Punjab, Pakistan. Faiz acclaimed from a scholarly family that was outstanding in abstract circles. His house was regularly the scene of a social event of neighborhood artists furthermore, journalists who met to advance the proficiency exertion in his native area. His dad Sultan Muhammad Khan was an attorney. Faiz was the principal Asian artist to get the Lenin peace Award by the Soviet government in 1962. He was too named four times for the Nobel prize for writing. Distinctive investigations have been led on Faiz with various subjects. For example, Nasir in Ham Jitay Ji Masroof Rahay (Enough Time There Never Was) gives satisfactory information about the socio-political association in which most of the political verses of Faiz are created. Clarifying the ideological centrality of the mix of the political and the expressive Dr Muhammad Arif Hussain in “Faiz Ahmad Faiz: Romaan aur Shairi” clarifies that Faiz used sexual imagery to substantiate his wistful vision of the crude period of mankind. Faiz, like Marxist researchers, trusts that the most crude period of man was fundamentally a socialist period. Faiz, in his sentimental approach in craftsmanship, was enormously affected by the English craftsmen of the mid nineteenth century. Sentimental point of view of life thinks about culture, society, moral qualities and state as restrictions on the freedom of man. They keep him from the fulfillment of his desires and Akademia Baru goals. Faiz romanticizes a pre-middle class, pre-medieval period of human culture and society. In addition, the sentimental individuals assume that the brilliance of the universe is spoken to in human particularly female body. Dr. Arif explains that Faiz was clearly a sentimental artist yet his assumption did not realize obliviousness or takeoff from the disgraceful substances of life. The creator proceeds to state that the best restraints of man are his sense of pride, balance and freedom which he charmed amid the crude time. Since the development of society, state and average society, man is being denied his greatness and adaptability. Sentimental imagery usually demonstrates normal immaculateness, guiltlessness, freedom and wonder of man. The use of sentimental imagery by Faiz summons past ideal universe of value, concordance and flexibility against the current persecuted universe of foul play.
The artist’s work isn’t just discernment and perception, yet in addition battle and exertion. While he utilized his verse to serve a reason he did as such without giving it a chance to decline into lecturing or promulgation. He offered voice to the desires of the down trodden through his verse. His profound feeling of humanism incited him to concentrate the light of feedback on the general public of which he was part, determined by a longing to improve it. He composed: ‘The comprehension of the battle of human life; and a cooperation in it isn’t just a pre-essential of life; it is likewise a pre-imperative of work.
Faiz’s verse bears the impact of Ghalib and Iqbal, the two experts of the ghazal frame. The ghazal is a quintessentially Urdu type of verse and as a scholarly shape customarily managed the subject of lonely love with the artist as the enthusiastic darling in trouble. It has built up a structure and expression the greater part of its own. The symbolism of the morning to connote the virtue of the sunrise, the morning breeze as the analogy of expectation, and that of the solitary darling pining for his adored were a piece of the standard figure of speech of the ghazal. His underlying pieces demonstrate Faiz following the traditional lines of the ghazal. In Before You Came, the writer can be seen venting his heart hurts delivered upon him by a non-existent sweetheart. In this sonnet he draws out the sentiment dejection that he felt before he risked upon his affection.
Before you came, all things were what they are-
The sky sight’s boundary, the road the road,
The glass of wine a glass of wine; since then,
Road, wineglass, color of heaven, all have taken
The hues of this heart ready to melt in blow.
Alfred Tennyson in his poem In Memorium pleads with his love thus.
Be near me when my light is low,
When the blood creeps, and the nerves prick
And tingle; and the heart is sick,
And all the wheels of Being slow.
Be near me.
Faiz recreates this forlorn feeling of isolation and loneliness in the following lines of his poem Be Near me.
My torment, my darling, be near me
That hour when the night comes,
Black night that has drunk heaven’s blood comes
With salve of musk-perfume, with diamond-tipped lancet,
With wailing, with jesting, with music,
With grief like a clash of blue anklets-
…That hour when the night comes,
That hour when black night, drear, forlorn, comes
Be near me,
My torment, my darling, be near me!
Utilizing the symbolism and illustration of the affection lyric, a more develop Faiz re-concocted the ghazal as a medium to pass on his message. He turned the adoration sonnet on its head, changing ‘the mourn of the lethargic sweetheart into one that deplored the state of the humble humankind’. He shaped its illustrations to manage socially pertinent topics.
It is evident, for example, in his poem My Beloved, Faiz was disappointed by the occasions which took after the decolonization of the subcontinent, which was joined by parcel set apart by savagery. He wound up disappointed by what he saw and offered articulation to the torment that he felt at the time and the destruction that followed in Freedom’s Dawn (Subh-e Azadi) which he wrote in 1947.
This stain-covered daybreak, this night-bitter dawn
This is not the dawn of which there was expectation;
This is not that dawn with longing for which
The friends set out, ……The hour of the deliverance of eye and heart has not arrived.
Come, come on, for that goal has still not arrived.
Faiz turned into an image of obstruction. Faiz censured tyranny and persecution and offered plan to the ravenous, embarrassed and the unassuming and guaranteed that the guaranteed day would come when the heads of oppressive rulers will roll, when the crowns would be toppled and castles devastated.
We shall see
We shall see, it is certain that we shall see
The day for which there is a promise,
The day recorded in the eternal tablet,
When the weighty mountains of cruelty and oppression,
Shall be blown about like cotton wool;
When under the feet of the oppressed ones
The earth shall shake noisily,
And over the heads of despotic rulers
Thunder claps will burst …When the crowns will be toppled,
When the palaces will be demolished
Faiz may have composed on issues that were of prompt pertinence to his own general public and time yet in all actuality he contacted upon all inclusive subjects. Mistreatment, opportunity and dictatorship are topics that can’t be outlined by time or region.
In Acre of Grass William Butler Yeats wished in his maturity that if he somehow happened to be given another possibility he would redo himself as, among others, William Blake ‘who beat upon the divider/till truth complied with his call’. Faiz was a bold man who set out to talk reality in his lifetime instead of hold up to be renewed, regardless of whether doing as such carried him into strife with those in specialist. He composed:
let others live for calm indifferent peace,
I knock and knock at gates, and will not cease.
The ghazals of numerous Urdu writers were made into paramount melodies. Urdu verse gave an instant archive to Hindi movie producers to be changed into significant melodies and a considerable lot of those sonnets have progressed toward becoming piece of prevalent Hindi and Urdu culture. Faiz is a piece of this culture. Like the ballads of William Blake his lyrics are intended to be presented and sung.His verse has caught the well-known creative ability. A large number of his tunes have been sung by such artists as Talat Mahmood, Noor Jahan, Begum Akthar and Iqbal Bano. Noor Jahan was once welcomed to show up at a philanthropy occasion when Faiz was in jail and she picked a tune by Faiz for her collection. The occasion’s coordinators protested her singing Faiz’s sonnet yet needed to yield as Noor Jahan declined to show up on the off chance that she was not permitted to sing her choice. Afterward, Faiz declined to sing this specific tune at verse gatherings saying that the tune had a place with Noor Jahan.To songstress Iqbal Bano, Faiz was a saint. She was contaminated by Faiz’s insubordinate soul when she showed up before a swarm in Lahore and resistant sang Faiz’s verses at once he was restricted by the nation’s administration. Unavoidably, Iqbal Bano herself was restricted from showing up on TV and her tunes were prohibited from the wireless transmissions.
We are for the most part pausing and needing. For a season to change. For our rights not to be broken up, for us not to be stripped of them. For the ire to stop. In any case, obstruction is the state of insubordination every one of us keeps up in our own particular bodies. What’s more, if spring touches base after us and nature declares its strength over the diktats of rabble rousers, it will come all the same. Faiz’s verses, falling somewhere close to resistance and commitment, nervousness and peace, remain with me as my eyes open to another political morning. For Faiz the writer reminds me the goal hasn’t yet come. “Poet” comes to us from the Greek for “making.” Verse is the means by which we change the world. Furthermore, first light is a chance to imagine the skyline again and clear, and to envision how the following day, as the sun consumes off the dew, might be better. That is the reason we take up Faiz in the days following Trump’s triumph. Talking is a demonstration of refusal. Through the inventive procedure, verse enlightens our shock, uncovers our heart, and sparkles a light, in some cases suddenly, on those facts we require most to augment our lives.
Lessons of Mr. Keating in Dead Poets Society Movie
Dead Poets Society
Dead Poets Society is a movie about a group of young boys that go to Welton Academy, a boarding school in New England. Welton gets a new English teacher, John Keating. Mr. Keating is an alumni from Welton who teaches in a very unorthodox way. He believes that children should be free thinkers rather than mindless cattle that go with the herd. Mr. Keating knows from his own experience that the teachers at Welton spit facts at the students and want them to do no more and no less than memorize them. John Keating teaches the boys three very valuable lessons: carpe diem; life will never be fully enjoyed without sucking the marrow out of it; and sucking the marrow out of life doesn’t mean choking on the bone. These three lessons all tie into Mr. Keatings idea that everyone should live the life that they want, not the life others want them to live.
The very first lesson Mr. Keating teaches is carpe diem. Carpe diem means “seize the day” in Latin. Mr. Keating takes his class into the hall and shows them pictures of the boys that went to Welton before them. He says that if they don’t seize the day every day, they will live and die and never reach true happiness just like the boys in the picture. Neil Perry really embraces this idea by starting to act even though his father doesn’t want him to. He doesn’t want to be what is dad wants him to be so he’s seizing the day by doing what he loves. The second lesson Keating teaches his class is to suck the marrow out of life. This is an idea developed by Henry David Thoreau in Walden; sucking the marrow out of life is digging past the superficial layers of life and getting to the part that that’s truly meaningful and enjoyable. In Dead Poet’s Society Todd Anderson, Neil’s roommate, and Neil Perry began defying their parents by living life how they wanted, rather than how their parents wanted. They did what they thought they should do to enjoy their life and add meaning to it. However, in Mr. Keating’s third lesson, he tells Charlie, “Sucking the marrow out of life doesn’t mean choking on the bone. Sure there’s a time for daring and there’s a time for caution, and a wise man understands which is called for.” Charlie had gotten in trouble trying to get girls into Welton and said he was just sucking the marrow out of life. However, that only means to get the most out of life; doing ignorant, daring things is not wise in certain scenarios.
The main theme Mr. Keating portrayed was that everyone should try to get the most out of life and do what they want instead of trying to do what everyone else wants them to do. This idea is so important because in today’s society everyone just goes through the motions every day trying to be what everyone expects them to be. Sometimes, these pressures drive people to go to extreme measures and it’s not healthy. People should be able to do what they want without the fear of no longer being accepted. In today’s society, it’s rare to see someone really loving life and doing things they enjoy. Everyone is so scared of labels that they won’t do what they want and it’s ridiculous. What’s the point of life if one cannot live it how he/she wants?
Poets of Romantic Era: History and Literary Works
Romantic era was a literary, intellectual and artistic movement started as a reaction against neoclassicism and industrial revolution which rejected all the classical norms and traditions in literature. It started by the mid eighteenth century and remained till the mid nineteenth century. It all started with the French revolution. The motto of French Revolutionists based on the thoughts of two great French philosophers Jean Jacques Rousseau and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was liberty, equality and fraternity on political and social level. The first Romantic poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge went to France to witness the revolution from close quarters. They were greatly inspired by the ideas of French revolution and on their return to England brought those ideas in literature. In 1798, they jointly wrote a collection of poems “lyrical ballads” which marked the beginning of romanticism in English literature.
About the same time, industrialization in England was at its full pace that of course brought with itself some serious drawbacks along with the benefits. The poor of the time were exploited to their full. Their worth was estimated through their efficiency level. The Romantics rebelled against the atrocities of Industrialization with their full might. They unleashed their pens to fight Industrialization. They were people with sensitive personalities and felt the wickedness of the mechanization. They stirred the dormant spirit of the people of that time with their poetry. They highlighted the darker aspects of Industrialization. These poets are divided into two generations. William Blake, William Wordsworth, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge come in the first generation while Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Keats, and Lord Byron come in the second wave of Romantic poetry. Since the romantic poets were greatly inspired by the freedom movement, their themes of poetry were also new at that time and for the fact of their liberal approach in every aspect, almost all the romantic poets have written on different themes.
Imagination is a common theme among all romantic poets. It served as the arch stone of Romanticism. Coleridge saw imagination as the supreme poetic quality, a divine power that made the poet a god like being. William Blake writes, “One power alone makes a poet: Imagination, the divine vision”. Sincerity came from the core of heart of the poets. William Wordsworth writes, “You feel strongly, trust to those feelings, and your poem will take its shape and proportion as a tree does from the vital principles that actuates it”. Besides imagination, other most themes of romantic poetry are peculiar to each writer.
Child labour was most common in England during industrialization. Children were forced to work in factories for long hours. They were ill fed and were paid much lower than the adults. William Blake although considered by many as a pre romantic poet for he was a bit earlier than Wordsworth and Coleridge was no doubt a true romantic in spirit. He protested against the abuses of child labour. He, with the gift of his poetry, highlighted the evils of mechanized society of his time. Blake severely criticised the abuse of children who worked in the chimneys. For this, he published a poem entitled as, “The Chimney Sweeper”. In it Blake states:
“When my mother died I was very young,
And my father sold me while yet my tongue
Could scarcely cry “ ‘weep! ‘weep! ‘weep! weep!”
So your chimneys I sweep and in soot I sleep.”
The first version of this poem speaks from “Songs of Innocence” and in this, the poet or the narrator, in the shape of a child, tells us how he was sold by his father when he was very young. He was sold to work in the factories. This poem emphasizes on the innocence of children by comparing them to lambs. They are finally rescued from the horrific place of factory by an angel and taken into green meadows. Along with the escape of the children, we get a hint of Blake’s love and praise for nature. The children can be assumed as people and the angel as nature. Thus, the people of Industrial Revolution could only be saved from its evil by the angelic nature thought William Blake.
William Wordsworth is one of the real founding fathers of romanticism in English poetry. Many consider the date of publication of “Lyrical Ballads” that is 1798 as the birth of romanticism. In his “Lyrical Ballads”, Wordsworth along with S.T Coleridge broke most of the rules for writing poetry that existed before romanticism. Conventional meter, rhyming scheme and outdated themes were neglected with full vigor and an attempt for new was made which was welcomed with high zeal.
His poetry was mainly concerned with the beauty and charm of nature. He treated nature as a god. For him, it was a source of inspiration. He used to seek guidance from it. In his prelude, he seeks muse from nature (unlike in the traditional epics in which poets seek muse from divine spirits). He also treated nature as his parent. In his Prelude, he says that nature teaches him with the agents of fear and reward. According to him, the main cause of the sufferings of humanity was just because of their seclusion from nature. He warned the people of his age that they had become materialistic and were running after money just because of the curse of Industrialism. They were not human anymore as they worked like machines and their only aim was to accumulate as much wealth as they could. He asked the people to have a close communion with nature. Nature would solve their mental sufferings and in this way he treated nature as a healer also.
Wordsworth lived for most part of his life in the country sides of England. He is also known by the name of “Lake Poet” as he was born in Lake District. He travelled to many parts of the European continent to experience the nature from close quarters. He not only enjoyed the tranquil nature but also the fierce form of nature. These included mountains, streams, waterfalls, wind, etc. About nature, he writes in one of his poems “The Daffodils”:
“I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o’er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dances in the breeze…..
…. Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance…
… A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company.”
Thus, Wordsworth extracted serenity from the charming scenes of nature. It had a magical effect on him.
From this poem we can also get a hint of his view of poetry. Wordsworth defines poetry in the following words, “Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions recollected in tranquility”. In this poem he describes how the remembrance of the scene of daffodils charms him and helps him compose poetry.
“For oft on my couch I lie,
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude”.
William Wordsworth like Blake abhorred Industrial environment and praised nature. In his poem “Lines Written at a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey”, William Wordsworth writes about how he remembers the pleasure and joys he got from his time spent in nature. The city he lived in made him nostalgic and called up happier times. He was sorry for his time during his stay in city while sitting in the lonely rooms of artificial city, and missed a lot, the pure and sublime nature.
While William Wordsworth wrote about nature, his close friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote about supernatural. In “Lyrical Ballads”, Coleridge wrote poems concerned with the supernatural. Coleridge produced “Kubla Khan” in which he imagines a paradise like place. It is still a marvelous piece of supernatural poetry. He writes,
“In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
A stately pleasure-dome decree
Where Alph the sacred river, ran
Through the caverns measureless to man…
…And here were forests ancient as hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery”.
With Coleridge ends the first generation poets. The second generation starts with John Keats. “Ode to a Nightingale, Ode to Autumn, and Ode to a Grecian Urn” are some of his renowned works. He mainly focused on death, nature and beauty. He was bored of life due to his poverty and expressed escapism in his poetry. In his poem, “Ode to a Nightingale”, he says,
“My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains
My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk…
… That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,
And with thee fade away into the forest brim”.
Most of his poems are concerned about beauty. He considers beauty as the most important thing in life. “A thing of beauty is a joy forever” is his famous line. He once said “I have loved the principle of beauty in all things.” In Ode to a Grecian Urn he says “Beauty truth; Truth beauty”. By this line he means that beauty is immortal.
With beauty as an important thing among all other things, Keats gave his view about the function of poetry. He said that “Poetry should be an incarnation of beauty, not a medium for the expression of religious or social philosophy. He said “A poet is a creator and an artist, not a teacher or a prophet.”
He was a poet of great potentials. He died when he was only twenty five years old but despite his early death, he freed himself from the clutches of time by the gift of poetry and still lives in the heart of people.
Percy Bysshe Shelley, a contemporary of Keats, was another Romantic poet who had a rebellious spirit. He rebelled against the Industrialism. His rebellion was not limited only to worldly matters but rather he rebelled against the great authority of God. He printed a pamphlet with anonymous writer entitled, “The Necessity of Atheism”, while he was still a student at the university. He suffered a lot and was expelled from university for this act of blasphemy when the writer was discovered.
Shelley has also written about the power of nature and man’s relation with it. In “Ode to West wind”, Shelley symbolizes west wind to nature. Nature’s force of change is described in this poem. Nature’s contrasting force of immortality is compared with man’s mortality. In the end Shelley wish his spirit to be transformed with the west wind which promises rebirth with the revival of spring.
George Gordon Byron was the third and last of romantic poets. His poetry has three major themes; liberty, the power of nature and the folly of love. As Byron travelled to different parts of Europe, he saw that many people were subjected to suppression. This he criticized in many of his poems. “The Prison of Chillon” is one such poem in which he writes of a patriot who stood against oppression.
Byron also wrote about nature. He looked to nature from several angles. “The Prisoner of Chillon” connects nature to freedom while at the same time showing nature’s potentially deadly ability to flood the whole dungeon.
Byron’s many poems speak women and love. In Childe Harold Pilgrimage he seeks muse from several women. She walks in beauty is his another poem which speaks of virtues of a woman. For a great while he sought a perfect love but at a later stage he concluded that it is unattainable and this became the theme of many of his poems. In Don Juan, Byron mocks the ideal of love even when his protagonist falls in love with many women.
Concluding with what romantic poets gave to English literature is a very vast topic to write on but in short we can safely assume that if there was no romantic movement in English literature, the most beautiful part of English poetry would have been lost forever. Their unconventional writing style with diverse themes brought a revolution which even now people admire. The names of Wordsworth and John Keats if not more than other great writers are indeed no less popular in our contemporary world. In fact the zeal of their spirits and the power of their poetry has an extraordinary appealing force to the minds of and souls of not only the people of their age but of our age too.
Dryden’s Contribution to the Literary Genre of the Ode
John Dryden was one of the greatest English poets and play writer of the eighteenth century. His work included tragedy, comedy, epic, satire and drama. He also translated the work of different writers from other languages to English. His career in poetry started with the Heroic stanzas he processed at Cromwell’s funeral. The next poems he wrote were Astraea Redux and To His Sacred Majesty on Charles II’s return.
After his marriage, he appeared in his first play called The Wild Gallant which made his way towards Restoration comedy and he wrote his best work called Marriage á la Mode and All for Love. He also wrote a historical poem call Annus Mirabilis, describing the English Defeat of the Dutch naval fleet and the Great Fire of London in 1666. His critics towards Shakespeare’s Anthony and Cleopatra, made the writer upset that he was attacked my few people at his house.
He also contributed to politics by writing The Spanish Friar, The Dike of Guise, Albion and Albanius, Absalom and Achitophel, The Medal and many other made him dearest to politicians and made some of them hate him to make him vulnerable to attack. He also wrote some religious poems that included The Hind and the Panther, Pindaric ode, An Ode, on the Death of Mr. Henry Purcell, Alexander’s Feast and one of the famous Ode he wrote was A song for Saint Cecilia’s Day.
A Song for Saint Cecilia’s Day, Saint Cecilia was a music patroness who had a great significance at that time. Saint Cecilia’s day is celebrated to honor the Goddess of music. It’s a holiday full of celebration, joy and music. This poem describes the power of music on human nature and how it can control the universe. This poem is written as an Ode to the Goddess of music who was known to bring angles to earth with her beautiful voice.
In first stanza, Dryden talks about the creation of the world through music. This stanza, represent the melodic perspective of music how it has joined the universe together in harmony. Dryden repeats word harmony six times in this stanza, which represents the world as a heavenly peace held together with harmony. Dryden mentioned nature as a musical scale that holds different being at different levels. Human is referred to be one of the best products of the universe created on the final day of the creation.
In second stanza, Poet talks about the control of music over humans and human nature. He describes how different kind of music can bring out different kind of emotions in human being. Music has power to control and bring out best and worst out of people. Music can make a person angry or happy, to raise and quarrel, to defeat and conquer the opponents, and also take away all the stress and make the person sweetest of all and it all depends on the type of music.
In third stanza, Dryden talks about the sound of trumpet are referred to bring out encouragement and motivation in people to achieve and conquer the opponents. Sound of trumpet so loud and high brings out the anger in people. And if the same trumpet is beaten twice that represents the attack of the foes and alarm the opponents to rise and conquer the attack. Fourth Stanza, talks about the sound of flute which melts hearts of people and signifies the love of lovers for each other. It signifies the emotions of two people towards each other. Fifth stanza, talks about the violins, their music are referred to as the jealousy of people towards each other. It is referred to the depth of pain and depression people have in their lives. Sixth stanza, talks about the power of music that it can make people worship it and follow the path shown by the music. It talks about how music represents the love of worshipper towards their God.
Seventh stanza, is referred to the central figure St. Cecilia. Dryden talks about St. Cecelia are referred to the Goddess of music who had the ability to attract angels form heaven with her voice. She had the power to attract the angles who mistook earth as heaven because St. Cecilia has such a harmony in her voice. Dryden explains the ability of St. Cecilia to play with emotions of angels and ability of music to control the human kind and the angle of the outer world.
A Song for Saint Cecilia’s day is an Ode to the Goddess of music. This Ode refers to the power of music over human mind and nature. It talks about the ability of St. Cecilia to attract the angles who mistook earth as heaven by hearing her voice. Music has the ability to bring out best and worst in humans. It talks about how music holds the whole universe in harmony as different music scale.
Literature Analysis of John Donne’s Holy Sonnet 14
John Donne’s Holy Sonnet 14 shows a speaker pleading and demanding God to be more forceful in his ways to save him because His gentle ways aren’t effective anymore, and only dominating power and brute force will be able to save him from his sin. This can be seen in the paradoxes of freedom through imprisonment, emphasis on sounds, and metaphors of towns and marriages. The dominating paradox in this sonnet argues that for the speaker to be free, he must be enslaved, and throughout the poem, we get more examples of these contradictions, with the most prominent ones in the last two lines pointing out that “Except you enthrall me, never shall be free,/Nor ever chaste, except you ravish me” (13-14).
It’s likely that the speaker feels divided between his Heavenly love for God and his earthly love for pleasure, but it can also be argued that since the demand he’s describing is no ordinary request, his contradictions reflect that. By asking God to treat him in such a violent matter and essentially rape him, he’s asking God to commit an otherwise deadly sin; however, because God is pure and holy, the rape is an extreme attempt to break him from his sins rather than becoming a sin itself.
Another contradiction arises when the speaker says, “That I may rise, and stand, o’erthrow me, and bend/Your force” (3-4). Besides the obvious contradiction of rising to stand only to be overthrown again, there is also enjambment in the mix. While the line can be read as “o’erthrow me, and bend your force”, the line break hints at a double meaning to overthrow and bend him instead. These paradoxes give the poem a feeling of insecurity which could also express/mirror the speaker’s inner turmoil about what he really wants and how to ask for it. Additionally, since sonnets were typically used to woo women, by using a sonnet to speak about religious matters, we have more evidence to believe that the speaker is mixing the Heavenly and earthly matters.
The sound devices used in this poem emphasize the vicious force the speaker requires of God so that he can be freed of his sins. Starting with the first word of the sonnet, the speaker violates the iambic pentameter that’s typical of sonnets by having a stressed syllable. Not only does this start off the sonnet almost theatrically, but the violation reflects the unusual requests of the speaker as well. When the speaker requests God to “break, blow, [and] burn” him, we also see the alliteration.
The Emergence of the Beat Movement in New York in the Mid-1940s
The Beat Movement was a literary and artistic movement that was founded by a core group of leaders that consisted of Jack Kerouac, Neal Cassady, Allen Ginsberg, and William S. Burroughs. This movement emerged in the area of Columbia University in New York in the mid-1940s at the hand of these four inspirational founding figures, but it was not until the 1950s, when the Beat Movement started to spread to the communities of North Beach in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and in Greenwich Village in New York City, did this movement take it’s full effect.
In the world today, this movement is not active, but we the many impacts that it had on society today. In the years after World War II, the American society began to conform to a lifestyle in which husbands and wives had kids, women had quit their jobs after the war to take care of the kids, and there was a formal etiquette that society required. The goals of the Beatniks was to not conform to these norms of society and to have a less restricted lifestyle. Also, they stressed the importance of “individual expression and personal enlightenment”.
The Beat Movement widely rejected materialism, traditional American values, and had complete indifference to social activism. The Beatniks rebelled against the common traditional American values of materialism and proper etiquette. The American society placed a heavy emphasis and reliance on money. The Beat Movement rejected this idea and focused more on imagination and self-expression, which led to their practices of religions such as Zen Buddhism. The proper etiquette that was placed in society was to be composed in a nice manner and to not be publicly intoxicated. However, the Beatniks engaged in large illegal drug use and over excessive alcohol consumption, which widely defied the formal etiquette that was demanded by society. These rejections of the values of the Americans impacted society by placing more laws on illegal drugs and intoxication laws against minor and drinking, also laws against anyone drinking and driving.
Norms of society that the Beat Movement challenged was the norm of a typical family consisting of a husband and wife with two or three kids. The Beatniks broke this principle by engaging in an attitude that excepted and experimented with different sexualities, which went against the norm of having a husband or wife. These ideas impacted society by catalyzing different gay liberations that eventually formed. A belief of the society in America that the Beat Movement openly defied was the belief that jazz music was sinful and immoral, and that abstract art need to be censored because it was seen as wildly inappropriate. The Beatniks widely embraced jazz music and abstract art because it allowed them express themselves in a free manner and to run wild with their imaginations. This heavily impacted society by allowing for the evolution of different music genres of music such as rock and roll seen through musicians like Beatles and Bob Dylan.
In all, the Beat Movement was very impactful on the society in the past and in the future now. Although many people rejected them in the past, their contributions to society led to great things that emerged in society later in the future.
The Analysis of the Poem “Because I Cannot Stop for Death” by Emily Dickinson
In stanzas 1-3 the character understands the situations that she is in at the moment. The sudden shift in tone in the fourth stanza enables us to examine how Emily Dickinson describes the comfortableness and closeness of the character of the poem, as she is seemed in speaking and interacting with this person “Death” that has taken her in his carriage. Consequently the poem develops from calm and peaceful attitude (“We passed the fields of gazing grain. We passed the setting sun.”) towards a more serious and cold tone (“Or rather he passed us; The dews grew quivering and chill, For only my gossamer my gown.”) Now the character of the poem becomes fully aware of her situation.
Suddenly, now that the sun has set, the author realizes that she is quite cold, and she shivers, the atmosphere abruptly becomes darker Moreover, another shift can be seen and occurs in stanza 6, in the last 4 lines “Since then – ‘tis Centuries – and yet Feels shorter than the Day/ I first surmised the Horses’ Heads/ Were toward Eternity –” The previous attitude that seem frightening and dark switches to startling and unforeseen awareness as the character now realizes that a century has passed but in her perspective it felt as if it was shorter than a day.
This assists the protagonist to now become aware of now that all that she had encountered while being lifeless it has been a century since her passing, as if the speaker realizes that she isn’t just on a ride, but rather riding towards the eternity and, consequently, her own death. The title, “Because I Cannot Stop For Death” provides us insight that the poem was about how even though the protagonist knows the fate that will eventually come in the future, they do realize that death cannot be stopped.
As taking all prospects into play, the title states “Because I could not stop for death,” plays a significant role in defining how she cannot be immortal and “Death” is leading her into the afterlife. We additionally now understand through by the title, “Because I Cannot Stop For death”, the poem’s idea is to be about Death, particularly based upon someone accepting their predetermined fate of Death and knowing that you can never escape the reality that everyone will likewise succumb to a peaceful passing as this is all part of the cycle of life and nature without a hint of regret, basically a life story.
The character in this poem “Death” in the form of a person, pauses to pick up the speaker and takes her on an adventure throughout her life to immortality. Immortality is described as the other passenger in the carriage that intends to transport them to an eternity of death. Throughout the journey, she is forced to give up two pleasures in life which are labor and leisure. Without these two aspects, one may realize that leisure and labor are the true values in life. They move along at a pretty relaxed pace and the speaker seems completely at ease with the gentleman. As they pass through the town, she sees children at play, fields of grain, and the setting sun. Reminiscing her about her childhood and the life she had dearly spent.
Specifically meaning how the children represent her, experiencing through the cycle of life, the grazing grass symbolizing the imagery of the protagonist’s adulthood, the setting sun giving a representation of death, all of this is utilized to give a story of a natural process of existence/life. This part of the poem makes the narrator reflect in their inner thoughts on their own passing and the journey that they would undergo in order to reach the eternity. Suddenly a shift occurs and at all once the atmosphere changes into a dark and frigid domain, it gets pitch black as the sun sets in the distance. Subsequently, they then arrive at the area of the burial of the character that Emily Dickinson describes as a home and perceive it as an eternal resting place after the encounters the protagonist has experienced throughout her death.
Death, Immortality, Eternity, Adventure of life and death Theme: There are two opposite themes that occupy this piece of poetry, Mortality and Immortality. There are multiple pieces of evidence of themes of Mortality and Immortality that are evident throughout the poem. The narrator’s entire outlook on death and the mentioning of “Immortality” in the first stanza (Because I could not stop for Death – He kindly stopped for me – The Carriage held but just Ourselves – And Immortality.) leads to the idea that she believes that there is an afterlife and there could be so much more in the spiritual world, adventures, and sights to discover.
Immortality described in this poem is sort of an everlasting life, though not in the sense that most people desire, in consideration that most people wouldn’t want to live in afterlife forever and put behind their past life for a new world. In the last stanza, Emily Dickinson utilizes the word “Eternity” to depict what she has just come to understand. She remains calm and has a ponderous/curious tone as she recalls the ride she just took after realizing that she is actually deceased/dead. In conclusion, although Death many signify the end of one’s life, nevertheless it can be furthermore be linked or indicated to immortality.