Defining Success in Gladwell’s Outliers: The Story of Success
An outlier is defined as a value that stands out from all the other values. In the book outliers by Malcolm Gladwell, the readers are shown the stories of success of the odd. Gladwell’s definition of success aligned greatly with the success story of Steve Jobs, the co-founder of Apple. As Gladwell describes, Job’s hour of hard work, his wisdom, family, and attitude contributed to his success. Job’s carried these characteristics which made him an “Outlier” as Gladwell described.
In Outliers, Gladwell defines success as an attribute you are born into. The biography of Steve Jobs’ exhibits the concept of an Outlier as Gladwell describes. From being adopted to, dropping out of college, to creating a multi-billion company, Jobs’ has proven himself;f to be an Outlier. Gladwell states “Working hard is what successful people do…” (Gladwell 280). That is exactly what Jobs’ did and him a successful man in this fierce world.
According to Gladwell, researchers have come with 10,000 hours which roughly equals to 10 years, for a person to excel in any activity. He uses Mozart to prove his 10,000-hour rule. Mozart’s first pieces weren’t very successful but, he composed his masterwork at the age of 21, which by then he has completed 10,000 hours. This rule can be applied to Steve Jobs success story. He worked day and night for hours and hours trying to create a system which no one has ever created. His hours of work for years added up to 10,000 hours by the time they were ready to launch the extraordinary product.
Apple was not solely found by Steve Jobs. Behind that great achievement, lies the hard work of many. Such as Steve Wozniak, Mike Markkula, etc. “ Steve Wozniak stayed with Apple since the beginning. “ To say that Steve Wozniak was wowed with the idea of a computer in a small box might be an understatement.” (Bluthmen 55). Wozniak’s geniuses lead apple to a bigger and higher place. Not only Wozniak but, Mike Markkula, former marketing manager of Intel had a huge impact on the success of Apple. “If Steve wasn’t thinking big enough, Mike Markkula definitely was (Bluthmen 77). Not only these but many more contributed to Apple. Jobs had many people around him guiding and helping his throughout the course. As Gladwell would say, it was not just only the geniuses that mattered their creativity and innate knowledge played a bigger role.
Gladwell point outs hidden factors that determine one’s success. He explains how inheriting wealth produces more opportunities for one. This factor can be seen in Jobs success story. “ The family bought a house in Mountain View, and as Paul put together his workshop in the garage,…. (Blumenthal). From him getting adopted to, moving into California were steps towards his success. Getting adapted to a more wealthier family gave him access to move to California and moving gave him more opportunities many kids did not have back in the time. When many kids did not have access to a computer, Jobs got the privilege to experience and learn new things. Jobs parents taught him“ how to build things, put things back together (Blumenthal 9). As Gladwell explains, the location you are born impacts greatly, as it opens up more opportunities for you, which then lead to your success.
Gladwell uses rice paddy farmers to demonstrate persistence and attitude towards your job. He describes how rice paddy farmers have to work throughout the year, harder than any other farmer growing rice requires additional attention and patients. Using the paddy farmers, Gladwell demonstrates the attitude and persistence one needs to succeed in life. “ He finished work late at night, arriving home at about ten p.m and fall into bed. Then, he’d get up at six a.m, shower, and do it all over again. (Blumenthal 197). Jobs’ success story is shown proving Gladwell’s definitions of attitude and persistence towards life true. Job’s would not have been able to produce the great company Apple without tenacity and positive attitude towards the creation. Jobs succeeds in proving the saying, hard work leads to success.
As the audience of both Outliers and the biography of Steve Jobs, it is visible how much of Gladwell’s concepts of an outlier aligns with Steve Jobs’ life and success story. Many factors, such as the 10,000-hour rule, the power of inheritance, his wisdom, persiatnceness, and attitude towards life. Jobs’ was able to achieve the success he desired through these qualities. Jobs’ can be distinctly identified as Outlier with the help of Gladwell’s concepts.
Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell: Achieving the True Success
Malcolm Gladwell argues throughout his book, Outliers, that success is earned and not born through talent or innate abilities alone. It must be strived for and achieved through hard work and dedication. One such claim that Gladwell makes is that ten thousand hours worth of practice is needed for mastery at a particular skill. He also argues that intelligence has a threshold, meaning that IQ stops mattering at a certain point. Gladwell makes these claims effective by including expert-written studies, stories, analogies, and multiple other English tools, including his style of writing to help back up said claims.
Gladwell begins the excerpts by describing Lewis Terman and his “Termites,” otherwise known as geniuses. Terman selected some 1500 kids as having IQs above 140 and ranging to almost 200. He called this group the “Termites.” He watched them closely as they grew up, believing that they would be the future elite of the United States with” heroic stature.” They were geniuses who he then thought were outliers who couldn’t be held back by anything. The more they grew up, the more Terman realized that they had no “measurable real-world advantage” (79). Once someone reaches an IQ of around 120 it stops mattering. Someone with an “IQ of 130 is as likely to win a Nobel Prize as is one whose IQ is 180” (80). IQ is also like height in basketball; once you reach a certain height, height stops mattering so much because someone who’s six-eight isn’t necessarily better than someone who is six-six. This is one of Gladwell’s claims in this book, “Intelligence has a threshold” (80). He includes a lot of evidence to back this up including the Terman story and the basketball analogy, both mentioned above. Gladwell also writes how Einstein had an IQ of 150 while Chris Langan had an IQ of 195. “Langan’s IQ is 30 percent higher than Einstein’s. But that doesn’t mean Langan is 30 percent smarter than Einstein”(80). They were “both clearly smart enough” (80). Einstein was incredibly smart as many know and he accomplished probably more than Langan, proving that although Langan had a higher IQ, they were both equally “smart enough.” Gladwell’s examples are generally kept simple and easy to understand and help tremendously to back up his claim that “intelligence has a threshold.” Another big example is when Gladwell lists the colleges from which students had earned Nobel Prizes. The schools are good schools, not all of them great. “To be a Nobel Peace Prize winner, apparently, you have to be smart enough to get into a college at least as good as Notre Dame or the University of Illinois. That’s all” (83). You don’t have to go to a highly prestigious school like Harvard to win a Nobel Prize even though they do have more students that have won Nobel prizes than any other school on the list. However, this is because they are the richest and most prestigious school in history, so of course they get a pick at the most brilliant undergraduates around the world. Gladwell is an excellent writer who effectively conveys his supporting details for his claim that “intelligence has a threshold.”
Gladwell makes another claim in the excerpts that “ten thousand hours of practice is required to achieve the level of mastery associated with being a world class-expert” (40). He backs up this claim as well, explaining a study done by psychologist K. Anders Ericsson in which Ericsson recorded how many hours a week different level violinists played at different ages. There were three different groups of violinists based on skill: one being great, another good, and the last one was not good. They all started playing around the same age of five and practiced a similar number of hours a week: roughly two to three hours. Real differences began to become clear around the age of eight or nine when they were practicing six hours a week, then “eight hours a week at age twelve, sixteen hours a week by age fourteen, and up and up, until the age of around twenty” (38) when they hit ten thousand hours total of practice. The same results were seen with pianists. Professionals all seemed to hit the same number of hours practiced before becoming “professionals”: ten thousand hours. Gladwell supports this claim well with Ericsson’s study. Gladwell also writes how Mozart developed his first masterpiece at age twenty one after composing music for ten years, although his best works didn’t come “until he had been composing for more than twenty years” (41) so he was considered a “late development.” Bobby Fischer, one of the greatest chess players ever took only nine years to become elite but ten years seems to be the rough average it takes someone to put in ten thousand hours worth of practice into something. These examples are really well chosen and drastically help to improve how well his claim that “ten thousand hours of practice is needed for mastery” is supported.
To wrap up, Gladwell makes two very believable claims in the excerpts from his book, Outliers. One is that “intelligence has a threshold,” which Gladwell excellently conveys with the IQ examples, such as the Einstein-Langan comparison. The other is that “ten thousand hours of practice is necessary for mastery,” which Gladwell also conveys well with the Ericsson study and the Mozart example. Gladwell makes many claims in the full book, all of which are surely supported like the two claims in these excerpts. One really well-written quote by him which I am going to leave off with is, “Practice isn’t the thing you do once you’re good. It’s the thing you do that makes you good” (42).
Attaining Greatness: Deliberate Hard Work or Luck
William Shakespeare, an English poet, believed that “Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.” Most people perceive greatness as achieving a skill with excellence and a level of mastery, as well as being better than most persons also attempting to perfect that same craft. Humans are competitive by nature, and wanting to be the best is a significant desire for most. Striving for greatness is a fundamental human drive. Everyone wants to be the best at something or, maybe even everything. Some may have innate talent in a special area that may make them achieve greatness a lot easier than most. People have to keep working at perfecting their craft to maintain greatness. It takes a lot of hard work, practice, and consistency to be great, yet some do all of that and still have yet to achieve it. Thus, how does one attain greatness? The other day I interviewed an old friend, Yousef, to get an opinion on the topic. Yousef said no matter what it is people want to do in life they can be great at it. if they devote all their energy, time, and feelings towards getting better at that craft there’s going to come a day where everything just clicks. All that hard work they did to get to that moment will be worth it and will make sense if they just focus their energy on one thing. People have to want it with all their heart and mind. Yousef also mentioned the law of attraction, and that it allows an infinite amount of possibilities.
People need to imagine themselves with getting positive outcomes and no negatives one. Being great at great at your craft is something the universe will help them out in achieving. They have to want it with every fiber of their body and do the work that they need to do to be able to achieve in attaining it one day it’s going to click. They will look back at all the hard work they put in and it’s all going to be worth it. After interviewing Yousef about how to attain greatness, finding the answer won’t be as easy as predicted. Yousef is someone who puts in the work for something and most of the time gets a great successful outcome. Yousef’s point of view is about people’s work ethic and about the law of attraction. For him it is more spiritual yet for most it is not. Usually people believe greatness comes purely from hard work and dedication. Some people even believe that greatness can come naturally with those who have innate talent. Greatness can be achieved in many ways and can mean different things for people. As for Yousef he looks at greatness as being above average and being better than most and having to work hard for what you want to achieve. Yet some may look at it as just simply being skilled at something, not necessarily above people but just being good at what one does.
Greatness can be looked at in many ways and achieved in different methods. In an article from Psychology Today, psychologist, Dr. Jim Taylor talks about what it takes to be great. Dr. Taylor says that greatness can not just be done by the amount of time you put in. The reality of it is that genes matter, whether it be from inborn intelligence or physical talent. People can’t control their genes, so Dr. Taylor says to focus on getting the most on what you do have. He claims people’s goals should be to find their personal greatness. They should find out whatever natural talent they were born with. That innate ability may not be enough to be the best of the best, but if you put in the work necessary, you will find a reasonable level of success. Those who find personal greatness can experience the same intrinsic benefits as those who are truly great in their field. That experience is the real reason why people suffer blood, sweat, and tears as they pursue something as elusive and unlikely as greatness.
After reading Dr. Jim Taylor’s article, I’ve realized that I have a similar view on the topic. I agree that people who are born with talent have an advantage over those who are not. Those that don’t have innate abilities are going to have to work much harder. Talent is the only starting point to greatness, so it puts those people ahead to be excellent. Nevertheless, people with inborn talent still have to work hard to achieve the greatness they desire. However, I do not agree that people without natural abilities should give up on trying to be great and settle for less. As said before, they need to work twice as hard as those who do. But acquiring ‘personal greatness’ should not be the limit for people. Getting slowly better every day, by being committed, patient, and persistent people will eventually become great at their craft. In chapter 2 of Malcolm Gladwell’s book, Outliers, he talks about something called the 10,000 hour rule. Gladwell provides evidence that claims for an individual to become an expert in any skill, they need to spend about 10,000 hours practicing or working on it. He talks about statistics that show all successful people in their fields had at least 10,000 hours of experience before they made it big. Gladwell says that it usually takes about a decade to get in 10,000 hours of practice and people need a lot of luck and extraordinary circumstances.
He talks about a couple of successful people like Bill Joy, Bill Gates, and the Beatles and how they all had special opportunities to be able to reach 10,000 hours. Bill joy found a way to log in hours in a lab for free, Bill Gates went through a series of lucky events, and the Beatles played seven days a week for 8 hours or more a day. It was through experience that they gained from the hours they put in that made them so great and successful at what they do. Gladwell states that most people do not have fortunate circumstances that allow them to pursue their passion in dedicated time blocks. successful people share a similar story because of the luck they’ve had, they were able to spend about 10,000 hours on their craft. Although I do believe that the 10,000 hour rule holds true, I do not think that it’s the only thing necessary to be great and successfulI. people need to focus more on the quality of the practice and not the amount of time spent practicing.
Being great at something requires deliberate practice not just practice. It requires people to be motivated and performing tasks that stress the areas in which they need improvement on and not just mindless repetition. Most people also do not have the time to accomplish the full 10,000 hours, so I understand when Gladwell says it requires a lot of luck and for some, sacrifice. Nonetheless, someone that has logged in less than 10,000 hours can still become great at what they do. People who are athletes don’t only rely on the amount of time they have put in the sport but they also rely on their genetics. For example, someone who is 7 feet tall and has practiced way less than 10,000 hours in total will still most likely be drafted into the NBA based solely on his height. So even though deliberate practice is necessary, it is not the only key ingredient to greatness.
The In-Depth Book Analysis of Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell
Gladwell opens Chapter Two by introducing the 10,000-Hour Rule: the matter of practicing a specific task for 20 hours a week for 10 years. During this chapter, he gives multiple examples of successful people who have completed the 10,000-Hour Rule. One very well-known person Gladwell used was Bill Gates. During highschool, Bill Gates discovered a new club about computers, and immediately he fell in-love. After he found the computer room, he practically lived there, so he tons of hours on the computers. Eventually his computer club lost funding so they had to shut down, but some buddies and him started going to the computer lab at the University of Washington in the evening. Later on, Gates found out about a company called ISI, and they needed someone to work on some software. With the combination of all the events in his life, he received more than enough hours to be successful with computers, all because he had multiple opportunities for extra practice. Towards the end of this chapter, Gladwell restates the idea of birthdays being a big factor to success, and how just like many others, Bill Gates was born during a time period that had many great opportunities.
Many believe that you practice once you’re good at something, but that’s not how it works. It’s what you do that makes you good. For example, The Beatles are amazing at music because they were forced to adapt to play for hours on end, and they enjoyed it. Of course they had their ups and downs, but they liked playing their music. Now if they were told to craft chairs for hours and hated it, they most likely wouldn’t become skillful crafters. The same thing goes for Bill Gates. Gates loved programming computers so he got his hours; however, if he were forced into athletics, he wouldn’t have been able to enjoy computers and become who he is today.
In Chapter Three, The Trouble with Geniuses, Part I, Malcolm Gladwell mainly discusses divergence and convergence tests and their importance. He starts this discussion by including a story about two men. The first named Christopher Langan, who is considered by many to be the smartest man in America. In grade school, he studied French, Russian, Philosophy and math during his summer. He also scored perfectly on the SAT. The second man is a student names Poole from top British High School. His creativity boosts his IQ level since his mind can bounce from one place to another just trying to answer the simple question of what a blanket can be used for. The main reason why Gladwell used these two people as examples is because they are two different people with high IQs, but would both of a drastic difference in the scores of the divergence and convergence tests. The divergence test mostly focuses on testing your general intelligence while convergence tests focuses on testing your mind and creativity. Both tests are equally important for testing IQ because the higher you score on these tests, the more likely you will receive a better education, which will lead to you making more money, and may lead to you living a longer, healthier life.
Terman’s Termites was a special group of handpicked people with higher than average IQ. Terman believed that this specific group of people would grow up to be Nobel Peace Prize winners, but none of them did. Terman’s flaw with his Termites is that once they were grown, the weren’t out of the ordinary. Most of the Termites made a good income, but none of them have been award winners. Terman believed that there was a relationship between intelligence and success; however, his Termites proved him wrong.
In Chapter Four, Gladwell continues with Langan’s story, but he also introduces a new person named Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer is a physicist who led to the development of a nuclear bomb in WWII. Langan and Oppenheimer have a very similar story. Both men had left college, one due to probation, and one due to dropping out. Just like Langan, Oppenheimer had an incredible mind as a child. Unlike Langan, though, Oppenheimer had received a college education. Also, Oppenheimer had more of a sagacious attitude than Langan, which probably would mean he wouldn’t have been as successful. The main difference between these two is probably their childhoods. Oppenheimer had parents who cultivated his passions and pushed him to learn new things and meet new people. Langan, on the other hand, had parents who were either too busy or just not involved in helping him build on skills. If both men had parents who had been there to encourage their younger selves, then they would have achieved much more in life.
The difference between concerted cultivation and accomplishment of natural growth can greatly affect a childs’ development. More successful families tend to use concerted cultivation, which means they were more involved with improving their children’s skills. The main reason why more middle and upper class families use concerted cultivation is because they have the extra time to spend with their kids while the lower or working class spend all their time at their jobs making money for their family. The poorer families use the parenting style of accomplishment of natural growth, which means the parents leave the options open for their children and allow them to choose what club or sport to do. Personally, I believe concerted cultivation is the better parenting style because those children are better off in the future when they enter higher educational levels and have already experienced what it’s like to be pushed.
In Chapter Five, Gladwell starts with a story about a man named Joe Flam. He introduces him by talking about his story and how being Jewish made it difficult for him to enter large law firms. All of his fellow Jewish lawyers were faced the problem of being discriminated from their peers. However in 1970 and 1980, there was a large increase in mergers, so all the Jewish lawyers that were pushed out of the big law firms took over. In The Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell states, “Buried in that setback was a golden opportunity.” Joe Flom and his Jewish colleagues all experienced a wonderful opportunity after being forced out of law practices. More reasons to why Flom was so successful in the law field is because he was bestowed opportunities, became a Jewish lawyer in New York at the perfect time — offered more options — and his religious views helped him know important lessons to being successful.
“Hard work is a prison sentence only if it has no meaning” is stated in Chapter Four of The Outliers and is incorporated throughout the entire passage. It is mainly related to how Joe Flom and the other Jewish lawyers all worked hard in college and law school but weren’t allowed to work in successful law firms just because of their faith. Even the talented Jewish lawyers were pushed out of major firms and forced to take any job they could get. Flom himself was diligent, intelligent, and skilled with law; however, he still wasn’t accepted in the legal profession due to his religious standpoint.
Gladwell begins Chapter Six by introducing the culture of honor in the Appalachian Mountains. The culture of honor is a culture where people either try and avoid offending others, or depended on being feared. Both ways are used to help protect their homes and livestock. Gladwell later explains he believes many Appalachian people use the culture of honor is because of their cultural legacy. Cultural legacy explains why many people act how they do, since that’s how their ancestors did it and that’s how they were taught. Many believe that cultural traits influence success and failure. Mainly because of practices that have been passed down through the ages and are continued to be used. Cultural legacy also helps people understand their past so they can understand the future.
Many peoples ancestors believed in intimidating others to protect their personal belongings. However, mine is much different. My ancestors cultural legacy was believing you had to succeed alone and no one is there to help you. I know that doesn’t seem very great, and actually sounds quite negative, but this can honestly help with success in my family. Generations before me have taken great strides from believing everyone only cared about themselves. Honestly, it’s kind of true, but the problem is that people are there to help you improve and become great. Past generations in my family were probably provided multiple different opportunities, but thought the person trying to help them was only doing so to get something in return.
Malcolm Gladwell opens this chapter with a story the Korean Air flight 801 crash. He explained why this crash was significant and that there are many others like this in the Korean airlines. After so many crashes, though, the Korean Air pilots had to be willing to change so they could create after airfare. To do so, they brought in trainers to reteach the under-trained. The experts taught the new crew members how to effectively communicate with each other. Since the captains and officers were willing to change, they fixed the Korean Air reputation and made it as safe as all the other airlines.
Gladwell believes that you must put your cultural legacy behind in order to communicate with others effectively. Personally, I agree with him. That doesn’t mean you must lose all your views, but it means you might have to put some aside to help keep others safe and make things easier. Sometimes not expressing your opinions can be helpful because miscommunication can lead to mistakes and enough mistakes can lead to something fatal.
In this Chapter, Gladwell creates a connection between the 10,000-Hour Rule with wet-rice farmers in Asia. He starts this idea by introducing the hard work we-rice farmers put into their farms including 3,000 hours a year. Rice work takes a great deal of effort and devotion, just like the 10,000-Hour Rule. Both tasks require complete attention and great dedication to succeed. Gladwell states in this chapter that the more often you work, the more you will stay motivated, which will help you succeed at many things, including math, programming, or even rice farming.
Gladwell believes that one’s math skills aren’t based solely on their comprehension, but on different cultural ways. For instance, Chinese schools teach their young a much simpler and easier why to add numbers. Instead of changing the words into numbers in their head, the add by saying “three-tens-seven and two-tens-two, and the necessary equation is right there” (Gladwell 229). Asians tend to have an advantage in math because they literally say things like out of ten parts, take six, which makes it much easier for the human brain to understand and visualize. I suggest America’s education system should change parts of their math language so people are able to apprehend equations for efficiently. By doing this, the American school system will be able to excel in math since students will be able to quickly translate numbers and will want to push themselves to learn more.
Chapter Nine, Marita’s Bargain, in The Outliers discusses the effect of having a long summer vacation for both upper-class students and lower-class students. Of course having a rest period is important for students, but what really affects how students succeed is by how they spend their rest period. Upper-class students tend to join new clubs, and are pushed to expand their knowledge. Alex Williams is a great example of the advantages of an upper-class student. “He gets taken to museums and gets enrolled in special programs and goes to summer camp, where he takes classes. When he’s bored at home, there are plenty of books to read” (Gladwell 258). Lower-class students, on the other hand, don’t have these types of opportunities to surpass their peers. Often times, they lose some of their knowledge because of not having those new learning resources that the wealthier kids get. In this chapter, Gladwell also states, “Success follows a predictable course.” This quote applies to many of the outliers in this book; however, it most likely pertains to Marita and Chris Langan. Mainly because both people follow a strict schedule religiously. They do this so they can be more successful and receive as much education as they can.
Gladwell believes that the American school system has too long of summers, so it affects the school tests. I completely disagree with him. Schools’ summer vacation isn’t too long because kids need to be kids too. However, if schools provided a free class once a week, that wasn’t mandatory, to review everything taught in the previous year it would help students with their education tremendously. Sometimes students need a long summer so they can learn new things in a new environment. Of course some people can’t afford summer camps, or trips to museums, but if the school offered a class during the summer to help students improve their education, it would continue to boost understanding and test scores.
Introduction and Epilogue
Gladwell starts his book off by introducing a small town of Roseto. Roseto is a small town that had a large mystery to scientists for years. For some unknown reason, Roseto had incredibly low death rates compared to any other town around it. Many people began to research this small town to see why it’s health rates were such an outlier. Researchers created many hypotheses including diet and exercise, but everything failed. Eventually, one researcher named Stewart Wolf claimed that it’s probably their atmosphere that causes great health. The town’s family culture and friendly community are what kept these people healthy. At the end of the book, Malcolm Gladwell states, “The outlier, in the end, is not an outlier at all.” What he means by this is that outliers are normal people just like everyone else, but they were given extraordinary opportunities. The Roseto Mystery and The Beatles are great examples of what Gladwell means. Both were just an ordinary town and band, but were offered an extreme opportunity to succeed. Roseto was given a new chance to have a healthy atmosphere, and the Beatles were given a rare chance to perform and practice and become the band they are today.
Malcolm Gladwell’s Book Outliers
In Malcolm Gladwell’s book Outliers, he defines an outlier as someone or something that is situated away from or classed differently from a main or related body. The author is very credible and has a few awards for writing, “Outliers.” Gladwell evidence should not be overturned, because his information is well formed and can benefit everyday life. His purpose is to teach us about the many rules that are being described in the book. The main intended audience would have to be the world and how he displays his values to millions of people. Malcolm Gladwell discusses how the individuals with the highest IQ’s that are in the upper one hundreds is the same as someone’s IQ in the lower one hundreds. Malcolm Gladwell has a lot of credibility and is a reliable source for information. He went to school for a career in advertising and got his degree from the university of Waterloo. The ten thousand hour rule is described as having ten thousand hours of practice, and getting better, at what is being practiced. Outliers are so heard upon in the book and yet there are very few of them today. Gladwell’s effective use of stories of the lives of famous and successful people in Outliers, coupled with his prolific use of logical appeals, or facts and statistics, enables him to easily explain his opinions while convincing his audience that success is attributed to many different factors in one’s life.
Everyone wants to be succeed at or master a talent of their desires. After all, self improvement is necessary to be successful in life. Malcolm Gladwell discusses the ten thousand hour rule and displays the importance that it shows throughout chapter 2. He explains how ten thousand hours of practice has helped those who truly have goal have fulfilled it. Right, of the bat readers are intrigued about what exactly the ten thousand hour rule is about. Gladwell evaluates lives of individuals who are considered successful in our society and how they achieved success. Through Outliers logos is used periodically and Gladwell effectively uses this method to help understand the children living in Berlin who played the violin and reports that the kids who practiced ten thousand, resulted in playing the violin better, than those with less than ten thousand hours of practice. Furthermore, he then took a look at Bill Gates, which dropped out of college and started a successful company, called Microsoft. Bill Gates had thousands of hours of practice in programming and other abilities learned through his short years at college. One does not simply master a skill within the first attempt nor master it within a couple of days, it takes hard work and dedications to truly master a skill, and Gladwell effectively ties this concept in with logos through Outliers.
The tone that Gladwell uses in Outliers is long sentences to get his points across to the readers. He uses key points. There were some metaphors used in the book when he talks about the tallest oak trees in the forest and they helped describe the situation and what was being talked about. Many people are cognitive of outliers once they have read the book thoroughly. Some imagery was also showed when Gladwell talked about the winning team and how all of the players and reporters crammed into the locker room. Some people fancy the way that outliers think, act, and how they are successful. These rhetorical devices helped develop the story because it gives the readers a whole new perspective on how they are reading the book. It helps make the story more interesting and get the reader more into it. The imagery was used very well on how it used every detail to describe the winning team’s emotions and practice paying off. Some people are nonchalant about the way outliers think, but most will never know how they think because they are outliers.
Outliers are so heard upon in the book and yet there are very few of them today. This piece gives the readers more knowledge of what an outlier is describes to them the difficulty of becoming one. This piece has impacted millions of lives around the world today and gives key advice to those still learning. Outlier’s was written to display the factual information recorded and also to show the world what an outlier truly is. The ten thousand hour rule is a key factor at mastering something or just getting better at it. Most people that have ten thousand hours of practice are people such as; Bill Gates, Mozart, LeBron James, Chris Langan, and many others. They all have over the minimum hours of practice needed to be an outlier, and succeed at what they do in life.
The Issue Of Conformity in “Outliers: The Story of Success” By Malcolm Gladwell
Everyday we will follow others, wether we want to or not. Everyone just wants to fit in and be apart of trends. People worry if they don’t do what everyone else is doing they will be looked down upon. Conformity is when we adjust to certain judgements to match with a group standard.In our world I think conforming to society is very important. What drives people to conform to society is people find it easier to go down paths that others have already made rather than make new ones.
To begin, in Outliers Gladwell touches base on many different stories of children or young adults earning success. But in many of these stories, success came from their background, parents, cultural heritage, etc, but what we can take from this, is that these people didn’t necessarily pursue what they wanted too, they pursed what was easiest for them. These people took what they already and grew off of it. They did not just earn success from themselves they just followed the path that had already been made for them. For example, in chapter 1 Gladwell states that “successful hockey players are born in the months of December, February, January and March”. So, any hockey player born in those months may continue down that path just because of someone they know being successful within the same circumstances as themselves. People think if the follow what others have done the same success will come to them.
Also, a huge contributor to conformity in our world is social media. Everyday we go on social media with hundreds of “friends”. We watch big influencers do new things all over these platforms, and we follow after them because we think they are right.
All over social media new trends go viral each day, new fashion, etc. The last thing someone wants to be is the odd one out for not following these trends. Conformity on social media can cause a lack of creativity, which is when people start to just do what everyone else is doing because that is the easiest for them. People don’t want to start something new because they do not want people to see them fail, because with failure comes being looked down upon. Most teens are what cause the biggest conformity over social media. All tennagers want, is to fit in with the rest of the crowd. Big influencers will create high standards that teens will follow just to fit in and be like everyone else, and you won’t be taken the wrong way if everyone acts the same. In a society where everyone just wants to be like each other, nothing new will come and we will be stuck in the same loop.
Outliers: Definition of Success According to Malcolm Gladwell
Success is a very powerful word which society uses to describe a person that is intelligent or genius. However the book Outliers shows a different meaning for success that most society isn’t familiar with. Outliers show that you don’t have to be born with talent in order to achieve things and to become successful but it is more about taking the time to practice and make the best out of everything. Outliers shows that culture, Timing, and opportunity play a big role in a person’s success and this book supported that with evidence and well known historian that were successful.
In the Outliers written by Malcolm Gladwell which he argues that success isn’t born with anybody and it’s only earned by the different factors that is called Matthew effect. People study the personality, intelligence, and lifestyle of those successful people that everyone believes that they were born with those talents that got them to be successful. But Gladwell used his method to prove that success takes a lot of practice and it also depends on factors such as age, opportunity and the right time. The age plays a big role in most cases as Gladwell described; age plays a big role in different cases such as sports and education. In hockey most players that were born in the early year months such as January, February, and march would most likely have better chance to be picked that the players than the ones that are born at the end months of the year due to the more time of practice that they had by being born almost a year ahead as Gladwell stated. Also in the baseball and the European soccer the players that were born at the beginning of the year most likely will be picked unlike the players that were born at the end of the year, Gladwell shows how age plays a main factor in sports but he also shows how age also plays a big role in education as well. The older the kids are the more things they learn than the kids that are born in the late of months of the year. Elizabeth Dhuey gave example about kids in the fourth grade which she found that the older the kids the more advantages than the rest.
The earlier months of the year that someone was born in the better chances they had in sports and education but age isn’t the only a role in being successful, Gladwell also said that practice, opportunity and good timing are main factors in being successful and play a bigger role in achieving things than being talented. Gladwell stated in order to master anything you have to practice at least 10,000 hours in anything you want to be successful in. Having a good opportunity plays a big role in being successful as well Gladwell gave us an example showing how bill gates became very successful because of the chance that he had which was having the opportunity to work with computers when he was in eighth grade during 1960s computers weren’t common and not a lot of people had a chance to used them, therefore bill gates had a better chance on everyone else by having a good chance of using computer which made him successful not his talent. Bill gates had a chance to get his ten thousand hours of practice on computers just like Gladwell had said which made him successful and this example support his theory. Another example that supports Gladwells theory are the two richest industrialist in the history which were John Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie which the age was the main factor that led to their success. Gladwell used all these examples to support his thoughts; He also said a Genius doesn’t have a better chance of success than that practice for long time. The theory of the outlier matters more than IQ test. In Gladwell opinion IQs set a view limit to the testers thinking, a British Psychologist Liam hudsin explains that a secintist with and IQ of 130 is likely to win a Noble Prize as one whose IQ us 180, Liam shows that a IQ test doesn’t measure how smart or how successful a person could be, just like Gladwell said IQ tests limit your way of thinking, Gladwell stated “ To Be a Noble Prize winner, apparently you have to be smart enough to get into a college at least as good as Natre Dame or the University of Illinois. That all” in this quote he shows how most people look at success in a way that to be successful you have to graduates from a certain school or be as good as someone otherwise you will not be consider as successful which is false in his opinion.
Gladwell believes that every person should be prepared and ready for the right time to achieve their success through one on his logic opportunities. Some parents may work hard to achieve a goal but never actually be successful themselves but they show their kids the way to be successfully which will affect the life of their kids in the long run. By the parents try to be successful this can built a better future for their kids and teaching them how to be successful for their own lives.
Gladwell believes that culture can play a big role in an individual’s success as well, attitude and behaviors that’s being taught in culture can shape the way a person’s reaction to a certain situation, and this can lead the individual to be successful or fail. Gladwell brings in an example about an experiment that was done and it was divided between people in the south and the north and finding out the way each group would react to threat. This experience proved that Gladwells logic was credible, and the results were the people in the south faced the threat with anger and on the other hand the people of the north were calmer and this shows how the culture makes a different in an individual’s opinion. Tradition and attitudes can lead to a person success or failure, because it culture can change the ways people would people with same situation but different ways of facing it. For example Asians are good with math which makes math easy for younger generation than the rest of the other countries, because math is easy for most kids in china shows how culture can also effect the education for better or worse depending on the case that a person is facing.
Gladwell also ends the story of outliers with a personal experience about how he had become famous, which was the help of the people that he knew like his mother, great mother, and great great-mother. His personal shows that no one will make it out alone without an opportunity or a perfect time, and he also said that luck plays a big role in being successful as well.
The Outliers shows helps us understand history by giving stories about the life of big legend that became in power and took over the oil filed which was Rockefeller and the reason that helped him become the person that he was. This book proves facts about successful people and the things that supported them to get to where they were and made them well known to everyone and mostly not because they had talent or were born genius, but more like they had better chances than everyone else during their times.
Gladwell Believes that in order to be successful you need the help from others or have some kind of chance that will get you to be famous, and also believes that being talented isn’t a role in order to be successful. To be outliers you need luck. Everyone needs practice for at least 10 thousand hours in order to be successful at anything in Gladwells opionon. This book gives different stories that show the reader how to become successful without being smart or born with talent but to earn it and always try to find the right timing to be successful and always look out for an opportunity.
Success And Luck In Life In Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell
Malcom Gladwell, the author of Outliers, discusses important factors that create a lucky combination for an individual to unlock the potential for success; this lucky combination is what sets individuals apart from others, making them outliers. The factors that lead toward success go beyond analytical intelligence,and the situations are both in and out of physical and personal control. Gladwell says that an individual is not able to achieve great success without some, if not all, of these factors being coincidentally lined up to benefit the individual.These factors are products of luck and hard work, learned and inherited behavior, and more importantly thehelp from others and the position of social location. A prodigy would be lost in a crowd if that individual does not possess the necessary skills that would separate one’s self from others and be able to swaysocial situations in personal favor. These factors that Gladwell says allows an individual to become successful include having a talent and the means to practice that talent excessively, extraordinary opportunities, the home and location an individual is raised in, the sense of self-entitlement and learned practical intelligence, and cultural legacy.
When thinking of success, most people imagine a very talented individual who climbs to the top through personal perseverance. However, mere talent is only a fraction of the cause for success, and certainly not the most important. Most trades can be taught and learned through extensive practice, although there is the existence of innate talent. That talent goes to waste, however, when an individual is not provided with the means to practice and hone in the skills of such talent. The mastering of a skill is generally thought of as reaching the practice of an intentional and determined ten-thousand hours, which is an overwhelmingly large amount of time. For an individual to recognize their talent at a young age and have the means to practice so intensely would mean that the parents of the individual could afford to give the time and support that would be necessary to put in so much effort (42). That talent then would need to be given the opportunity to advance beyond just passion and practice.
Opportunities are a major subject that Gladwell discusses, because it is through opportunities that an individual is able to take the practiced talent and transform it into a powerful advantage over others. Although it is unfair, people do not receive the same amount of opportunities throughout life. Institutions are a part of what brings opportunities, such as Bill Gates’ opportunities. Gateshappened to attend Lakeside High School as a young adolescent;the schoolalso happened tohave raised the funds for a time-sharing terminal in 1968. Another opportunity was living within walking distance of the University of Washington, where there happened to be free access to a terminal between three and six in the morning (54). Gates also received a lucky opportunity through the social connection of ISI founder Bud Pembroke of TRW, who needed programmers familiar with the very skills Gates had been practicing (53). Opportunities are unique to location, time and social connections; in other words, the individual’s social location in history. Opportunities may also arise from the very family an individual is born into and the advantages that family may provide.
Growing up in a family that is actively engaged in the development of skills and the mind creates a beneficial environment for an individual, but the location in which a family lives allows an individual to be given different opportunities which proves to be just as important. As seen with Bill Gates and the luck of living so close to a university that had free access to a terminal in an age where computers were rare, as well as going to a high school that had a terminal, location is important. For a person to be raised in an area in which the individual’s specific talent could be practiced in a special way that others do not get access to,in a time of which the skill becomes needed, is uncommon. Such luck can also be seen in the family behaviors towards mental development. It is generally thewealthier families in the upper-middle class that pay extreme attention to mental development and thus bestow the young mind with a sense of entitlement in which the individual is not afraid to put themselves on the same level as others; the child will, for example, not be afraid to question doctors or teachers or relate personal opinions to those authority figures (106). While it can be taught to lower class individuals as well, it is more commonly seen in the upper class because the lower class parents are typically timid of authority figures and tend to be quiet and submissive, thus teaching the children constraint (107). Interacting with authority figures is a cultural advantage acquired through parental encouragement and is a skill that Gladwell says is necessary for success (108).This entitlement is the foundation for an individual to interact in social environments and to learn the skills of practical intelligence; this is the knowledge of what to say, to whom, and when to say it for maximum effect in order to sway situations in personal favor (100). There is also another contribution that families provide towards an individual’s success, which are behavioral traits.
Cultural legacy is the behavioral traits passed down through the generations, dating back even hundreds of years, derived from the nature of the particular culture that a bloodline comes from. Certain cultures value personality traits differently, depending on the necessity of that trait for the area. For example, people whom the rocky mountainsides were the ancestor’s homes, tend to become more aggressive in situations that threaten honor because their ancestors had to defend their reputation and stock in a harsh terrain (167). This cultural tendencyto be aggressive, along with other behavioral traits and patterns, becomesingrained in genetics and is present throughout generations to come. Other traits, such as hard work, are also the product of culture. Gladwell explains that the reason Asian countries are able to excel so significantly in mathematics compared to others is because of their long legacy of rice farming, which is a very tedious and precise practice (233). This hard work ethic is applied to all aspects of life, including education, which means that giving up on mathematics is not an option; there is an expectation to number-crunch until the answer is found (230). These behavioral traits affect an individual’s response to situations and in turn, the ability to create the social web and situational skills that are beneficial to succeed. These behaviors develop into skills that bring forth possible opportunities to use a mastered talent as an advantage over other people, allowing an individual to achieve great success; in other words, all of the factors are interdependent.
For Gladwell to spell out the foundation of success means that individuals can interpret their own paths towards success in a more detailed and thoughtful way. While many people have different ideas of what success means, it is safe to say that Gladwell has captured the essence of great historical success stories by analyzing the lives and histories of different outliers. If a person has a great talent and wishes to enhance that skill towards mastery and fame, that individual can then relate Gladwell’s explanation of the ten thousand hour rule and understand that mastery only comes with dedication and unrelenting attention. That individual would then also understand fromOutliers that beyond talent there must be opportunities and that success is never achieved through a lone struggle. Globally, individuals could have a sense of understanding that for these factors to align in personal favor is rather unlikely, so perhaps there would be less disappointment and expectation for greatness; at the same time, people could find motivation to achieve their own success, even if that does not mean fame, through the means of rewarding work and perseverance.
Review Of Malcolm Gladwell`S Book “Outliers”
In the general view today, a predominant piece of society have come to envision that the building blocks of accomplishment are inside the personality and character of the individual. On the contrary to this conviction, Malcolm Gladwell certifies in his top of the line unquestionable book Outliers that accomplishment is shaped by external powers in which certain individuals are yielded correct openings and inclinations that only one out of every odd individual is given by predetermination. Regardless of the way that his condition passes on strong affirmation to the extent these distinctive forces of date of birth, family establishment, and altogether blessed openings; helping clear the road for gaining ground, Gladwell undeniably avoids the estimation of industrious work and confirmation. Gladwell’s theory of achieving accomplishment holds some authenticity, yet he deliberately precludes the middle essence of individual effort inside his examinations. The center of advance is inside the individual’s ability to persist through inconveniences and disasters as opposed to it only including people abusing diverse outside forces.
In his first segment, Gladwell looks at the birth dates of tip top Canadian hockey players fighting in the last club facilitate. In his examination, clearly an astonishing predominant piece of the players, around 70 percent, are considered inside the underlying three months of the year. Gladwell raises, “It’s fundamentally that in Canada the capability cutoff for age-class hockey is January initial” (24). Gladwell presumes that the basic favored point of view of physical improvement prompts the kids being detached into two social events; the “ordinary” and the “unprecedented,” or more decisively communicated, the “more energetic players” and the “more settled players.” This division gives those more prepared players the benefit of better teaching and wide practice hours in their starter athletic interests. Regardless of the way that his presentation is sensible, it undermines individuals who intentionally make windows of chance by virtue of their constant character. An exceptional case that showcases such productive responsibility and valor is the record of Oscar Pistorius. Pistorius is a paraplegic that battle physically fit enemies in the London 2012 Olympics in both the 4×400 exchange and the 400M dash, making astonishing history regardless of the troublesome are had no single great position to help him on the way, anyway in spite of apparently unrealistic resistance, he fanatically arranged to meet up and no more tip top wearing event on the planet. The nature of Pistorius’ consistency and responsibility give bottomless verification in how individual will can challenge all doubts and leave a mark on the world.
In the second section of Outliers, entitled “The 10,000 Hour Rule,” Gladwell underlines this specific measure of time while deciding the distinction amongst experts and beginners. In help of this rule, Gladwell gives his perusers stories of The Beatles, Bill Gates, and Bill Joy in their individual adventures toward riches and notoriety. While portraying The Beatles early days, Gladwell notices their aggregate measure of exhibitions in Hamburg, “The Beatles wound up heading out to Hamburg five times in the vicinity of 1960 and the finish of 1962. On the primary outing, they played 106 evenings, at least five hours every night… All told, they performed for 270 evenings in a little more than 18 months” (49-50). It surely bodes well that stretched out long stretches of training liken to higher effectiveness in any territory of expertise, however Gladwell’s fundamental contention is that the inceptive chance to play such long shows for a few evenings amid the week is the thing that gave The Beatles the likelihood of turning into a capable band, and accordingly exceptionally fruitful in their melodic vocation. In spite of the fact that the Hamburg opportunity gave The Beatles an unprecedented measure of time to build up their aptitudes, Gladwell presents this data in a way that ruins the essentialness of individuals who shape their own thriving. The virtuosic guitarist Steve Vai substantiates this subject of vigorous assurance without the requirement for a “brilliant opportunity.” One may contend that he had a chance to wind up an incredible artist since his folks got him his first guitar and upheld his enthusiasm. Anyway the essential distinction is that a great many people are special with occurrences of chance that others may never experience, however the rule is that some surpassed ordinariness due to their yearning character, along these lines extending their window of chance through cognizant exertion. Mr. Vai emerges among the rest; he earned a Ph.D in music from the esteemed Berklee College of Music and is viewed as a performer that altered the style of playing guitar. To put it plainly, Mr. Vai is confirmation of not just achieving your fantasies and thriving with progress, however he epitomizes the way towards authority through quality of character.
The Hill To Success In “Outliers” By Malcolm Gladwell
In the book Outliers by Malcolm Gladwell the author exclaims, “In Outliers, I want to convince you that these kinds of personal explanations of success don’t work. People don’t rise from nothing”. This demonstrates Gladwell’s purpose which is to change the world’s mind on how success does not happen overnight, it requires effort, opportunity, and help. Towards the end of the book, Gladwell begins talking about his own success that emerges from the hidden advantages and multiple opportunities that his parents and grandparents received, which is where his purpose for the book really begins. Moreover, Gladwell’s strategic organizational choice for Outliers is set by various examples. In each chapter, there are different reasons why people become successful. By choosing this organization, Gladwell makes it easy for the reader to acknowledge what he is saying. Malcolm Gladwell mentioning his own family story provides more reasoning on his purpose since it is based on a true story.
To begin with, Gladwell’s purpose of the book, Outliers is that one has to be given opportunities, be born at the right time, have the right cultural background, and have the help from others in order to become successful. An example that Gladwell states is one of the successful geniuses well known, Bill Gates who was given opportunities in order to accomplish his discovery of computer programming. As discussed in Outliers, Gates was not made successful himself. After school, he would go to an office to work on programming, but after they went bankrupt, Gates and his friends started going to the University of Washington’s library. The number of hours that Bill Gates and his friends stayed at the library accumulated to more than 10,000 hours of experience, but then again, he was not alone. Gates had his friends, parents, and the school’s help to become very successful. Moreover, Gladwell mentioning his family story towards the end of the book, it makes his purpose for the book more realistic to the reader since it contains real-life experience. In the excerpt, “A Jamaican Story,” it talks about a major civil strife in Jamaica as a possible contributor to his own current success. In addition, Gladwell describes the success of his own family as a series of lucky breaks that were not clearly designed to reach the current state. All the way from his great-great-great grandmother picking sugarcane in the plantations of Jamaica to his mother being a successful writer in Canada. This just shows how one can come from a tough background, yet receive an opportunity that can make one succeed even with those challenges, which is Gladwell’s point.
Next, throughout Outliers, Gladwell uses a specific structural organization. For each point Gladwell makes, he offers a story about success and follows it with a breakdown of the factors that caused such a fortune. An example of this use of organization is when Gladwell begins discussing The Beatles. Gladwell mentions where The Beatles originated which were full of strip clubs and bars, so they always had interesting gigs because their city lacked rock’n’roll bars. After a few years, they were sent to Hamburg, Germany and that is where George Harrison and Ringo Starr met John Lennon and Paul McCartney, who formerly had a tiny “band” themselves. They discovered each other’s dreams of becoming a rock band and created The Beatles and with more practice, they became very popular. Moreover, they would not have achieved the dreams that they wanted if it was not for the club gigs and their selection to perform in Hamburg. They had each other and the club owners supporting them. The reason why Gladwell’s family story helps this example is because Gladwell’s fate relied on a white man who had raped his great-great-great grandmother repeatedly, causing her to have a Mulatto son enough for him to avoid slavery. The riots based on racism in Jamaica allowed his mother to pursue the aspiration of education. Also, the courtesy of Mr. Chance lending her money for the University had helped shape the success in the family. Gladwell states “It takes no small degree of humility for him to look back on his life and say, ‘I was very lucky’”. This demonstrates how Gladwell and his family were very lucky to accept such great opportunities along their way. It was the dedication and the luck that granted Gladwell’s family to success, similar to the Beatles.
In addition, there are various principles represented to the reader. The “10,000-Hour Rule” is very important during the book since it is the most common ways people get the most successful at what they do. Gladwell discusses the success story of Bill Joy who went to the University of Michigan in 1971. Joy happened to come across the newly added computer center that had the most advanced systems installed and he was “hooked”. Moreover, the fact that Michigan was one of the very few that had time-sharing system computers and made it available 24/7, Joy was able to practice programming all day and night which enabled him to practice a lot more than most people in that time. Gladwell goes on to explain that no matter how talented one is and if they do not put enough practice in, they will not excel in their field. The “10,000-Hour Rule” really spoke to me in various ways. For example, during 5th grade, I started playing the clarinet. At just 12 years old, I was already joining in many extracellular activities. Since I never played an instrument before, I was very hesitant about even joining the school band thinking I was going to be awful no matter how much I practiced. Eventually, the school band teacher made me realize that I should practice a lot and even gave me some sheet music so I can achieve being a good clarinet player.