Brave New World
Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World: an Analysis
Brave New World was revises due to the actuality of these concepts. “The prophecies made in 1931 are coming true much sooner than I thought they would” (page 238). These prophecies came to life, before the author had proposed. He claimed “the nightmare of total organization, which I had situated in the seventh century after Ford, has emerged from the safe, remote future, and is now awaiting us, just around the corner” ( page 238). Many had criticized such topics after the creation of the original Brand New World , and claimed the future would recognize more with “1984”. However, we are seeing now that this is myth, Brave New World forecasted the future more accurately.
I am no scientist; however, I remember attending a seminar at Gannon University last year. This seminar was dedicated to these ideas. Scientists now have the means to create a desired race. Parents are now able to choose the genetic makeup of the child, along with the gender. This book, along with the ideas presented at this seminar, reveal to us that these ideas are already reality. One doesn’t have to guess when they will occur, because they already are occurring. Although, governmental intervening has not occurred with this new technology, it is only time before this is true.
I mean, logically thinking, why would they create technology? Certainly, not for the good of the economy, rather to have a way of controlling it more and more. According to Huxley: “Whenever the economic life of a nation becomes precarious, the central government is forced to assume additional responsibilities for the general welfare. It must work out elaborate plans for dealing with critical situations, it must impose ever greater restrictions upon the activities of its subjects and if, as is very likely, worsening economic conditions result in political unrest, or open rebellion, the central government must intervene to preserve public order and its own authority” (page 245). The role of governments has certainly changed over time, it was once reserved to serve the people, however, now it is utilized to reserve only its own power of dictatorship.
Huxley claimed: “In the second half of the twentieth century we do nothing systematic about our breeding, but in our random and unregulated way, we are not only over-populating our planet, we are also, it would seem, making sure these greater numbers shall be of biologically poorer quality. In the bad old day’s children with considerable or even with slight, hereditary defects rarely survived. Today, thanks to sanitation, modern pharmacology, and the social conscience, most of the children born with hereditary defects reach maturity and multiply (page 248).
These ideas reinstate what is already known to mankind. It is apparent, that mentioned persons are living quite longer, considerably. However, it is not are right to discontinue such cases, some persons with deformed features, are the happiest amongst us. Taking away these rights, would be against the Constitution. However, governments aren’t concerned about keeping these rights, rather taking them away one by one. Technology can conclude such deformities now, even before the birth of these children. Many parents opt to abort these cases, which is one secret maneuver the government has already implemented to their goal. However, most people do not realize this, they do not see that the government wants to create a pure race, which is why these technologies were created in the first place.
Although this may be a work of fiction, it does leave one with an unsettling feeling. Especially, since these ideas are happening as we speak. The author speaks heavily on overpopulation and the expectancies of controlling such issues. A remarkable point included: “In an undeveloped and over-populated country, where 4/5 of the people get less than two-thousand calories a day and 1/5 enjoys an adequate diet” (page 249). He then goes on to claim that industrialized countries are even seeing decline in IQ and physical vigor.
These ideas are very prevalent in our world today. But is totalitarianism the answer to fixing such solutions? I don’t believe so, we as people should figure solutions to such problems, not the government. For it is certain their way will be violent and unconstitutional. We can clearly see the dire need to control populations, other countries have done so, such as China. China allows for a certain number of children to be born, I feel this measure could be taken. However, instead of the government intervening, why cannot we just agree to keep this for ourselves.
I feel that totalitarianism principles are very possible in our future. Page 269 of Brave New World speaks about Hitler’s rule in Nazi Germany. It claimed there was one thing different that Hitler did that differed from previous dictators. One thing which made his techniques both successful and possible. He concluded that this was that he utilized all “technical means for the domination of its own country.” Such examples included radios, speakers, and the inability for man to have independent thoughts. I feel these ideas are already incorporated in our society today.
Last week I watched a video called The Corporation, this film showed what corporations were designed to do and how they have considerably. One aspect this film revealed was in regards to Monsanto. As many know, this corporation is responsible for much of the food produced throughout the country. Fox news was designated to do research on a specific chemical this company produces and the safety of it. The reporters concluded that it was linked to several cancers and declining health in general. They claimed they would not lie about their research, so Monsanto threatened them. A lawsuit arose, and one might think Monsanto would be the one in trouble. However, it was concluded that revealing false information via news, television, or journals, is not illegal. What this goes to show, that the government is already controlling our minds. They fill our brains with many lies and mislead us to the truth. These ideas are already incorporated in the system; citizens must be educated themselves and not rely on such programs to conclude the truth. Just as Hitler controlled what was aired and considered truth, the U.S. government is doing the same thing. But most people do not realize this, and that is where the problem occurs.
Another great point made, was that Hitler believed the masses were “incapable of abstract thinking and uninterested in any fact outside the circle of their immediate experience” (page 272). This heavily relates to my example above. Hitler could brainwash an entire nation to conform to his ideas. Many people argue that they would not be involved in such instances, however, one cannot simply speak unless directly involved. I feel that America is blind to what control they are already being subjected to.
The “land of the free” is far from free. The government is controlling are food supply, our economy, and most importantly us. They feel that people are incapable and unconcerned with issues of the world, however, that is not true, to an extent at least. In my opinion, anyone trusting in the government 100% are completely ignorant and blind to what is going on. I feel the government certainly uses propaganda to revert are attention. Such propaganda as the recent Cleveland shooting. Propaganda is the use of information, that is generally biased, which is utilized to promote a certain way of thinking or concept. This propaganda, is used to control us. Many instances have been occurring recently, these issues are blown out of proportion and is used to hide more serious issues occurring. Recently, we saw this instance of a man killing a man on social media. Much hysteria fled through news and social medias. Although, the body of this man was not revealed after he committed suicide, and his live video on Facebook revealed something quite strange. There was not a single drop of blood on the victim’s body, however, just a pile flowing on the space next to him. In my opinion, this was not real. The government most likely used this to distract our minds from something they were doing. Many may think these views are crazy, but I challenge anyone to prove me wrong.
“Democratic institutions are devices for reconciling social order with individual freedom and initiative, and for making the immediate powers of a country’s rulers subject to the ultimate power of the ruled” (page 263). Also on page 264: “given a fair chance, human beings, can govern themselves, and govern themselves better, through perhaps with less mechanical efficiency than they can be governed by “authorities independent of their will.” These two quotes reveal the answer to the last question to this assignment. This questioned is concerned with the idea that people would be granted “guaranteed happiness”, but who is to say this is guaranteed. The government in a totalitarian state does not offer this sort of happiness. As we have seen in the past, it leads to controlling of all aspects of life. What happiness does this generate, in my opinion, this isn’t life anymore? As stated above, people can govern themselves better, for if government was to impede on our rights, life will be in their best interest, not our own. We can already see the greed and power behind such governments, why should anyone feed more into this. We are rational beings, and deserve our free will that was granted to us first by God, and secondly by the Constitution.
Brave New World and 1984 by George Orwell: an Analysis of the Inferiority of Women
Expendable or Indispensable?
“You’re nothing more than a dishwasher, a cook, and caretaker.” Subjected to conventional domestic duties, women before the 1920s were not granted freedom in exercising rights given to their male counterparts.. Thought of only as mothers, it was not until they were granted suffrage that women were able to display their significance and influence to their societies. Similarly, the dystopian novels that are meant to predict our irreversible future reflect the moral conduct of the past. In Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, women are not equal to men due to their diminishing importance in society. Similarly, 1984 by George Orwell presents women as inferior individuals, generally stymied by the stereotypes which make them essential members of society. In both dystopian novels, gender inequality exists due to the sexual objectification and cliched roles of women in each society, compared to the esteemed, authoritative figures of men.
The women in the novels are presented as subordinate to men and are given little regard in societal matters. The women are the providers, while the men consume what the females have to offer. According to M. Keith Booker of DePauw University,
Concerned with the clash between individual desire and societal demand, dystopian fiction often focuses on sexuality and relations between the genders as elements of this conflict…Brave New World, and 1984 all focus on sexuality as a crucial matter for their efforts at social control. And it is also clear that this focus comes about largely because of a perception on the part of these governments that sexuality is a potential locus of powerful subversive energies. (Booker)
Sex is either advocated or deprived from the citizens at the cost of women; to control the society and prevent emotional connection between human beings. In Brave New World, women are held to a promiscuous standard and are used by men to maintain superficial happiness, ridding of the traditional binding love in a relationship. When Lenina explains that she has been with Henry for four months, her friend Fanny scorns, “It’s such horribly bad form to go on and on like this with one man” (Huxley 41). The values of society are injected into women, who are chastised for staying with one partner, while males are free to socialize with whomever they please. The male-dominated government is able to control the women’s views on sexuality, therefore commanding utter control in the World State, just as Booker explains in her article that sexuality is a controlling factor. Similarly, in 1984, loveless marriages are forced upon society and are the sole technique to produce more loyal, brainwashed party members. When Winston is dreaming about the past, he remembers, “The only recognized purpose of marriage was to beget children for the service of the Party” (Orwell 65). When that duty becomes an impossible endeavor, Winston’s relation to Katharine is otherwise pointless, as they share no friendship or love, so they separate. Both novels imply that if each society did manipulate sexuality to control their population, women would hold insignificant roles and not benefit society in any way, and men would be able to run their world independently. However, while Brave New World outlines their decreasing importance to society in comparison to the rising male authority, 1984 uses women to show how strong the male leadership of the government is.
Where the word “mother” sparks reactions shock and controversy, the word “father” elicits no response in Brave New World. The elimination of biological mothers produces a world which only looks at women for expendable pleasures. For instance, when the Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning is distinguishing between how male and female reproductive cells are maintained in the incubator, to an all-male tour group, he points out, “ ‘The week’s supply of ova [is] kept’…‘at blood heat; whereas the male gametes,’ and here he opened another door, ‘they have to be kept at thirty-five instead of thirty-seven. Full blood heat sterilizes.’ (Huxley 5). Whereas men are given freedom to keep their genes, and therefore biological and future identity, women’s ova are purposefully sterilized to prevent their passage to further generations, perhaps through accidental pregnancies. The women’s power to produce life, the most organic and natural instinct for a women, is completely eliminated, making their ancient societal role abate and their current importance dwindle. Furthermore, their objectification is further amplified when, in reference to Lenina’s body, Bernard notes, “I should say she was pretty…pneumatic too!” (Huxley 60). This blunt characteristic that Bernard attributes to Lenina mirrors some consistencies of the current society of America, where looks can often be more important than personality for some individuals. Rather than learn more about Lenina and form a connection, which is shown to make the society “unstable,” Bernard uses a superficial, sexualized term to descried her features. Also, the citizens have soma to keep them happy, and do not need rebellious pleasures like in 1984, so women are therefore even more “disposable”. By teaching future generations that women are physically and emotionally inferior to men, individuals in the society such as the D.H.C. and Bernard, make the two genders unequal.
In 1984, women are dominated by the stereotypes placed upon them. Although the term “mother” applies very loosely to some of the females in society, woman are expected to follow their husbands or the higher power that is held by men, making them appear dependent and vulnerable. For instance, Winston’s ex-wife Katharine claimed that they had sex as “their duty to the Party”. In Oceania, sex is ostracized as a pleasure and functions only as a way to further the success of the Party and the rule of Big Brother. Katharine’s only way to contribute to the party was to create a child, and when she was unable to do that with Winston, she left. Whereas in Brave New World, the citizens of World State are able to use soma to escape sadness and other negative feelings, in Oceania, the members are not given such an option. Instead, they find such escape in women like Julia, who are a rare type, and dare to rebel against the government with its own Party members. Whereas in the World State, to rebel is to have one partner and abstain from sex, in Oceania, it is quite the opposite. The essential role of women to continue the legacy of Big Brother contrasts with the World State’s eradication of mothers and natural births. Without the mothers and rebels, Oceania would have no new party members to brain wash or any way for frustration and anger to be released, benefitting the males of society. The stereotypical role of the women allow the men to rise to a higher position in the Inner Party and gain even more control.
Gender inequality is heavily present in modern day America, and even more so in fictional dystopian novels. Characters such as Julia and Lenina are used by their government and by other citizens at the cost of their dignity and morality. However, by showing females as the inferiors in Brave New World and 1984, authors such as Huxley and Orwell inevitably predict the role of women in our future. The growing sexualization and stereotyping that was present in America’s past is very likely to cycle into the future if our society develops towards a dystopian model, made evident by Booker’s claim that “sexuality is a potential locus of powerful subversive energies” for those types of government (Booker). A society which manipulates the birth-given characteristics and advocates the constant subversion of one gender will inevitably create a society built upon gender inequality.
A critique of the Literary Elements in Brave New World by Aldous Huxley
In the passage from the novel Brave New World, Aldous Huxley uses metaphors and powerful diction to characterize John and Mustapha Mond and their opposing views on societal and life values. Through the two characters’ dialogue, Huxley portrays Mustapha Mond as someone who does not believe in enduring any kind of unpleasant emotions within a civilized world. Meanwhile, John is characterized as someone who looks up to God as a reminder to keep his morals intact and believes that suffering is a humane part of life.
The passage begins with John expressing his views on God and the reason for his existence, arguing that if there was a God in this society, people would not let themselves be “degraded by pleasant vices”. The word “degraded” and “vices” signify disgrace and immorality, revealing that John is disgusted by the society’s system that encourages taking soma, a drug that is used to escape all responsibilities. He explains that God is the source that gives people patience and courage, which are the moral qualities that he lives by. Mustapha Mond counters by denoting the lack of purpose in putting oneself to “bear anything… unpleasant” and mentions that it would “upset the whole social order”. Huxley emphasizes the conflicting views of the two characters as Mond judges John’s beliefs as unnecessary in this civilized society. John asserts that self-denial is important for “chastity,” which is a strong belief in his religion, completely opposite of the usual behavior in the new world. As expected, Mustapha Mond discourages the practice of abstinence; he believes that stopping oneself from fulfilling desires will create “passion” and “neurasthenia” which are pointless feelings that will only create “instability” and cause destruction to the civilization. Mond’s objection to chastity reveals that he does not care about being humane and having useless emotions creates unhappiness or dissatisfaction.
Mond believes that “nobility” and “heroism” have no role in their society because wars are nonexistent, and everyone is happy with doing whatever their “natural impulses” desires. In his short speech, he concludes that even if there are upsetting feelings, soma will solve everything quicker and easier than “moral training”. He mentions that “half your morality” can be carried in a bottle and metaphorized soma as “Christianity without tears”. This huge dependence on drugs to fix all unpleasant emotions suggests that Mond has no intention of practicing morality; he just wants happiness quick and easy without thinking about anything complicated. On the other hand, John is familiar with the “tears” and passionate feelings, so he believes that everything that is viewed unpleasant in the new world is a valuable part of life. He quotes Othello to discuss the rewarding aspect of suffering in life, in which the suffering is worth enduring because of the “calms” after “every tempest”. He tells a story about a man who worked hard to get the girl that every man wanted to marry to further justify the pleasure and fulfillment after going through hardships. Mond, once again, sees no reason for suffering if they got rid of anything that could cause pain or discomfort. John, disappointed in Mond’s reply, criticizes him for getting rid of “everything unpleasant” rather than putting up with it. John is angry at Mond who fails to see the beauty of life and will just simply push away anything he dislikes, instead of trying to endure or “take arms” against the troubles. John concludes his lines by claiming that Mond makes life in the new world “too easy” where people are unable to express any passionate emotions that defines the meaning of life; he believes that even hardships are a necessary part of humanity.
The Comprehensive Review Of Brave New World By Aldous Huxley
In the science fiction novel Brave New World, Aldous Huxley shows a “revolution of revolutions” resulting from technological advances. He does so by portraying a future BNW society that is supposedly perfect in every way. Everyone is happy. Everything exists in perfect order. Huxley, however, focuses on warning the reader about problems that may develop in the future such as promiscuity, lack of intimacy, etc. This future is indeed a “revolution of revolutions” in that societal norms go through a radical change into completely innovative, but sometimes corrupt, forms.
This revolution is a direct result of a “Nine Years War:” a war so devastating that it nearly extinguishes life on earth. Near the end of this period, humanity as a whole grows tired of war and destruction, and therefore decides to search for answers through other means. The answer is found in advanced technology. Attributing their new foundation to the industrial enterpriser, Henry Ford, the BNW society begins to take shape. Its motto becomes “community, identity, stability,” and anything that promotes social disorder is quickly eliminated. This element precludes individuality and will later incite conflict. Everyone thinks the same, acts the same, and generally lives the same in their respective class orders.
This is made possible through developmental conditioning. From the moment of conception, a human is subjected to technological conditioning that continues throughout their lifetime. All their thoughts and actions are conditioned to a set pattern. Two techniques of instituting this are those of Pavlov and Skinner. The BNW society takes advantages of their findings to modify the behavior of all people through various stimuli, response systems, rewards and punishments. One example is the electric shock treatment of babies, training them to dislike and avoid flowers. As adults, they will then avoid nature and contact, therefore, with lower class people. Another ongoing process is the use of Sigmund Freud’s hypnopaedia method. This “sleep teaching” conditions people to think a certain way for the rest of their lives. They become brainwashed.
The most prominent tool in attaining this revolution is genetic engineering. During embryonic development, people are “manufactured with distinct characteristics to maintain the stability of society.” In essence, a person’s social class and intellectual capacity is predetermined at birth. Their likes and dislikes are already programmed. Individual thought and freedom, as a result, are nonexistent. The main focus is conformity and stability. Everyone gets what they want, which is also programmed, and everyone is happy. If the opposite ever happens to occur, “there’s always soma.” This drug dependency is the ultimate source of instant gratification and connotes a “quick fix mentality.” It indulges the senses, instills happiness, and therefore promotes stability.
John the Savage, however, detests all aspects of this revolution. Having been brought up on the Reservation, he is not brainwashed by BNW conditioning. On the contrary, he does possess individuality, free choice, and an imagination. He recognizes these precious gifts of life and is astonished when he encounters civilization. John also realizes that “if one’s different, one’s bound to be lonely.” This is the way he feels after a while in the city. He cannot stand the lack of meaningful relationships, the lack of individuality of thought, and constant need for instant gratification.
Ultimately, this forces him to move into the lighthouse to seek seclusion. John subsequently begins to punish himself, apparently trying to purge his soul of the BNW society. He tries to become an individual again, familiarizing with nature and his spiritual side. However, his location is later discovered and he realizes that he cannot escape the brave, new world. This epiphany causes him to commit suicide in the end. The sad part of this final act of desperation is that it has no effect on the BNW citizens. They continue to live their lives the way they had been. These people are too brainwashed to even fathom what message John the Savage had tried to impart.
This event and others signal Huxley’s warnings about a change toward the BNW society. Aside from the conspicuous demand for conformity and stability, the new World State centers on materialism as well. BNW citizens focus on objects and their perfection. In their minds, “flaws impede happiness” and things of the past hold no value. Huxley also emphasizes the dependence on soma. This instant gratification is merely taking the easy way out of things. Whether it is pain, anger or frustration, soma is the answer to BNW citizens. Soma, moreover, leads to happiness and happiness leads back to the central goal of stability. If people are happy and get what they want, there is no social chaos or threat to society.
In the BNW society, there is also a degradation of values. Intimacy is nonexistent and in its place is polygamy. People treat sexuality like a common pastime and derive no feeling from it other than pleasure. Family is another nonexistent concept. People miss out on valuable experiences, moral lessons, and certain emotions they would have if they were in a family. As a result, they do not develop spiritually. On the contrary, they are more self-centered and see another’s death, for instance, as insignificant. Yet the most disturbing element in the revolution is the lack of individuality. There is no freedom of thought or expression of ideas, and this causes things like art and literature to be banned.
Surprisingly, many of the elements of Brave New World are present in today’s world. Materialism, for one, is present everywhere. It can always be seen in advertisements, commercials, and magazines among other places. Some people tend to think that the more things you have, the happier you are in life. Drug abuse, secondly, occurs in today’s society as well. Although it is not as widely depended on as in the Brave New World, drug abuse still persists and is present almost everywhere. The most noticeable similarity, however, is the presence of genetics. In today’s world, the science of genetics is growing as more procedures are being done to modify human life and development. If progress keeps up, people may be able to do what is done in Brave New World.
Overall, Aldous Huxley shows the reader how the BNW’s “revolution of revolutions” does not benefit humankind in the end. Although perfection is almost reached scientifically, BNW citizens take a step back intellectually. Furthermore, the “ends do not justify the means” in that individuality and free will are compromised in the process. In general, Huxley’s Brave New World shows us what not to evolve into.
Consumerism in Fight Club and Brave New World
Chuck Palahniuk and Aldous Huxley make a vastly fascinating portrayal of the image of consumerism in their works. Miriam Webster, in her dictionary, defines consumerism as “the belief that it is good for people to spend a lot of money on goods and services.” Consumerism has more than one aspect. It can be materialistic, technological, or self-consummation. The industrial revolution was basically the event which set people towards consumerism. Both novels, indirectly, represent a picture of American Capitalist community which is dominated by consumerism and perfection.
In Fight Club, a one sees that characters are fighting one another. However, this is not totally right. Their true motifs and what is fought for transcend the fact that they are only fighting. All characters in the novel are haunted by consumerism. They all adopt the idea of Renewal by all its aspects. In fact, this mechanism results in turning them into victims to their societal customs as if they are locked in unrestrained movement of consumerism. They all try to fulfil their desires by doing so. They seek only joy and nothing more. Nevertheless, they don’t get satisfied. Their appetite for buying and purchasing new things is always at higher rate. “The things you own, end up owning you” (Palahniuk, 1996)
The Novel depicts another dimension of contemporary American growth which is the pursuit of perfection. For them, perfection might be in the body of a human being or in anything else like a house, for example. “A minute of perfection was worth the effort. A moment was the most you could ever expect from perfection.”(Palahniuk, 1996). In modern American community, the phrase “the perfect man” is a man who is rich, stylish and adequate. Moreover, a man who possesses a great part of luxurious furniture; consequently, influences the surrounding people. America’s infatuation with perfection and beauty, and its fascination with consumerism are two sides of the same coin as the novel hints; the two are overwhelmed with the passion to be “perfect”. In other words, the characters in the novel sell themselves in the purpose of seeking perfection. This devastated passion of the figures in the novel consequences in transforming them into “products”, merely like a piece of furniture in an apartment.
In Brave New World, there is a logo which says “Community, Identity, Stability”. The whole system of this World State is established according to those elements. This system is conditioned. The characters are conditioned and systemized to consume. They are learned that when goods get broken and require mending, they have to get rid of them. “Ending is better than mending. The more stitches, the less riches “(Huxley 52). People in the World State are acknowledged as inferior and minor beings if they don’t possess the most recent and extreme goods. It is the same case in America; the highest percentage of citizens see substantial properties as stuff that can be simply disposed of and interchanged. A way of identifying people is by what they possess of the finest goods and not frivolous ones.
The social system of Brave New World and the American community, nowadays, share a lot of similarities, but they are different in one critical aspect, knowledge. People in the novel are mechanized; they don’t have control of their actions. They are modified to never ask, but always consume. Citizens lack consciousness and freedom of choice because they even don’t know what independent individuality and freedom mean. In contrast, this is not a regular case in America at the current time. People are conscious for what they do and basically responsible for their actions and decisions. Self-determination and reliance is the primary distinction between America and The World State of Huxley. Huxley’s World State doesn’t give the permission to read any book or even to any connection to knowledge because if it is allowed, this will lead people to think and examine the world around them. ”You can’t consume much if you sit still and read books” (Huxley 60).
Fight Club and Brave New World are both emulations for the modern American society aspects of perfection and consumerism. The image of consumerism and the prosecution of perfection is greatly portrayed throughout the novels. In Palahniuk’s work, consumerism is like a fashion, lifestyle, and a token that distinguishes superior people from inferior ones. In addition, perfection was being sought in each dimension of life. On the other hand, In Huxley’s work, consumerism was an essential part of the conditioning system of the world. People are taught to consume. It’s much like an unconscious consumerism because people are mechanized to do so. In this systemized World State, you are perfect as long as you consume. Perfection was achieved parallely with consumerism and throughout controlling people’s lives and minds.
The Future of the World in George Orwell’s 1984 and Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World
1984 and A Brave New World the authors explain how society is always evolving in a multitude of ways, and in ways that do not live up to the world’s standard. Postman goes into detail to explain how the two stories explore the fears of what our world may come to. In reality society has to accept that the world will change drastically eventually, just as it has changed for over hundreds of years in the past. Postman provided intriguing examples of how the societies are corrupt just like in Aldous Huxley’s A Brave New World, and ultimately I have to agree with him. We live in a society that we are more interested in what is on our phones then the written word of brilliant writers. Society would rather not ask in questions in fear of the answers given to them, we have become a world filled with sex, drugs, and money. It’s a horrible reality but it is our reality, Postman states that people feared we would enter a world like 1984, books being kept from us, externally imposed oppression, truth would be concealed from us, and a captive culture. In reality, we are living in Huxley’s world where teens would rather look at a TV screen then learn from their teachers, just having sex is easier than a relationship, and people do not ask questions in fear what they will be told. People in relationships are too scared to ask for more in fear that the person they love will hurt them, and they would rather be unsatisfied in a relationship then lose the person they love. People fall in love with drugs and alcohol that numb their pain, and people become greedy for money. Postman and Huxley are both right that in this world we are to absorbed in electronics that we forgot to enjoy the world, and that in the end the things we love will destroy us more than the things we hate
John Versus Bernard In Brave New World
In Brave New World, the dystopian world is made up of levels of humans who, from the making, are told what to think and how to act. Literally. Bernard, an Alpha male who doesn’t fit into the society, is unhappy with his life. John, a “savage” who was born from two Alpha’s and has been living in the Savage Reservation, thinks the new world is truly despicable. Although the two of them had a shared hate for the society, their views on the world and how they reacted were completely different.
Bernard, being self-conscious about how he looked, began to act as a kind of recluse among his fellow Alphas. When he got jealous or started feeling any emotions, he expressed them rather than taking soma, like the rest of the society. The fact that he didn’t take soma and that he had different opinions than the rest of his group members led to the Alpha’s rejecting him and calling him things like ‘strange’ and ‘weird’. Of course, this meant he was rejected from such activities like sleeping with several females as the other males did, and he got jealous, which riled him up. He often vented his feelings to his one and only friend, Helmholtz. He often bragged about his accomplishments and exaggerated greatly, leading to his friend disliking such things about him.
John was the son of the Director and Linda and was born in the Savage Reservation. He wasn’t accepted in the society of the savages because of his mother being a “whore” and his skin color. He knew little about the outside world and only came to know of it when Lenina and Bernard took him and his mother out of the Savage Reservation. He was a spectacle among spectacles. He was born rather than created, belonging to no group, and acting and thinking like a savage. From the moment he arrived he did not like the society his mother and father had been raised in: no children, no sense of having something that’s your own, a oneness that you share with your entire caste with no personal identity.
Although both males had a liking and a hatred for the society they lived in, their reasons and ways of thinking completely changed. Bernard hated the society because he simply didn’t fit in. However, when he brought John back with him from the Savage Reservation and got famous and ladies, he began to love the society he lived in and even took several doses of soma. John on the other hand first found the society amazing; technology he had never seen, beautiful girls, such as Lenina, sports, and wonders he had never been shown in the Savage Reservation. However, when his mother, Linda, began dying because of how much soma she took a day, he began to see things as they really are and began to despise such a society, He even saw how horrid and corrupted the people were, starting with Lenina. See, Bernard only disliked the society because he simply didn’t fit in, which is why his opinion completely changed when he began to get fame. John thought it was amazing at first because everything was so new to him, but he quickly saw that it was wrong and imperfect.
Once their opinions on the society they lived in changed, so did their actions. In the book, we see that Bernard becomes cocky, standing up to people like he would never have dared do before. He begins hitting on ladies everywhere that he goes and even tells an important Alpha “do you know who I am?” He brags to John and Helmholtz about all his successions with ladies and sports, something he used to have little to no experience with before. Once John sees the truth about this supposedly perfect reality, he turns into a complete recluse. He doesn’t want to leave, he doesn’t want to be interviewed by anybody, and the only people he will talk to are Bernard, his mother, and Helmholtz. When Linda goes to visit him, finally having figured out that John was in love with her but seeing it the way she has been taught to see it since birth, he lashes out, beats her up, and calls her a whore.
After getting in trouble with the ruling government of such a society, Bernard, Helmholtz, and John are all going to get relocated to an island. Bernard has a panic attack and begins saying how that’s not fair because “it was all them! I didn’t do anything!” John, however, practically begs to be sent and to stay as far away from the nearest civilization on that island, receiving permission to do so. The book doesn’t continue to tell us about Bernard and Helmholtz, but I suppose they just kept on living normally on the island with the rest of civilization. While John practiced his habits and culture that he had learned in the Savage Reservation, he becomes a circus act, and the entire society comes and visits him in his lone lighthouse. He gets overwhelmed and after the second visit and seeing Lenina, commits suicide.
All in all, what divides John from the society is the fact that he sees it how it really is, having come from the Savage Reservation where everything is practiced “the old way.” John attempts to fit in and try to live like the castes do, but he finds it a huge sin, and prefers to live alone in his lighthouse. Bernard didn’t like his society because he was jealous of other Alpha males who had what he didn’t, which didn’t matter anymore when he got what he wanted and more.
A Review of Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and Its Similarity in Society Today
Many authors have postulated about what the future holds. Some, like Orwell, claim that our leaders will become dictators and humanity will be guided by hate and fear. Others, like Huxley, posit that humanity will be infatuated with its own technologies to the point of oppressing themselves. As we aren’t ruled by a benevolent dictator, or by fear or pain, it is Huxley’s vision in A Brave New World that is closest to our reality, rather than Orwell’s hypothesis that humankind will be ruled by totalitarian leaders and a seemingly endless supply of war and pain.
Today’s culture is vastly dominated by artificial spontaneity and electronic displays. We carry what is perhaps the most ingenious device ever made in our pockets, yet we actively choose to waste our lives in a fleeting attempt to entertain ourselves. In Huxley’s Brave New World, the members of the World State constantly seek different ways to be happy. They are actively encouraged to take soma, an addictive hallucinatory drug that, when taken, alleviates all of the world’s pains. Although most addictive drugs are banned in today’s society, this doesn’t mean that we don’t drug ourselves into believing that we are happy. Instead of soma, we drug ourselves with social media. We spam each other with what we perceive as a “scathing commentary”, when in reality it’s really just arbitrary gibberish, masquerading as insight.
In Huxley’s Brave New World, Huxley points out that the citizens of the World State found it much easier to pretend that everything is fine, that it’s a lot easier to buy into the fantasy than it is to live in reality. And so it is in the today’s society. Most people don’t read because reading makes them happy, they read because they want to be sedated, because it’s less painful to pretend, because most people are cowards. We’ve turned away from anything real, we’ve turned it off and begun binging on social media that does nothing but brainwash us. We’ve taken out the batteries of humanity and creativity and have tossed them into the ever expanding dumpster of the human condition. Our individuality has been lost, we’ve been living in trademarked houses, trademarked by the same companies that produce those hypnotizing bipolar numbers that never cease to jump up and down on our electronic screens. Huxley’s worst fears have come true: we’ve been given so much information that we’ve been reduced to passivity and egoism.
Huxley was correct. We’ve become a culture built on nothing but trivialities, always captivated by the next trend, always preoccupied with our portable echo chambers. We certainly have not been able to break our “infinite appeal for distraction”, and as a result, we live in Huxley’s Brave New World.
Evaluation of Brave New World, a Novel by Aldous Huxley
Through themes of depersonalization, scientific development and death; Aldous Huxley’s satirical novel ‘Brave New World’ critiques modern society. Brave New World is a totalitarian novel, free from war and greed, where Huxley manipulates many techniques to deliver the ideas that hypnopedia brainwashes society to control them, drugs are used to influence an individual’s emotion and thought and death is an inconsequential event that should not be mourned. The main idea that Huxley endeavors to deliver to readers is that they must be cautious of how much power they give their government over new influential technologies and science.
Through setting, Huxley’s novel ‘Brave New World’ set 500 years into the future, shows themes of depersonalization of society through the use of Hypnopedia and conditioning. The connection of Aldous Huxley’s ‘Brave New World’ and modern day society is seen when both views see consumption with a holy connotation. The world state constantly consumes because of the conditioning and brainwashing. Hypnopaedic teachings such as the quote, “Ending is better than mending. The more stiches, the less riches” (Huxley, chapter 3, page 27), ensure that the world state continues to consume and that happiness is found by owning merchandise. Conditioning also create humans with no individuality; “that is the secret of happiness and virtue-liking what you’ve got to do. All conditioning aims at that: making people like their unescapable social destiny”. (The director, chapter 1, page 8) People don’t choose their jobs or career and are given the job based upon their birth, each person is conditioned to behave exactly like each other and are happy with what they are given. The hypnopaedic teachings and conditioning is similar to the media, TV and advertisements that influence civilization to consume and act obediently without question. Huxley claims that media consumption is brainwashing society to control them.
Aldous Huxley’s dystopia expresses scientific development as a factor contributing to the dumbing down of mass population. Huxley uses symbolism in the form of the narcotic ‘soma’ to control the masses; the therapeutic drug soma is used to tranquilize while sedating any extreme human emotion and stops the characters of ‘Brave New World’ from questioning their controllers. Soma causes characters to escape any moments of discontent and for the government to reinforce control on characters; “Eyes shone, cheeks were flushed, the inner light of universal benevolence broke out on every face in happy, friendly smiles.” (Huxley, chapter 5, page 42) Soma is distributed by the government in masses, in order for people to consistently work, without complaints and to become monotonous drones for the World State. Soma directly relates with modern day chemical treatments of clinical depression or Anti-anxiety pills, where the drug is used to stop a person from emotional duress or analytically thinking. The narcotic represents a powerful form of influence that science and technology has on contemporary society because if the masses are content, people will be unable to question what the government does.
In the novel, Huxley showcases death as a natural event in which the death of an individual is of no importance. There is no aging and people stay youthful. Huxley uses understatements to show readers that death is inconsequential. The differences between Brave New World and modern day society is that the death of an individual in modern society is grieved and mourned while Brave New World celebrates it. Death changes perspective, creates spontaneity, urgency and the need to accomplish things before death. Huxley’s novel shows death in an inconsequential manner so that society will not fear it and therefore go against the World State; “Undoing all their wholesome death… as though anyone mattered as much as all that! It might give them the most disastrous ideas about the subject, might upset them into reacting in the entirely wrong, the utterly anti-social way”. (The nurse, chapter 14, page 110) Huxley claims that since death is not something to fear, the people of the World State will continue to work and consume until death. This contrasts strongly as death for modern society will only prompt the desire to act with creativity and impulsiveness.
Thus, Aldous Huxley’s novel ‘Brave New World’ is a satiric novel which criticizes the consumption of modern day society. Brave New World is seen as the imminent form of current humanity’s economic values of supply and demand, where society mainly consumes and works under the control of government. Through media consumption that aids to stupify and control people, narcotics that act to avoid reality and sentiment and death that is not mourned; Huxley’s dark prophetic novel is cautionary to those who believe and rely on their government without any questions against their actions.
The Theory Of No Free Wil In The Novels The Chosen, Brave New World, And In The Bible
I chose to go to Sutter Middle School in 6th grade even though I only had one friend going, Kaley Poon, my best friend. A week or so passed and then we meet Zoe Maggio. We had an instantaneous spark as if we were destined to meet each other. Together we formed the ultimate trifecta. Even though I chose to go to Sutter, I suspect it was predetermined so that I would meet Zoe. It was just a matter of where, middle school or high school. Similarly, in Chaim Potok’s novel The Chosen, the two main characters, Danny Saunders and Reuven Malter, meet under normal circumstances that eventually turn bad. It seems unlikely that the two of them will become friends, but fate works to bring the two together in friendship. The novels The Chosen and Brave New World, along with the Bible and my own personal experiences, all support the theory that we have no free will.
Chaim Potok uses Danny’ s relationships with Reuven and his father, Reb, to demonstrate that everything is predetermined. All his life he had been conditioned by his father to become a tzaddik. However, Danny redirected himself as he got older and began studying psychology instead. Although it sounds like Danny had the choice to choose what he becomes, it was never his fate in the first place to become a tzaddik. According to Reb, he said “I have known for a long time, ” that Danny was not meant to be a tzaddik because “the Master of the Universe blessed me with a brilliant son”. Because Potok writes that “the Master of the Universe” made Danny brilliant shows how Danny’s desire to not follow in his father’s footsteps was predetermined for him. In regards to his relationship with Reuven, it could be said that their friendship was chosen for them as well. The first time they meet was at their softball game, where Reuven pitched the ball to Danny and he hit it directly at Reuven’s eye. This caused him to have to go to an eye ward where he begins to dislike Danny more and more. The first time Danny came to visit Reuven in the hospital Reuven was unhappy about it and told him to “go to hell”. When he told his dad what he said, his father became angry and told him that he needed to forgive him and “make him your his friend”. The second time Danny came back to visit, Reuven was “surprised at how happy he was to see him”. Because Danny was happy to see Reuven again after his father told him to make him his friend, demonstrated that their friendship was chosen for them by David Malter.
In addition to The Chosen, the theory of no free will can be seen in the Bible. The story of Oedipus states that when he was a baby his father left him in the woods to die because he heard of a prophecy that said Oedipus would kill his father and marry his mother. However, he was picked up from the woods and raised by another family. Not knowing he was adopted, when he heard of his prophecy he left his adoptive parents to prevent the prophecy from coming true. As he was fleeing from his fate, he killed a stranger and married his widowed wife. That stranger turned out to be his biological father, justifying that there is no escaping fate. Along with the Bible, pre-determinism also plays a big role in the society used in Aldous Huxley’s novel Brave New World. In the utopian city, the development of humans is controlled by the World State, and the majority of the population is unaware of it. Each person is raised in a hatchery, where the government controls every stage of their development. In the Social Predestination Room, their DNA is controlled chemically to stimulate or to retard their physical and mental growth to create a biological class structure. The controllers use hypnopedia, sleep teaching, to brainwash people into accepting the values and tenets of the “Brave New World”. Every factor of a person’s development and being is predetermined by the workers of the World State. Ultimately, everything is predestined for a person whether it be chosen by fate or other people.
In conclusion, The Chosen, Brave New World, the Bible, and my Grandma all prove the theory of no free will. A typical person may think they are choosing to act in ways that follow the identity they have shaped for themselves. Yet, those “choices” are still the result of an abundance of predetermined factors about them and their place in the world. For instance, a group of people can all enter a corn maze and start off in all different direction. While they are walking each of them will make different choices, whether they choose to go left, right, or straight, in the end, everyone will go out the same designated exit.