Animal Farm by George Orwell

The Use of Wrongful Information As Demonstrated By George Orwell in His Book, Animal Farm

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

He Squeals Propaganda

There was a quote by American moral and social philosopher, Eric Hoffer, “Propaganda does not deceive people; it merely helps them to deceive themselves.” In the fiction novella of Animal Farm, George Orwell creates an allegory for the Russian Revolution; The animals on Manor Farm are sick of being so poorly treated by their human owners. When their farmer forgets to feed the animals they began to revolt against him and allow the pigs to be their leaders in hope of receiving better treatment. In reality, the pigs end up just as bad as the humans (if not, worse) as they try to create a perfect society under a social structure the animals call Animalism. Squealer, a convincing orator of the world of Animal Farm, represents all the different propaganda tactics used by Stalin against the Soviet Revolutionaries in attempt to convince them into his point of view.

In one chapter, the animals have finished harvesting all the windfall apples and in addition all the cows have just been milked. The pigs then ask the animals to move all the apples as well as the milk to the harness room to store for the pigs. Because of this request the animals begin to ask questions of why the pigs have kept all the food to themselves. Squealer then responds with the claim of, “You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually dislike milk and apples.” (Ch.3, Pg. 35) He then goes onto to claim that milk and apples were a necessary part of a healthy pig’s diet, and that if the pigs had not kept all the apples and the milk for “brain food” to themselves Farmer Jones would surely come back. Here, Squealer is using the big lie tactic as well as a fear tactic. This scene is an allegory for when the aristocracy in Russia took the tax money of all the Revolutionaries, claiming the money was taken to “protect the people”.

After Snowball had run out of the farm in Chapter 5, Squealer explains that Napoleon had never completely disagreed with idea for the windmill, but that Napoleon only disagreed as a covert way to get rid of Snowball. ( Pg. 57-58 ) Using Snowball as a scapegoat in an attempt to encourage the animals to build up the windmill (again) Squealer encourages the “big” lie. The windmill as a symbol of industry, now has the animals focused on industry instead of agriculture, which in return will gain the pigs more money, yet not provide food for the rest of the animals. This correlates back to how Stalin wanted to industrialize Russia to keep up with the rest of the western world.

Continuing to use Snowball as the fall guy, Squealer persuades the rest of the animals that Snowball had not been fighting on their side during The Battle of the Cowshed, but instead was fighting on the opposite side. Trying to prove this, Squealer tries to bring falsified documents knowing that all the farm animals are illiterate and to fool them even more, Squealer has Boxer, a horse who only knows the first four letters of the alphabet, to read the documents to them. This has become an analogy for the propaganda that was used against Trotsky, by Stalin, saying that Trotsky had never fought for Russia, but against Russia. In addition, Stalin even tries to provide false documents for evidence as well.

Propaganda used by Squealer is a direct parallel of propaganda used by Stalin in Soviet Russia, not only was it used to strike fear into the hearts of the common but confuses them into believing lies they they never would’ve believed before. Squealer is Napoleon’s way of keeping the rest of the animals under control by use of propaganda. Even though it may go unnoticed, propaganda is still used today. A major example of propaganda would be all the Uncle Sam posters during the Vietnam War.

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Animal Farm Essay Analysis

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

George Orwell was a English novelist who wrote “Animal Farm,” which was an interesting story that portrayed the world around him in the 1940s. In the book characters like Napoleon represented the sign of a dictator while characters like his dog henchmen represented the armies that oppressed the people of conquered lands. The book was made and released during the early 1940s and it won the Prometheus Hall of Fame award in 2011 and the Retro Hugo Award of Best Novella in1996. Animal Farm relates to the Marxist viewpoint of how a society should function by showing how society is built like a pyramid, media/propaganda influences peoples actions, and how an individuals money/power is highly influential. One of the first ways that a Marxist view point is shown in Animal farm is how society is built like a pyramid. The article states that “This pyramid of social existence determined the rights and duties of its citizens, and the rights were nearly all at the top of the social scale” {Spirkin 4}.

This basically means that the people who have more money and those which a higher social status usually get more rights then those lower on the social scale with less money and it is important because this is supported in Animal Farm. This is supported in Animal Farm when you see how the pigs raise them selves above others like they where leaders of a great society and that every one else was just a lowly peasant only there for them to kick around and kill when ever need be.

The evidence for this is seen when the pigs start living in the house then they have the dogs kill the chickens and hens and a few other animals. Another way that a Marxist view point is shown in animal farm is when our see how media/propaganda can really affect what a person does and says. The article states “He is influenced not only by modern mass media, but also by the writings of all times and every nation” {Spirkin 2}. This basically means that media and what powerful people say can influence many with only a few words and it’s important because it is seen in Animal Farm. This is shown in the story when we see that even after Squealer rewrote the animals commandments without them knowing they still went along with is because they though that no matter what the commandments where always right. This supports the main idea because even though they didn’t think it was right they went along with it because they where told to.The final way that a Marxist viewpoint is represented in animal farm is when we see how a individuals money and power can influence a lot.

You see this in the article when it states “The wealth and complexity of the individual’s social content are conditioned by the diversity of his links with the social whole” {Spirkin 1}. This means that a person with money and more connections can seem to get many extra helping hands then those who don’t and its important because you see this happening when you compare the pigs and the rest of the animals.

You can see this in animal farm when napoleon uses trade with other farms to get money and the frighting power of his dogs to keep the other animals in line. The evidence for this is seen every where from when he kills the first animals after he takes power to when he has the commandments written over to better himself.Now after reading this are my three viewpoints really useful in the world today. Really if you get deep enough into it you’ll see it they really are still relevant. Though some might say that society is no longer built like a pyramid and that not only the people with money and a high social standard have power, but if when really look at the world is it, has the world really changed that extremely. It really hasn’t, take this for example, look at North Korea, there still basically a dictatorship and if you look at how much propaganda and oppression goes on in that country do you still think that the world is such an advanced place Though the world has changed there are still many ways that society is built like a pyramid, media/propaganda influence a lot of people, and ways that a lot of people with money and high social standing have a lot of power.

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The Idea That Power Corrupts in “Animal Farm” And “Lord Of The Flies”

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Not all leaders are selfish and greedy for the urge of power. Fortunate enough some leaders are more reliable with power but others can’t stand it. They are always there wanting unlimited power, no matter how much they are willing to sacrifice. In George Orwell’s and William Golding’s novels, inferior characters, who play the roles as a spokesperson, followers and enforcer, strengthen the power of the leaders by reinforcing them through their fears, thus ensuring the leaders’ success. George Orwell and William Golding both illustrate different outcomes of such a situation in their novels “Animal Farm” and “Lord of the Flies” respectively. In both stories, a stable government is replaced by a volatile, even hostile environment. Both text share similar concepts in that a new government can commonly appear to be more stable and reliable than the previous authority, when in reality it evolves to be much worse which reflects upon how power can corrupt a society and that “absolute power, corrupts absolutely.”

Some people seek power so that they can control and manipulate others and in contrast there are those who seek power for the benefit of the collective. These two distinct motives are clearly seen in both novels. In George Orwell’s novel, Napoleon who became the leader after the rebellion converted into more of a strict and selfish dictator. Napoleon believed that the animals were inferior, a lower class of society that could become manipulated into working for him. Furthermore Napoleons heartlessness happens during a scene, after Snowball was exiled, Napoleon summons the animals for an authorized meeting based on the confessions relating to the crimes of the animals. Napoleon then followed this up by slaughtering the animals that disagreed with him, such as the hens who disapproved upon putting their eggs for sale which led to their swift death. “And so the tale of confessions and slaughters continued until there was a pile of corpses laying before Napoleons feet and the air was heavy with the smell of blood.” This clearly reflects upon how hostile and terrifying Napoleon was for power. Snowball who is Napoleon’s counterpart is intelligent and passionate in which he is based on Leon Trotsky the Soviet politician. Snowball is less devious and proved to be a better speaker then his counterpart which indicates that he is more likely to win the loyalty of the animals which weakens the reinforcement of Napoleons triumph. This indicates that Snowball was the more reliable leader, which made Napoleon feel threatened by him and that’s why Napoleon decided to chase him out of the farm to regain more power over the animals. Alternatively in Golding’s novel, the leader, Ralph is a reliable leader and is a rather laid back character within the text, although he may possess the sinister undertones of a possible evil presence.

His means of being bad are a lot more underhanded and quiet and mostly unintentional. In addition Ralph stands for all that is good. Jack however is a more selfish and devilish leader who opposes on destructible hunting. His rules allow ruthless killing and unethical behavior in regards to unnecessary violence. Jack’s society ultimately leads to corruption, killing many innocent people in the process, while Ralph’s safe as the boys are rescued. Ralph also used a repetition of hope towards being rescued while Jack manipulated the once civilized boys into complete savages within a short amount of time.

Power corrupts commonly through the leaders who continually manipulate others to fear their current status. This creates an illusion of unethical and conflicting behavior. In George Orwell’s novel “Animal Farm the power that the 3 pigs obtained had unethically corrupted them, in which Napoleon established total power amongst the animals, which corrupted the society as a whole.

Similarly his text “Lord of the Flies” William Golding indicates that power absolutely corrupts, in which the desire for power divides the boy’s brittle civilization. History overall has clearly proven that power is the evil that exist in communism style governments and congregation. Similarly in Golding’s novel “Lord of the Flies” Jack the antagonist of the text, uses fear to manipulate the boys with the beast “Beelzebub,” which led to an excessive thirst for power, in which this destroyed the boy’s brittle civilization which ended up causing major havoc and competition inside the untouched jungle. Power was also used in positive way in the text before everything was thrown into chaos. Piggy who discovered the conch shell, used this to keep their civilization, this is because the conch shell symbolized the authority of civilization and order which kept the boys together after the crash. Jack however neglected the conch shell and disregarded anyone who held it.

Both texts share a mutual response when identifying their respective audiences. In William Golding’s text “Lord of the Flies” teaches that any individual has the capacity to become evil. In addition the maturity level for, “Lord of the Flies” was intentionally targeted for adults. As for George Orwell’s Novel “Animal Farm” the text itself is targeted to the general population of the USSR (Union of Soviet Specialist Republic) which was a former communist country in Northern Asia and Eastern Europe which was established during 1922. This was also targeted to the people who wanted to be informed about the possible outcomes and dangers of communism in World War II. He also wanted to let the future generation know about communism and how communism affects people’s lives. Satire was the novels most evident styles and allegory was an additional style that used seemingly useless characters into establishing those characters into important figures in Russian History.

Each text both share similarities of how power corrupts overtime. Comparing both texts, the Lord of the Flies is surrounded by a myriad of young military cadets who miraculously survived a plane crash inside an isolated island. However “Animal Farm” is a society overrun by animals after they disposed Farmer Jones. George Orwell used language techniques such as characterization for characters who symbolizes iconic people throughout the recent course of Russian history. Farmer Jones symbolizes Tsar Nicholas II who was stubborn and regarded his power as the world of god. This is similar to how Farmer Jones mistreated the animals in his farm, he believed that he had full power and control of his animals, until they fought back for their rights. This also reflects upon how the rebellion of Russia fought for the disposal of Tsar Nicholas II who was overthrown by Lenin and the Bolsheviks who later on took power during the start of the Russian Revolution in 1917 and leading to the rise of the Soviet Union. Napoleon who is one of the main antagonists in the novel emerges as the leader of Animal Farm after the rebellion, Napoleon portrays Russian Communist Joseph Stalin who became the Soviet Dictator after the death of Vladimir Lenin. Similarly in William Golding’s allegorical novel “Lord of the Flies”, many of his characters reflect upon significant ideas and themes throughout the text. Ralph who is the protagonist represents civilization, order and leadership. Piggy represents rationalism, intellect and scientific aspects of civilization. In addition Jack represents uncontrolled savagery and the craving for unnecessary power.

In both texts, rules are there to suppress unethical behavior, however in a totalitarian regime these rules can be distorted through propaganda to promote unethical behavior. In George Orwell’s text, he respectively created the 7 commandments which encrypts “All animals are equal” but realistically “Some animals are more equal than others.” In which this is an allusion to the 10 biblical commandments. However in William Golding’s text, there is a rule that if you hold the conch shell in the beach, it will immediately grant you the permission to speak. Reflecting upon this significant item, the conch shell becomes a powerful symbol for unity, order and civilization within the novel. Furthermore there was an intriguing scene where piggy was brutally murdered by a falling boulder which hurled him down off the mountainside to his unfortunate death. The death of piggy and the broken conch shell symbolized the absolute destruction of civilization and rationality within the island. Piggy’s glasses however represented the authority of science and intellectualism within the society, this is evident to when the boys used Piggy’s glasses to focus on the sunlight to exert heat into producing fire. To where fire is an important factor into humanizing a society. However when Piggy’s glasses are shattered, this symbolizes the loss of order and civility which has caused an outbreak within the society which indicates that all hell breaks loose within the text.

Propaganda is used to promote political reviews or causes through misleading or biased information. Each text apply propaganda as a reinforcement to strengthen the antagonist’s character. Propaganda has played an important role throughout the Russian Revolution and because of this propaganda is one of the main themes throughout ‘Animal Farm”. In “Animal Farm” George Orwell cleverly conveys the use of propaganda through the use of manipulation speech, he decided to portray this theme of propaganda through Napoleon’s spokesperson Squealer. Squealer used propaganda to take advantage on the animal’s stupidity. He manipulated the animals through describing a twisted version of the events on the battle of the cowshed in order to promote Napoleon’s point of view. Squealer claimed that Snowball was planning to leave the field to the enemy.” Another example used within the text is the song “Beast of England,” which spread around farms, this specific song was used to motivate the animals into thinking about the revolution, and to create a hatred bond between animals and humans. Similarly in William Golding’s novel “Lord of the Flies” Jack the unbridled savage advocate’s propaganda about the superior beast “Beelzebub” who is located on the mountain, but in reality it is the dead pilot that is still attached to his parachute. Jack manipulates his associates by putting fear into their minds by promoting his imaginary ideas into believing that there is an actual threat. Jack then presents himself as a strong leader who is capable of hunting and protecting the boys from the beast. He also provides just enough evidence for the existence of the beast into forcing the boys to follow him blindly. This shows that Jack uses the beast in a similar manner as real propagandist from history used to create scare tactics. The resolution in animal farm was that the pigs evolved into humans and that the animals later on began to realize that there wasn’t much of a significant difference from them towards their original oppressor. This is evident to how George Orwell quotes “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.” “The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which.” Golding however saves the day, by ending the horrific conflict that was produced by the boys. The naval officer who appeared at the end of the book, saved Ralph from being disposed of, this was a sign that their civilization came back and the irony of the ending was that it wasn’t particularly happy, due to the unbridled savagery and horrific violence that took place in the island.

Although both text are based on completely different stories, each text has incorporated literary techniques respectively to convey the theme that power corrupts. In both novels, they both acquire a myriad of literary techniques such as symbolism and characterization that captures the narratives plan. With everything taken into account the activities of the fundamental characters who endeavored to pick up control over the others in the general public were in the long run prompt the defilement of the two social orders. In the end both authors convey the text efficiently by showing how the urge of power can degenerate a general public by utilizing their characters in their books. Both of the texts intentionally give the reader the perspective of how society may be corrupted if the leaders of our nations become degenerate with power.

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Animal Farm – Personal Choice

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Mrs. Daniels:

The reason I am writing to you is to suggest a book that the class may read during the curriculum. The book I am suggesting for our class to read during our time in the curriculum is Animal Farm by George Orwell. We should read this book during our academic English year because we can learn a lot from the literary devices presented in the book, it can be compared with other books, can be compared amongst our peer group, can be related to the world, allows for us to grasp more concepts and has an interesting plot. A plethora of things can most definitely be taken from this book.

For starters, as with most books in general, there are some forms of literary devices that can be found within them. In particular, Animal Farm has a splendid use of literary devices throughout the novel which helps derive it. These literary devices include repetition, symbolism, allusions, imagery, and more. Another thing about the literary devices used in the book do is that they help individuals comprehend how the literary devices here work. Furthermore, with the help of these devices, the stories and ideas presented in the novel are able to get across what the author wants to get across. The use of the literary devices ultimately benefits the book in many ways.

One of the other things that Animal Farm would allow us to do is compare it with other books as well. The novel George Orwell wrote, in particular, can be compared with other works similar regarding the contents, ideas, and other things presented in the novel, Despite there being many books that can go head-to-head with Animal Farm, one of Orwell’s other works that could match closely would be 1984. One of the ways the books can be compared with each other comes in terms of the microcosms set in the novels. In the world of 1984, the higher class people regarded as “The Inner Party” have other certain privileges that others do not have. In Animal Farm, the pigs actually are portrayed to be good when in reality they are bad. Another thing that can be compared about the books are the characters. In 1984, the protagonist is Winston, who rebels against the Party but ultimately is changed in order to love the Party. In Animal Farm, the protagonist is Napoleon, who rebels against the humans and takes control of the farm. Another difference between the novels is that rebellion is good in Animal Farm, while in 1984 it is a bad thing to rebel. Furthermore, in Animal Farm, Napoleon abuses his power for good reasons supposedly, while in 1984, Big Brother abuses his power for bad. Last but not least, certain characters can be compared with each other as well. The protagonist in 1984, Winston rebels against The Party, who controls all of the society in a way, while Mr. Pilkington is the complete opposite of Animal Farm and how it’s run in Animal Farm. This just one of the many ways the novel can compare with other text of its similar content.

Another thing that the novel would also to do as a class allows for us to compare it amongst our peer group. The novel presents different characters, personalities, and opinions within the book. Not just that but throughout the book, certain people begin to change for the better or for the worse. Just like within our own peer group, there is a variety of opinions, personalities, and, people may change for the good or for the worse. Another thing that the book is able to show is the dark actions of manipulations. At times in the book, Napoleon and the pigs get the other animals to do the labor and end up with most food despite not doing any labor themselves. However, when questioned about getting the most food, the pigs respond saying they need more of it because they need to fuel their brains in order to run the farm smoothly. In some situations, amongst our peers, we may be manipulated intentionally or unintentionally without even noticing at all, which is scary to think of. Not only that, peer pressure is another thing seen throughout the book that is not mentioned as much and, through which some of my peer group has gone through at one point. This just makes the book even more impressive than it already is.

Another thing that the novel allows us to do is to put it up against different places around the world. In fact, the book was based on the fear of the Soviet Union and its practices of communism after World War II. It may not be recognizable at a first glance, but as the story begins to unravel, it becomes more noticeable that the characters start to resemble certain places and people. Moving on, besides the book about being Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union, many places and countries in the world were at one point practice communism. Some of these countries include Albania, Hungary, Poland, and more. As a class, we could be able to look at these countries and compare what they went through, see if they were treated differently in a way, or if they had the same fate as the characters in the novel. The book, in general, can relate to the world in many ways.

Animal Farm is an outstanding book for many reasons. One of those reasons has to be the interesting plot. For starters, he begins the novel with the setting of a farm. Once he describes the farm, focuses on particular character, Old Major, who is the oldest pig on the farm, decides one day to speak to every animal on the farm. During his speech, he begins to talk about overthrowing the humans since the animals are being killed off for food and are mistreated as well. After getting the animals rallied up together, they wait one day and decide to rebel against the humans on the farm. Once they overtake the farm, they begin to sing a certain song, create commandments, and more. However, as time moves on, the first leader, Squealer, begins to get out of hand. In order to control everything, the animals decide to get rid of Squealer and replace him with Napoleon. After Napoleon comes to rule, things start to change suddenly. The pigs now have more rations of food than the other animals regardless of special occasions and special work, the commandments and song change, and a lot more. The animals at times question the requests of Napoleon, yet they still carry them out. One day, however, they are attacked by Squealer and everything changes. The animals are now being killed, Napoleon begins to negotiate with humans along with much more. Now Napoleon had done all this, he made things worse by sending Boxer away to “get put down” when in reality, he sent to be recovered but the animals had taken it the wrong way. In the end, the entire farm had changed the rules to one simple rule and, was still ruled by the pigs. Truly an interesting, unraveling plot with so much tension.

Overall, I feel that if we were to read this book, we would be able to gain a lot from it. The book is truly versatile, which is a very ideal thing for any book. Besides it its versatility, it can be a book that should be read to better our learning. The book can truly improve our reading skills so much. Hopefully, you choose this book to read in our class.

Sincerely,

Terri Perez

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Symbolism and the Depiction of Author’s Own Personal Experience in Animal Farm by George Orwell

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

George Orwell’s Animal Farm publication debuted on August 17,1945. Orwell’s inspiration was a reflection upon his own experiences during the transition period between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and into the Stalinist era of the Soviet Union. Animal Farm is full of allusions and symbolism among the characters relating to this time period. This further concludes George Orwell’s depiction of this era through his eyes.

An explanation of Animal Farm without all of the symbolism or in a literal sense is a book about farm animals starting a revolution for their own freedom from humans. Throughout the book characters like Napoleon and the other pigs show how having too much power results in greed and arrogance. At the closing of the book the last paragraph compares the pig’s supremacy to how the humans used to be. “The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which.” (George Orwell, 1945, pg.141) From my perspective this comparison is significant to Orwell’s book in many ways because not only does relate to human absolute authority over all animals but the leaders in the Soviet Union during the Russian Revolution. Napoleon the “Father of All Animals, Terror of Mankind, Protector of the Sheep-fold, Ducklings’ Friend, and the like.” (George Orwell, 1945, pg.93) traits resemble Joseph Stalin or the “man of steel”. Stalin was the dictator of the USSR and he had the same intention of Napoleon in transforming a poor civilization into a military superpower.

All things considered my view on Animal Farm is the same as how the sheep feel about four legs-, good. (“Four legs good, two legs bad! Four legs good, two legs bad!”-George Orwell, 1945, pg.34). Animal Farm was a good book to me because of character development in relation to real historical people. In addition, it was a very interesting story line due to the true events through symbolism. I liked how all of the farm animals had their own personality which is important because it showed how they all fit in the puzzle. Like Boxer the horse, he portrayed the loyal working class which is confirmed by his motto; “I will work harder”. Or even the objects that aren’t animals like the windmill in the story which represents the legitimate Stalin five-year plan which was implemented between 1928-1932. On the other hand, there are a few adjustments and questionable ideas that are being presented in the plot. Firstly, why didn’t the rebellion start earlier, to me it is a little off that they didn’t do anything sooner about their living conditions especially because they have leadership skills and the smarter animals can read while all of them talk. Major the pig is he first one to bring it up because he is the wisest and he has lived he longest life. But there were plenty of other animals that came before him so why was he the ‘first’ to come up with this great idea. Furthermore, I think that the plot gets a little corrupted because of the extreme repetition, it lost my focus and interest frequently. Predominantly when Napoleon keeps on changing the rules to his liking even though it is a big component to the plot which occurred on a variety of different occasions.

Weighing up both perspectives, I suppose that overall the book was good. Despite the minimal flaws nevertheless it was very enjoyable. In addition I would highly recommend it to anyone who hasn’t read yet, it has many climatic cliffhangers that’ll keep you reading.

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Nudging in Animal Farm: a Critical Analysis of the Novel by George Orwell

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Nudging in Animal Farm

A “nudge” is a gentle push in a certain direction. Sometimes a person or government “nudges” people to make a specific decision by making some choices easier, or harder, than others. Animal Farm, a novel by George Orwell, concerns this topic. In Animal Farm, a rebellion of the animals on the farm against humanity is started. However, the animals’ new society is drastically different from what they had imagined. The farm and its inhabitants are meant to represent Russia during the Communist Revolution. At the beginning of the book, Old Major, a pig who represents Karl Marx / Vladimir Lenin, stirs up the other animals with ideas of rebellion and images of a farm run by animals that is able to provide for itself without the cruelty of man. Soon after Old Major dies, the Rebellion is started, and the humans are chased off the farm. Napoleon, a pig meant to represent Joseph Stalin, eventually rises to power and becomes a selfish and cruel leader. The rest of the animals on the farm represent the citizens of Russia. “The Nudge Debate”, an article in the New York Times by David Brooks, also confronts the issue of nudging. While Animal Farm uses allegory to demonstrate the evils of nudging, “The Nudge Debate” weighs the pros and cons of a government nudging its people into the perceived “right” direction. It can be assumed that George Orwell believes nudging to be a negative thing when misused. Governments should not make one choice harder than another.

In Chapter Four of Animal Farm, Boxer, a horse who is the strongest animal on the farm, has just killed a human in the Battle of the Cowshed. This battle was an attempt by the former owner of the farm to retake it. When the battle is over (the animals being the victors), Boxer feels remorse for killing a human. Snowball, one of the pigs who lead the farm, explains why Boxer shouldn’t feel sorry. “‘No sentimentality, comrade!’ cried Snowball. […] ‘War is war. The only good human being is a dead one’” (Orwell 43). Snowball tells Boxer and the other animals that death is the reality of war. He nudges them to feel animosity towards all of mankind and encourages them to feel more comfortable with killing humans.

In Chapter Five, Napoleon makes an announcement after Snowball’s sudden and violent expulsion from the farm. “He [Napoleon] announced that from now on the Sunday-morning Meetings would come to an end. They were unnecessary, he said, and wasted time. In future all questions relating to the working of the farm would be settled by a special committee of pigs, presided over by himself. These would meet in private and afterwards communicate their decisions to the others” (Orwell 54). Napoleon declared that debates will no longer be held by the animals at Sunday-morning Meetings. Instead, discussions would be held by the pigs in private. This decision nudges the animals to not speak their minds and to disregard current events.

In Chapter Eight, Napoleon is awarded new titles. “Napoleon was now never spoken of simple as ‘Napoleon.’ He is always referred to in formal style as ‘Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,’ and the pigs liked to invent for him such titles as Father of All Animals, Terror of Mankind, Protector of the Sheep-fold, Ducklings’ Friend, and the like” (Orwell 93). Napoleon now has formal titles he is to be referred to by. This nudges the animals to view him reverently and almost god-like.

In “The Nudge Debate”, Brooks considers how nudging is a bad thing. “Do we want government stepping in to protect us from our own mistakes? Many people argue no. This kind of soft paternalism, will inevitably slide into a hard paternalism, with government elites manipulating us into doing the sorts of things they want us to do. Policy makers have their own cognitive biases, which will induce them to design imperfect interventions even if they mean well. […] If government starts manipulating decision-making processes, then individuals won’t learn to think for themselves” (Brooks 1). Brooks deliberates on the reasons gentle nudging could lead to government making our decisions for us.

While Animal Farm uses allegory to demonstrate the evils of nudging, “The Nudge Debate” weighs the pros and cons of a government nudging its people into the perceived “right” direction. It can be assumed that George Orwell believes nudging to be a negative thing when misused. Governments should not make one choice harder than another. Through analogies of the Russian Revolution, Orwell shows how nudging can have a negative effect on a society. The nature of humans can be evil and selfish, as shown in these examples from Animal Farm. However, humans can be kind and good-hearted as well.

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Optimism & Its Impact On People’s Well-Being

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

In order to be truly aware of one’s marginalized status in society there needs to not only be an awareness of the oppression itself, but also an understanding of its causes and repercussions. Nora Helmer, the protagonist in the play A Doll’s House by Henrik Ibsen, is oppressed by her husband, Torvald Helmer, and the male-dominated society in which she lives. Conversely, Benjamin, a character in the novella Animal Farm by George Orwell, is oppressed by his government and its totalitarian leader Napoleon. Comparatively, Nora’s omniscient awareness of her oppression in her patriarchal society is greater than that of Benjamin’s awareness of his oppressive state due to his indifference to society, and this is evident through their opinions on their role in society, choice of diction, and emotional reactions to their oppressors.

An individual’s role in society is often reflective of their status and treatment in that society; individuals, who are oppressed, such as Nora and Benjamin, do not appreciate their forced roles in society. Their voices and opinions on this oppression reflect how truly aware they are of their marginalized status. Benjamin’s voice of indifference to his government and the overall well-being of the farm shows that he is aware of his oppression. He knows that no matter what form the political structure of the farm takes, the bourgeoisie government will continue to oppress him and other the proletariats. This demonstrates why he “seemed quite unchanged since the rebellion” against the farmers (Orwell 12). He believes it would make no difference to protest and continues to accept his designated role. In contrast, Nora is not only aware of her marginalized role in society, but also has enough knowledge to stand against it. In Nora’s society, she is expected to sacrifice her own wishes in order fulfil her “duty to [her] husband and children” (Ibsen 310). This generic taken for granted that women are solely caregivers and wives is perpetuated in her patriarchal society and deprives her of an identity as an individual. Nora fights against this as she stands firmly behind the belief that her “duty to [herself]” is just as “sacred” (Ibsen 314). She understands that her need to express and serve herself before others is not only acceptable, but a “basic personal freedom that is necessary” for any human being regardless of gender (Markussen 3). By rejecting her stereotypical feminine identity as a mother and demanding personal freedom to be herself, she exemplifies the basic rights and freedoms that every woman should have in any society. Even in contemporary society, women still struggle between choosing to raise their children and pursuing their passions. This shows that Nora is not only aware of her oppression, but can identify its repercussions, as opposed to Benjamin, who just ignores it.

Diction is a very powerful tool used by characters to convey their ideas and emotions in a passionate way, and it is undoubtedly important to consider when comparing Nora’s and Benjamin’s awareness of their marginalized status. Benjamin is constantly sarcastic and has a very pessimistic outlook on life and the government. This is because he is aware of the oppression he is experiencing and watches other low-class animals being brainwashed into accepting their oppression. During the construction of the windmill, the animals were assured by Napoleon that the windmill would be very beneficial to the farm, and thus the animals dedicated more effort and time towards its completion. Benjamin remained indifferent and believed that “life would go on as it always has gone on [and] that is badly” (Orwell 20). This sarcastic remark demonstrates his understanding that the windmill will only benefit the bourgeoisie like Napoleon, and life will continue on just as badly for the lower-class animals. It also demonstrates a very shallow understanding of his situation as he cannot describe how or why the animal’s lives will continue on just as badly nor does he care enough to do anything about it. His diction reiterates his negligence, and this careless attitude does not allow him to discover more about his marginalized status, which is why he is not fully aware of his marginalization. On the other hand, Nora’s choice of diction accurately portrays her marginalized status and shows her comprehensive awareness of her oppression. Nora believes she lives in a “dollhouse” and that she is a “doll” as Torvald plays with her like she would “play with one of [her] dolls” (Ibsen 14). Her choice of the word doll portrays herself as being objectified into a doll which Torvald can use however he pleases. Similar to the way a doll cannot leave the doll house, Nora illustrates this vivid imagery to show how “women are often being trapped by the world that controls them” (Ford 1). Nora realizes she is trapped in a house where her every action is controlled by her husband, simply because of the patriarchal constructs that women are objects solely for a man’s pleasure and must obey all of their commands. Nora’s choice of diction and symbolism exhibits a much deeper and well developed awareness of her oppression compared to Benjamin’s sarcastic remarks.

Nora and Benjamin both have emotional confrontations with their oppressors, but only Nora is conscious enough of her oppression to stand against it and put an end to it. Benjamin’s continuous indifference to his government does show his awareness but also proves to work against him. While Benjamin’s friend, Boxer, is being sent off in a van to be killed, all he can do is scream to his fellow animals about reading the animal disposal advertisement “written on the side of the van” (Orwell 26). Although he knows that his friend is being sent off to die, all the other animals are too brainwashed to think of such a thing. Napoleon has forced them to be illiterate by overworking them and so they cannot read what is on the van. Benjamin cannot do anything to save his friend and is forced to watch idly as Boxer is being sent off to die. This proves his awareness is meaningless as he is not conscious enough to foresee this happening and prevent it from happening. Instead of being forced to watch idly, Nora proves that she knows enough about her marginalization to fight against it in a productive manner. Nora has been subjected to many things over the span of her marriage to Torvald; however, she finally reaches a breaking point being on the receiving end of a tirade from Torvald for forging a loan to save his life. She expected him to at the least thank her, but his harsh response made her realize that she “has been living with strange man” and that thought drove her so crazy it made her want to “tear [herself] into little pieces” (Ibsen 70), Torvald is no longer the kind and loving man she married, and through his constant sexualisation and objectification of Nora, he became the embodiment of her oppression. She sees that their relationship is representative of how men continue to oppress women in society, and because of this Nora decides to leave. Nora’s exit to the “outside world is an act of liberation” (Forward 11). By leaving, she proves her omniscient awareness of her marginalized status as she is able to free herself from the shackles of her patriarchal society. This represents how all women, no matter what they face, can liberate themselves from their oppression. Therefore, Nora’s awareness is much greater, as she is able to use fight against her oppressive husband and end her oppression, while Benjamin fails to do anything about his.

In conclusion, both characters are conscious of their oppression in society, but Nora’s omniscient awareness of her oppression is much greater than Benjamin’s awareness as she is consistently able to use it in an accurate and positive manner. She is able to effectively demonstrate her awareness by expressing her opinions on her oppression, accurately illustrating her marginalized role in society, and, most importantly, freeing herself from her oppression. While Benjamin is also able to express his opinions and show his marginalized role in society, he lacks Nora’s depth and accuracy, a reflection of his lack of awareness in general. This is why Benjamin cannot free himself from his oppressive society. Nora’s capacity to free herself from oppression makes her the epitome of what all women and other oppressed individuals can accomplish when they are truly aware of their marginalized role in society.

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Literature review on “Animal Farm”

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

In the book; “Animal Farm”; there are many conflicts in it. The main conflicts are Napoleon vs Snowball, Napoleon vs the animals, the pigs vs common animals and the humans vs the animals of Animals Farm. The main conflict of the story is person vs person because on Page 19, Napoleon or snowball could agree on anything. Napoleon would have the sheep constantly bleating, “Two legs bad, four legs good”, during Snowball’s speeches, he urinated all over Snowball’s plans for the windmill. He basically wants Snowball out of Animal Farm so he has the 9 puppies he stole from Bluebell. To chase after Snowball after giving his speech winning over the animals. Which causes the conflict of Snowball vs the animals because the animals are not the brightest and can be easily persuaded by Napoleon or Squealer. They tell the animals that Snowball is really a spy for Mr. Jones on Page 53. And if anything bad happens; it was Snowball’s fault. After a while, the animals believe Napoleon tells them and they begin to hate snowball.

Napoleon vs the animals is just when the animals show a rebelling it was squashed. An example of this on page 51; the hens started a rebellion after being told they have to surrender their eggs but Napoleon ends it by stopping their rations. When the animals were singing “,Beast of England”, Napoleon bans it because it’s a song of rebellion and they are no longer in a rebellion, and the last example is the massive execution on Page 55; where animals would come forward saying they were influenced by Snowball. The second conflict we see is the pigs vs the common animals. Throughout the book the pigs believe they are more clever than the other animals, the pigs do not need to work; they should direct and supervised while the other animals are working all day and night. The pigs get milk and apples to eat so they keep can up their brain power and a schoolhouse. is being built for the young pigs. They are also discouraged from playing with the other young animals.

Napoleon introduced these law that when a pig and is walking on a path; the other animals must stand aside. These examples show that pigs have made themselves superior to the other animals or are now, the master like Mr. Jones. The pigs own the farm as a human would and the animals rebellion has led them nowhere because in the end they at the same as the beginning of the book just now its own by animals. In the last lines of the book; the animals are realizing that pigs are looking more human. As quoted from Page 95 “The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which”. The animals forget and can be easily persuaded by Napoleon or Squealer that the principles are actually different because everytime Clover has to ask Muriel or someone to read the changed principle because she remembers it being

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The significance of animals in literature

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

Analyzing and evaluating literature that utilizes animals within its text allows the reader to have a better understanding of a writings meaning and the author’s intentions. The significance of animals in literature allows the writer to reinforce common themes that are fundamental to written works. Certain animals are routinely used to express various themes and specific symbols. These themes will be evaluated and explained by studying animal behavior and why certain animals are chosen by authors to represent a character or symbol. Various texts incorporate animals to stand for distinct icons. In order to understand why these animals are chosen, one must research deeper into the book’s content as well as the animals’ biological behavior.

Animals play a crucial role in writing and reveal hidden messages to readers found within the writing. It is these messages that will be exposed and broken down, to not only show how they affect writings but how animals themselves bring meanings to books that human characters alone can not do. Each author has their own purpose for incorporating animals, yet they are all used to express the purpose of the novel as well as give an opportunity for the readers to connect with the book from a different viewpoint. The stories that will be investigated are Animal Farm, Little Red Riding Hood and Black Beauty. In order to fully comprehend animals’ importance to novels, one must first dissect these classic readings to have a better understanding of the authors and their thoughts. It is these characters that allow us to comprehend authors, their intentions, and understand themselves and who they are as individuals. Animals cannot communicate like humans. Yet animals are frequently used by authors to tell a story that humans cannot. These stories can reveal a powerful, unique message and even lessons. Throughout centuries animals have had an important effect on humans. They are one of the reasons humankind has evolved over time with much success. Animals have supplied humans with food, clothing, shelter, and basic necessities. Animals are fundamental to our world and have been valued for their companionship. Today with modern medicine, pig’s organs can be used as transplants in critically ill patients, saving their lives, while others are bred as pets for fellowship. It is clear that animals are vital for human life, and play a critical role in not only the food chain but in environmental balance within ecosystems.

Extending beyond biological influences, animals are generally beloved and familiar to readers, readily relatable in literature, facilitating the teaching of life lessons. Since animals have such a valued role in fulfilling human needs, authors have translated this role over to literature and thus made a distinct impact on literature today. From cave walls depicting animals to classical books and tales that will be discussed, it is evident that the use of animals in our world from thousands of years ago, to today, has created deep meaning in our lives. The meanings of animals in literary works can be perceived and interpreted in many ways. The authors use the animals in various forms, projecting their intended message to readers. The connotation the authors applies towards animals is extremely powerful since it controls the way the readers see and interpret these characters. This is well exemplified in Animal Farm, Little Red Riding Hood and Black Beauty, where each author uses the roles of animals to express certain themes and meanings to their writings. Animal FarmAnimal Farm, written by George Orwell, was published in 1945 and is an allegorical novel that describes the affairs preceding up to the Russian Revolution (Orwell ix). Orwell explains these events by using animals as symbols.

The author tells the story of animals on a farm who rebel against their owner due to Old Major’s advice and plan to live out their own life together. The animals write their own rules, plan their own life and how the farm will run. However, shortly in the novel two pigs, Napoleon and Snowball start to manipulate and control the other animals. Animals begin to starve and die while the pigs live a rich, luxurious lifestyle. The pigs take over the culture of humans and began to resemble people. Animal Farm uses animals as symbols to represent rulers and people to express the hardships millions had endured within a dictatorship. Each animal has a specific role and stands for a distant characteristic.

Animal Farm uses animals to tell a story of the past, to allude to a situation and describe those who participated and endured this hardship. In order to understand how animals find a valuable place in literature, one must first know how authors design animals to stand out and allow readers to connect with them. Animal Farm uses anthropomorphism to make the animals portray human actions as well as contain human characteristics. This is seen throughout Animal Farm when each animal within the farm is described as if they were human. For example, “Snowball was a more vivacious pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive, but was not considered to have the same depth of character”(Orwell 16). It is clear that pigs cannot talk, at least in the human language, however it describes these pigs as if they can participate in human activities. It builds the characters personalities and allows the readers to have a better understanding of who they are, in just one sentence. Authors use this tool as a power source to bring up crucial characteristics that will be fundamental to the book’s story. The animals in the tale throw a revolution, engage in strategic plans and communicate in depth which allows the author to describe a historical event indirectly. Anthropomorphism is famous throughout the work of Animal Farm. The famous last lines of animal farm tie in the entire novel and reveal the horrors that have taken place. “The creatures outside looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again; but already it was impossible to say which was which” (Orwell 141), is comparing both of these characters together. This is only significant if the reader understands the characteristics of pigs. Orwell uses various incidents throughout the book to show how a pig behaves and treats others. Humans within the book are seen as selfish, uncaring beings that use animals for the benefit of themselves. However, the author at the end of the novel shows how these two are similar. He shows pigs are capable of these self-absorbed actions or personalities, meaning that the pigs themselves are seen as only caring for themselves.

However, why choose a pig over a dog, cat or fish? This can be explained by understanding pigs. Pigs can weigh up to about a thousand pounds. This is excessive especially when pigs are not very tall or wide. Pigs are omnivores meaning they eat both plants and animals, consuming large volumes. The reason why pigs eat a lot of food is that regular meals cannot be assured in the wild. People connect these voracious eaters with the characteristics of being greedy and selfish. For example, on the Buddhist Wheel of Existence, a black pig represents negative traits such as self-indulgence. Also, religions such as Judaism, and Islam believe pigs are dirty, therefore are forbidden to consume. However, pigs are misrepresented. The Porcine species lacks sweat glands, which inhibits the ability to cool their body, and with sparse hair, sunburn easily. It is for these specific issues pigs seek cool muddy ground and cover their backs for protection. Scientists have listed pigs in the top five as the most intelligent animals (National Geographic Society). Yet, because of their stereotypes and well-known representation, Orwell decides to use this to his advantage. “The pigs did not actually work but directed and supervised the others. “With their superior knowledge, it was only natural that they should assume the leadership”(Orwell 27-28), is cleverly used to show how the pigs outsmarted and manipulated others. Here it is evident that the author chose the pig based on its characteristics. This is fundamental since the theme of deception and betrayal is constantly seen throughout the book.

Another example where the pigs reinforce the theme of deception can be seen through, “Squealer, temporarily stunned, was sprawling beside it, and near at hand there lay a lantern, a paintbrush, and an overturned pot of white paint (Orwell 108).” Here the Squealer, one of the farm Pigs, is altering the farm rules in the pigs’ favor. The pigs use their insight and knowledge to trick the other farm animals with hidden intentions to use them, much like the humans were described early in the novel. Orwell revels these themes throughout the novel by using various animals to demonstrate deception. Sheep, horses and other animals are chosen to be placed in Animal Farm to deliver the intended message by Orwell. The role of each of these animals within the book itself ties together a story that the author strives to deliver.

Sheep, representing the people who are blinded by Stalin’s propaganda is seen as unintelligent animals who cannot think for themselves. These people are not really blind, yet have fallen into the trap of being manipulated by slogans. Orwell is criticizing those who were fooled. The author displays the sheep’s intelligence by saying “It ended by their remaining there for a whole week, during which time the other animals saw nothing of them”(132), to show how the sheep are easily persuaded. The sheep within the novel are used by Napoleon to repeat various sayings, such as “Four legs good, two legs bad” (63), to eventually “Four legs good, two legs better”(134). The sheep are just simple tools to the pigs as a way to maintain control over the other farm animals and to try to show that they have followers. The author is demonstrating how the sheep are oblivious. Sheep are herd animals that stay in a pack and follow each other. Since sheep are vulnerable prey to predators such as wolves, they stay together to protect one another and appear a bigger threat to approaching animals. The saying that represented sheep is “Get one to go and they will all go”(Cobb). Sheep are the perfect animal to represent people who will follow the majority and can be lead easily into traps.

Even terms from the bible such as “Lambs to Slaughter” in Isaiah, is a frequently utilized phrase to depict how vulnerable some people can be and how this leads to their own downfall (Harold). Orwell uses sheep as subjects manipulated by the pigs based on these slogans. This emphasizes how the pigs controlled and targeted the weak. HorsesHorses in Animal Farm are symbols for strength and loyalty. These animals can carry up to three times their own weight. Boxer, a horse on the farm, is one of the hardest working farm animals. He repeats the lines throughout the novel “I will work harder”(74) and “ Napoleon is always right”(56). Not only is Boxer one of the main factors why work is completed on the farm but he is also extremely loyal and faithful to the farm and especially the pigs. However, when becoming hurt from strenuous work, the pigs sold boxer to a glue factory in exchange for money to buy whiskey for themselves. Not only was a devoted character betrayed but it is revealed just how cruel the pigs are. The animals on the farm made commandments stating the farm rules. The pigs sent their hardest working character to slaughter in exchange for objects that were forbidden (Orwell). The theme that horses reinforce in this story is that even the loyal will be betrayed. George Orwell’s purpose in using anthropomorphism in Animal Farm to explain the events before the Russian revolution is used for various reasons. In Animals as people in Children’s Literature, the use of anthropomorphism is said to be away the author can address as well as handle deep, serious and even frightening subjects. The use of anthropomorphism makes it easier and more comfortable for authors to write on a sensitive theme, concern or matter. Composing a novel or story on a topic directly is sometimes extremely difficult for authors to door for readers to appreciate.

Hence, many authors use literary tools incorporating animals to represent and symbolize greater matters. In the Introduction of Animal Farm Orwell says “… it was the utmost importance to me that people in Western Europe should see the Soviet regime for what it really was”(xi). During the mid-1900’s talking about the unjust rulers and the government, the system was a frightening subject. Animals were a way Orwell could express his concerns indirectly, making it easier for the audience to understand and therefore learn the lessons about the Russian revolution and communism. Little Red Riding Hood Little Red Riding Hood is a European fairy tale originally written by Charles Perrault. A young girl sets off to visit her grandma but gets distracted on the way there. She encounters a wolf and engages in a conversation regarding her plans. The wolf then goes to the grandma’s house, devours her and pretends to be the grandmother to consume the little girl as well. The wolf is able to communicate with humans in order for the story to become completely alive and symbolize those in the world with deceiving intentions. The fable uses animals to uncover the truth of reality and the danger within society. A way to teach a valuable life lesson without fully revealing the whole truths to the world and some of the horrific events that take place within. The purpose of using animals in this fable is to teach a lesson to a younger age level that not everyone can be trusted. It is easier to digest why a wolf can be so horrific and deceiving rather than a person.

However, the idea that wolves, like the one in Little Red Riding Hood, is seen throughout our own society can be extremely scary. It is much easier to use animals to represent the bad than actually explain how some humans are dangerous to others. For example, the wolf says to himself, “What a tender young creature! what a nice plump mouthful she will be better to eat than the old woman. I must act craftily, so as to catch both.’”, this reveals his true intentions delivered in a soliloquy. He deceives the girl, distracts and plots to engulf them both. Not only are animals used to help the authors but also the readers. Would you as a parent read your toddler a story where a man sabotages a child, murders her grandmother and eats the body? A story about Jeffrey Dahmer? Probably not. This is why animals are extremely significant and allow the authors work to be sold to a society with deeply ingrained social norms. Substitution of people instead of animals in these childhood classics would have been a literary disaster. Reality can be frightening, and full awareness too soon can be detrimental. The fact is, some people will lie, steal and kill. This idea, without traumatizing, is exceedingly hard to relay to children, even many adults for that matter. This is where Perrault conceived the brilliant substitution of a wolf. Wolves characteristics have been used to symbolize mysticism, danger and even witchcraft.

Despite the fact that wolves possess little or no harm to humans, authors still use this symbolism for various literary messages. Biologically a wolf’s howl is used for territorial reasons to warn potential intruders and for communication within their pack. Their howl can travel a mile or even longer depend on extraneous noise and weather conditions. Wolves powerful howls deceptively provide the illusion of close proximity which conveniently helps authors add tension, fear and even terror to their stories. While wolves have struggled against near extinction in some locations, their presence in stories nearly always instills fear. With forty- two teeth used for ripping flesh, and jaws capable of over a thousand pounds of pressure, these muscular and powerful animals have grown the representation of an animal that should be feared (Animal Corner). Thus the wolf is an important animal in Little Red Riding Hood. Black Beauty Black Beauty, is a beloved children’s literature novel is written by Anna Sewell.

The author uses a first “person” point of view from a horse to reveal the secrets that they contain, to educate the readers about equine needs and to highlight the powerful companionship that a horse can bring. Black Beauty is a story of a loyal, well-behaved horse that is passed from owner to owner. The novel shows the various treatments that the horses receive and the reasons behind their apparent behavior. Anna Sewell uses both personification and anthropomorphism to make the horses appear as if they are human. Sewell does this by having one of the horses, Black beauty, narrate the story. This forms a connection from the readers to the horse and creates a strong relationship between them. With the horses being able to communicate how they are treated and feel, it creates greater sympathetic feelings within the readers. The animals appear as if they can think and therefore feel the same as humans. When reading the novel there is such a strong allusion that one almost believes Black Beauty is human. The novel convinces readers to forget differences between themselves and the horses. The lines are blurred between reality and fantasy. Within these relationships, the author uses tools to help create feelings within the readers and to help build and endear their story. Horses within the story represent strength, resilience, and purity.

The role of horses transitions throughout the story. Born into a sweet compassionate family, Black Beauty is sold to various owners throughout the novel, some who adore him and others who wear Black Beauty out from fatigue. The first line starting the novel has Black Beauty open up with “The first place that I can well remember was a large pleasant meadow with a pond of clear water in it (Sewell 3).” Sewell does this to reveal to the audience that the horse was first raised in the hands of a good owner. Sewell uses imagery within the first chapter to describe the environment in which the horse is exposed. This can later be compared to the reasons why Black Beauty stays docile and well behaved, even when abused and exploited for her work. This is extremely powerful and even heroic. The author is conveying that even through tortuous events never once did Black Beauty hurt or rebel his possessors. This can be noted when Dutchess, Black Beauty’s mother gives advice saying “I hope you will grow up gentle and good, and never learn bad ways; do your work with a good will, lift your feet up well when you trot, and never bite or kick even in play(Sewell 4).” The advice stays with Black Beauty her whole life and is the basis for her kind demeanor and good behavior. The events Black Beauty endures throughout allows Anna Sewell to reinforce the common themes; ownership versus companionship, poverty versus wealth, and the ideas of understanding and compassion. Black Beauty’s ownership changes dramatically as well as that of other horses within the novel.

The horses within the book explain their story to justify their actions by their previous owners. Different horses explain about their treatment and how their owners acted towards them. Ginder explains “… never had anyone, horse or man, that was kind to me, or that I cared to please”(24). Grinders owner abused her and treated her as a property rather than an animal.

However, Ginger eventually ends up at Birtwick. Here she is treated with compassion and the new owner is understanding of her behavior due to her past situations. The owner uses extreme patience, for example by slowly brushing her to gain Grinder’s trust. This shows a dramatic change of lifestyle. This allows the author to express the idea of how some people treat animals fairly and connects them as a companion. While other human characters misuse and exploit the horses. This brings up the theme of poverty. “…I say ‘is a mockery to tell a man that he must not overwork his horse, for when a beast is downright tired there’s nothing but the whip that will keep his legs going… you must put your wife and children before the horse…”(167). Seedy Sam, a London cab driver expresses the hardships he must put others through in order to simply survive. He then explains that he rather exploit an animal than have his family starve. Throughout the novel’s animals are exploited in order to show how far humans are willing to go for their own needs. That animals are no more than property that people own the right to use, even if that means wearing them out to their death. This theme is expressed throughout the story with the constant use of suffering.

The horses within the story that are neglected and misused allow the author to reinforce the theme of poverty. This is because rather than seen as a creature or living being, the horses are perceived as objects. It demonstrates how far people are willing to go to purely make money. The constant use of abuse on animals in the novel allows Anna Sewell to display the harsh reality of society and one’s own morals. Each text possesses animals within its writing as characters in order to give the writing meaning and help the author express their message to the audience. Without animals, some authors would not be able to convey their story and express their intended message.

Animals give courage to writers, allowing them to indirectly write about subjects that are controversial and sensitive; even terrifying and counter to social norms. Through the use of personification and anthropomorphism, these animals are able to portray humans and give authors the chance to reinforce a common theme throughout their work. It is clearly demonstrated that all three works examined, Animal Farm, Black Beauty, and Little Red Riding Hood use animals to construct the meaning of their work and deliver a message to the audience. Through these characters, the author is able to strengthen and emphasize their themes, as well as show the readers the purpose and meaning of their work.

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Ignorance and the Result of Class Segregation: Napoleon, Boxer and the Destruction of Animal Farm

February 11, 2021 by Essay Writer

The first president of the United States, George Washington, famously stated, “If freedom of speech is taken away, then dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep to the slaughter” (Washington). Often an uneducated working class is exploited for labour by the higher intellectual class. This type of exploitation is evident in the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell. While Animal Farm is intended to be an allegory for the Russian Revolution, Orwell demonstrates somewhat more broadly how an uneducated working class is easily manipulated by the smarter population. After all the animals cooperate to overthrow the owner of the farm, Jones, they quickly agree to establish specific rules to ensure every animal is equal. Napoleon, a pig who symbolizes Joseph Stalin, creates seven commandments that the animals devotedly follow. However, only pigs are capable of actually reading and remembering what the commandments are. The consequence of the pig’s higher intelligence results in them reaping the rewards and luxuries provided by the hard work of the other animals, who do not have the mental capacity to understand they are being taken advantage of. The ignorant working class in Orwell’s novel Animal Farm illustrates how class stratification and exploitation is the result of an uneducated naive population. First, the animal’s inability to critically think and question authority allows the pigs to make decisions without challenge. Next, the incapacity of the animal’s memory enables Napoleon’s partner Squealer to advertise false propaganda and history that the animals foolishly believe. Finally, the incompetence of the animal’s literacy level grants the pigs power to deceive the population with written words or laws. As a result, disputing and opposing authority is essential to bringing change in a society.

One problem is the refusal to question authority or analyze information. This is presented multiple times throughout the novel in many characters. Boxer, a hardworking loyal horse, gullibly believes that Napoleon is working for the interest of all animals, and refuses to inquire about the choices made by Napoleon. When Napoleon blatantly lies and states that another pig is no better than a criminal, Boxer initially disagrees, but is unable to protest as he cannot find the right arguments (Orwell 36). Rather than attempt to dispute Napoleon’s claim, he justifies the action by believing his slogan: “Napoleon is always right, this seemed to him a sufficient answer to all problems” (41). Boxer’s denial to investigate and scrutinize Napoleon’s commands causes him to mindlessly labour for Napoleon for no compensation. Another example of the animals not challenging sovereignty is seen when the pigs reveal how they are distributing food. While the entire working class population struggled to feed themselves, the “brainworkers” or pigs, lived in luxury and comfort. When confronted about this inequality, Squealer brazenly declares, “You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? [. . .] Milk and apples (this has been proved by Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. It is for your sake that we drink the milk and eat those apples” (23). After this implausible explanation, the animals still trust that this is in the best interests of everyone, and there is no further dispute. This ignorant stubborn belief that Napoleon’s leadership is representing equality coerces them to believe propaganda that results in the robbery of the product of their hard work. Finally, Clover is another horse who recognizes that their original vision of animal equality has gone awry. Despite this realization, she does not challenge Napoleon’s regime. She would continue to “remain faithful, work hard, carry out the orders that were given to her, and accept the leadership of Napoleon. But still, it was not for this that she and all the other animals had hoped and toiled” (59). Clover failing to speak out and debate against Napoleon gives the pigs the opportunity to continue their oppression of the working class without any opposition. Without Clover prompting the other animals, they are completely oblivious to their situation. The animal’s presumption of the naive ideal that the governing animals are only working towards the benefit of the entire populace leaves them vulnerable to exploitation.

The animals’ inferior memory facilitates Napoleon’s deceit as he creates a false history that the animals must believe because they cannot remember. For example, as the animals begin to perceive that living conditions are deteriorating, their doubts are eliminated by Squealer who provides fabricated statistics. When complaining about starvation, Squealer states, “production of every class of food stuff had increased by two hundred percent, three hundred percent, or five hundred percent” (61). Despite this obvious lie, the animals “saw no reason to disbelieve him, especially as they could no longer remember clearly what conditions had been like before”(61-62). The incapability to recall past living conditions compels the animals to assume Squealer’s falsifications correct, allowing the imbalance of resources to continue in favour of the pigs. Later, Squealer attempts to slander Snowball’s (another pig) reputation. The animals faintly recollect that Snowball fought valiantly against Farmer Jones and was praised for his actions. Squealer immediately eradicates those thoughts, proclaiming how, “he attempted to get us defeated at the Battle of the Cowshed” (53). He then explains his fictional version of the battle which glorifies Napoleon’s efforts so well that “when Squealer described the scene so graphically, it seemed to the animals that they did remember it” (54). Once again, the ineptitude to record history or accurately reminisce the past yields Squealer the opportunity to misinform the population for obedience. Lastly, the pigs are able to alter the fundamental seven commandments to their advantage, as the animals cannot remember what they originally said. When the pigs begin to sleep in beds, clearly in violation of the commandment: “No animal shall sleep in a bed”, Clover recalls this ruling against beds (15). Yet when Squealer informs her that the commandment has always been written as “No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets”, Clover thinks, “she had not remembered that the Fourth Commandment mentioned sheets; but as it was there on the wall, it must have done so” (45). Due to the impaired memories of the animals, the pigs can modify the law unimpeded to improve only their own lifestyle. The revision of multiple laws give the pigs freedom to do things that were originally outlawed, such as drink alcohol or wear clothing. Subsequently, without being able to correctly remember or document history, the animals fall victim to the pig’s propaganda and counterfeit history.

Moreover, the inadequacy of the animals’ literacy skills allows the pigs to beguile the population using the ambiguity of language that the animals cannot comprehend. This is first displayed when the pigs twist the meaning of the rudimentary commandments for their benefit. Using their superior literary skills, the pigs adjust the original commandment “All animals are equal” into “All animals are equal but some are more equal than others” (90). This phrase is glaringly flawed and contradictory, yet the pigs are still able to continue their exploitation. The animals fail to detect how the term “equal” no longer has a meaning, or discern the hypocrisy of stating equality for all, but a select elite group. Without any literacy skills, the pigs freely distort the meaning of written language to justify their actions and establish an aristocracy for themselves. Shortly after Boxer is injured, Napoleon makes the arrangements to sell Boxer to be slaughtered in exchange for alcohol. When the vehicle used to transport Boxer arrives, the animal’s illiteracy prevented them from reading the words on the truck: “Horse Slaughterer and Glue Boiler, Willingdon. Dealer in Hides and Bone-Meal” (82). When rumors begin to spread about what the truck actually read, Squealer simply informs them that the truck belonged to a veterinary surgeon. Since the animals cannot identify the words themselves, they cannot validly vindicate the pigs of any dishonesty. Later, the pigs prove that Snowball is a criminal by producing counterfeit documents incriminating him. Once more, the animals are incapable of deciphering the letters and therefore must believe the word of the pigs. At first, the animals are incredulous of this accusation, but after Squealer argues how Snowball had it all “written down in the secret documents that we have found [. . .] I could show you this in his own writing, if you were able to read it” (54). Without the ability to verify this declaration, the pigs can effortlessly generate evidence to justify anything with no dispute from the illiterate animals. The pigs efficiently exploit and deceive all other animals through written propaganda as a result of the incompetence of the animal’s literacy skills.

In Animal Farm, the story suggests that class stratification is the consequence of an ignorant working class that is susceptible to exploitation. Throughout the story, the animals fail to criticize or oppose any decisions made, allowing the inequitable distribution of resources for the pigs. In addition, the deficient memory of the working class enables the pigs to misinform animals with propaganda to secure compliance. Lastly, the substandard literacy level of the animals results in the inability to contest against written articles or laws. Equality, as Orwell indicates, can only be established with an educated society.

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