American Revolution

George Washington – Important Person in History

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

All the pressure was on him to lead the army that could be the biggest impact on the independence of the country. Washington was born on his father’s Pope Creek tobacco farm on February 22, 1732 (George Washington Birthplace National Monument 1). Parents were Mary Ball Washington and Augustine Washington (George Washington Birthplace National Monument 1).

And he would later on marry Widow Martha Washington and have no kids (George Washington Birthplace National Monument 1). George Washington is an important person in history because of his early military background, his role as a leader of the continental army during the revolution, and his ability to win over the new people after the war.

Washington’s early military benefited him a great deal. When Washington was a young adult he obtained an experience of the military in the French and Indian war (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). George fought with British opposing the French. During this time he developed his leadership skills that would come in handy in the Revolutionary War (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). George Washington surrendered for the first time and only time ever in one of the the battles at the beginning of the French and Indian war The Battle of Great Meadows(American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). Later on George Washington applied for royal commision and didn’t receive the authority, that would allow him permission to be an officer for the British Army (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). He ended up being a volunteer during the French and Indian war and whenever Washington was denied permission to be an officer he didn’t feel like he sided with the British (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). The way Washington lead in the French and Indian war benefited him for the Revolution war and would help him become a founding father in the future (Ten Facts About George Washington and the French & Indian War). The result of Washington doing so well in the French and Indian War chose to be a leader in the Continental Army.

The Continental Army was constructed by the Continental Congress and had choose George Washington to be the Commander-in-chief and the General on June 14, 1775. Washington’s army started off the war very successful because they had been pushing the British out of Boston but their success streak would shortly come to an end. General Washington and his army would be kicked out of their relocated spot New York which could’ve ended the war but when Washington was so skilled him and his army could escape (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). In the winter of 1777, Washington and his soldiers stayed at Valley Forge in North Philadelphia Pennsylvania. During this time they were there they were getting trained and bettering their fighting skills but because it was winter time a lot of the soldiers died (thousands) the leading cause was disease (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). Washington and his army got help from the French Army and they had trapped the British seaside of Yorktown Virginia (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). The british army had no way way to escape so they had to surrender to Washington and would end the fighting of the American Revolution in October 19, 1791 (American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts). This lead George Washington to win over the new American people after the war.

As everyone thought Washington was elected as president of the Constitutional Convention where they address the problems of the weak central government that existed under the Articles of Confederation (Lucille 78). Subsequently after the nine states had endorsed the Constitution, Congress was able to confirm a date for the election of the President and for the new reformed government (Lucille 80). And after the War it was apparent that Washington was going to be undivided choice of electors for the new leading role as President (Lucille 80). When Washington was President he was able to acknowledge the abilities of the intelligent young men that came to him like Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, and Lafayette (Lucille 115). George Washington advanced to the General to every single one of the branches of the Army of the United States and it is the top of the Army in the US over 175 years after his death in 1996. For this reason he will be always be remembered in history for being able to win over the people so easily.

George Washington is an important person in history because of his early military background, his role as a leader of the continental army during the revolution, and his ability to win over the new people after the war. Washington had gained military experience by being in the French and Indian War. He was chosen to be the General of the Continental Army and the army he led experienced success for sometime and then they trained and got better and eventually won the war due to Washington guidance. George Washington was able to unanimously be voted president to the new reformed government after the War. George Washington was one of the most important people in American history.

Citation

Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association . “”Ten Facts About George Washington and the French & Indian War.”” George Washington’s Mount Vernon, Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, 2018,www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/french-indian-war/ten-facts-about-george-washington-and-the-french-indian-war/.

“”American Revolutionary War Facts General George Washington Facts.”” American Revolutionary War Facts, www.american-revolutionary-war-facts.com/American-Revolutionary-War-Generals-Facts/General-George-Washington-Facts.html.

“”George Washington Birthplace National Monument .”” Virginia is for Lovers, Virginia Tourisim Coroporation, 2018, www.virginia.org/listings/HistoricSites/GeorgeWashingtonBirthplaceNationalMonument/.

Falkof, Lucille. “”Retirement and Recall.”” Presidents of the United States George Washington 1st President of the United States, Garrett Educational Corporation, 1989, p. 78-80.

Falkof, Lucille. “”A Final Peace.”” Presidents of the United States George Washington 1st President of the United States, Garrett Educational Corporation, 1989, p. 115.

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George Washington – Public American Figure

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 and is one of the most well known public American figures that has helped transform the United States into what it is today. George Washington is known as a Founding Father of the United States amongst others which include Thomas Jefferson, John Jay, John Adams, and Alexander Hamilton to name a few. These important figures in American history led the notorious American Revolution against the American colonies mother country known as Great Britain.

The American colonies were able to win the revolt against Great Britain with the help of France, Spain, and the Netherlands. The victory against Great Britain resulted in the colonies declaring independence from Great Britain. This victory has allowed America to expand, prosper, and develop into what it is now without the interference from Great Britain. This essay focuses on the accomplishments of George Washington which include using no other precedent other than his common sense to create a structured government, where he was at before becoming president, and what he did to not only help himself during presidency but to help future presidents.

Throughout all the advancements, changes, and movements which have occurred in the United States from the very beginning, it all wouldn’t have happened without the help of George Washington. One has got to start somewhere and George Washington just happens to be the first president the United States has ever had. Rowland L. Young states in his article titled A Legend and a Man that Without Washington, the Revolution would probably have failed, and it is certain that without him the government of the United States would have taken a different nature. Where would America be without Washington in the history textbooks? There would definitely be a drastic change in history if there was someone other than Washington as president. No one could get the job done like Washington and there would probably be a different outcome in regards to the American Revolution. Before George Washington no one was appointed to set the rules for America and to represent America.

But before Washington became president he was made commander without having any military experience of his own. With now having experience in the military, this shows Washington’s true character of being brave and determined which most likely helped him win the election. When the American Revolution began in 1775, he was named commander in chief of the Continental Army. Washington was then named a national hero after ending the American Revolution by capturing British Troops in Yorktown, Virginia. In 1787 Washington attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia and was head of the committee to draft the constitution. The delegates were so impressed by his leadership that they deemed him to be the most fit to serve as America’s first ever president. With that, he became America’s first president. Young then asserts in his article that as president, Washington faced an unprecedented task of creating a whole executive government with nothing to guide him but his own common sense and the laconic words of Article II of the Constitution.

It sounds like a strenuous task because Washington had to set up the rules for guiding the American nation without any advice from someone with previous knowledge. Everything he accomplished within his two terms of presidency, (1789-1797) was a learning experience and was all based on his own common sense. Young also states that One of Washington’s contributions to the government was his invention, perhaps inadvertent, of the cabinet ” a term that he himself did not use until 1793. The cabinet was basically a group of important people that are in the government which advise the president and help with making important decisions. Thanks to Washington, the idea of having cabinets is still used today among presidents and are there to assist them. What helped Washington the most throughout his presidency was his religious faith and his moral beliefs.

William B. Allen writes in his article called The Moral Foundations of Political Choices: George Washington, Foreign Policy and National Character that Washington believed that God’s Providential hand had made the founding of the new republic possible and that the survival and success of this experiment was of enormous moral significance to world history, first and foremost because the nation held out the promise of securing civil and religious liberty. During his times of policy making and decision making he looked to God and believed he couldn’t have done it without him. When it was time for Washington to leave presidency in 1796 he wrote the Farewell Address in which he advised the American public on the dangers of party politics and warned about having permanent alliances in regards to the United States and other countries. Allen also writes that Washington’s unwavering goal in this endeavor was to create a nation dedicated to and capable of sustaining civil and religious libertyAll Washington wanted was for the American people to be free to do what they pleased and didn’t want anyone to restrain anyone from accomplishing things due to their religion. Although, there was a lot of work to be accomplished from that period in time, Washington tried his best to advance and protect the nation when policy making and decision making.

He established the fundamentals on how to serve as president for all future presidents to learn from. Unfortunately, Washington died on December 14 of 1799 at the age of 67 due to a throat infection he got from riding through wet and snowy weather several days in advance. To this day, Washington is a celebrated national figure that helped shape America and its government into what is today. I find him interesting because he is the first ever president America has had and was a very courageous person as he was commander in chief of the Continental Army. I’m thankful that he was president because who knows what could’ve been established if someone else took his place. America wouldn’t be where it is today if it wasn’t for him.

Bibliography

Allen, William B. “”THE MORAL FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL CHOICES: GEORGE

WASHINGTON, FOREIGN POLICY AND NATIONAL CHARACTER.”” The Review

of Faith & International Affairs 9, no. 4 (2011): 3-12.

Young, Rowland L. “”A Legend and a Man,”” American Bar Association Journal 68, no. 2 (February 1982): 178-181

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George Washington On Money

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Look down at a dollar bill and you will see one of the most famous early American colonists, George Washington. George Washington is one of the most recognizable figures in American history due to his vast contributions to the country during the American Revolution and continuing after. He is an iconic figure in American history, today being represented in many myths and untrue statements. Although there are a lot of exaggerations and myths, he truly was a man of legend, leading and guiding those who came after him.

George Washington was born on his family’s plantation on February 22, 1732. The plantation was located in Westmoreland County in Virginia. When he was little he moved to Ferry Farm, a plantation is Fredericksburg, Virginia. Because of his family’s wealthy status, he received a good education as a teenager. This helped him later in life, giving him the tools necessary to be a good politician. When his older brother and father died, he gained the plantation, renamed Mount Vernon by his brother. Mount Vernon was a farm that grew many crops and had slaves. Washington was known to be pro slavery in his early years, also was known to be a harsh slave master. After his presidency, Washington had changed his mind about slavery but didn’t choose to take any political action, only choosing to free his slaves after his wife’s death. Mount Vernon became a place of refuge for George, a resting place where he could experiment with crops and spend time with his family, especially after the presidency.

When he was only twenty years old, he was put in charge of the Virginia militia. He fought in the French and Indian war and then resigned and began to take a more political role in Virginia. While he was pursing his political career, he met and married his wife and continued to expand his plantation. With the outbreak of the American Revolution, he was made commander in chief of the American forces as they tried to fight against the British with little success. With the French assistance, the American Revolution was won and Washington became a large figure in America even though he wanted to retire and live back on his plantation. Though he wanted to retire, he agreed to lead the constitutional convention, where the delegates were able to witness his great leadership skills and decided to make him the first president. He finally agreed, running against John Adams, who became the first vice president after losing the race.

Washington was a very cautious and proactive president, knowing that however he handled the presidency would set the standard for those who followed after him. He made it his goal to make the presidency seem prestigious and important and helped to establish traditions that are still important to this day. He elected the first ever cabinet of advisors, setting a tradition that is still followed and is an important part in the president’s decision making. In his cabinet, the two most prominent members were Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Both of these men had opposing views on the role of the government, with Hamilton wanting a more controlling and involved government and Jefferson believing more in state and individual rights. Washington’s cabinet helped to support him as he started to define the presidential role, like the cabinet does today. Another important thing Washington did during his presidency was stopping the whiskey rebellion. Due to a lot of federal debt, the government issued a tax on spirits that caused distillers to rise up in rebellion. This was a key moment for the federal government as it had the first opportunity to show its strength, strength that was lacking under the Articles of Confederation. Washington led the troops to meet the protestors, who vanished and stopped rioting. This led Washington to let the people perceive the Federal Government as one that was united and strong, something that they government has kept up with to this day. Another huge thing that Washington did to help the United States was to create a National Bank. The national bank allowed the US to print and have a standard currency and helped to unite and secure the rapidly growing economy. This was a controversial decision due to that power not being fully described in the constitution, and further deepened the divide between Hamilton and Jefferson.

The most important thing that Washington did for the country was his farewell speech. In the speech he warned against making foreign alliances and political parties, which was something he feared and watched happen in his own cabinet. This speech is one of the most famous speeches in American history, but has been completely ignored. Washington warned against foreign alliances, believing that it would only harm the then weak United States. This warning was super influential when later the United States was debating on whether to get involved in the French Revolution. The second thing that Washington warned against was taking sides through political parties. This was a problem that Washington saw developing, but was essentially unavoidable.

Following the end of his two term presidency in March of 1797 (which he could have had more, there was no law), he retired to Mount Vernon as a national war hero and as a great first president. He ended up dying in December of 1799, leaving a legacy and a hard example to follow.

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George Washington – Life of a Freemason

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Since the late 14th century, the Freemasons have established themselves as a society with great influence, power, and mystique. For centuries the notorious society influenced many aspects of various civilizations throughout the course of history. Some of these facets include politics, economics, culture, and social life.

The subject of Freemasonry during the United States’ rise and the American Revolution seems to spark controversy between experts as to the extent of their influence over the colonies and its’ major players; in particular George Washington. Throughout the history of the United States, historians and biographers of George Washington have written or discussed the life of the Father of Our Nation. From his childhood at Ferry Farm, through his military career and presidency, and ending with his death at Mount Vernon, Washington has been praised and scrutinized as a dedicated Freemason. While our first president was famous for being a Freemason, a Thirty-Third degree Mason to be exact, there are many sources which demonstrate Washington having an indifferent relationship with the fraternity.

It is no secret that the Freemasons have been the center of countless conspiracy theories as to their intentions or motivations behind many historical events, such as the American Revolution. Aside from Masonic lodges that were known to be major points of contact between military officers, well-documented Masons contributed to our Declaration of Independence, specifically George Washington. As the general of the First Continental Army, Washington established himself as not only a great military strategist, but as a tactician within the world of espionage. Washington was known to have developed a ring of spies designed to infiltrate military posts and colonies occupied by the British. As to the point of his induction in the Freemasons, historians have written that Washington’s commitment to the fraternity was at the least wavering, if not completely non-existent.

The purpose of my research proposal is to discover and identify Washington’s relationship with the Freemason Brotherhood. Was it for personal and social growth, or to infiltrate the organization in preparation of a revolution? For many, Washington was viewed as a committed Mason, while others did not. Manuscripts and correspondence obtained through the centuries, exhibited Washington as uncommitted.

In his early years, Washington never took Freemasonry very seriously; for him, as for so many other colonial gentlemen, it was originally just a social club. After he was raised to the third degree in August 1753, he only twice in his life attended a meeting of his Fredericksburg lodge. It was only after the Revolution, when he was President of the United States and the Freemasons had come to be regarded as the men who had made the Revolution, which he attended, in his Masonic apron, the laying of the foundation stone of the Capitol in the new city of Washington, DC, in 1793.

It may be conceivable that Washington’s membership into the Freemason organization was an attempt to penetrate British strongholds with the hopes that classified information may help the colonies claim victory. This notion can invite challenge by experts since any evidence indirectly labels Washington as a spy within the Society.

It is stated that there are still a large number of Washington papers in the Library of Congress that are not accessible, as they have thus far not been classified or indexed. Thus, it is in the possibilities that there may be still further documentary evidence found of Masonic import in addition to such as are set forth upon these pages.

Contents

  • 1 Secondary Sources
    • 1.1 Heidler adds to Washington’s questionable faith by stating:
  • 2 Primary Sources
  • 3 Conclusion

Secondary Sources

Although he wrote letter indication that he was happy to be a Freemason, or repudiate his Masonic membership, there is little to no evidence that he attended many Masonic lodge meetings after his initiation in 1753he seems not to have participated in meetings of the lodge of which he was the first Master of what today is called Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22. While Master of the lodge, he did not assist in the work of the lodge. In one puzzling letter he denied that he was a Mason.

In his book, The Freemasons in America, H. Paul Jeffers discusses Washington and his obligation to the Freemasons. Although a strong case can be made that Washington’s commitment to his Masonic brothers was indecisive, it could be argued that General Washington was much too concerned with the impending Revolution. However, it should be pointed out that many other Freemasons were heavily involved with our independence, in particular Benjamin Franklin. While there is no suggestion of betrayal to the Masons, there seems to be a tone of indifference. As with the writings of historian Jasper Ridley, author of The Freemason: A History of the World’s Most Powerful Secret Society, Jeffers furthers a notion that Washington’s participation in the Society and becoming a Master Mason may have been purely strategic.

David G. Hackett, writer of That Religion in Which All Men Agree: Freemasonry in American Culture, examines Masonic lodges as a network for military officers as well as the development of Christianity within the colonies. Lodges were more effective than Christian ministers in building ties among Continental Army officers. In comparison to the historical writings mentioned above, Hackett displays some irregularity as to Washington’s involvement with Masonic meetings.

On July 4, 1775, the day after Washington took command, he reminded the army that the Articles of War forbad profane cursing, swearing and drunkenness and imposed on all officers and men when not on duty punctual attendance on Divine Service to implore the blessing of heaven upon the means used for our safety and defence. Despite this, he found it necessary throughout the war to reiterate the obligation of men and officers to attend divine services.

According to historians, Jasper Ridley and H. Paul Jeffers, there is no proof or documents that Washington himself ever attended any meetings after his initiation. In support of my argument, it’s plausible that Washington advised his officers to attend services with the intention of conducting military operations. Furthermore, it’s debatable that Washington’s religious affiliation was fairly loose; as if he never declared a denomination. According to biographers David and Jeanne Heidler, authors of Washington’s Circle: the Creation of the President, Washington acknowledged Heaven and a Higher Power, but never references God. During his inauguration speech:

Each of the six paragraphs in the inaugural address he had just delivered contained a reference to God as a higher power and the ultimate authority. Washington spoke of fervent supplications to that Almighty Being who rules over the universe, paid homage to the Great Author of every public and private good, invoked god as a providential agency, and noted the propitious smiles of Heaven.

Heidler adds to Washington’s questionable faith by stating:

Washington is frequently added to the list as a passive participant (Christianity) – a reluctant Anglican at best, a secular realist at heart. Nevertheless, few agree about Washington’s religious beliefs. It is true that after the Revolution, he ceased taking communion. Historian Mary Thompson, whose knowledge is unsurpassed on the subject, believes that Washington in his later years became uncomfortable with the Episcopalian teachings of his youth. In short, his concept of Christian charity became both broader and simpler.

For many Freemason enthusiasts, it is widely known that belief in God is necessary for membership. The oath that the candidate takes at the altar is, therefore, seen as being taken in front of God as well as the lodge. The oath itself conveys the duties, rights and expectations of the candidate; at a deeper level, it also represents a personal relationship with GodGod is at the heart of Masonry.

A rationale can be made that while Washington referred to a Higher Spirit, suggesting faith in God, his claim to be a devout Christian is disputable and therefore in defiance of Masonic teachings. And although much of the text written by Heidler supports this notion, Heidler displays a major flaw. Even though Washington never explicitly explained his own beliefs in a concise manifesto, he obviously believed in God as a participant, an agency, in the lives of men and women and nations. With this in mind, it becomes apparent that David and Jeanne Heidler favor Washington as a servant of God. But any beliefs Washington had in God were anything but obvious, and displaying an impartial devotion to Him is unfitting within Christianity.

In his book, The Secret World of the Freemasons, author Tim Dedopolus explores the importance of the Society’s role in the American Revolution. Along with their central position, Dedopolus states Washington’s influence on the Revolution.

The colonies had entirely separate governments, different religious tendencies, widely separate social standards, and highly disparate national origins. All of them were fiercely independent once again; Freemasonry was the sole point of common contact. It offered a point of contact, some structure, and a social outlet. As the American Revolution kicked off, it was largely the will and spirit of George Washington that held the colonial army together. A long-standing Mason, he was known to refer to Freemasonry’s cross-colony influence as the cement which binds us together. There were military lodges across the colonial army as well, and Washington is said to have visited them all personally, helping them to inspire courage, hope and morale.

Taking this statement into account, it’s undeniable that the Freemasons played a pivotal part in the American Revolution and Washington was at the center. Even though there is no mention that clearly identifies Washington as an infiltrator in the organization, it may be possible that he had the foresight of Freemason authority and determined the value of membership. And while his ideas may hold substance for my research proposal, Dedopolus visibly shows favoritism towards the Brotherhood and Washington. He states that US Founding Father and President George Washington was a dedicated Freemason. But as discussed, Washington never attended lodge meetings. There is little evidence through the Washington Papers and secondary sources which indicate Washington as a devoted Freemason.

Many of the secondary sources provide factual information known to historians and biographers of George Washington. And although many writers have different views on our first president, there seems to be a consensus that Washington was of high moral standard and exhibited traits of America’s favorite hero. However, sifting through multiple writings, there is an underlying of confusion as to Washington’s tactics and strategies. As I pieced together different perspectives from various authors, it’s clear that he was either regarded as military genius, or completely inept as a strategist. While most, if not all of the evidence to support my proposal is circumstantial, I have chosen to interpret these findings in demonstrating Washington’s ability to disguise and mislead. Ultimately, I find the possibility that Washington may have infiltrated the Freemasons in order to gather British intelligence as potentially promising, or at the very leastuncommitted.

Primary Sources

That though General Washington caused to be carefully copied in books kept for that purpose, all his letters on every subject, no trace whatever of any of the five letters under consideration, la nor any letters to any other Lodge or Masonic body whatever, are to be found among the records of his correspondence. That although WASHINGTON was extremely scrupulous in preserving his correspondence with all public or private bodies, there is not a line of his relating to Freemasonry, to be found among all his papers, except the correspondence with Mr. Snyder! It is also a fact that WASHINGTON was equally scrupulous in dating his letters, and it is believed that not one can be found, which is without a date.

This passage, written by Jared Sparks, a historian at the turn of the 20th century, and renowned bibliographer of George Washington, is one of many in Washington’s Masonic Correspondence found in The Washington Papers. The five letters referenced, refer to correspondence believed to be written by Washington to five Grand Lodges. The Masonic Correspondence archives were originally compiled by Julius F. Sachse; librarian of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Although Sachse was thought of as a meticulous and honest archivist of Washington’s Masonic Correspondence, his own involvement may be considered a potential limitation in that Sachse himself was a Freemason. Although Sachse credits the Anti-Masonic party, Jared Sparks in particular, Sachse summarizes Washington’s letters with a biased interpretation.

A careful study of this correspondences carefully cherished by WASHINGTON, puts an entirely new phase upon WASHINGTONS connection with the Masonic Fraternity, and his esteem of Freemasonry. These papers absolutely thrust aside all of the statements, arguments and libels, brought forth by our misguided enemies at the time of the Anti-Masonic craze during the last century, and in a small way kept alive even down to the present day by some people who are blinded by their ignorance or malice; referring to some of their published statements that Washington never belonged to the Masonic Fraternity and that there were neither authentic Masonic letters nor copies thereof among his records so frequently made during the political Anti-Masonic craze.

Because the Washington Masonic Correspondence is incomplete, this drawback offers little solution to any prejudices uncovered by historians. Many documents were lost throughout history, along with remaining letters which are still in the Library of Congress. These manuscripts which have been unseen by the public could very well be the answer to overcome any restraints held by Washington’s Correspondence.

To his credit, Washington was observed and praised by many for maintaining his steadfast devotion to the Freemasons and as a faithful servant to God; both publically and privately. In a publication by the Newport Herald titled Ratification by The States, on August 19, 1790, the Society of Freemasons addressed George Washington in lieu of the victory during the American Revolution. In this address, the Society commended Washington as being both an excellent Commander and President, as well as upholding his duties as a Freemason.

To GEORGE WASHINGTON, President of the United States of America.

We the Master, Wardens, and Brethren, of King David’s Lodge, in Newport, Rhode-Island, joyfully embrace this Opportunity, to greet you as a Brother, and to hail you welcome to Rhode-Island. We exult in the Thought, that as Masonry has always been patronised by the Wise, the Good, and the Great, so hath it stood, and ever will stand, as its Fixtures are on the immutable Pillars of Faith, Hope, and Charity.”With unspeakable Pleasure, we gratulate you as filling the Presidential Chair, with the Applause of a numerous and enlightened People”whilst, at the same Time, we felicitate Ourselves in the Honour done the Brotherhood, by your many exemplary Virtues and Emanations of Goodness proceeding from a Heart worthy of possessing the ancient Mysteries of our Craft, being persuaded that the Wisdom and Grace with which Heaven has endowed you, will ever Square all your Thoughts, Words, and Actions by the eternal Laws of Honour, Equity, and Truth; so as to promote the Advancement of all good Works, your own Happiness, and that of Mankind”Permit us, then, illustrious Brother, cordially to salute you, with Three Times Three, and to add our fervent Supplications, that the Sovereign Architect of the Universe, may always en-compass you with his holy Protection.

This dedication, along with admiration, paid tribute to George Washington as a devout Mason with the honor of the Thirty-third Degree Master Mason; the highest honor of the Society. In addition, Washington was also acclaimed as a pious Christian by the Newport Clergy:

To GEORGE WASHINGTON, President of the United States of America.

The Address of the Clergy of the town of Newport, in the State of Rhode-Island.

SIR, With salutations of the most cordial esteem and regard, permit us the Clergy of ???the Town of??© Newport, to approach your person, intreating your acceptance of our voice in conjunction with that of our fellow-citizens, to hail you welcome to Rhode-Island.

Shielded by Omnipotence, during a tedious and unnatural war,”wise, as a messenger sent from Heaven, in conducting the councils of the cabinet”and, under many embarrassments, directing the operations of the field; Divine Providence crown’d your temples with unfading laurels, and put into your hand the peacefully-waving olive-branch. Long may you live, Sir, highly favored of GOD and beloved of men, to preside in the grand council of our nation, which, we trust, will not cease to supplicate Heaven, that its select and divine influences may descend and rest upon you, endowing you with grace, wisdom, and understanding, to go out and in before this numerous and free people; to preside over whom Divine Providence hath raised you up.

And therefore,”before GOD, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, in whom all the families both in heaven and earth are named, according to the law of our office, and in bounden duty,”we bow our knee”beseeching him to grant you every temporal and spiritual blessing”and that, of the plentitude of his grace, all the families of these wide extended realms, may enjoy, under an equal and judicious administration of government, peace and prosperity, with all the blessings attendant on civil and religious liberty.

These passages can give cause as to Washington’s deep devotion to God and the Masonic Order; however, these letters conveying admiration, could merely be a formality, or possibly obligatory to gain favor, in other words: to play politics.

Conclusion

The overall consensus of George Washington is one of approval and applause; mainly as a General and the First President. And although many sources, both primary and secondary, continue to discuss his personal life with regards to Christianity and Freemasonry, there is reason to believe that many findings are circumstantial as to his commitment to either. Unfortunately, very little primary sources exist pertaining to the analysis of Washington and his Brethren. It may be feasible that the Library of Congress as well as the Grand Lodges of Fredericksburg and Alexandria may contain further documents supporting my proposal. On the opposite side of the spectrum, the Anti-Masonic party offers little to no evidence. Any proof or indications made by the party could also be considered one of partiality. However, the ambiguity surrounding Washington’s relationship with the Freemasons can be viewed as evidence in itself in support of my argument; after all, it would not be the first time an American organization hid their dirty laundry.

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Scottish Merchant

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Alexander Hamilton was born in Charlestown, Nevis, in the West Indies on January 11, 1757, to James Hamilton, who was a Scottish merchant of St. Christopher, and to his mother’s name was Rachel Fawcett. Rachel’s father was a Huguenot physician and planter.

While very young, she had been married and divorced After her divorce, the court had said she couldn’t get remarried. Her marriage to James Hamilton was accepted in the West Indies,but anywhere else it wasn’t.She ended up giving birth to two sons, but less than ten years later the couple were living apart. Rachel and her boys lived on St. Croix,and there she depended on her relatives. She had sadly in 1768. But his father had lived up until 1799. But the boys were already orphans before they were close to being teenagers. By the time Hamilton was twelve he had began work as a clerk in a general store. But he had some keen intellect and ambitious goals.

He was also and excellent writer, in both English and French. In 1772, his aunts saved up to be able to send the young intellectual to New York for a formal education. But by 1773 Hamilton was entered at King’s College, which is now Columbia. Even when he was a young man he had a strong hold on political issues concerning the British and American government. He was on seventeen when he exhibited in a series of anonymous pamphlets, they were also attributed to John Jay. But in 1775 he founded a volunteer military company, so Hamilton quit his college studies.

But obviously he was good at it cause on March 14, 1776, he was commissioned Captain of the New York Company of Artillery. Nathanael Greene noticed that Hamilton had great skills and intelligence in his duties with artillery.He was asked to serve on the staff of Lord Stirling,but he said no and continued on with his career with artillery at Long Island,also along with other places such as Harlem Heights, and White Plains. Then he saw some action at Trenton and Princeton in the New Jersey campaign.

Another person realized how extraordinary Hamilton was it was Washington, but it was for a different reason this time. It was for his leadership abilities, also his extraordinary talent for writing. Then on March 1st, 1777, Hamilton got promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, and made a aide-de-camp. And he was just twenty years old and he has made so many accomplishments.

In the winter of 1777-1778 Hamilton stayed with Washington and the Continental Army at Valley Forge. During this winter is when Brigadier General Horatio Gates tried but failed to incriminate Hamilton during the Conway Cabal. Then finally Alexander Hamilton married Elizabeth Schuyler on December 14, 1780, she was the daughter of Philip Schuyler, who was a Revolutionary War general, and her mothers name was Catherine Van Rensselaer Schuyler. Both families were very wealthy and prominent New York families. That marriage was very happy and they made eight children out of that marriage.

But on February 16, 1781, Hamilton and Washington had a quarrel which soured their relationship. He had told his father-in-law in a letter that was dated He describes the incident in a letter that was dated February 18, 1791. His letter he wrote explained what happened. ?’Two days ago, the General and I passed each other on the stairs. He told me he wanted to speak to me. I answered that I would wait upon him immediately.

I went below, and delivered Mr. Tilghman a letter to be sent to the commissary, containing an order of a pressing and interesting nature. Returning to the General, I was stopped on the way by the Marquis de Lafayette, and we conversed together about a minute on a matter of business. He can testify how impatient I was to get back [. . .] I met him [Washington] at the head of the stairs, where, accosting me in an angry tone, “Colonel Hamilton,” said he,  you have kept me waiting at the head of the stairs these ten minutes. I must tell you sir, you treat me with disrespect. I replied without petulancy, but with decision: “I am not conscious of it, sir, but since you have thought it necessary to tell me so, we part.” “Very Well, sir,” said he, “if it be your choice,” or something to this effect, and we separated. I sincerely believe my absence, which gave so much umbrage, did not last two minutes.” But any attempts for reconciliation was not an option. In Moses Hazen’s Brigade in July, Hamilton was given command of the battalion of Lafayette Division. And the he contributed in the final American victory there, Hamilton led a successful attack at Yorktown.

And when he was made Colonel in Sep 30, 1783,he continued with the military. But by the end of that year he left the service. Hamilton represented the state of New York and appointed to the Congress of the Confederation. But in 1783 he set up a law practice and resigned from Congress. Then he found the Bank of New York and continued an influence in national politics. He also found and led the Federalist Political Party, and was co-authoring the Federalist Papers along with John Jay, and Madison.Hamilton was a big reason the Articles were replaced in 1787, cause he played a key role in creating the Constitution. In 1789-1795 he served as a first Secretary of the Treasury in George Washington’s ,and that led to the establishment of our national monetary system.

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Nevis in the West Indies

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

On January 11, 1755 or 1757, the exact date is unknown, on the island of Nevis in the West Indies, one of our founding fathers Alexander Hamilton was born. His parents were Rachel Fawcett Lavien, his mother, who was of British and French huguenot descent, and James Hamilton, his father, a Scottish trader. Before Alexander was born, his mother married to John Lavien, a merchant she was pressured to marry by her parents when she was young.

Together, they had a son named Peter. Her husband was abusive to her and he spent nearly all the money she had inherited after her father’s death in 1745. Lavien even had her imprisoned for adultery. After she was released from prison, instead of returning to Lavien and her child, she fled her abusive marriage and moved to St. Kitts, where she had met and moved in with James Hamilton. She had another son James, Alexander’s older brother who was born in 1753. After moving back, James abandoned them when Alexander was only but a child, leaving them poor and in poverty. At 11 years old, Hamilton took his first job after his father left. After trying to support her children and herself by working, his mother had become sick and died in 1768. Alexander’s boss was a businessman who was impressed majorly by his ambitious and bright employee, his name was Nicolas Cruger.

To leave Nevis and better his education Hamilton impressed Knox with a letter he had written describing a hurricane from 1772 that had hit the island. In 1773, when he was 16 years old, he arrived in New York, where he enrolled in King’s College. Despite his gratitude toward his patrons, Hamilton was more drawn to politics than he was to studying. In 1774, he wrote a political article defending Patriots’ and their cause. As a fast learner, Hamilton believed himself capable of becoming a self-made man. With his intent on learning through experience, he left King’s College before he could graduate to join the Patriots for their protest against taxes. In 1775, the Revolutionary War began, and Hamilton became a part of the Provincial Artillery Company in New York and had fought in the battles of Trenton, Long Island, and White Plains.

After Hamilton fought in the 1777 battles of Germantown, Princeton, and Brandywine Creek, he had been promoted to be a lieutenant colonel of the Continental Army. Hamilton had caught the attention of George Washington in his early services where he fought for American service. George made Hamilton both his assistant and adviser. Alexander put his skills with writing to work, for five years that he was working under Washington.

He wrote crucial and critical letters for George Washington, and put together many reports for strategic reforms and the restructuring of the Continental Army. Around this time, Hamilton married Elizabeth Schuyler, who was from a wealthy New York family. They met at a Winter’s Ball, where she laid her eyes on him and fell in love with his charm and mind. Though, we don’t know, it seemed Hamilton’s intent was less than true love and more needing a steady income from a wealthy lady.

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Locke’s Philosophies On Toleration and State of Nature

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Before the American Revolution, preachers and philosophers like John Locke developed many ideas that would influence American colonists to question Britain’s intentions. Born in 1632 in Wrighton, Somerset, Locke was born as a son of a lawyer. Later on, he was a student at Christ Church, Oxford from 1652- 1667.

In 1666, Locke met Anthony Ashley Cooper, later known as the Earl of Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury, a minister to Charles II and founder of the opposing Whig party, worked alongside John Locke, in attempt to stop the Catholic duke of York, later known as James II, from succeeding the royal crown in the exclusion campaign of 1679. When that failed, Shaftesbury planned an armed resistance, forcing him to flee to Holland in 1682 for a year with John Locke. Locke would return back to England in result of the appointment of Protestant William III during the Glorious Revolution, where he would publish his most significant works. Over time, two of his ideas transpired into the ideologies of toleration and State of Nature.

On a religious perspective, Locke believed in toleration. Although he was a devout Christian, he believe that the use force was not the righteous way to convert people. Locke preached that the government should not be able to use oppression or intimidation to try to bring people to the true religion and that religious societies should not use power on members, or outsiders. Locke’s support for this claim arose from ideologies by Jesus of Nazareth and the New Testament of the Bible, both not indicating the use of coercion to convert those of a different religion. The idea that true religion consists of genuine persuasion of the mind, supports the fact that force, especially government force, is incapable of true conversion.

Locke’s idea of toleration influenced the structure and foundation of which the United States was built on, producing a free nation. In today’s society, the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution ensures that the right to free expression of religion is protected. Us as individuals, are able to reside with any religion we prefer. In our day-to-day lives, we are morally obligated to treat each other with respect and dignity. Locke’s ideas on toleration created a draft on which direction the United States should head into into the future.

Upon the limit of government in the perspective of religion, Locke also believed in a State of Nature. In this ideal fantasy, all forms of government would be absent, but mutual constraints would still exist. Additionally, all people would be obligated to the rights of life, liberty, and property. Locke’s idea of natural rights’ led to colonists realizing that Britain had become too authoritarian as a government. Later on, multiple taxes and duties would be enacted on the colonists by Britain, sparking outrage and riots within the colonies. However, Locke’s central ideologies, along with prominent figures who further developed his ideas, would justify the need  for the American Revolution.

The theory of State of Nature still affects philosophers today, posing the question if a good government can be legitimate, even if it does not have the actual consent of the people who live under it. In result, the development of a social contract system emerged, where people could replace the government if it did not abide by the people’s guidelines. Consequently, the United States government implemented a checks and balances system between three branches of government and a re-election process of government officials. In order to satisfy citizens who live under a government, the relationship must be mutually beneficial. Without Locke’s opinion on this subject, the United States foothold as a global superpower would have never been possible.

In conclusion, Locke’s philosophies on toleration and State of Nature have impacted our everyday lives. As a predominant nation, the United States have adopted and evolved both ideas in order to form a successful government that both satisfies the people living under the system and keeps the country in order. In our First Amendment of the Constitution, toleration of different religions and opinions are respected in order to support being a free nation. Therefore, if a government does not respect, appeal to, or support their citizens, then they are obliged to replace those in authority. John Locke’s influential ideas of toleration and State of Nature have left an everlasting mark on how our society runs today.

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Most Of History Humans

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Throughout most of history humans have been controlled by absolute monarchies or regimes run by a single family. As well as given very few liberties and the ability to freely live their lives. It wasn’t until around the 1500’s that certain individuals began to freely think for themselves without the influence of their government and oppressors.

Around 1775 the world began to see a major change in the way people think and go about defying their current system of government in the American revolution. But the American revolution didn’t start on its own with the masses, it was inspired by certain individuals who had the courage to stand up to their current government and inform the masses of their wrong doings. Writers like Tomas Pain with his Common Sense and free thinkers like John Locke and Benjamin Franklin all gave inspiration to the American Revolution. The United States would not be what it is today without their efforts.

One of the most important documents in American history would be the pamphlet Common Sense written by Tomas Pain. In this document Pain rallies the colonists to support the separation from Great Britain’s rule. In the pamphlet he states, I am not induced by motives of pride, party, or resentment to espouse the doctrine of separation and independence; I am clearly, positively, and conscientiously persuaded that it is the true interest of this continent to be so. (Common Sense). While supporting American independence he denounces the British monarchy and says that people are born in a state of equality. Paine also said that there are no natural rulers among men. And that everyone is born equally.

Common Sense gained so much traction in the American revolution that even George Washington read it to his men as inspiration before they went into battle. Not only did he rally the support of the colonists, but he also gave the united states an idea for a representative government to be used in order to replace the old regime. A few months after Common Sense was published the colonies passed the declaration of independence. Without Thomas pain and his ability to rally the colonists, the united states would not be the same country that it is today.

Another influential figure in the American revolution was Benjamin Franklin. Benjamin Franklin was a crucial figure in the American revolution because he was able to procure funds for the colonists to fight the British. In 1778, Benjamin Franklin and 2 different Americans became American diplomats in France. Benjamin Franklin met with several French diplomats, policy makers and even King Louis XVI who were all impressed with his thoughts, talents and writings. Because of Benjamin Franklin’s extreme influence in France throughout his 10 years there, the country that said they were officially neutral took great measures to help the United States during the Revolutionary War.

During the Revolutionary War, France agreed to lend the United States millions of dollars in aid, which allowed the U.S.warships in its harbors to fight and even let volunteers enlist to fight against British. Franklin was one among 5 members of the Continental Congress to be placed responsible of negotiating an accord between the U.S.and Great Britain. The 1783 accord of Paris was the results of their negotiations. Then in October of 1729, Benjamin Franklin bought the newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette. With this he was able to push out propaganda for the American revolution. One of his most famous propaganda pieces was the join or die snake in 1754. This political cartoon become a symbol of unity between all the colonies. Benjamin Franklin’s ability to unify the colonies and gain financial support from France to the colonies played a crucial part in the success of the revolution.

The last great enlightenment thinker that influenced the American revolution was John Locke. One of Kohn Locke’s most important works was the Two treaties of government. According to history.wisc.edu the treaties of government was published in 1689 and attacked the tory beliefs that have been formed in the early seventeenth century. Within the two treaties of government John Locke states that the power of the king or government comes from the people who obey their rules in order to obtain law and security.

The second thing he states is that everyone has a natural right to hold property, which can never be taken without their consent. The last thing he states is that if a ruler decides to infringe on the terms of the contract that empowers or seize property, the people can overthrow and disobey him. Some other ideas that he had were that all men were created equal and was subject to no one but god. Locke also argues that it would be wise of the government to delegate their power to different bodies so that no branch of government would be too powerful. This idea can be seen today with the American government. After the revolution the founding fathers needed to create a government that was able to uphold the rights of the citizens but at the same time not be too powerful. So, what they did was they looked to john Locke’s works and idea and used them to established the three branches of government.

The enlightenment era was a very important influencer in the American revolution. The people who had the courage and determination to go against their government and even their way of living, have done a great service to this world. People like Thomas Pain who created common sense and gave inspiration to the men and woman who fought in the revolution, or Benjamin Franklin who was able to turn a neutral country into a great supporter for the Americans. Even John Locke, who gave our founding fathers the ideas of a newly well-constructed government and natural rights, all deserve recognition and praise for their outstanding achievements that helps shaped the country that we know today.

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The Boston Tea Party Protest

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Bostonians, like Philadelphians and New Yorkers were involved in the Dutch trade, that is, smuggling of tea and other commodities and got into colonial non-importation agreements. However, some Bostonian traders violated the nonimportation treaties by importing tea. This essay discusses the significance of the Boston tea Party, Events that provoked the Tea party, impact of the tea party on the cultural experience of Americans and how it coincides with the theme of What it is to be an American.

Contents

  • 1 The Boston tea party
  • 2 References

The Boston tea party

In 1776, the parliament passed the Townshend act and imposition of duties on products that were imported into the British colonies which led to colonial protests. The parliament saved the duty imposed on tea in order to show their power and right to keep colonial revenue raised with no colonial approval. Boston merchants did not follow the act and continued receiving smuggled tea from Dutch traders.

In a bid to aid the financially struggling East India Company, a Tea Act, the act granted the Company: an exemption on the export tax, refund on taxes owed on tea surpluses in its possession, and a monopoly on all tea that was exported to the colonies. Tea that was exported to the colonies was to be sold and carried by East India Company through its agents leaving out the independent merchants and colonial shippers. This act was also formed to help avoid financial ruin since the East India Company had most of its warehouses in England and most were full.

This monopoly perception led to formation of alliance between conservative merchants with Radicals with Samuel Adams and his Sons of liberty. Tea agents in Charleston, Philadelphia and New York cancelled orders and traders refused deliveries. In Boston on the other hand, Thomas Hutchinson, the royal governor, tried to uphold the law by allowing the three arriving ships; the Beaver, Eleanor and the Dartmouth to deliver their cargo and maintained that their cargoes be delivered and duties be honored. This Tea Act was seen by colonialists as a bid to get them to pay Tax. Worse the East India Company had been viewed as a Monopoly and the Colonies did not want to see another monopoly form.

Dressed up as Mohawk Indians, sixty men encouraged by Bostonian crowds in December 16th 1773, moved to the Griffin’s wharf, got on board of three ships and dumped all the tea that was in the ships. 342 chests of tea valued at over 10,000 pounds were emptied into the ocean. This event came to be known as the Boston Tea Party.

The first ship, the Dartmouth, arrived in Boston on 27th November 1773; it was stopped by the committee of correspondence and sons of liberty from unloading their tea. Eleanor and beaver, which were the next two ships, came later and were also stopped. At the time tea was not to be unloaded in Twenty Days that was to be on December 17th. On December 16th, Samuel Adams addressed a crowd gathered at the Old South Meeting house. He then made the planned signal which was closing by saying his meeting can do nothing to save this country. The sixty men let out a war cry and headed to Griffin’s wharf. The men went to the ships and asked the Captains for the keys and candle lights. Disposal of the tea was completed in three hours and no one was harmed except for the tea.

The immediate impact of the Boston Tea Party was to create rivalry and animosity between the British and the Americans. Americans had tried to send the British tea back but were not allowed to do so. While the British tea was cheaper, it had tax on it, this led to smugglers of Dutch tea into the country. If the Americans were to buy the tea from Britain, would be taken as an agreement of the Americans on the tax that was to be imposed. The reaction of the Americans made the colonialist Furious. The Americans saw the imposition of this tax on them as a restriction of their liberty.

The Boston Tea party was the first attempt of violent by the colonists against the government. this made it one of the key events as the country was moving towards the American revolution. Well, the American Revolution never started overnight but was an event that was caused by a series of other minor events against the British government. the Boston Tea Party was the turning point in history as it was the first time the colonialist decided to stand up for themselves against oppression imposed on them by the Great Britain.

It was a message to the British government that the colonists would not pay taxes on tea. The masked men only destroyed the tea and were careful not to damage anything else. By not committing acts of thoughtless vandalism but being specific to what they were against by the act the colonists had sent their message. This display was also vital as the colonist were trying to show that they were aware that the colonists’ taxes money was being used to repay British war debts. The message of the colonists was that they would not pay taxes on tea.

The responses of the British after the Boston Tea party helped in accelerating the American Revolution. The British felt they needed to punish the colonists for the rebellion. Such punishment came in form of intolerable acts which the colonists saw as an attempt by the parliament to gain and show that they had full control over the colonist. The colonists were growing independent rising confident in their self-independence. This made them feel that they did not need the help of the British government in order to be governed. Just two years after the Boston Tea Party the American Revolution war broke out. The revolutionary war resulted into the declaration of independence and the second continental congress.

While it might not have heard immediate results, the Boston tea party accelerated the feeling of patriotism among the Americans. It was a motivation to the colonists to fight for their lives and risk going to war for independence sake. It was not only an inspiration to the Americans but it led to other rebellions against injustice in other countries across the globe. For example Mahatma Gandhi is known to refer to the Boston Tea Party.

The respect to every citizen’s right and freedom in the country is as a result of the Boston tea party. Americans did not want any taxation without representation. Boston Tea party is the mother of most revolutions and protests in the country. The country has been known to push for respect of rights and freedoms or even laws by demonstrating against oppressive laws. Every right and freedom that people enjoy today is as a result of the determination and bravery that the early colonists had. Further the declaration of independence is celebrated today as one of the most important document in the country. The country’s independence which is celebrated every Fourth of July is as a result of what started off as the Boston tea party and grew into the American Revolution.

The theme what it is to be an American refers to the characteristics of an American citizen. To be an American means having the freedom to make your own decision free of oppression or imposition by an institution. Further an American is to be proud of the country and brave. The interest of the country has to be put before the interest of other countries. Boston Tea party portrays this well. The colonists were brave enough to fight for their rights and freedom from oppression from the British governments. They also had the countries interest at hand and tried to protect themselves from serving the interest of Britain.

References

Copeland, David A. Debating the Issues in Colonial Newspapers: Primary Documents on Events of the Period. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2000

Tovar, Alicia. The Boston Tea Party: No Taxation Without Representation. 2016.

Kennedy, Frances H. The American Revolution: A Historical Guidebook. 2014.

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The Rise of the Boston Tea Party

July 31, 2020 by Essay Writer

Although acts such as the quartering acts, stamp act, and so on, led to the rise of the Boston Tea Party, the Tea Act was the last straw for the colonist. The Tea Act of 1773, allowed the British Indian Company to sell its tea directly to the colonies, underminding colonia tea merchants. Inspite of the consenquences, the Intolerable acts, that the colonist had to deal with, the Boston Tea Party played a mayor role in the start of the American Revolution.

In the 1760s, a countless number of acts were being imposed on the American Colonies so Britain could pay their debt after the 7 years war. For more than 9 years, the colonist tolerated theses new laws. These acts were known as the Sugar Act of 1764, taxing sugar, cofffee, and wine; the Stamp Act of 176, which taxed irems such as newspapers and envelopes; and the Townshend act of 1767, taxing galss, lead, paint, and so on. It wasn’t until December 16, 1773 in Boston Massachusetts that they decided to finally take a huge action. Colonist were angry that Britain was imposing taxation without representation. John Hancock decided to organize a boycott against tea, which was subject to an import tax. No matter how much the colonist rejected the East Indian Company tea, Britain forced the tea ashore.

A memoir writen from George Hewes, a Boston shoemaker, allows us to learn about the Boston Tea party from the colonist perspective. On a cold December 16th, Hewes says he along with other colonist and the Sons of Libery dressed up as Indians, tomahawks to be specific. They marched to Griffins Wharf, where the ships containing the tea were located, and split into 3 parties. Once every party aborded each ship, they were ordered to open the hatches and take out all the chests of tea and throw them overboard (Hewes). After 4 to 5 hours, more than 300 chest of tea were dumped in the Boston Harbor. They were surrounded by British armed ships, but no attempt was made to resist [them] (Hewes). Once every chest of tea was throw out of the ship, everybody retreated back to their homes with abosoloutely no questions being asked outloud. Regardless of the silence, one thing was clear there appeared to be an understanding that each individual should volunteer his services, keep his own secret, and risk the consequences for himself (Hewes).

Although other events lead up to the Revolutionary War, the Boston Tea Party was a silent and peacful protest. There were no deaths or major violences towards each other during this time. Before the colonist could take action into their own hands, they came together at the South Meetinh House before heading to the wharf. Rumors spread that Sam Adams organized force behind the protest. The sons of libery and colinist dressed as Indias not to mock nor appear scary but because they wanted to blend in and hide their real indentities. During the Boston Tea Party, stealing or any other illegal acitivity was prohibited becasue the colonist did not want to be criminals, they wanted to make a stance against the unfair rules and make a political statement.

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