A View From the Bridge
A View From The Bridge – The Story of One Love
The play A View From The Bridge, written by Arthur Miller, is about a longshoreman who welcomes his wife’s cousins as illegal immigrants. However, as the play develops, Eddie becomes jealous of his niece and Rodolpho, which causes the relationship between Eddie; a man with a strong sense of decency and Marco; a man with a strong sense of protection, to get worse.
Before the arrival of Marco and Rodolpho, Miller presents an Eddie who is not at all convinced of their arrival; this is shown when Eddie doesn’t want to buy a new tablecloth to welcome them, this suggests they are not at all important, therefore they don’t require spending money making them a manorial reception. “I’ll end up on the floor with you, and they’ll be in our bed.” This reveals Eddie’s preoccupation of losing importance in his family due to the arrival of two immigrants taking his possessions away from him forever because the use of the word “floor” indicates minority due to the level where it is found compared with the “bed.”
When Marco and Rodolpho arrive, Miller shows Eddie behaving like a man; demonstrating his matureness. Eddie welcomes and accommodates Marco, you’re welcome Marco you have plenty of room here suggesting respect towards Marco as Marco is Eddie’s relative and he should look after him. Eddie gives an image of a friendly, trustworthy person to his wife’s cousins “Oh, you guys’ll be all right” giving them confidence by means of using the exclamation “oh” that expresses range of emotions; in this case, unconcern. This makes Marco feel completely safe, therefore he sends 20 dollars back home as he thinks he is in a stable condition where he is going to be able to support his family for a long period of time. The first thing Miller makes Marco say to Eddie, was “when you say go, we will go” this demonstrates how important Eddie is for Marco since the use of the pronoun “you” clearly addresses Eddie. Marco is also positioning Eddie beyond them as Eddie has enlarged the family in an illegal way for a period of time due to the poor quality of life in Italy. As each member of the family gets to know each other, Catherine and Rodolpho fall in love. From this romance, Miller then creates a jealous feeling in Eddie, which leads to some hurtful words towards Marco they count the kids and there’s a couple extra then when they left. This words used by Miller are aiming to insult Marco, suggesting that his wife is having a sexual relationship with other men whilst he is working abroad through the use of the word “kids” which involves pregnancy and family care. However he is not only trying to hurt Marco, but also make a joke on him as Eddie says this words “laughing.” which is also a way to despice and ridicule someone. By these words, Marco realises that Eddie is not that friendly and therefore a sense of discomfort starts in them. For example, later on in their conversation Miller makes Marco answer “cautiously;” which is an allusion to circumspection but also the fact that he is answering with caution also refers to cunning and subtlety by means of a derision. This allusions of Marco created by Miller generate a sense of rivalry towards Eddie as Marco is trying to challenge him through his natural responses but sharp thoughts.
As the play develops, Miller starts to suggest a power battle between Eddie and Marco. They are trying to demonstrate who is greater than the other. Eddie is cunning and he demonstrates this quality of his on various occasions throughout the play. At the end of Act 1 Eddie teaches Rodolpho how to box however it is all a montage; actually he is humiliating his weakness and lack of masculinity in front of his relatives. Miller shows this when Rodolpho is too “embarrassed” to box with Eddie as he is a man and doesn’t know how a men’s sports works. Also, Eddie “mildly staggers Rodolpho,” hurting him as Rodolpho responds with “a certain gleam” which is a gesture of disguised pain. This embarrassment towards Rodolpho makes Marco’s responsibility intervene in Eddie’s malicious actions, leading to the chair scene. Miller decided to include the chair because it creates a conflict between both character which at the end becomes a symbol of masculinity and destruction. The chair in the play, represents strength as it’s an object which is “hard” to lift, converting the chair in a challenging object for Eddie. The chair belongs to Eddie, who is not able to lift the chair, creating discontent in Eddie as he is not capable of lifting his own chair. The fact that is Eddies own chair, creates a rivalry between Eddie and Marco as this feeling is the foreshadow of Eddie’s awareness about losing importance in his family. Miller decided to place the chair scene at the end of act 1, to create a shocking effect as Eddie and Marco end “face to face” which is an action of confrontation and therefore, leave the audience with suspense for the next scene. Nonetheless, Marco is presented by Miller to be as cunning as Eddie, therefore he makes the same move to him. He asks a simple question “Can you lift that chair?” with only one answer; no as it’s a rhetorical question that Eddie is not meant to answer. Yet Eddie doesn’t want to let himself down, as he is completely confident of himself, answering “yes, why not” but not being strong enough to lift it and giving an image of a man with no masculinity. Marco’s play on Eddie, is shown to prove that not only immigrants have lack of masculinity as Eddie is not an immigrant and has no strength to lift a chair, whilst Marco is completely capable of lifting a chair with no difficulty. This clear image shows the audience equality between both Marco and Eddie.
Towards the end of the play, when the tension reaches its peak, Miller shows how Eddie’s jealousy causes him to report his guests to the Immigration office. When Marco finds out that it was Eddie who called the Immigration office, he realises that Eddie’s actions have “killed my children,” converting the scenario into a complete barbarism as the word “killed” involves a strong hurtful action. Therefore, Marco confronts Eddie in front of the whole neighbourhood – causing Eddie’s loss of respect. Marco does this by spitting Eddie the on face which is a gesture of contempt. With this action, Miller decided to demonstrate to the audience, how a high feeling of honour and reputation grows in their relationship. “Marco strikes Eddie beside the neck”; “Eddie rises the knife” this shows how both characters challenge one another, to see who is more trustworthy as the word “strike” implies a painful action, and the word “rise” suggest high sense of honour as its a victorious action. Marco uses verbal conflict “anima-a-l!” to sustain his reputation, by the use of the word “animal,”Marco is showing his wild side as the word “animal” suggests aggressiveness. Eddie defends his honour in a different way; by demanding and ordering actions, “I want my respect”, “I want my name” both this quotations, imply superiority as Edie is demanding Marco his “name” and “respect” which are both personal belongings. By the way of challenging, Miller shows two furious characters who fight for their honour and reputation.
In conclusion, Eddie’s and Marco’s relationship grows rotten as the play develops; this is due to Eddie’s jealousy and Marco’s high sense of protection. Eddie is always demanding respect and talking about family honour however, his actions result him in losing everything he has always loved. Miller presents both characters with different qualities yet the actions Miller presents in the play transform both characters in powerful men. However power defeats both of them as Eddie dies and Marco gets deported back to Italy. This implies that their relationship was completely unnecessary as neither of them ended with what they dreamed of.
Interesting View From The Bridge – Nature of Self
A View from The Bridge was a modern drama play written by Arthur Miller and is based on the 50’s. The play was set in Red-Hook, The American Italian neighbourhood. In this play Eddie Carbone was portrayed by Miller as a tragic hero. This was surrounded by the demise of Eddie throughout the play. Miller created Eddie to made us consider these types of people as bad, but some of us really wanted Eddie to change throughout the play but he never does and in fact he calls the immigration bureau on Marco and Rodolfo. Arthur Miller showed us Eddies obsession with his niece Catherine and that Eddie was afraid that Marco gains all the power and control. Miller threw his exposition of eddies hamartia (fatal flaw which is his obsession with Catherine) leads the audience to react in a weird way. at the end as Eddie died, his death is his own fault as he was stabbed by his own knife trying to stab Marco. The biggest conflict is between Eddie and himself. The final scene is the major denouement.
Arthur Miller portrayed Eddie as an American dream, we respect that, he is justAverage guy and what Miller is doing is showing us you don’t have to be a king to Be a tragic hero. The reason that Eddie is considered a tragic hero is that he allowed Catherine to move in with him followed by Beatrice’s cousins Marco and Rodolfo. He also managed to become an American citizen and was not afraid to from his country Italy and head off to America hoping to have a better life there, without a lot of money and without any help. At the beginning of the play Eddie is also portrayed as a hard and dedicated worker when it says “he he got a job as a longshoreman and worked his but off on those docks”. Eddie then tells Alfieri “In the worst times, I didn’t stand around looking for…I hustled”. This leads the reader to believe that Eddie was in fact a dedicated citizen who really did work hard and cared for his job. These are all the equalities of an American dream. This is once again portrayed when Louis asked “you workin’ tomorrow” Eddie then replied “yeah, there’s another day yet on that ship.” This shows us that Eddie is a humble person who to works hard. This makes the story a Greek tragedy. Miller utilizes Greek tragedy convention through Eddie’s hamartia which is his downfall. His hamartia is his incestuous feeling for his niece Catherine.
Despite Eddie’s good characteristics Miller wants to show Eddie’s downfall. At the start of the play Eddie is over-protective and is unable to let Catherine live her life the way she wishes. This seems more than the normal feelings towards his niece. This is evident by “Listen, you been givin’ me the willies the way you walk down the street, I mean it.”This shows us that Eddie does in fact have incestuous feelings towards Catherine. Another reason we know that Eddie has incestuous feelings towards her is that Beatrice even told Eddie “You want somethin’ else, Eddie, and you can never have her!” this shows us that Eddie is chasing Catherine all of the time and that he needs to stop. When Eddie finally realizes that he can’t have Catherine he does something that is despised by all Italians, he snitches to the police that Marco and Rodolfo are immigrants and that they deport them. As soon as the immigration bureau knocks on the door Eddie gets second thoughts and hides the cousins to protect them. Later Eddie once again strikes and He reaches out suddenly, draws her to him, and as she strives to free herself he kisses her on the mouth. This once again portrays Eddie’s strong incestuous feeling for Catherine.
The cousins act as a catalyst for the drama when they arrive. They spark a flame between the whole family. Eddie’s true personality comes to show when he attempts to be virtuous but does not succeed. This happens when the cousins arrive at the beginning and Eddie really does welcome them with a cup of coffee, but later on Rodolfo starts singing then Eddie tells him to stop meanwhile Catherine loves it and tells him to continue. This sparks the flame of jealousy Between Eddie and Rodolfo. Eddie realizes that Catherine likes Rodolfo, But Eddie does not want that due to the incestuous feelings he has towards Catherine. Due to Eddie’s hubris his downfall begun. He contacted the Immigration bureau on Marco and Rodolfo which lead him to his major denouement. This single phone call made Eddie lose all his pride. Eddie’s downfall rapidly increases during the fight as Rodolfo intimidates Him. This fight scene reveals that Eddie really is trying to solve the issue of Masculinity, honor and pride But has been struggling since Marco and Rodolfo came, this is causing even more tension between this family. One by one Eddie started losing all of his Respect, Pride and Honor. The cousins cause Eddie’s downfall which was in his hands as he was the one who allowed them to move in from the first place. This shows us that kindness does not always lead you to something good.
When Marco and Eddie fight, themes of masculinity and justice are prevalent. I think Miller is trying to show that Eddie is trying to earn back his alpha male status and masculinity. This is evident when Eddie says “come on, kid, put sump’m behind it, you cant hurt me.”This shows us that Eddie is trying to be muscular. The final scene is the plays denouement, when Eddie dies by his own knife this reveals that Eddie’s death was actually his own mistake and he was always the one acting violent. What Marco did was self-defense otherwise Eddie would have re-attempted to stab him with a knife. We instantly know that Eddie regrets his violent actions by the last sentence that Eddie says before dying My B..! then he dies in her arms. This shows us that Beatrice still loves Eddie and Eddie loves her with regret to his previous actions. Eddie’s death could not have been stopped by anyone but Eddie himself. Even Alfieri – a lawyer said that there was nothing he could do to stop it. Many of Eddie’s mistakes are probably normal everyday mistakes that people make so maybe what Miller is trying to teach us that we should be more aware of surroundings and things that are going on with the people around us.
Eddie Carbone is an Italian longshoreman working on the New York docks. When his wife’s cousins, Marco and Rodolfo, seek refuge as illegal immigrants from Sicily, Eddie agrees to shelter them. The trouble begins when his wife’s niece is attracted to Rodolfo. Eddie raised her and is not ready to let her go. Eddie’s jealousy culminates in an unforgivable crime against his family and the Sicilian community. Throughout the play Eddie’s feelings for Catherine gets the better of him and eventually resulting in his death. Eddie was unable to control his jealousy and pride over Catherine. Arthur Miller could be trying to tell us that we should think twice before you act as actions could have severe consequences just like Eddie’s scenario. He is also telling us it is sometimes better to let go even if it Is against your will. Eddies death was really unexpected and tragic which Is a good way of teaching the audience that things could happen anytime, Anywhere, anyway.
Importance of Settings in Arthur Miller’s a View From the Bridge
In A View From the Bridge, Arthur Miller effectively uses different settings in the play in order to make allusions, characterize characters, and set moods. Miller’s allusions to the 1950s culture characterize Eddie, the main character, as a stereotypical closed-minded male during the decade. The two most important place settings, Eddie’s apartment in the Red Hood neighborhood and Alfieri’s law office, are commonly used to set moods and tones and develop conflicts with the play.
By setting the plot of A View From the Bridge in the 1950’s and incorporating cultural ideas from the decade into the plot and characterization, Arthur Miller effectively uses allusions of the decade’s ideas to convey the values of many characters in the play. Miller often characterizes Eddie as a commanding and overbearing husband and uncle, trying to parallel him to the stereotypical, narrow minded men from the decade. As Eddie insists that Catherine to marry a “better” husband and refuses her to obtain a job, it becomes clear to the audience that like most men in the decade, Eddie believes that women should only be housewives. Eddie’s constant abuse of his wife, Beatrice, further aids in the characterization that Eddie, like most men during the decade, believed that they were the sole head of household. Eddie and the other minor character’s mockery of Rodolpho’s homosexual characteristics parallels the importance of masculinity among men and sub ordinance of “feminine” characteristics during the 1950s. The aggressive hunt for illegal immigrants by the immigration office alludes to the McCarthyism witch hunts of the 1950s. By Miller characterizing Marco as a kind, hard-working illegal immigrant, the audience feels sympathy for Marco as he pleads for his release from the immigration office just like Americans realized and gave sympathy for those who were unrightfully accused as communists during the McCarthy Era.
By characterizing Eddie’s apartment, the main setting of the play, with two allegories, Arthur Miller successfully characterizes the apartment as a catalyst of conflict. From Marco and Rodolpho’s point of view, the apartment is a symbol of safety and comfort as they try to obtain the American Dream. However, as a contrast, Eddie views his apartment as only a temporary home for the illegal immigrants and as a result, his point of view is the cause of a conflict with Beatrice as she continues to open the apartment to the illegal immigrants. Eddie’s pride over his apartment later becomes his hubris as the plot progresses to the indeterminate ending when Marco comes back to revenge against Eddie for turning him in.
The description of Eddie’s apartment as in the “slum that faces the bay at seaward side,” and “lack [of] elegance, glamour” is perhaps the most important imagery used to describe setting throughout the play by Arthur Miller. The plain, tenement-like conditions of Eddie’s apartment and the deplorable conditions of the Red Hook neighborhood, highly contrasting from the glamour and grandeur often stereotyped with New York City, compels Catherine to gain independence from Eddie. As Catherine continues to desire to leave the apartment through obtaining a job and stay out late with Rodolpho, Eddie develops both external and internal conflicts as his response to Catherine’s behavior. The conflicts convey a frustrating tone in the play especially whenever Eddie is at the apartment. As the frustrating tone intensifies, the conflicts eventually lead to the rising action where Eddie’s opposition to Catherine’s behavior and belief that Rodolpho is the cause of her behavior motivates Eddie to notify immigration officials about Marco and Rodolpho.
Arthur Miller effectively uses the scenes at Alfieri’s law office as transitions from the rather chaotic and frustrating tone that is felt in the scenes at the apartment. When Eddie is at Alfieri’s law office, Miller characterizes Eddie as a hopeless, worrisome, and caring uncle that comes to seek for advice on how to help Catherine rather than the overprotective, relentless uncle at the apartment. However, but instead of the audience shifting empathy towards Eddie’s character, Alfieri’s objective telling of the law captures the audience’s attention that perhaps Eddie’s fierce opposition to Catherine’s behavior and relationship with Rodolpho is extremely out of proportion. Because of the transitional characterization of Eddie and the opposing mood simulated, Miller is able to use Alfieri and his law office as a symbol of reality and foreshadowing the inevitable marriage that would occur between Catherine and Rodolpho.
In his A View From The Bridge, Arthur Miller transitions settings in order to convey conflicts between characters, characterizes characters, set moods, and make allusions. Like Miller’s other works, he draws allusions from the 1950s to incorporate into the play also based in the 1950s. In the apartment scenes, Miller intensifies conflicts between the main character Eddie and other characters. By transitioning into a more calm and relaxed mood in Alfieri’s law office, Miller is able to foreshadow future events of the play in a realistic approach.
A View From the Bridge by Arthur Miller. Story Analysis
A View from the Bridge Drama Paper
In every story there exists a main character in which the central narrative revolves around. Often, protagonists come into conflict with opposing forces or characters contrary to their own set of beliefs. They are usually written in a way so that readers can sympathize with the motives that drive them to action. Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge depicts the self-destructive decisions of the protagonist Eddie Carbone as it eventually results to his tragic demise. It all begins with his difficulty in accepting the fact that his niece, Catherine, is growing up to become a woman wholly capable of making her own choices outside of his control. When she begins a romance with one of the illegal immigrants that arrives from Italy, cousins to his wife Beatrice, Eddie becomes hysterical with his actions in an attempt to separate them. In a last desperate move to prevent them from marrying one another, he goes to report the sibling illegal immigrants, Marco and Rodolpho, to the Immigration Bureau. This only results in a concluding fight on Catherine and Rodolpho’s wedding day between the two men, in which Eddie Carbone doesn’t emerge from alive. Due to Eddie’s harsh actions and unwillingness for acceptance throughout the play, it increasingly becomes a challenge to be able to sympathize with his character. Eddie Carbone is a protagonist constantly trying to establish his dominance in the household, trying to take control of the lives around him. Another reason as to what makes him an unsympathetic character is his adamant refusal to let his niece live her own life as he seems intent on seeking to monopolize her. He’s rather impulsive when it comes to his decisions, intent only on gratifying his own desires while disregarding the feelings of those around him. Eddie Carbone is a protagonist that’s difficult to sympathize with as he, himself, makes no effort to sympathize with others.
Throughout the play, Eddie constantly tries to remind everyone in the household that his word is right and that respect should be dutifully paid to him. In the second half of the first act, Eddie becomes indignant about Rodolpho and Catherine spending time together out in the city. He addresses Catherine about the issue that Rodolpho should “ask your father’s permission before he run around with you like this” and later, brings up the topic again when everyone is gathered in the same room as he looks to Marco for some sort of validity by appealing to the traditions back in Italy,“ but in your town you wouldn’t just drag off some girl without permission.” Further into the play, when Marco and Rodolpho have moved to an upstairs room, Eddie goes on to explicitly say “I want my respect” despite the fact that they are no longer concerned with each other’s lives. He also complains about Beatrice’s behavior towards him, disregarding that he has only been unpleasant towards everyone ever since the beginning and that her dislike towards him stems from his irrational actions. It becomes increasingly difficult for readers to become sympathetic to Eddie’s plight when he refuses to listen to everyone else, as his reputation is the only thing that’s important to him. In the final confrontation scene while everyone else aside from Marco is trying to make amends so that the day doesn’t end in bloodshed, Eddie chooses to refuse the apologies and only seeks for his dignity to be restored by Marco despite originally committing multiple misdeeds against the brothers. He refuses to acknowledge that he was wrong due to his pride, even going as far to claim “tell them what a liar you are,” in an attempt to place the blame on someone other than himself. At this point, there is no compassion left to feel for Eddie because despite being reprehensible, he constantly makes efforts to shift the blame from him to others instead of accepting the guilt he created himself.
It is usually difficult for fathers to accept that their daughters are growing up and that eventually, they will leave the nest. In Eddie’s case, he becomes extremely possessive of Catherine to the point where it almost seems like she is his possession. It is remarked by both the lawyer he’s acquainted with, Alfieri, and Beatrice that his love for his niece is far too strong and that he will never “have” her in the way he wishes to. In the middle of act one, Carbone goes to seek legal advice from the lawyer Alfieri who after hearing Eddie’s complaints, mentions that “there’s too much love for the niece” and “it goes where it mustn’t” although Eddie seems to “never realizes it.” Eventually in anger, Carbone bursts out that Rodolpho “takes and puts his dirty filthy hands on her like a goddam thief” as if referring to Catherine as his possession. As soon as Alfieri makes the argument that Catherine is an adult and that she is choosing to marry Rodolpho, Eddie exclaims that “he’s stealing from me” because he can only see his niece as something he wants but cannot have. In the final scene, the idea that Eddie feels something for Catherine beyond that of filial love is further established by Beatrice when she accuses Eddie that “You want somethin’ else, Eddie, and you can never have her” because for the past couple of months, Eddie has been ignoring Beatrice and her growing suspicion that he feels something for Catherine ever since she matured has been solidified due to the threat that someone else is going to take her away from Eddie. His obsession with Catherine causes him to act erratically, hurting those around him because he doesn’t get to keep who he desires. Eddie doesn’t sympathize with the feelings of his niece and wife, barely making an effort to listen to their opinions, which causes everyone else to retaliate against him.
Eddie is the type of person who prefers to intimidate rather than solve things through words, making it another obstacle to understand him as a character. An instance in which he resorts to aggressive behavior is when he tries to terrorize Rodolpho under the pretense of teaching the boy how to box. He uses it as a way to establish his power over the younger boy, which is easily refuted as soon as Marco lifts a chair “raised like a weapon over Eddie’s head.” Another instance is in act two when Eddie pins Rodolpho’s arms and kisses him to prove that the other boy “ain’t right” when he doesn’t make a move to fight off Eddie. Carbone is always acting in detestable ways just so he can prove a point because he strongly believes that his opinions are always right. He’s usually the first one to provoke a challenge in order to demonstrate that the one misguided is not him. In the final scene of the play, Eddie is transfixed on meeting Marco’s challenge and would rather resort to violence than reconcile with the person he’s originally wronged. The result of the fight is evident when Eddie is stabbed by the knife he brought, figuratively signifying how the cause of his fall was brought about by his own selfish choices made throughout the play. Any level of sympathy that Eddie can garner is lost as soon as he decided to react aggressively and impulsively without thinking of the resulting consequences.
Protagonists are usually written with appeal but readers may find it a struggle to hold any sympathy for the leading character in Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge. Eddie Carbone’s refusal to listen and understand others around him including his aggressive outbursts are all uncharacteristic for a sympathetic protagonist. The strong attachment he has for Catherine serves as a catalyst for his cruel treatment towards Marco and Rodolpho throughout the play, ultimately resulting in his tragic death at the hands of Marco. Due to Eddie’s various problematic traits and actions, the amount of sympathy that he can elicit from the readers are minimal as the actions he takes from beginning to end are merely carried out because of his selfish desires. He is a character who makes little to no effort in listening to the opinions of those around him, as he stubbornly pursues what he wants to achieve. Starting from the moment Eddie Carbone chose to disregard his family as he became unsympathetic to their plight and only elected to gratify his feelings, it evidently became harder for readers to share any sympathy for a man consumed entirely by cruelty.
The Depiction of Women by Miller In, a View from The Bridge
How Does Miller Portray Women in A View From The Bridge?
A View From the Bridge is a modern adaptaiton of a Greek tragedy written by Arthur Miller. The women in the play—Beatrice and Catherine are characters which Miller uses to show the idea of feminity and changes they bring into the play through Catherine’s increasing maturity from a child to an adult.
At the beginning of the play Miller portrays the two women as submissive and passive, he does this through dialogue as the two women confronting Eddie about Catherine applying for a secretarial job states: “What job? She’s gonna finish school” suggesting that Eddie is a very controlling figure in Catherine’s life—and education. Beatrice’s tries to appease Eddie by saying “She’s askin’ you now, she didn’t take nothin’ yet” and this woud further porve how Eddie is a dominating figue and the two women, Beatrice and Catherine are passive as they both don’t make decisions without Eddie’s approval. Also, at the beginning of the play, Catherine’s character is portrayed as to be ‘naïve’ this is shown through stagecraft and stage directions written in the text—“almost in tears because he disapproves” this is Catherine’s reaction when she sees Eddie upset with how Catherine “walks wavy” infront of people. Beatrice is seen as the warm-hearted and typical ‘housewife’ in the play, the way she worries on how the house looks like before her cousins arrive; “…I thought it was gonna be next week! I was gonna clean the walls, I was gonna wax the floors…” but Miller subtly hints that Beatrice is restraining herself, and that she hints about Eddie’s darker character through stage directions and speech, “(looking into his eyes) I’m just worried about you…” and Eddie’s domineering character being set as the “man” of the house says “Listen, as long as they know where they’re gonna sleep”. Beatrice is treated patronizingly by Eddie, the way he talks to her is similar to a parent speaking to a child—“And this goes for you too, B. You don’t see nothin’ and you don’t know nothin’” this shows how Eddie looks down on Beatrice and under estimates her, even when she says “…but Eddie, suppose somebody—“ Eddie retorts “…You—don’t—know—nothin’”. Eddie towards Catherine on the other hand, takes advantage of her naivety, by not stopping her when she offers to light Eddie’s cigar, an intimate act that is usually between couples not a parently figure and child.
Changes in Beatrice and Catherine appear when the two other maub characters arrive in Red Hook; Marco and Rodolpho. Both of their arrival affects the other characters as Marco proves to be a challenging presence towards Eddie, whereas Eddie’s jealousy and his innapropriate feelings towards Catherine is slowly revealed as romance grows between Catherine and Rodolpho as he makes her realise her maturity. Miller’s idea of feminity is blurred in this section of the play, this is shown when through stage directions and dialogue as Eddie shows his immense dislike to Rodolpho, not only because there is attraction between Catherine and Rodolpho but also how Rodolpho appears to be girlish in his eyes. The idea of femimity is described with distaste through Eddie’s character; when Rodolpho sings and Eddie is mocked because of it, “You know what they’re callin’ him now? Paper Doll they’re callin him, Canary…” Eddie, who is used to being respected throughout the community, can’t stand the mockery that other people give him. His jealousy towards Catherine and Rodolpho is suggested when he mocks Catherine infront of Beatrice, Marco and Rodolpho—“What’s the high heels for, Garbo?” this would be humiliating because Eddie uses sarcasm to compare Catherine to Greta Garbo, a famous actress at that time. Catherine, however appears to be maturing by slowly realising feelings and her attraction towards Rodolpho by putting on the heels—this is symbolic in a way of how she “dresses to impress” a factor that Miller is proabably stressing in this episode of the play. Miller also portrays women in this section of the play as desireable and jealous, by how Rodolfo flirts with Catherine through dialogue and stage craft—“(laughs, indicating Catherine) Especially when they’re so beautiful!” Beatrice on the other hand is jealous, towards Eddie—“When am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie?” her suggestion towards Eddie—probably meaning why he doesn’t find her desireable anymore shows Eddie feels about Catherine; and when Beatrice tries to get Eddie to talk to her, she herself realises his feelings for their niece and critisizes him; “What’re you gonna do stand over her till she’s forty? Eddie, I want youto cut it out now, you hear me? I don’t like it!” Miller’s use of rhetorical question through Beatice—“…till she’s forty?” suggests that Eddie plans to keep Catherine forever because he doesn’t let her make her own decisions.
Later in the play Beatrice, now portrayed as a more confident and able figure tries to console Catherine into making her own decisions. Miller in this section of the play depicts Catherine now, as an adult and about to get married. Beatrice confession to Catherine plays a vital role in her own self-realisation and how she has to be mature and responsible for herself; “Don’t tell me you don’t know; you’re not a bably anymore…” and Catherine’s reply was “I don’t know B. It just seems wrong if he’s against it so much”—Catherine’s reply shows how her character appears to have misplaced loyalty, as she is loyal to Eddie and unsure of her own decisions of mrrying Rodolpho. Beatrice, on the other hand is more assertive and her loyalty is seen to be with her family, to both Eddie and Catherine—“It means you gotta be your own self more…You gotta give him to understand that he can’t give you no orders anymore” Beatrice carefully tries to explain to Catherine, whos naievety makes her appear to be a “12 year old” in a woman’s body by saying “…but you’re a grown woman and you’re in a house with a grown man” Beatrice is trying to subtly suggest to Catherine about Eddie’s “feelings” towards her because of her actions. Towards the end of the play, Miller shows how Eddie loses control over his emotions and his feelings towards Catherine has surfaced when Catherine admits to Eddie that she is going away to marry Rodolpho “Eddie, I’m not gonna be a baby anymore!” Eddie’s reaction; “(He reaches out suddenly, draws her to him, and as she strives to free herself he kisses her on the mouth)”
Review of Arthur Miller’s Play, a View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
Quote 1. “Oh, you guys will be all-right till you pay them off, anyway.” Stage Direction- he is coming more and more to address Marco only;
This quote shows a caring side to Eddie, showing that although he doesn’t particularly want Marco and Rodolpho, Beatrice’s Nephews from Italy coming, he can still be caring and show empathy to why they are here and that Marco has come not for pleasure but get money to send back to his family. Eddie relates to this as he has had to work extremely hard to give Catherine his Niece and Beatrice his Wife a good life. He is reassuring them that they will be alright working in Red Hook, Brooklyn but still telling them straight that after they have paid the ship for their travel it will be a bit harder. Marco had just told Eddie before that he was coming for 4, 5 or 6 years to gather up some money for his family so that they could have a good life, this is probably making Eddie trust Marco more and more as he is reminding him a lot of himself as breadwinner working to support his family, he is going without so that they can have. This then links into the stage direction as after Rodolpho is going on with himself about how much he can earn and how well he works; Eddie then starts to become as though when he is talking he is only addressing Marco. This is backed up as Marco had just raised his hand to hush Rodolpho and Eddie is slowly taking more of a liking to Marco than Rodolpho. In this situation I think that he thinks that Marco is the adult out of Marco and Rodolpho, and that Rodolpho is still a child full of excitement, about to burst by asking too many questions and Rodolpho being a father figure and telling him to stop and be quiet.
Quote 2. “Hey, Kid –hey, wait a minute-“ Stage Direction- Eddie rises and moves upstage
Eddie starts with “Hey, kid” Hey is very direct and I am guessing in the matter and tone Eddie would be saying it would sound very bold and strong and straight to the point, especially when Rodolpho is singing so loudly he needs to be heard so speaks directly so that he will listen straight away. He then continues with “Kid” this makes it look that Eddie believes that Rodolpho is a child and believes that he doesn’t have to speak to him by his name in a proper matter. From my previous point in our first quote I explained that I believed that Eddie thought of Rodolpho as a child and Marco as a man, this is more evident when Eddie also says “Marco. I mean.” From this Eddie calls Marco by his name and not by kid, child or any other name. This once again suggests that he wants Rodolpho to know who is boss and that while he is living in his house he is a child and that Eddie is man of the house. Then his stage direction suggests to us that after Rodolpho singing one verse of his song Eddie has had enough therefore moves more away from the singing. Then after Rodolpho singing a few more lines he has to stop it. This is when he then says “Hey, Kid” this suggests that he had heard enough but wanted it to stop so makes an excuse about them being picked up by immigration, which I believe was not only an excuse but a way to make Rodolpho and Marco think that he really cares about them staying with him and that he is looking out for them. However in true facts he just wants Rodolpho to be quiet and stop singing because he doesn’t like Rodolpho getting all the attention from his Wife and Niece.
Quote 3. “For that character I didn’t bring her up.” Stage Direction- He is already weakening
“For that character.” Meaning Rodolpho shows us once again that he doesn’t think of Rodolpho on the same level as himself so this time refers to him as a character showing us that he really doesn’t care about Rodolpho at all. Although he is talking to Beatrice about him he is still paying no respect to him. He is now starting to show us a more stubborn side to himself where he is not going to let this pass, he does not want Catherine and Rodolpho together and we don’t yet understand why. Yes we can see that he is just looking out for his Niece as he is really her role model and father figure to go off, however Catherine is 17 she should get a bit of choice in who she decides to court even if it is 1950. He could influence her decision but shouldn’t tell her she can or cant. His stubbornness continues more when it comes to the stage direction, because although his wife is talking to him he is paying no attention, and at this point she is trying to tell him something really important. He doesn’t really care what Beatrice is saying he just waiting up on Rodolpho and Catherine to come back, therefore ignoring Beatrice and going off at a tangent.
Explore how the theme of love is portrayed in “A view from the bridge”.
Love—of one kind or another—is the main motivator of Miller’s characters in this play, and drives the major events of its plot. Catherine’s love for Rodolfo and Eddie’s intense love for Catherine lead to the central problems of the play. But even before this, it is Marco’s love for his family that motivates him to come to America, and it is Beatrice’s love for her extended family that causes her to have Marco and Rodolfo stay in her home.
Beyond this, though, A View from the Bridge especially explores the way in which people are driven by desires that don’t fit the mold of normal or traditional forms of familial and romantic love. For one thing, Eddie’s love for Catherine is extreme and hard to define exactly. He is conspicuously overprotective, and yet he is supposed to be a father figure for her.
Unfortunately, as Beatrice subtly hints several times, his love for Catherine often crosses this line and becomes a kind of incestuous desire for his niece, whom he has raised like a daughter. This repressed taboo desire—which Eddie vehemently denies—erupts to the surface when Eddie grabs Catherine and kisses her in front of Rodolfo.
Eddie may also have other repressed desires. Directly after kissing Catherine, he kisses Rodolfo, as well. He claims that this is to prove that Rodolfo is homosexual (an accusation he constantly implies but never says outright), but as he is the one to restrain Rodolfo and forcefully kiss him, his motivations are dubious.
Throughout the play, Eddie is disproportionately obsessed with proving that Rodolfo “ain’t right”, and this fixation on Rodolfo’s sexuality (combined with the fact that he does not have sex with his wife Beatrice) may suggest that there are other motivations behind Eddie’s kissing him.
Eddie is a mess of contradictory, half-repressed desires that are difficult to pin down or define, perhaps even for him. Through this tragically tormented and conflicted character, Miller shows that people are often not aware of their own desires, and reveals the power that these desires can exert over people. Eddie’s suffocating love for Catherine becomes a desire to possess her. He even claims that Rodolfo is ‘stealing’ from him, as if she were an object he owned.
His obsession with Catherine drives him apart from his family and leads him to betray Beatrice’s cousins, thereby effectively ostracizing himself from his friends and neighbors. Through the tragic descent of Eddie, A View from the Bridge can be seen not only as the drama of a family, or of an immigrant community, but also as the internal drama of Eddie’s psyche, as he is tormented and brought down by desires he himself doesn’t even fully understand.
In contrast with his obsession for Catherine, Eddie’s love for Beatrice has hit the rocks. Ironically, Catherine is his ‘daughter’ while Beatrice is his wife. At the beginning of the play there seems to be no evidence of tension in the marriage between Beatrice and Eddie. Beatrice is full of praise for her husband whom she compares to “an angel”. At the same time Eddie expresses his appreciation for his wife whom she believes has got “too big a heart”. However, the audience can see from the beginning that Eddie is nervous about Catherine getting her independence. This began much earlier and Beatrice has notice the change in her husband’s affection for her. In fact, there has been no physical relationship between them for “three months”. It appears as if the coming of the cousins and Catherine’s obvious falling in love with Rodolfo is what brings about the total break-down of the husband and wife relationship. This is more so because the wife keeps accusing the husband but the husband keeps denying. Arthur Miller has shown how inability to reject an individual’s desires can lead to a breakup of true love.
Unlike the husband wife love of Beatrice and Eddie which breaks down, Marco’s love for his wife and children undergoes many trials but doesn’t break down. Marco is a very strong man both physically and mentally. However, the only moment we see him almost breaking down emotionally is when the issue of love for family comes to the surface. The moment he arrives in the United States from Italy, the first thing he wants to do is to send his wife and children money, “he is near tears”. His love is constant and he has a lot of faith in his wife “No-no … the wemen wait, Eddie”. The same emotion can be seen when he is talking about Eddie’s humiliation of Rodolfo “he degraded my brother. My blood. He robbed my children, he mocks my work”. Marco remains true to the people he loves.
Against the family love of Marco is the romantic love between Rodolfo and Catherine. This love is also shown to with stand many trials. The biggest obstacle to this love is Eddie. At the beginning, Eddie has moral authority over Catherine _after all he is the ‘father’ that is why Catherine is ready to listen to him complaining about Rodolfo. Because she is like a daughter to him, she believes what he says and does not like to see him hurt. However, Eddie makes one nasty accusation after another against Rodolfo. He says “the boy wants his passport”, the boy is a homosexual and so on and so forth. In spite of all this, Catherine’s love for Rodolfo grows, just as her contempt for Eddie increases until, by the end of the play she refers to him as “a rat! He belongs to the sewer!”
Arthur miller has shown love to be a great motivation of the characters in his play. This can be motivation for good, as in the case for Rodolfo and Marco and it can also be motivation for purely selfish interest as is in the case of Eddie. In the end, love destroys itself when it is corrupted by inappropriate physical desire. But love triumphs when it is well meant.
A Critique of a View from the Bridge, a Play by Arthur Miller
Eddie Carbone who is the main protagonist of Arthur Miller’s play A View From The Bridge’ has a very stereotypical view of how a ‘real man’ should be. As can be evidenced with is attitude towards Rodolpho, Eddie is intolerant and even hostile towards those who do not follow the traditional image of a man. Threats to his honour or the image of his masculinity, in the form of hostility and aggression, is what causes the conflicts that appear throughout the play. The three themes entwine together and have importance towards the unfolding events of the play.
The play is set in the mid 1950’s and therefore takes place in a patriarchal society where gender inequality was seen to be a norm amongst local communities. Eddie believes that a man should provide for his family, much like a breadwinner, and be the head of the household. When Eddie first meets Marco, he approves of his role as a father which can be interpreted by the stage directions as Eddie mainly directs his speech towards Marco during the immigrants first conversation with the Carbone family. Also, when Eddie describes Marco by saying ‘They leave him alone, he would load the whole ship by himself’ it highlights Eddie’s views of masculinity which is a man who is responsible, who has a sense of duty but is also hard-working. Eddie obviously values these traits, however, the most important aspect of a man to him is the physical strength of an individual. When Marco is described to be a ‘regular bull’, Eddie is not only complementing his dedication, but also his stability.
As seen by Eddie’s likeness towards Marco’s strength, he believes that a man needs to be able to defend themselves if needs be. Additionally, loyalty is one of the qualities of a ‘real man’ to Eddie. This can be evidenced by the plays cultural background as the Red Hook community consisted of tightly- knit Italian immigrants. The quotation ‘blood is thicker than water’ illustrates how important honesty and faithfulness is to the Carbone family. Additionally, the community have its own ‘unwritten law’ which suggests that they have a specific honour code that is crucial to be respected. It highlights the fact that one does not meddle in another’s business in the Red Hook community, they turn a blind eye to complicated situations as shown in the quote ‘you don’t see nothing, you don’t know nothing’.
However, Rodolpho doesn’t confirm to Eddie’s image of an ideal man, and therefore he becomes incredibly angry when he discovers that Catherine has formed a relationship with the immigrant. The reason that he puts forth is that Rodolpho is only declaring his love for Catherine as a way of becoming an American Citizen, saying this is the ‘oldest trick in the book’. However, the reader can sense that Eddie dislikes Rodolpho’s feminine qualities as evidenced when he insults his hair by saying ‘he’s practically blond’ and ‘I just hope it’s real hair’. Additionally, Rodolpho’s has fantastic cooking, sewing and singing skills, however these qualities are more suited to a women by Eddie’s standards. Rodolpho’s talents generate spiteful names from Eddie and the other longshoremen such as ‘paper doll’ and ‘canary’ that are used to impair his courage and masculinity. Eddie insults the immigrant as Rodolpho is threatening Eddie’s masculinity by enriching on his ‘territory’, Catherine. Eddie want’s to tests Rodolpho’s “manliness” and prove his own superiority by teaching Rodolpho to box. There is definitely hostility on Eddie’s part in this scene, and it escalates to aggression when he makes Rodolpho “mildly stagger” with a blow. Eddie goes even further by suggesting that Rodolpho is homosexual. The conflict climaxes as ‘Eddie pins his arms, laughing, and suddenly kisses him’. By kissing Rodolpho on the lips, Eddie puts Rodolpho in a position where he is not a man. The purpose of this would be to humiliate and insult Rodolpho, and also to show Catherine that Rodolpho is not a ‘real man’. Some critics argue that the scene illustrates Eddie’s homosexual feelings, however, Arthur Miller never reveals Rodolpho or Eddie’s sexual preferences.
Eddie is very protective of his niece, Catherine, and when he says ‘I don’t like the looks they’re giving you in the candy store’ it highlights the fact that Eddie is uncomfortable of the idea of Catherine being attractive to other men. He disapproves of her new femininity as proven when he asks her to remove ‘them new heels’. The high heels can be interpreted as a symbol of womanhood which Catherine has just started growing into. We feel she enjoys the male attention they bring her, when she argues with Eddie about her new style “but those guys look at all the girls, you know that.” This brings out hostility in Eddie “You ain’t “all the girls”. Additionally, we see how women were seen to be of less importance that men in the 1950’s society when Eddie comes out with a passive aggressive mark at dinner ‘Do me a favour will ya’. The hidden message here is not only an order for her to remove her heels, but Eddie is also reminding Catherine that she must please and obey him as he is head of the household and demands obedience and respect.
During the ending of the play, Eddie goes against the masculine quality of honour by alerting the immigration bureau of the location of illegal immigrants, his own relatives. In his own eyes, this should make him less of a man. However, the incident isn’t a shock to the audience as they tale of Vinny Bolzano, that’s told by Beatrice, foreshadows Eddie’s acts of betrayal. Marco denounces Eddie for his crime against the unwritten law, disgracing him in front of the neighbours by saying “That one! I accuse that one!”, “ He killed my children!” This
accusation disgraces Eddie. It could cause him to become an outcast, ostracized from the community as his actions break the Red Hook’s code of honour. Eddie’s death by the hands of Marco was a result of huge aggression that was caused by built up hostilities, which were in turn provoked by the importance of honour, and other “manly” traits, to the characters of the novel.
A juxtapositioning of the opening of a street known as desire and a view from a bridge
The opening of a play is naturally one of its most important parts, serving as an introduction to its setting, characters and themes; the best openings also encapsulate both the intentions and style of the playwright. In A Streetcar Named Desire, Tennessee Williams describes the set in extreme details, using plastic theatre to create a vivid setting, while Arthur Miller displays a closer focus on characters, themes and dialogue in A View From the Bridge. Both of these approaches present the realism necessary for any domestic tragedy to have impact.
A Streetcar Named Desire opens with a lengthy description of the set. Williams is evidently describing something more conceptual than actually feasible, as he includes detail of “the L & N tracks and the river”, features of the landscape that would be difficult to capture on a stage, yet more abstractly juxtapose nature with industry, each out of place in this environment, and bear connotations of travel and movement. Both these ideas link to Blanche’s arrival at the Elysian Fields, out of place and finding that life has moved on without her, leaving her a relic of a previous age. Williams furthermore uses techniques of plastic theatre, building up a soundscape of the “perpetual blue piano” native to New Orleans, as well as the shouts of a tamale vendor and multiple simultaneous conversations, creating an image of a busy and vibrant community through sound alone.
By contrast, Miller gives a brief and more practical set design in A View From the Bridge, with its opening clearly more focused on the introduction of themes and characters. Alfieri’s initial soliloquy essentially gives away the “bloody course” of the play, setting out the key ideas of justice, and how the Italian and Sicilian form of social justice often clashes with the law. Alfieri’s commentary throughout the play provides an outsider’s outlook on the events with the benefit of hindsight, and the opening speech of foreshadowing is no different. By including this soliloquy, Miller alters the audience’s perception of the events that follow and their opinions of the characters themselves through Alfieri’s forgiving and understanding viewpoint.
The characters themselves are described initially, not necessarily in a greater level of detail than the set, but at a greater depth: Miller provides not only details of appearance, but also approximate age and mannerisms, with Alfieri described as “good-humoured and thoughtful”. While Miller’s characters are no more or less realistic than Williams’, this immediate focus on character and personality demonstrates how critical they are in A View From the Bridge. The importance of Eddie in particular is highlighted both figuratively and literally, being spotlighted by Alfieri but also being introduced first; the opening of the play follows Eddie through his relationships, first with his fellow workers and then with his wife and niece. It is in the latter interaction where his protectiveness of Catherine first becomes apparent, against introducing a major recurrent motif in the play – Eddie’s inappropriate feelings towards Catherine. While his doubts over her skirt being “too short” could easily be interpreted as natural paternal concern (as he acts as her guardian), Alfieri’s soliloquy lends an ominous air of foreboding to the scene.
Although Williams does not focus on character as immediately in A Streetcar Named Desire, he still uses the opening to present the characters to a similar degree of depth. Stella and Stanley are introduced as indistinguishable from the people around them; they are as likely to be main characters as Eunice and Mitch. Despite this, enough information is provided to intimate the nature of their relationship. Stanley is clearly the patriarchal head of the household and main provider, bringing the “meat” home to Stella, and his physicality is evident from the action of “heaving” the package of meat at her. It is less clear who the dominant character is, if any; while Stella is physically above Stanley on the upper floor, suggesting dominance, and tells him, “don’t holler at me” – the imperative command indicative of power – she does not hesitate to follow behind him to the bowling alley, a physical display of deference where she could have caught up to him or not followed at all. The degree to which Stella and Stanley appear unremarkable is in strong juxtaposition to Blanche’s introduction, dressed “as if she were arriving at a summer tea or garden party”, all in white and initially totally silent. From her first appearance she is a character incongruous with her surroundings, seeming lost and confused. She is also, like Eddie, the clear protagonist: the extent to which she stands out simply by her manner and appearance sets her apart from the characters introduced thus far, drawing the attention of the audience.
The openings of A Streetcar Named Desire and A View From the Bridge are indeed presented very differently, yet ultimately have the same function. Williams chooses to create a vivid sensory image of his setting, with a semi-conceptual description of the set and opening dialogue that serves to bring about a specific atmosphere, while Miller immediately introduces his themes and characters, predominantly focusing on Eddie. Despite these contrasting styles, both openings serve as introductions to the complex personalities of each play’s main characters, and begin to guide the audience through the ideas and concepts explored through the following events, as well as crucially creating the realism needed for the audience to emotionally connect to the two tragedies.
Analysis of the Movie Version of, A View from The Bridge By Arthur Miller
A View from the Bridge by Arthur Miller was an enjoyable read. It flowed well and was thoroughly intriguing. I was really engrossed in the characters and situation that Miller developed. I personally enjoy works focusing on an individual’s thought processes and course of action when dealing with a difficult situation. Eddie Carbone is a well-developed and believable character. I appreciate that he wasn’t the average “good” or “bad” guy. He was a good person. However, his desires, that even he himself wasn’t conscious about, caused him to make some bad choices. And the realism of it all is the main thing I like about this play.
Since it is a play, it is already made for stage production, which makes the transition to film easier than other works of literature since each characters’ lines and actions are blatantly written out. I enjoyed the film adaptation as much as I enjoyed its literary counterpart. It managed to bring my visualizations I had while reading to life.
The film adaptation was great and I did get to re-experience the literature as a critically good film. I give credit to the actors for being able to portray the characters realistically and bringing their relationships and emotions to life. I also give credit to the filmmakers for filming in Red Hook Brooklyn, the actual place where the play is set. The other scenes’ settings in the film also successfully portray the world in A View from the Bridge. All these elements resulted in a great adaptation.
Throughout the play, it is implied that Eddie has hidden desires for his niece, Catherine. I think this implication is successfully portrayed in the film adaptation, notably in scenes where they have close interactions. The scene that stands in significance regarding this is the scene where Catherine lights Eddie’s cigar. I think that scene conveys the message that Eddie has feelings for Catherine rather obviously. There were many other scenes in the film adaptation that I believed represented the scenes in the play successfully.
My only complaint with the film adaptation lies in the ending. I am somewhat disappointed that the ending didn’t follow Miller’s play. However, I liked the ending to both versions, the literature and its film counterpart. In the play, Eddie dies during a fight with Marco. While Eddie tried to stab Marco, Marco managed to turn it around and Eddie ends up dying instead. I like the fact that this scene took a literal and metaphorical sense: Eddie was trying to kill Marco, but ends up dying instead and Eddie’s flaw results in his downfall. In the film adaptation, Eddie commits suicide by plunging himself with a hook. Although I dislike this change from the play, I still enjoyed this ending because it seems to show Eddie’s sudden shock and realization at what he has done and his belief that there’s no turning back, thus, suicide being the answer. Although different, both endings display how the protagonist’s tragic flaw leads to his death. In any case, either ending is a believable and possible outcome that still relates and ties to the rest of story.
The film as a whole is a worthy adaptation of the work of literature that I consider a success. It managed to bring the characters, settings, and situation to life while still getting the themes and underlying messages across to the viewers as the play did to the readers.