Dialect

Dialect: Development and Significance Research Paper

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Abstract

Dialects and their varieties have recently become the point of a renewed discussion among scholars and researchers. Any language has its varieties and the formation of these varieties is predetermined by a number of factors. What is even more important, language varieties (or dialects) differ between themselves; this makes this topic even more attractive when it comes to carrying out of the research.

In light of the renewed interest to the language dialects, it is necessary to research dialect origin and creation in more detail. Of special interest are the sources, which influence the formation of dialect. This research paper addresses all these issues. First of all, it draws attention to how the interest to dialect formation has changed over the past several years and what the currents studies on this topic focus on.

Secondly, the paper presents the information on where dialect comes from focusing mainly on geography and political influences. In addition, the ways of dialect’s creation are identified. This is followed by the discussion of the sources of dialect among which social, physical, and cultural sources are named as the most important because they influence dialect formation most strongly.

Introduction

Division of our modern society into numerous social groups leads the unavoidable development of language differences. Every language has certain differences with regard to location, cultural preferences, or even traditions. People introduce new manners of words’ pronunciation, use different accents, and introduce some new words to underline their individualities.

Such a widespread development of language differences and variations introduces a new linguistic term, dialect, that is aimed at defining the reasons of why language becomes different within various social groups and what causes its spread over the world.

The peculiar feature of dialect is that it may be used in two different ways like any variation of language that is inherent to one social group and like a variety of a standard language, considering numerous social and cultural factors.

Dialect has its roots in both time and space, and this is why it is always connected to certain geographical, cultural, and social points. Historical background proves that the term dialect had no distinctions with the term language till the Renaissance period, when dialect as a term was detached from language and named as its variation.

The history of dialect is unique indeed and has close connection to numerous social, geographical, and cultural concepts; the relation to these factors makes dialect a considerably local term, a language variation with its own peculiarities of vocabulary, differences in pronunciation, and uniqueness of phrases.

The Origin of Dialect

Changing the Value of Dialect. The scholars have been trying to define the origin of dialect over the centuries. How come that there emerge different varieties of one and the same language? Where do these varieties come from? Since the number of dialects in the world is incalculable, it is reasonable to seek answers to these questions. The number of standard languages is immense and, so far, it is impossible to understand why, in addition to these languages, the development of dialects takes place.

For a long time the word “dialect” has been associated with low social status because people who use dialects for inter-communication, as a rule, belong to a separate community and, in most of the instances, this community is poorly developed (Filppula, 2005). At present, however, dialects have attracted special attention on the part of the researchers for the reason that now they are considered as peculiarities of a definite language which a separate society uses for communication.

In the modern society dialects are not disrespected; instead, they are studied: “Typology, cognitive linguistics, discourse analysis and pragmatics have provided fresh perspectives on old problems and opened up completely new lines of research such as cognitive dialectology, folk linguistics, and perceptional dialectology” (Filppula, 2005, p. vii). All these studies allow learning much about dialect and its origins in particular.

Geographical Origins. There is much evidence that namely geography is responsible for the formation and distribution of dialects, which emerge as a simple variation of a language but then gradually turn into a separate system used for encoding and decoding of certain information.

As mentioned by Wolfram, Carolyn, & Christian (1999), there exist different reasons for the languages developing certain varieties, but in most of the cases this occurs due to one definite factor: “When groups are physically or socially separated in some way, language differences can be expected.

As a language changes … differences show up between dialects as groups of people follow different paths of language change” (p. 6). Thus, for instance, people occupying a definite territory develop a variety of a separate language, especially if their communication with other groups is limited. This variety of language differs in grammar, pronunciation and, what is the most important, vocabulary.

Since people living on separate territories are involved in definite trades and, therefore, have different names for specific objects. The names for the objects emerge on the basis of what is known about them; this being the reason, these names may differ from group to group. This, however, is only one of the factors that influence the development of dialects with respect to geography.

It is also important to mention that peculiarities of the landscape and the territory that people occupy also have an effect on the development of a definite dialect. It was sometimes the case that people were forced to leave a country and settle on a separate territory; however, there were cases when “natural barriers such as mountains and rivers have … cut people off from each other, creating a natural basis for differences to emerge and be maintained” (Wolfram et al., 1999, p. 6).

In this way, though geographically being the citizens of one and the same country, people had to develop their own language for communication due to their being separated from the ingenuous informants. With respect to this, rivers, mountains, or other natural barriers also had a significant role in shaping a particular dialect.

To be more exact, the names of these barriers had considerable influence on the development of words and word-combinations within a definite dialect. At this, the basics of the original language from which dialect evolved also mattered because “dialect speakers acquire their language by adopting the speech features of those around them, not by failing in their attempts to adopt standard language features” (Wolfram & Schilling-Estes, 2006, p. 8).

This testifies to the fact that dialect cannot develop from nothing because, in this case, it will be a separate language, not a variety of it. Therefore, dialects can also emerge because of the natural barriers, which once again proves that dialect mainly comes from geography.

Political Origins. Political origin of dialect is closely related to the geographical one, though certain differences still exist. Here, it is necessary to distinguish between “dialect” and “language” because quite often these terms are used as synonyms. Language is a standard system used for communication, while dialect is only a variety of such a system.

Unlike language, dialect is non-standard; it does not have a written form and dialect speakers do not belong to a separate state. All that they can be united by is common territory that, in a number of cases, is a part of some state. This is what the political influence on dialect formation consists in. Politics distinguishes between language and dialect on the basis of the speakers’ belonging to a separate state and deserving a right to be called a separate people. With regards to this, a group of dialect speakers can enjoy only regional autonomy.

Thus, there emerges a distinction not only between language and between dialect, but a controversy between political and linguistic status of dialect. In this way, the origin of dialect is predetermined by certain political factors, which influence its formation, status, and development.

The Creation of Dialect

Dialect, though it is only a variety of language, is also created in accordance with definite principles. In general, “dialect is created whenever anyone speaks in a language not his own. Although such speech is often referred to as a foreign accent, it is one more form of dialectal expression” (Blunt, 1994, p. 1).

Since this form is used by a group of people for a long period of time, it usually develops certain set of features, standards, rules, and norms. Of course, these standards and rules are informal, but, due to the fact that they are used by a great number of people of a separate community, they are considered as acceptable:

Different communities may have slightly different norms, and this informal set of norms is the one that really counts in terms of social acceptance. It is important, for this reason, to carefully distinguish between those norms that make up the formal standard and the informal, yet highly influential, norms of social acceptability that govern most everyday, interactional evaluation of standardness. (Adger, Wolfram, & Christian, 2005, p. 15)

Taking this fact into account, the scholars distinguish between minimum and arbitrary standards when it comes to the discussion of dialect. As far as the minimum standards are concerned, they are “specifications that must be met for acceptability” (Luria, Seymour, & Smoke, 2005, p. 194).

Though the word “standard” seems to be inapplicable to dialect, it is still necessary to consider it. The question whether dialect is able to meet any standards is disputable; however, if there are features that allow distinguishing one dialect among the others, this means that this particular dialect was created according to the features peculiar for it only.

Despite this, the concept “minimum standard” can be applied only to standard language. Just like any other minimum standards (for instance, the safety ones), a variety of language has to go through a number of assessment stages before it is regarded as good enough or at least suitable (Adger et al., 2005).

From this, it derives that, if this variety does not pass all those stages, it will not be recognized as valid and, thus, it will not be referred to as standard language. In this case, the variety will be required to meet the arbitrary standards conformity with which will allow it to be called a dialect. The nature of arbitrary standards is simple; if a vast majority of people uses dialect with specific norms, than the dialect corresponds to the arbitrary standards. A real-life example makes this idea more understandable:

For example, the United States uses Fahrenheit degrees to measure temperatures. Most of the rest of the world measures temperatures in degrees Celsius. One could argue that the Fahrenheit system is the inferior system. However that may be, Fahrenheit degrees … serve as an agreed upon arbitrary standard that everyone in the United States understands and uses. It is not so important that the best system of temperature measurement be used as it is that everyone agrees on the same arbitrary standard. (Luria et al., 2005, p. 194)

This is how the American society adopted the norms for measuring temperature. Similarly, the dialects are created if a definite number of people agree on the dialect norms. If these norms correspond to the arbitrary standards and none of the community members contests them, then dialect passes as acceptable. Just as in case with Fahrenheit degrees, dialect cannot be good or bad, as well as it cannot be compared with the standard language accepted in a definite society. What matters is that people agree on the norms of this dialect.

Grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and the like features are built according to the same standards. As it was already mentioned, dialect is not written, which is why there cannot be any disputes regarding grammatical or any other characteristics of the language, which a particular community speaks.

This being the reason, grammar of any dialect is, as a rule, simplified. It is remarkable, however, that dialect develops a definite system of inflections, verb forms, formation of plural number, etc. This, of course, depends on whether the primary language is analytical or synthetic.

In most of dialects, the basics of the language are preserved, though they undergo simplification with some of the inflections or auxiliary verbs being omitted. Pronunciation in dialect is also oriented towards simplification; any dialect can be characterized by assimilation, amalgamation, reduction, and the like processes which are completely unacceptable in standard languages. The same goes for vocabulary.

While a standard language does not allow the usage of certain words or refers them to the colloquial ones, dialect does not classify the words into acceptable and unacceptable. Besides, the vocabulary is built on the basis of the community’s peculiarities, such as territory, occupations, education, geographical position, and the like factors.

Thus, dialect is created only if its characteristics correspond to certain norms and standards. Unlike standard language which has to correspond to minimum standards, dialect has to be in conformity only with the arbitrary ones, which serve as a basis for dialect’s grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation formation.

Sources of Dialect

Dialect takes a very important place in linguistic and becomes crucial for communication between people of the same nationality. In order to present correct and reliable communication, it is necessary to understand the sources of dialects and the factors, which influence dialect appearance. Because of the constant dilemma that is inherent to the nature and development of dialect, it turns out to be very hard to define one concrete source of dialect.

There are many different reasons of language diversity, and sources of dialect may vary considerably. Numerous sociolinguistic and dialectological studies prove that “physical, cultural, and social facts are responsible for the variation in U. S. English” (Wolfram, Adger, & Christian, 1999, p.6). Each of the above-mentioned sources may be divided into certain sub-factors and has some special influence on dialect development and spreading.

Social Sources of Dialect. In spite of the fact that the sources of dialect are usually connected to physical or to be more exact to geographical factors, the role of social and cultural sources is significant as well. The diversity of social status is one of the first points that are reflected in dialect.

As a rule, dialects, which are created on the ground of social inequality, are called sociolects. Social status is a significant source of dialect across time and space: the representatives of upper classes always wanted to distance themselves far away from the representatives of lower classes, and the creation of language variety may serve as a kind of “flight of the elite” (Wolfram and Schilling-Estes, 2006, p.36).

For example, the historical development of the obligatory speaking norms underlines the privileges of standard English and admit that this variety of language has to be spoken by “a privileged segment of society that includes its political leaders, its opinion-makers, and its literati” (Landers, 2001, 116). Unfortunately, the social source of dialect creates some challenges and misunderstandings in the society.

Sweetland and Cheney (2001) admit that dialects are labeled as words by means of dictionaries; and poor people do not actually have a chance to present their own language in a written form, this is why many dialects, based on social inequality, may exist in oral forms only and are still unknown to a the whole world.

Cultural Uniqueness of Dialects. Cultural background becomes another significant source of dialect and its development over the world. Numerous cultural factors create such conditions, which have an impact on people’s manner of speaking and sharing information.

Any nation is usually proud of own cultural heritage and its racial variety that leads to the creation of different groups, this is why it is so crucial for any nation to preserve its own dialect that is considered to be an integral part of its heritage. If cultural changes take place, linguistic system is powerful enough and can easily adapt all current challenges in order to introduce a new dialect, prove its rights to existence, and explain why this very dialect has to be used and developed (Holmes, 2008).

Cultural differences usually affect the processes of communication between different people. If a person with particular cultural background tries to explain something to a person with different cultural background, numerous misunderstanding may appear immediately, and each of these representatives should be regarded as right.

The same situation happen with dialect spreading: one culture has its own rules and preferences and use a particular language to express emotions, share information, and enlarge knowledge. People, who may speak the same language but have other cultural preferences, may not understand the each other because of the varieties of language, in other words, because of the existed dialect.

Cultural and social factors are significant sources of dialect, however, some linguists cannot agree that these two factors may be regarded as the primary sources of dialect. After a thorough investigation of sounds, Blunt (1994) came to the conclusion that the primary source of any dialect is sound and utterance. Much depends on the way of how a sentence, a word, and a sound are pronounced.

Dialects are different by their nature, and people promote their development, taking into consideration their own abilities, awareness, and interests. Even the speed of speech may be an influential factor for dialect’s creation. Similarities to the already known accents, attention to geographical location, and peculiarity of social status – each of these issues may be added to the nature of sound pronounced and become a considerable source of dialect.

Sound as a Primary Source of Dialect. One more significant source of dialect may be any kind of contact to other languages. The historical overviews show that the existence of colonies took a significant place in the United States development. The varieties of colonies, where people spoke Spanish, Italian, and French, had a considerable influence into dialects of the United States.

People tried to find out the ways to communicate and use some common knowledge to comprehend each other, and such contact of Standard English with other languages led to the appearance of dialects and their fast and valid spreading over the whole Unites States of America. These regional distinctions should be also considered as important sources of dialect in any country, and in the United States as the country, raised from colonies and varieties of languages.

Conclusion

The role of dialect in our modern world becomes more and more important because of numerous reasons. First of all, people of different countries and nations try to preserve their heritage and share it with other representatives of various cultures.

The idea to save the existed dialect bothers many people, and in order to achieve success, it is crucially important to comprehend the sources of dialect, the reasons of dialect creation, and the peculiarities of dialect spreading, to investigate the places, where dialect came from, and to evaluate why dislocation of dialect still takes place.

Geographical factors like territorial division, cultural preferences like customs and traditions, and social issues like status inequality, or the desire to own higher positions – all this becomes important for dialect usage and for the reasons of language variety’s existence.

In general, it is impossible to say that dialect comes from one particular place. Dialect itself takes a long trip, and has connection to history, geography, and culture. And the ability to combine so many different influential factors is considered to be the major feature that distinguishes dialect from language and identifies dialect as a unique concept with its own sources, vocabulary, and pronunciation.

Annotated Bibliography

Wolfram, W., & Schilling-Estes, N. (2006). American English: Dialects and Variation. Malden, MA: BlackWell Publishing.

The author of this book presents clear information about language variations of English and takes into consideration such important points like ethnic differences and regional diversities. This source provides its reader with a chance to get a clear understanding of the difference between language and dialect and to find out why such term like dialect creates certain challenged to people while defining it as a linguistic concept. Attention to popular points of view makes this book interesting and reliable, because offered examples taken from every day life and communications help to evaluate information easily and comprehend facts quickly.

Adger, C. T., Wolfram, W., & Christian, D. (2007). Dialects in Schools and Communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This new edition of cooperation of such great authors and linguists like Adger and Wolfram allows to study the process, which are usually inherent to dialects and their spreading in English. The description of popular ideas as for language variations and the reasons of their appearance, the analysis of impact of dialect differences, and the introduction of sources of dialect helps to study the topic of dialect to its full extent. The influence and responsibility of cultural and social factors in regards to dialect is perfectly described by means of theoretical material and illustrative examples.

Landers, C. E. (2001). Literary Translation: A Practical Guide. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

The dilemma of dialects creates numerous challenges for people, who are eager to communicate, translate information, or enlarge own level of knowledge by means of sources of different cultures. Landers (2001) admits that “dialect is a challenge unique to literary translation” (p. 116) and gives clear grounds for his statement. This books helps to comprehend that essence of dialect is influential not only to the sphere of communication but also to the sphere of translation, and this is why it becomes more important to evaluate the origins of dialect.

Sweetland, J. H., & Cheney, F. N. (2001). Fundamental Reference Sources. ALA Editions.

The attention of these authors is paid to the peculiarities of references and the material that is available in electronic formats. They share their knowledge of how to find out electronic media and how to achieve success while using various dictionaries. The authors also touch upon the concept of dialects, because their uniqueness leads to considerable changes of dictionaries. As dialect is “essentially local” (Sweetland & Cheney, 2001), the creation of dialect dictionaries has to be careful and particular. The work if these authors prove that the theme of dialect has to be evaluated properly, because the role of these language variations remains to be important.

Wolfram, W., Adger, C. T., & Christian, D. (1999). Dialects in School and Communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

The book of these authors is directed to the evaluation of dialect differences of English that is used in the United States of America. It is necessary to admit that physical, cultural, and social factors become crucial for dialects: conditions under which people live requires changes from time to time, and language has to adopt these challenges and consider new conditions in the forms of dialects and other language variations. People always want to differ from each other, and the creation of dialects within one concrete society is the attempt number one that allows achieving the goal and become different.

Luria, H., Seymour, D. M., & Smoke, T. (2006). Language and Linguistics in Context: Readings and Applications for Teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

This source is aimed at describing the ways of dialect’s creation and spreading over the world. With the help real life examples, the author introduces the concept of dialect and underlines the most important stages of its development in the United States and worldwide. The distinct features of Standard English and its dialects have to be considered as well, because they help to comprehend how language varies or should vary and to analyze the reasons of why language and dialect cannot be regarded as similar concepts.

Blunt, J. (1994). Stage Dialects. Woodstock, Illinois: The Dramatic Publishing Company.

The author of this book starts his investigations from presentation of a clear and comprehensive explanation of dialect regarding it as “a distinctive form of pronunciation, language structure, and vocabulary which is identified with a geographical area or a social class” (Blunt, 1994, p. 1). This definition introduces not only the essence of the term dialect but also specifies its sources and peculiarities. Simple structure of book, attention to current changes of society, and specification of dialect sources – all this makes the book of this writer a captivating source full of necessary and reliable for this research information.

Holmes, J. (2008). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

The author concentrates on significant research concerning dialects and factors, which may influence its development. Gender and age points, cultural background, and social inequality becomes important thins to pay attention to, because each of them is able to create challenges for language varieties and people understanding of why these varieties take place.

Filppula, M. (2005). Dialects across Borders: Selected Papers form the 11th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

This source introduces another important side of dialect: dialect values are considerable indeed, and numerous studies have to be conducted because this sphere is hard to investigate completely, and the development of new conditions creates new challenges for evaluation. It is not enough to divide dialect sources according to its geographical location or ethnical identification, and research on dialects has to be carried out constantly to take into account current preferences.

Reference List

Adger, C. T., Wolfram, W., & Christian, D. (2007). Dialects in Schools and Communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Blunt, J. (1994). Stage Dialects. Woodstock, Illinois: The Dramatic Publishing Company.

Filppula, M. (2005). Dialects across Borders: Selected Papers form the 11th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Holmes, J. (2008). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Landers, C. E. (2001). Literary Translation: A Practical Guide. Tonawanda, NY: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Luria, H., Seymour, D. M., & Smoke, T. (2006). Language and Linguistics in Context: Readings and Applications for Teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sweetland, J. H., & Cheney, F. N. (2001). Fundamental Reference Sources. ALA Editions.

Wolfram, W., & Schilling-Estes, N. (2006). American English: Dialects and Variation. Malden, MA: BlackWell Publishing.

Wolfram, W., Adger, C. T., & Christian, D. (1999). Dialects in School and Communities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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American English Dialect Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

The main focus of the project is to analyse the phonological, structural and lexical features of the American dialect. This project enables one to identify the distinct features of the English language by using American English as a case study.

Data collection

The paper relies upon the use of secondary resources. It employs books, peer reviewed journals and reputable websites that focus on the American dialect. Since it was necessary to place the stated information in context, the group also used recorded videos to understand the implications of these variations in speech. The references selected are listed in the ‘Works Cited’ section of this report.

Findings

American English is one of the most heterogeneous English dialects in the world. Different regions have their own phonological, lexical and structural peculiarities. Nonetheless, some common elements exist in most of these dialects. Furthermore, one particular form of American English that has gained general acceptance in the public is the General American sub dialect (GA).

Numerous linguistics prefer using this form because it is devoid off the many distinct features that people regard as regional ones, such as the Southern or North Eastern features (Wolfram & Ward 96). Therefore, for purposes of a scholarly analysis on the paper, this report will dwell on GA.

This form of English became popular owing to its popularity of use in the mass media. Several newscasters, film stars and commercial advertisers speak General American English. Therefore, because most people look up to these news, anchors and other media personalities as language role models, then this has become the conventional American dialect. A number of people who try to learn the English language as a second language will use GA as a reference.

However, the dialect is distinct to certain regions of the country, such as the suburban Midwest. Some of the areas that speak it include Omaha, Lincoln, Iowa, Chicago, Peoria and other parts of Western Illinois (Buffet 3). A number of stereotypes have emerged concerning this mode of the English language such as GA being an accent less dialect. However, linguistic analysts know that there is no such term; all dialects are unique in their own right and do not need to be regarded as offshoots of ‘standard’ English (Roach 240).

In terms of the phonological distinctness of General American English, the group found out that the phonetic realisations associated with the phonemes were the thing that set this dialect apart. General American English lacks the short form of the vowel ‘o’. Furthermore, it tends to centre its diphthongs.

In this regard, many speakers of this dialect can turn two vowels into one as defined in the ‘cot – caught’ merger. When pronouncing the word ‘caught’, GA speakers will turn the two vowels in the middle into one sound that will closely resemble ‘ah’. In this regard, ‘caught’ and ‘cot’ are transformed into homophones by these speakers.

This dialect does not use the prolonged vowel ‘a’ in words like ‘dance’ or ‘class’. Individuals prefer the form æ in all the words that resemble ‘cat’. Therefore, many American English speakers do not place excessive importance on vowel length as other English speakers do (Borner & Nuebert 55).

Voiced flaps are also common in the allophones of American English. For instance, words, such as ‘water’ or ‘bottle’, will treat ‘t’ as an unstressed syllable, which can be replaced with the voiced flap ‘r’. The same thing happens to words, such as ‘petal’ and ‘pedal’ because their pronunciation results in sounding the same. These words usually have the letters ‘t’ and ‘d’ appearing after a vowel or they may contain a syllabic ‘l’.

Sometimes, the same voice flaps can occur when word boundaries appear at the end of a particular sentence; for example, when one says ‘put it there’. GA speakers repeat this same pattern when pronouncing words that possess ‘n’ and ‘t’ in immediate proximity to one another.

They often merge the two words ‘nt’ with the syllable ‘r’, so the words with ‘nt’ sound indistinguishable to those without them. For instance, a word like ‘winter’ will have the same pronunciation as ‘winner’. Nonetheless, the same voice flap does not occur when ‘t’ comes before ‘n’ as in ‘catnip’.

The American English language does not include onsets like /nj/, /stj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /lj/. Words that must begin with these onsets will not include /j/. In this regard, the words such as ‘tube’, ‘during’ and ‘new’ will sound like /tu:b/, /dʊrɪŋ/ and /nu:/ accordingly (Wells 50).

Another distinguishing feature about General American English is the merger of vowels in words like ‘bother’ and ‘father’. In this regard, the short form of the vowel ‘o’ in the word ‘bother’ will be likened to the broad use of ‘a’ as in /a:/ in words, such as ‘father’.

Therefore, ‘bother’ will sound phonologically similar to the word ‘father’ owing to the treatment of its vowels. It should be noted that certain mergers may be conditional in General American English. For example, these include ‘pin’ and ‘pen’. Here, the vowels ‘i’ and ‘e’ are made indistinguishable that is why the two words sound alike when pronounced.

Maintenance of coda [ɹ] is common in the words, such as ‘pearl’, ‘court’ or ‘car’. Therefore, one may say that there is a distinct phonetic pronunciation associated with this form of the English language (Boeree par 12).

In General American English, it is also recognised that words that fall in the /ɒrV/ category tend to be treated irregularly (here, /V/ is any vowel). These words include ‘Florida’, ‘quarrel’, ‘sorry’, ‘tomorrow’, ‘origin’ and ‘sorrow’. A person speaking General American English will possess /ɔɹ/ or may have /ɑɹ/ depending on the type of GE spoken (Wells 69).

These differences illustrate that even a sub dialect like General American English can also have considerable differences depending on the region under consideration. For instance, some people in Philadelphia and New Jersey will use the first form while others from other parts of the country may choose the second form.

Most speakers of the dialect tend to place greater emphasis in vowels of the word ‘strut’ and other word categories. Nonetheless, some General American speakers may treat it as an unrounded vowel. As such, it will remain a back vowel in their speech. In essence, ‘t’ will be given greater precedence than the vowel that comes before it by this group of people.

Generally speaking, the most conspicuous component of General American English is that it does not incorporate nonstandard elements of speech. Differences may arise on particular elements, but they all represent a certain kind of neutral or region-free form of English.

Conclusion

American English as understood through General American has numerous distinctive features. The most conspicuous ones are the use of ‘r’ in unstressed syllables of ‘t’ and ‘d’, ‘aae’ in pronunciation and exclusion of onsets in particular words. These differences, along with the others, make the American dialect unique phonologically, lexically and structurally.

Works Cited

Boeree, George. Dialects of English. Ship. 2004. Web..

Borner, Dominik & Nuebert, Eva. Phonological characteristics of American English. Munich: GRIN publishers, Print.

Buffet, Warren. Warren Buffet interview on how to read stocks. YouTube. 7 Feb. 2009. Web.

Roach, Peter. British English: received pronunciation. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34.2(2004): 239-245. Print.

Wells, John. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 2000. Print.

Wolfram, Walt & Ward, Ben. American Voices: How dialects differ from coast to coast. MA: Blackwell publishers, 2006. Print.

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Baby Language: Development of the Dialect Essay (Article)

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Baby language is quite hard to understand, as babies often speak words that may sound related to what adults speak, but different in pronunciation. Therefore, it is important to listen to babies carefully to grasp what they intend to say. In my study of baby dialect, I chose to observe Fahad, a three-year-old Arabic baby from Saudi Arabia. He lives with his mother, a stay at home wife aged 30 years, and his father, a 35-year-old teacher who teaches sign language to the deaf. Baby Fahad also has two younger sisters aged two years and seven months old. Fahad is a very active boy, which enables him to grasp a lot in terms of speech, and do so quickly. The analysis of this paper discusses Fahad’s grasp of Arabic dialect due to the influence of the Arabic language speakers around him. The paper also analyzes the conditions favoring his fast learning and the challenges he may encounter.

Development of the dialect

The baby’s parents both speak Arabic as their first language, which leaves him with only one language to learn. Hence, he has to pick up Arabic dialect. The boy continues to learn the Arabic language from his mother, who is always home with him. Fahad also picks up some words from the father when the dad returns from work. However, he cannot learn much adult Arabic from the younger sisters because they are still too young to have proper knowledge of the language. The result is that the Fahad’s dialect is affected by his younger sisters’ simple and toddler vocabulary, which slows down his learning of the Arabic language. Therefore, the environment favors his learning because his mother is always around to teach him. The baby also learns by imitation and picks up words from conversations between his parents. Since his father is a sign language teacher, he might not be much of an oral communicator, which affects the three-year-old’s acquisition of vocabulary.

Data

Baby TalkArabic AdultEnglish Adult
1.TEALHTAIARHPLANE
2.TEZYONTELEVESYONTV
3.BESIPEBSIPEPSI
4.KAWKAKAWCHOCOLATE
5.SHBBKATSHABKETCHUP
6.AMBHLAMBHLAMP
7.BOTBOKWALLET
8.AWALSRWALPANT
9.PADIPADIPAD
10.LEBAHLA’BHTOY
11.SBSBSHBSHBSHOOS
12.HAWAWAHALAWACANDY
13.HALIKHALIMY UNCLE
14.ALAJATHALAJAFRIDGE

Analysis

7. K=T

8. SR=A

11. SH=S 12. LA=WA 13. KH=H

Assimilation

12. WA=LA

Shortening of words

2. LEVES=Z (TELEVESYON TO TEZYON)

5. KATSHAB TO SHBB

Omissions

4. KA from KAKAW

6. L from LAMBH

9. I from IPAD

14. TH from THALAJA

Conclusion

I came up with the conclusion that Fahad picked up the Arabic dialect as most of his words relate closely to the Arabic adult speech. Fahad’s surroundings and relations influenced his choice of dialect. The mother, father and the environment around him are Arabic, and their environment is dominated by Arab locals. Hence, Fahad’s dialect is heavily affected by the Arabic language. The baby’s mother played a big role in his choice of dialect as she is always in the house. The baby tries to say whatever the mother says as he feels she is always right. Therefore, it is important that the mother speaks proper Arabic for Fahad to pick up the right words. According to Fahad, his mother is always right. Therefore, what she speaks must always be right. The case shows that babies learn by imitation.

I observed that this baby could not pronounce some syllables like “sh” and “sr” correctly. He also showed difficulty in pronouncing “l” in some instances. There are syllables that seemed easier for the baby to pronounce. Therefore, he replaced the hard ones with the easy ones. An example is his replacement of “k” with “t”. The baby does not struggle to pronounce the hard words because he would rather use what is easier for him to pronounce. Other words were quite long for the baby to pronounce. Therefore, Fahad used short-form of the words. An example is the shortening of televesyon to tezyon. The baby also completely omits some syllables or letters from words. Examples include his omission of “l” in lambh, “ka” in kakaw and katshab. “th” in thalaja and “i” in iPad.

The main challenge in Fahad’s learning of the adult vocabulary is the presence of his younger siblings. Fahad tends to use baby talk with them as because he loves to play with them. However, this prevents him from improving his dialect quickly because they are also in the process of learning. The boy’s younger sisters are not in a position to correct him or improve his dialect because they use baby talk. Since the younger siblings are always around him, it is hard for him to improve his dialect at the required pace. The boy may end up using baby talk longer than expected.

Another reason Fahad uses baby talk a lot is that his parents are not strict. The parents neither pay close attention to correct his mistakes nor do they try to teach him how to pronounce some words. The mother and father leave it up to him to pick words from their conversations. Sometimes they speak to him in his childish dialect while playing with him. I would recommend that the parents take him to school because Fahad has attained an age where he can start attending a daycare or kindergarten. He can improve his vocabulary and speech because the teachers correct the mistakes, making it easier for him to learn. There are also kids of similar age, making the surrounding free of baby talk. The lessons at the daycare will make it faster for Fahad to learn the Arabic language properly and do away with baby talk. Therefore, the daycare will greatly improve his dialect.

I would also recommend that Fahad’s parents get stricter in correcting his speech. Whenever he makes a mistake in his pronunciation, his parents should put more effort to teach him the correct pronunciation. The parents should make him repeat the words that trouble him often until he can pronounce it clearly because repetition is also a way of learning. The parents should also refrain from using baby language while playing with him and his siblings. Fahad’s dialect is bound to improve if all the recommended measures are implemented.

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Linguistics of the Gurbetcha Dialect Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Problem statement

According to European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (2009) and the report on its application in Cyprus, the Committee of Experts officially states that “Roma in Cyprus referred to their language as Kurbetcha” (p 5).

However, the Committee of Experts has proved to be unable to get any information concerning the use of Gurbetcha, the report states that they failed to find reliable information on whether Romani speak Gurbetcha or some other language that is far from Turkish Cypriot dialect or Greek Cypriot dialect and they stated the necessity of further information in the next report (Council of Europe 2009 p 5).

The current absence of available information on “Gurbetcha” and its possible variations arouses the necessity to investigate this sphere thoroughly. It is necessary to state that the people call themselves Gurbet and, consequently, their language is called “Gurbetcha”, however, the majority speaks Turkish Cypriot dialect (Phillips 2001, p 254).

Varnava et al. (2009) also mention the research by Williams who states that “an advanced stage of assimilation to the Turkish Cypriot dialect with an almost complete loss of Gurbetcha in the younger generations of Roma” occurred there (p 331). However, Constantinou (2007) states that” Gurbetcha” is now spoken by some Gypsies (p 264): the vast majority of grown-ups and some children continue speaking this dialect and understand the meaning of the words told in Gurbetcha.

The aim of this project is to identify the roots of the dialect Gurbetcha and compare it to the other Cypriot dialects and varieties and Cypriot Turkish dialects in particular. One of the most important purposes of the project under consideration is the clarification the “Gurbetcha” dialect as a Turkish Cypriot dialect with a number of Romani loan adaptations that are used by contact phenomenon or as a Romani dialect that is characterized by a number of Turkish loan adaptations.

The influence of Romani loanwords is evident for many Turkish Cypriot dialects, and Gurbetcha is considered one of those that undergo some changes. After the above-mentioned purposes are achieved, the time to evaluate the similarities and differences of the dialect from syntax, morphological, phonological, or semantic point of view comes.

Working hypothesis

The working hypothesis for the present research sounds like this: though Gypsies speak Turkish Cypriot Dialect, they also admit that their mother language is Gurbetcha. This is why it is possible to define Gurbetcha as Turkish Cypriot Dialect that is characterized by a number of Romani loan adaptations and has been formed as the result of the language mixing process. And this study is one of the first attempts to analyze the language as a significant variety of Cypriot Roma.

Background of the problem

Solid research pertaining to Romani has been conducted by British researchers Matras and Bakker. Matras (2009) presents his Romani Project that offers exhaustive information on the history of the Romani language, classification of Romani dialects, historical data from the sphere of linguistics, and the structure of Romani.

Matras (2005) has studied the status of Romani in Europe and offers his considerations as per the future of Romani, stressing the idea of “linguistic pluralism in the use of Romani” (Matras 2004, p 1). A guide to Romani linguistics composed by Bakker and Matras (2003) suggests that there has appeared and intensified great interest of the scholars in the language of Roma.

The scholars, who have presented their accounts of the linguistic research pertaining to Romani, emphasize their use of geographical and historical analysis as the main methods of investigation mainly in relation to dialect classification composition (Matras 2002; Trimikliniotis and Demetriou 2009).

As for the previous research and the results achieved, it may be stated that the results are focused basically on “language pluralism in the use of Romani” that “fits the specific situation of a trans-national minority with dispersed, regional centers of cultural and public life” (Matras 2004, p 1).

The essence of the present research is conditioned by several factors. First, it is the complete absence of linguistic research on Gurbetcha and Turkish Cypriot Dialect spoken by Cypriot Gypsies. Second, it is the threatening situation of Gurbecha’s dying out, since their number of Gypsies living in Cyprus is low (Kenrick and Taylor 1986).

If no research is conducted while there are accessible Gurbetcha-speakers, the opportunity to study the dialect can be lost in several years forever shifting the necessity to study its morphological, grammar, and other peculiarities. Besides, along with historical necessity to document the linguistic processes of Cypriot Gypsies’ dialect, there may be certain importance of the findings for the studied of other dialects of Gypsies living in other countries.

Research design

At the beginning of the research, it is necessary to find out the peculiarities of the chosen community and the manner of speaking preferred. The evaluation of these people’s origins and the origins of their language is a good way to start with.

The theme under consideration requires qualitative research that has several peculiarities to be mentioned. First, the idea to use questionnaires was chosen. However, taking into consideration the fact that the chosen community cannot actually read and write, another idea was chosen: interviews.

This technique is regarded as “a combination of observation under highly structured conditions and paper-and-pencil data recording” will be used (Perry 2005, p 119). The choice of the interview as the main investigative technique also has a number of powerful grounds like the possibility to change the conditions of the process and make an interviewer be able to comprehend the essence of questions (Perry 2005; Thomas 2003).

As for ethical considerations and human subject protection, the interview will be composed of cultural and linguistic peculiarities of the population of the research (Wengraf 2001, p. 65). The community under discussion is eager to save their anonymity with respect to their traditions, interests, and beliefs.

As for the data, that is needed for the research; this will be the written results of my observations. With the help of thorough and constant observations, it is possible to find out a lot of information on the community’s lifestyle, interests, beliefs, and traditions. In addition to the recordings of interviews and their transcripts that will enable us to identify and analyze morphological, syntactical, phonological peculiarities of the analyzed dialects.

Expected results

The data gathered using interviews will be analyzed from a purely linguistic perspective. First, the analysis of the dialect identified and the language chosen will be made to define whether words and their structure are closer to a Romani dialect or these words have several features for a Turkish dialect. Such analysis should help to define the peculiarities of the dialect and clear up what the Gurbetcha peculiarities are.

The processes of language mixing and loan adaptation will be studied based on the morphological, syntactical, phonological, and lexical analysis.

The results achieved by the researcher aim at showing the status of Roman Turkish Cypriot “Gurbetcha” and the evaluation of the linguistic on both sociological and structural continuum that takes place between Roman and Cypriot Turkish.

Reference List

Bakker, P. & Matras, Y. 2003, Bibliography of Modern Romani Linguistics: Including a Guide to Romani Linguistics. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Philadelphia, PA.

Constantinou, C. M. 2007, ‘Aporias of Identity: Bicommunalism, Hybridity and the ‘Cyprus Problem’’, Cooperation and Conflict, no. 42, pp. 247-270.

Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers 2009 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Application of the Charter in Cyprus. Web.

Kenrick, D., & Taylor, G. 1986, ‘Gypsies in Cyprus’. Web.

Matras, Y. 2002 Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Matras, Y. 2009, Romani Project, Manchester, England. Web.

Matras, Y. 2005, ‘The classification of Romani dialects: A geographical-historical perspective’, in General and Applied Romani Linguistics, eds. B Schrammel & Halwachs, DW, Lincom Europa, Munich. pp. 7-26.

Matras, Y. 2005, ‘The status of Romani in Europe’, Report. Council of Europe’s Language Policy Division. Web.

Matras, Y. 2004, The future of Romani: Toward a policy of linguistic pluralism. Web.

Perry, F. L. 2005, Research in Applied Linguistics: Becoming A Discerning Consumer, Routledge, London.

Phillips, D. J. 2001, Peoples on the Move: Introducing the Nomads of the World. William Carey Library, Carlisle.

Thomas, R. M. 2003, Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Thesis and Dissertations. Corwin Press, London.

Trimikliniotis, N., & Demetriou, C. 2009, ‘The Cypriot Roma and the Failure of Education: Anti-Discrimination and Multiculturalism as a Post-accession Challenge’ in The Minorities of Cyprus: Development Patterns and the Identity of the Internal-Exclusion, eds N Coureas & C Demetriou, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Cambridge.

Varnava, A., Coureas, N., & Elia, M. 2009, The Minorities of Cyprus: Development Patterns and the Identity of the Internal-Exclusion. Cambridge Scholars, Cambridge.

Wengraf, T. 2001, Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic Narrative and Semi Structured Methods. SAGE, London.

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Cockney English Dialect and Its Pecularities Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Apart from Standard English, which is considered to incorporate the major rules of the language, there exist many dialogues based on social class differentiation and geographical area in which speakers live. The dialogue I would like to describe is Cockney English. It is spread in London, Great Britain, and is considered to be spoken by people belonging to a low social status. Cockney English has a number of peculiarities. The first one is the omission of sound [h] when there is a letter ‘h’ at the beginning of the word: ‘house’ is pronounced [‘aus], ‘horse’ sounds like [‘o:s]. The next prominent feature of Cockney is the replacement of vowel [æ] by [a].

The following example shows two Cockney elements in a row: the word ‘hand’ is pronounced not [‘ænd] but [‘and]. Another peculiarity is using sound [a] instead of [Ə] (also known as ‘schwa’): users of Cockney pronounce ‘doctor’ as [‘dokta] and ‘actor’ as [‘akta]. Next, in final position, sound ‘l’ is pronounced like ‘w’: the word ‘bell’ sounds like [‘bew] in Cockney. Another feature is the omission of glottal [t]: ‘bottle’ is pronounced as [‘bo-l].

The next feature is the replacement of interdental sound [ð] with [v] and sound [θ] with [f]: ‘gather’ is pronounced as [‘gava], ‘thick’ sounds like [fik]. Also, when it comes to vowels, the general rule is that these sounds come from around the sides of the mouth: [au] is pronounced as [a:] (‘cow’ – [‘ka:]), [o:] turns into [ou] (‘walk’ – [‘wouk]). What concerns grammar, Cockney English speakers say ‘me’ instead of ‘my,’ use double negations, and do not conform to the rules of agreement of the subject and predicate (‘I weren’t there yesterday’; ‘You is my friend’).

Finally, Cockney English has a special “vocabulary” in the form of slang. For instance, “apples and pears” stands for “stairs.” Here is a link to the examples of Cockney English dialect: Learn the Cockney English with Jason Statham.

This dialect relates to our class because it describes the differences in language use and also demonstrates social divergences between people. At our class, we studied the basics of linguistics, and this dialect is a perfect illustration of various linguistic phenomenon. In my examples, I showed the phonetic and grammatical peculiarities of Cockney English. The dialect is rich in such peculiarities, which makes it a great model to discuss.

During the sessions, we talked about how societal conditions in which people live can impact their language. Cockney is the dialect that appeared due to social disparity. It originated in poor regions of London, and its deviations from Standard English developed due to the insufficient level of education of people. There is a large number of various dialects of English all over the world. However, Cockney is probably the most fascinating in terms of the number of peculiar features. There are dialects that have a few original features but still can be understood by people who do not normally speak them. Understanding Cockney without prior knowledge is rather difficult.

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