Short Analysis of Chevely, or Man of Honor Essay
Updated: Nov 20th, 2019
The paper is an analysis of the symbolism of Rosina Lytton’s work which shows the gender disparities that existed in the Victorian Era exploring the theme of women and specifically wives whose husbands are public figures, and the pain such women had to undergo.
In the opening scene Mowbray beats his wife Julia. However, to conceal the acts of domestic violence her husband makes everyone believe that she has slipped on the floor and that it was an accident. Although the doctor has reservation about the accident, Julia concurs with her husband lies to the doctor about her cause of injury (Lytton 2). One of the symbols used in this book is a mask. At the beginning of the book, Julia has a mask which she wore.
The mask represents the fact that the reality can be concealed so that it will not be seen as it is supposed to be. There are instances where Julia pretended that her marriage was happy even though it was not the case. For instance, when she learnt that her husband was having relationship with other women she pretended that it was not true (Lytton 10). In addition, she masks herself when she has been mistreated and physically injured by concealing that everything happened was an accident though it was not.
Mowbray pretends that she loves Julia although it is not the case as his actions tell otherwise. He is aware that his marriage has problems but wants his way to stay with him and pretends that it is working so that he can gain political favors as a morally upright and family person (Lytton 18).
The author’s symbolic use of mask at the beginning is seen later where the other author shows instances of what the wife is expected to do. The book details how Julia is forced to pretend that everything is well in her family even when she is mistreated. When her husband has other mistresses she is insulted verbally and physically (Lytton 7).
The theme of this book is about women as well as how they were expected to play a secondary role to their husbands no matter their attitude towards their wives. They were expected to remain in their marriages with god-like patience even though it was hurting (Lytton 22). Men unlike women did not follow the same code of behavior and expectations by the society. Mowbray accuses her wife of ill temper as well as separation when his wife violently responds to him after finding him with a mistress (Lytton 27).
Men expect their wives to be patient and silent when they mistreat them yet they tell everyone when they feel that their wives have wronged them as Mowbray did to Julia. Julia goes to the extent of giving her husband money to fund his extravagant lifestyle thinking that it would make him love her more but it results into more problems (Lytton 30).
The book has used irony as a key feature. The character presented in this book deserves an honor. The author has used the title as a symbolism to show that what people see may not always be real. She exposes the life of wives of public figures along with the pain they have to experience as well as betrayal they undergo in order for them to remain married. Rosina’s book serves as a good study of gender disparities that existed in the Victorian Era and provokes one’s mind to think whether there are places where such gender disparities exist.
Lytton, Rosina. Chevely, or Man of Honor. London: Swan Sonnenschein Press, 1839. Print.
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Moll’s Name and clothing as a disguise in Moll Flanders Research Paper
Updated: Nov 14th, 2018
What is the reason for the people’s disguise behind the false names and striking clothes which do not reflect the peculiarities of their personalities? Daniel Defoe is a master of depicting the events close to the reality in his books.
That is why his characters often try to hide behind false names in order to present their ‘true’ stories of life. The female protagonist of Daniel Defoe’s Moll Flanders can use the masks better than anyone else because she is used to live in false reality using the false name and changing different clothes which do not help to emphasize her identity, but only hide her real nature.
Can the false name help to change the destiny? Can different clothes help to become the part of the other social class? The disguise of Moll Flanders’s individuality is her way to the recognition in the society. To understand the meaning of the name for the person’s identity and the meaning of the appearance and clothes for being recognized and accepted in society, it is necessary to analyze the relationship between Moll Flanders’ name, her clothing, and her role in the society.
In his novel, Daniel Defoe presents the story of Moll Flanders as the story of a real woman whose actual name is too common for the public to be reminded once more. Moreover, Moll Flanders also does not want to focus on her real name because people gave her another name.
Now she is known as Moll Flanders. However, what significance for Moll is hidden in this name? Why does she prefer to hide her individuality behind this common name and a number of others which she takes during her life? It is possible to notice that Moll Flanders uses aliases in order to hide her real origin as she hides her real appearance under different clothes.
Moll Flanders understands that to be accepted in society, it is important to look like the representatives of this society and to present oneself as the part of this or that social class. This ‘masquerade’ is complicated with the fact that to gain the definite recognition, it is more significant to be associated with the name of the expensive fabric than to reveal the real name which is known to the lowest social classes.
This research paper on Moll’s Name and clothing as a disguise in Moll Flanders was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
The Picture of Dorian Gray Essay
Updated: Nov 11th, 2018
The Picture of Dorian Gray is one of the most brilliant works as it touches upon really important issues: beauty, sin, love, art, virtue. There are numerous questions to address. One of the most interesting questions is concerned with love. Some may claim that his first and true love is Sibyl Vane. However, I argue that he does not love the poor girl. So, can Dorian’s feelings to Sibyl Vane be regarded as love to a woman? Is Sibyl Vane Dorian’s True Love?
When reading the first passages concerning the poor actress and Dorian’s fascination, it may really seem that the young man falls in love with the beautiful girl. Dorian assures his friend Lord Henry that he really loves Sibyl (Wilde 51). These words make the reader think of the great and pure love of the two young and beautiful creatures. However, it is soon clear that Dorian has no feelings to the girl. He is fascinated by her talent. He loves her inspiration and her devotion to art. The young man is fascinated by a dream, not a girl.
When the girl loses her ability to act, Dorian is disappointed. He is cruel and impatient. He confesses (to himself rather than to Sibyl) that he loved her because she had “genius and intellect”, because she “realised the dreams of great poets and gave shape and substance to the shadows of art” (Wilde 85). It turns out that the only pure love Dorian experiences is love to art, not to a woman.
Therefore, the answer to the question cannot be so definite. Obviously, Dorian does not love the girl. However, he does love Sibyl Vane who is a kind of symbol of greatness of art. Dorian loves the image he creates. He falls in love with his own Sibyl Vane. Thus, Dorian does love Sibyl Vane, but this woman has nothing to do with the material world. This is the symbol of beauty and greatness of art.
I think this is one of the central ideas of the book. In this way Wilde reveals his own views concerning art. Admittedly, Wilde was one of the greatest figures of the movement of aestheticism. The author worshiped art and beauty. This can be vividly seen in the book. Thus, the author reveals his idea that the beauty of a woman is something that passes soon. However, only art is immortal. Dorian is deprived of the ability to love a woman. He can only truly appreciate art and beauty (his own youth and beauty).
I believe art should reflect reality, not vice versa. However, Wilde as well as his creation (Dorian) lived in a somewhat distorted world. Thus, Dorian tries to create an ideal world to live in. He is not interested in real feelings and real happiness. He seeks for phantoms created by the world of art. These ideas corrupt the young man who becomes an evil creature incapable of love or any affection.
Dorian falls in love with a dream and, at the same time, he destroys the beautiful world around him. Did Dorian love Sibyl Vane? The answer is positive. However, this love has nothing to do with material world as Dorian creates his own Sibyl Vane and falls in love with his ideal in his ideal world of beauty and art.
Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray, New York: Penguin Classics, 2003. Print.
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The Power of Moll Flanders’ Name and Clothing in Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe Research Paper
Updated: Nov 11th, 2018
What is the reason for the people’s disguise behind the false names and striking clothes which do not reflect the peculiarities of their personalities? Daniel Defoe is a master of depicting the events close to the reality in his books. That is why his characters often try to hide behind false names in order to present their ‘true’ stories of life.
The female protagonist of Daniel Defoe’s Moll Flanders can use the masks better than anyone else because she is used to live in false reality using the false name and changing different clothes which do not help to emphasize her identity, but only hide her real nature. To understand the meaning of the name for the person’s identity and the meaning of the appearance and clothes for being recognized and accepted in society, it is necessary to analyze the relationship between Moll Flanders’ name, her clothing, and her role in the society.
In his article “Moll’s Many-Colored Coat: Veil and Disguise in the Fiction of Defoe”, Karl accentuates the fact that Moll Flanders’ “assumption of so many protean roles, then, is twofold: connected to her desire to be something she apparently is not and to her will to survive in a society in which traditional values have fallen away” (Karl 89).
Thus, can different names and clothes help to become the part of the other social class? The disguise of Moll Flanders’s individuality is her effective way to the recognition in the society because fake names and clothes can become powerful for changing identities and deceiving people.
The peculiarities of Moll Flanders’ name
The origin of Moll Flanders’ name
In his novel, Daniel Defoe presents the story of Moll Flanders as the story of a real woman whose actual name is too common for the public to be reminded once more.
In the preface of the novel the readers are prepared to encounter a series of disguises “where the Names and other Circumstances of the Person are concealed, and on this Account we must be content to leave the Reader to pass his own opinion” (Defoe 3). However, what significance for Moll is hidden in this name? Why does she prefer to hide her individuality behind this common name and a number of others which she takes during her life?
Moll Flanders does not want to focus on her real name because people gave her another name, and Moll asserts, “These were they that gave me the name of Moll Flanders for it was no more of Affinity with my real name, or with any of the names I had ever gone by…I called myself Mrs. Flanders” (Defoe 179).
Thus, now she is known as Moll Flanders. It is possible to notice that Moll Flanders uses aliases in order to hide her real origin as she hides her real appearance under different clothes. Moll Flanders understands that to be accepted in society, it is important to look like the representatives of this society and to present oneself as the part of this or that social class.
This ‘masquerade’ is complicated with the fact that to gain the definite recognition, it is more significant to be associated with the name of the expensive fabric than to reveal the real name which is known to the lowest social classes (Brown). However, it is rather difficult to state clearly the origin of Moll’s name. It is possible to speak about the name of the “very good Flanders-Lace”, and it is possible to refer to the situations in Moll’s life on which she does not want to focus the reader’s attention (Defoe 240).
The role of the name in the society of the 17th – 18th centuries
To understand Moll Flanders’ motivation not to reveal her real name and try to change her aliases regularly, it is necessary to concentrate on the role of name in the society of the 17th – 18th centuries. Names and titles always were considered as indicators of the persons’ ranks and status in the society, especially in the 17th – 18th centuries. Many people were inclined to struggle for achieving or inheriting their titles and name indicators with the help of trials and different legal procedures.
The aristocratic name gave them the chance to take the higher place in the society and that is why to be recognized as a gentleman or a gentlewoman (Simms). In spite of the fact that such situations were rather typical for the society, Moll Flanders chose another way to use the power of names. Moll Flanders was an easy name which could not be recognized in any social class. Thus, the main Moll’s task was not to be considered as a representative of the lowest class.
A neutral name gave her the opportunity to mislead the public according to the question of her origin the aspects of which she wanted to conceal. When it was necessary for Moll to realize her specific and dishonest ideas, she was able to choose any appropriate name for the definite situation. Thus, the issue of ranks and status was overcome because Moll did not see the necessity of being truthful when it is possible to lie effectively.
The highest classes of society were interested for Moll Flanders, and her inclination to change names reflected her idea to become a gentlewoman. However, her vision of this notion differed from the public’s common opinions. Moll Flanders states these differences as the key aspects of her wish to become a gentlewoman.
Thus, “all I understood by being a gentlewoman was to be able to work for myself, and get enough to keep me without that terrible bugbear going to service, whereas they meant to live great, rich and high, and I know not what” (Defoe 13).
Nevertheless, is she sincere while saying these words? The frankness of Moll Flanders’ considerations about her possible positions in society is a rather controversial question because all her activities were always directed toward gaining more and going higher. That is why different name were often used by Moll Flanders as effective and powerful ways to become closer to her desired social roles.
The names of Moll Flanders as a kind of the disguise and ways to change the life
The readers do not know Moll Flanders’ real name. That is why there is the question of her identity as a real figure or just a fictional character and all the sides and faces of this character. The problem of identity becomes one of the most influential for understanding the aspects of Moll’s behavior.
Introducing herself in the first part of the novel, Moll Flanders also accentuates the fact that she has some difficulties with identifying herself by name and as a person. Thus, she is ready to be just “Moll Flanders, so you may give me leave to speak of myself, under that Name till I dare own who I have been, as well as who I am” (Defoe 7).
Moll Flanders is rather uncertain in her perceiving herself as a real person because of a number of ‘masks’ she is used to wear. Simms accentuates that Moll does not know how “to distinguish between the several masks she takes up to address the readers and that the true self which has a name she will not speak is both more and other than the sum total of the articulate parts” (Simms 82).
Moll Flanders is confused by her constant changing masks, and she lost the understanding of her identity during the process. Nevertheless, what is the reason for changing names and life scenarios? Moll states that “it would be absolutely Necessary to change my station and make a new Appearance in some other Place where I was not known, and even to pass by another Name if I found Occasion” (Defoe 76).
That is why she uses any opportunity to be recognized as another person in order to deceive the other people, to steal, to organize provocative situations, to mislead, and to avoid the penalties. If it is useful for her, she is “like a professional actress ready to try any costume and any role” (Simms 87).
The necessity of living such a dangerous life which is full of adventures and fears to be recognized depends on those life conditions which surrounded Moll since her birth. It seems that the story of her mother’s life and her own life story do not leave Moll any chance to live a virtuous life because, in this case, a virtuous life is a poor life. Moll’s survival greatly depends on her ability to take “the advantages of other people’s mistakes” in order to change the conditions of her miserable living and reach her personal goals (Defoe 268).
Moll Flanders considers lies as the main aspect of her life which can help her be successful and hide her real inner world under a number of false names. Moreover, a false name is a powerful way to defend herself and act as another person:
When Moll lies to victims in her criminal career, suppresses aspects of her fortune to men and women she likes and loves in order to protect herself from future exigencies, prevaricates with the reader in her attempts at self-justification, and mispresents herself to herself for a variety of reasons (Simms 84).
‘Moll Flanders’ is a never-dropped mask which can serve for being recognized in society as a gentlewoman, but at the same time, it is a way to conceal being a poor with dishonest reputation or a successful thief.
Thus, Moll states that her name was known to the public, and her task was to create a good reputation for being known as ‘Moll Flanders’. “They all knew me by the name of Moll Flanders, tho’ even some of them rather believ’d I was she, than knew me to be so; my Name was publick among them indeed” (Defoe 222). Moll’s name should be familiar to the public only with positive connotations that is why she does all possible to realize her adventures under the other names not to attract the public’s attention.
The peculiarities of Moll Flanders’ attitude to clothing
The particular features of the clothes of the 17th – 18th centuries and its role in society
Clothing was always considered as an indicator of social status and ranks because its elements were well known to the public and easily recognized. “Over the centuries clothing has been a mark of the social rank of its wearer; it has also been a striking sign of irreversible social and historical transformation” (Stadler 468).
The clothes of the 17th – 18th centuries could be subdivided into groups according to the social classes. The representatives of definite social classes had the opportunity to wear only that kind of clothes which was typical to accentuate their status.
It was also the question of income because poor people were not able to buy linen or lace. In her article, Stadler states that “cloth and clothing not only constitute visible, ‘countable’ signs of wealth, but the garments themselves, in a strictly stratified society, act as costumes that identify condition and status” (Stadler 469). Thus, wearing this or that dress was a result of following traditions and of the public’s wealth.
Moll Flanders also pays much attention to the clothes when she describes the society. The public’s clothing helps her to identify the persons’ positions and act according to her conclusions:
When I came to receive the money, I brought my governess with me, dressed like an old duchess, and a gentleman very well dressed, who we pretended courted me, but I called him cousin, and the lawyer was only to hint privately to him that his gentleman courted the widow (Defoe 208).
One more peculiar feature of the society of the 17th – 18th centuries was the passion of the highest classes to changing dresses for balls and masquerades which originated from the traditions of the street carnivals and festivals. The wish to change the dress in order to reveal the altered appearance and new acquired traits is typical both for the representatives of the lowest and highest social classes. That is why Moll Flanders used this tendency quite effectively to protect herself from revealing her real face.
The reasons for Moll Flanders’ changing clothes
Why does Moll Flanders use every possibility to change her clothes and play a new role? Clothes can help Moll to act as a wife, a thief, a transported felon, and a beggar. Moreover, clothing is Moll’s chance to attract the public’s attention to her person as a gentlewoman.
To become a gentlewoman is the main goal of Moll who tries to avoid the role which is dictated by the social norms for her since the childhood. Moll does not want to serve as the other young women of the same origin and belonging to the same class. That is why, analyzing the situations in Moll’s life, it is possible to note that “by taking her stand, she has set herself against the social expectations of someone of her low birth” (Karl 89).
Social expectations are also that factor which makes Moll Flanders act with breaking all the norms and expectations. The only thing which is interesting for Moll is her possible wealth, and this wish stimulates her to survive and go directly to her aims. “Her desire to rise, even at the expense of danger, anxiety, dread, flirtation with the hangman, is comparable to her “original sin”, her refusal to serve” (Karl 89).
The easiest ways which can help Moll Flanders survive, and which can lead her to the wealth are lying and stealing. Thus, Moll uses her charms and false clothing to help her steal definite expensive items and seduce men. She is rather perfect in her ability to change the clothes and ‘masks’ because she states that “everything looked so innocent and so honest about me, that they treated me civiler than I expected” (Defoe 181).
The social impact and changes of the clothes and appearance as a kind of a disguise
The most frequent roles which Moll Flanders plays when changing the clothing are a rich woman or a gentlewoman and a criminal, a notorious gifted thief. The first role or ‘mask’ gives Moll a lot of benefits and allow her acting in the highest society. However, the second role of a thief is a challenge to the society and because of a lot of risks Moll has to conceal her personality under the protective cover of the other different clothes.
If it is convenient for her to steal being dressed as a beggar, she does it, if it is convenient for her to mislead people in the clothes of a man, she also does it. In the novel Moll states that when she was proposed to dress up as a man in order to be unobserved and effectively do what she thought over she did it because of the obvious advantages of the situation.
Nevertheless, it is rather difficult to find any distinctive causes for her changes of the clothes besides those which were mentioned. The peculiarities of Moll Flanders origin made her perceive the society and surroundings as the field for struggles and use people and chances to achieve her goals even the methods are dishonest.
Speaking about the peculiarities of Moll Flanders’ character, Karl pays attention to the fact that “she is completely survival-oriented, her disguises are an integral part of her personality, indistinguishable from any ‘center’ we might attribute to her” (Karl 95). The act of changing dresses and using new ‘masks’ becomes one of the main aspects of Moll’s life which allow her being recognized as that person she wants to be, but not to reveal her real nature.
The power of Moll Flanders’ changing names and clothes with references to the social context
Is it possible to preserve one’s identity when it is more important to conceal and protect the personality? Moll Flanders is inclined to change the names and clothes with the same easy. Thus, when she uses a new dress for her job, she presents herself with the help of another name and creates a new legend.
Moll plays a new role in which the necessary changes in name and dress make the image more complete. The influential power which is connected with Moll’s ability to alter the clothes and names is her flexibility. However, is it possible to say that this flexibility is a result of Moll’s lack of ‘center’ in her personality and identity? Karl focuses on the fact that “all her energies are concentrated on appearing to be what she is; at the same time, she has to be careful not be exactly what she appears” (Karl 93).
Nevertheless, Moll’s roles, ‘masks’, and names are her effective ways to overcome the social barriers. According to Stadler, when Moll plays the role of “a gentlewoman wearing a ‘good’ dress and a gold watch or when she is disguised as a man, dress functions as a sign of power, as a false sartorial message of apparent integration within the social hierarchies” (Stadler 469).
Dresses can be used as a perfect instrument for manipulating the public’s minds. Moll successfully uses this instrument with her charms in order to hide her real intentions.
Thus, the chic clothing supported with the necessary names emphasizes her status in society which is just a fake role, but performed effectively. The man’s or beggar’s clothing is the best way to conceal Moll’s appearance and deceive people in order to express the talent of stealing expensive things and treasures. Nevertheless, “Moll is the perpetrator and, often, victim of her own farces. Yet she is driven to creating new roles and re-creating new identities” (Karl 90).
The power of the ‘masquerade’ and hiding the real name under the number of pseudonyms influences Moll Flanders’ feeling of identity. She is powerful enough to mislead any person and to gain the reputation in definite circles for advantageous overcoming difficult situations.
However, she lost herself in all those dresses that she wore in order to become richer and more successful. Moll Flanders is confused by a lot of lies which make the base of her life, and these lies in connection with roles, dresses, ‘masks’, and pseudonyms form the great power which rules Moll’s social and personal life.
Brown, Homer O. “The Displaced Self in the Novels of Daniel Defoe”. ELH 38.4 (1971): 562-590. Print.
Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders, &c (Oxford World’s Classics). USA: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print.
Karl, Frederick R. “Moll’s Many-Colored Coat: Veil and Disguise in the Fiction of Defoe”. Studies in the Novel 5 (1973): 86-97. Print.
Simms, Norman. “A Plain Conviction to the Contrary: Moll Flanders’ Name and Other Lies”. Q/W/E/R/T/Y 7 (1997): 79-88. Print.
Stadler, Eva Maria. “Defining the Female Body within Social Space: The Function of Clothes in Some Early Eighteenth-Century Novels”. Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association 3 (1990): 468-473. Print.
This research paper on The Power of Moll Flanders’ Name and Clothing in Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf Essay
Updated: Nov 18th, 2019
When discussing one of the most well-known novels written by Virginia Woolf, I would like to disclose some fundamentals of her production. First of all, I would like to point out that the techniques the author uses seem to be defensive, as Woolf is known for her feminist views.
In other words, one is to keep in mind that the expressions of anger the author highlights in her novel are related to three issues. Thus, it should be pointed out that aggression in relation to the patriarchy; the aggression male characters express; and Mrs. Ramsay’s aggression are considered to be the key manifestations of anger. Generally, it is also necessary to clarify what reason of the author’s aggression and anger is.
Thus, on the one hand, it seems that Virginia’s description of her parents is negative; however, on the other hand, a deep analysis of the novel gives us an opportunity to suppose that there are no parents who cause the author’s anger, but the oppressive patriarchal system the main characters live within.
When speaking about the language and writing style the author uses, one is to keep in mind that affective and non-semantic qualities of language are rather complicated. Thus, Woolf mostly uses numerous passive constructions, and the pronoun one in her novel.
The extraordinary sentence structure the author uses cannot be neglected too. For instance, when reading the second paragraph of the novel, (a description of Mrs. Ramsay), one can make a conclusion that the writer’s language is also based on numerous parenthetical phrases, clauses as well as modifying constructions.
The gruff murmur, irregularly broken by the taking out of pipes and the putting
in of pipes which had kept on assuring her, though she could not hear what
was said (as she sat in the window which opened on the terrace), that the men were happily talking; this sound, which had lasted now half an hour and had taken its place soothingly in the scale of sounds pressing on top of her, such as the tap of balls upon bats, the sharp, sudden bark now and then, “How’s that? How’s that?” of the children playing cricket, had ceased…. (Woolf 15)
It is not the end of the sentence; generally, this sentence includes 260 words; so, it is obvious that the author’s language is rather difficult to understand. While reading the paragraph, the reader loses the full meaning of the sentence and cannot understand its importance.
On the contrary, such complex constructions transform potentially clear meaning of the fragment into uncertain and delayed meaning. When analyzing Woolf’s language, particularly the second paragraph, it becomes obvious that the words the gruff murmur at the beginning of the sentence determine the main clause.
Other descriptions are considered to be modifying phrases. Had ceased is recognized to be the main verb; however, all, which is placed between the words the gruff murmur and had ceased confuses our mind, as when analyzing emotional associations between the main clause and the main verb, the reader loses the thread of a story. That is why Virginia Woolf’s language is rather complicated.
In spite of the fact that the author’s language is quite complex, nobody will deny the fact that Woolf depicts not only external details, but also important inner feelings of her characters. Thus, she discloses the thoughts and ideas in people’s mind. The novel To the Lighthouse requires the readers’ attention, as the author depicts the current drama of a human existence.
Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse, Fort Washington, PA, Harvest Books: 1989. Print.
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Both Anne Eliot and Rosalind Must Overcome Substantial Obstacles to End Up with the Men They Love. Whose Obstacles Prove the Greater of the Two? Essay
Updated: Apr 27th, 2020
The main female characters Anne Elliot from Persuasion by Jane Austen and Rosalind from As You Like It y Shakespeare have the similar problems and circumstances that prevent them from happy life with their lovers. The timid and composed Anne Elliot finds a number of barriers and faces with the rivals, trying to maintain the hope about the future with her love.
However, the social opinion is too strong and the girl suffers under pressure of people’s influence. As the result, Anne Elliot is close to lose her love, being persuaded by people. On the other hand, Rosalind is intelligent, beautiful girl with a quick wit who presents herself as a leader. This girl is brave and has a strong character.
Although the circumstances in both stories are quite similar and both girls have to fight for their love, Rosalind demonstrates more ability to cope with a number of the problems and to overcome substantial obstacles to end up with the man she loves and, therefore, Rosalind’s obstacles prove that she is greater.
The romance tale Persuasion describes the story of the timid Anne Elliot and exquisite Captain Wentworth. 27-years old Anne is kind, intelligent woman with an elegant mind. In spite of her sisters and father who are selfish and vain, Anne seems more quite and humble. Living in the society where timid people would be rather abandoned than respected, Anne is isolated in her own narrow sphere.
The main characteristic of this heroine is her inclination to be easily persuaded by others. Although she is intelligent and kind, she “was nobody with either father or sister; her word had no weight; her convenience was always to give way; she was only Anne” (Austen). Anne’s young sister is described as the manipulative hypochondriac, spoiled and unkind and the elder one is vain.
Being in the middle of those people, Anne absorbs their negative reactions and words against her own reflections and feeling about Captain Wentworth. He is ready to reject her feelings and lose her love under pressure of influence and persuasion. In this context, Anne can be considered as the girl without any strengths of character. Her family members are dominated over her.
Although Anne is a heroine of the novel; the real heroine is a girl who can protect her points of view and feelings and who is ready to struggle against the social opinion. Thus, Rosalind, the character of the comedy As You Like It, demonstrates a will to control her life by herself.
Rosalind is the daughter of Duke Senior who was banished. She demonstrates herself as the adventurous girls who angers her uncle and runs away from his court to the Forest of Arden, trying to get more freedom. She disguises and changes the name, pretending to be a man named Ganymede. In this way, she wants to protect her life, because woman is more vulnerable. She understands that, in her age, girl should be more passive and silent:
A gallant curtle-axe upon my thigh,
A boar-spear in my hand; and – in my heart
Lie there what hidden woman’s fear there will –
We’ll have a swashing and a martial outside,
As many other mannish cowards have
That do outface it with their semblances. (Shakespeare)
Shakespeare created very interesting and new character that does not scared to make fun of the difficult circumstances and people. Obviously, Rosalind has a very strong character and this girl knows how to overcome substantial obstacles to end up with her love; moreover, she knows how to resist all barriers in her life and to withstand the negative influences and opinions. In fact, she does not care about any opinion; this girl is too strong to be dominated or persuaded by someone.
The relationships between Rosalind and Orlando open the conversation about the gender roles within the society. The challenges that the characters face during the comedy motivate them to change the typical gender roles.
There are the strong preconceptions about their relationships within the usual society of the court. However, Rosalind does not want to give up and to submit to the public opinion. Rosalind pretends that she is a man and, in fact, she does it well. She is very self-aware and, obviously, much more strong than Anne Elliot.
Even in the matters of love, Rosalind demonstrates that she has a cool head and wants to prove her power. When Orlando claims that he will die without her, she answers that “men have died from time to time, and/ worms have eaten them, but not for love” (Shakespeare). One can notice that Rosalind seems quite cynical and sometimes treats her lover in a way that, on her opinion, seems funny; however, Orlando suffers a lot.
Thus, when Orlando says that he will love her forever, Rosalind answers “no, no, Orlando;/ men are April when they woo, December when they wed:/ maids are May when they are maids, but the sky/ changes when they are wives” (Shakespeare). In spite of majority of girls, Rosalind does not want to hurry up with marriage and supposes that, after marriage, Orlando will lose his interest so fast.
On the other hand, Anne Elliot seems less realistic and more dreamer. Obviously, even when the circumstances seem complicated and insoluble, it is better to fight. Only one who struggle for his happiness, will get it.
However, Anne Elliot prefers to be dominated by people and suffers alone. Such way of life which is possible for Rosalind is absolutely unreal for Anne. She cannot imagine herself fighting and protecting her opinion. It is evident that such person would be always a puppet in the hands of others. She does not try to make the steps towards her love; she just waits for her fate.
However, all other characters do not want to make her happy. To some extent, they enjoy of the process to control Anne’s life and get the advantage from it. In any case, Anne is a positive character. Comparing with other characters, she is the most sympathetic one. However, her incapability to be strong and independent makes her less interesting as the main hero. Many people can consider her as a victim of the circumstances. However, in fact, her problems are caused by the weak character.
At the same time, Anne is the person who can understand people and to empathize them. Therefore, everyone wants to share with her and to get the advice and support. Why then she is unable to improve her own life? Anne loses the man of her dreams, being persuaded by Lady Russell who says that only one right way is to leave Captain. In spite of the emotional pain, Anne does it and tries to devote her life to the care about nephew and help other people. She is ready to die alone as an old maid.
She does not expect that one day Captain Wentworth will back to her life; she does not keep the hope and just accepts the life she has now. Driven by the good intentions, Anne Elliot forgets about her own needs and sacrifices her life. However, it is now clear why and what for she does this action. Who will get the advantage of it? And, moreover, if she married Captain, she would be able to continue doing the good affairs as before.
Although both Anne Elliot from Persuasion by Jane Austen and Rosalind from As You Like It y Shakespeare face the problems and have the similar circumstances that do not allow them to reunion with their loves, although, in both situations, the social opinion is against them, the girls demonstrate different reaction and act in different way.
While Anne Elliot is persuaded by other people and leaves her loved man due to the persuasion of Lady Russell, Rosalind does not give up and escapes from the uncle’s court, pretending that she is a man.
Even the girls’ attitudes to their lover are different: Rosalind plays with Orlando, demonstrating her independence, while Anne Elliot is dependent on everything and everyone. This girl sacrifices her life and neglects her feelings. She prefers to suffer than to struggle and fight for her happiness. Therefore, obviously, the way how Shakespeare’s Rosalind overcomes the obstacles proves that is greater one; her problems are bigger, but she copes with them.
Austen, Jane. Persuasion. Gutenberg.net. Web.
Shakespeare, William. As You Like It. Gutenberg.net. Web.
This essay on Both Anne Eliot and Rosalind Must Overcome Substantial Obstacles to End Up with the Men They Love. Whose Obstacles Prove the Greater of the Two? was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
Taking Credit for Writing Essay
Updated: Nov 6th, 2018
The Secret Agent is one of the most famous novels by Joseph Conrad. It addresses such disputable issues as anarchism and terrorism. Admittedly, these topics have acquired special attention after the tragedy in New York in 2001. It is possible to focus on various aspects of the issues mentioned above. For instance, some may claim that Mr. Verloc is an exemplary anarchist. Others may argue that he is more like a terrorist. So, is Mr. Verloc a terrorist or an anarchist?
In the first place, it is necessary to define the notions. This will help to understand whether the protagonist of the novel is an anarchist or a terrorist. Thus, anarchists ignore rules and conventions. They believe that absence of rules can lead societies to the true development. Of course, capitalistic societies are believed to be weak, unjust and wrongful.
Mr. Verloc is a member of an anarchist group. The members of the group believe that “only preparing, organizing, enriching, making ready the lawful inheritance of the suffering proletariat” people can establish a new and rightful order (Conrad 37).
However, Mr. Verloc is unlikely to be an anarchist. He may articulate some anarchist ideas and he can even seem to be an anarchist. Nonetheless, he is not an anarchist proper. Conrad depicts him as a “thoroughly domesticated” man (4). Mr. Verloc runs a shop which means he is a part of the capitalistic system. He is married and he has quite ordinary social life. He is not an outlaw. He is a part of the system; he is one of those who follow rules and conventions.
As far as terrorists are concerned, these people seek for the opportunity to promote their ideas in a very cruel manner. Terrorists tend to attract people’s attention via such acts as damaging some property (e.g. exploding something) or killing innocent people. The major principle is: the more people are killed or the more damage is caused the better for terrorists.
However, Mr. Verloc can hardly be called a terrorist. He makes the bomb explode, but he wants no victims. In fact, Mr. Verloc can be called a terrorist who never “in his life raised personally as much as hiss little finger against the social edifice” (Conrad 36). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that Mr. Verloc is not much of a terrorist.
Thus, Mr. Verloc is not an anarchist, but he is not a terrorist either. This man simply tries to seem what he is not. In fact, he can be regarded as one of those who find themselves in conditions which force them to act in a specific way. Conrad manages to depict those people who are simply exposed to different dangerous ideas. The talented writer warns that such dangerous ideas can lead to terrible consequences.
Thus, the protagonist of the novel is killed because of his playing dangerous games. The protagonist’s life and especially his death is a great illustration of Conrad’s views on terrorism and anarchism. Mr. Verloc’s dearth can be deciphered in the following way: terroristic methods and anarchist values are doomed to fail as they are wrongful.
Anarchist values are delusive as anarchy can lead to destruction. Terroristic ways are also doomed as they do not draw people’s attention to some agendas, they provoke reactions which also lead to destruction (terrorist are generally found and punished).
Conrad, Joseph. The Secret Agent. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2004. Print.
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Jane Austen’s ‘The text of Persuasions’ from a cultural stand point Research Paper
Updated: Nov 4th, 2018
Jane Austen’s novel titled Persuasion is a captivating must-read chef-d’oeuvre that presents an expression of the profound concerns she raised about the use of persuasion and the levels at which individuals use it in her society. Persuasion has proved a working tool based on how it influences an individual’s choices.
Although the book was tilted by her brother after she died, persuasion as a title suits it as the working theme of the entire story. Therefore, from a cultural point of view, as the paper exposes, Jane Austen highlights in the book her deep-seated concerns on cultural flaws through the voice of the heroine that determined the choices and the moral suasion of young women in her days.
Jane Austen recognized that the society she lived had flaws some of which deserved moral questioning but remained unquestioned. Although she was herself lucky to receive a quality education, which led her to start her writings early in her life, Jane Austen, in this novel, expresses her concerns about the various flaws in the society through the story of the heroine Anne Elliot and entire Elliot’s family. In this society, a person’s identity was majorly based on class and not other factors that matter in the contemporary society such as intellect, ambition and abilities.
For instance, choosing a suitor for a woman who wanted to marry was principally based on class. Seven years prior to the opening events in the story, Anne Elliot who was in love with the young navy officer by the name Fredrick Wentworth was persuaded to leave him on the basis that he was poor and did not belong to the gentry. This aspect of viewing people based on their social standing is among the cultural issues at the time that Jane Austen was raising concerns against in her book.
As the documentation of her life reveals, Jane Austen refuses to be part of the machinery with which people around her made their decisions. The character Anne Elliot was influenced trough persuasion by her confidante to break the engagement with Fredrick Wentworth who later came into her life with his context totally changed and this time rich and successful. Anne Elliot struggles with her emotions and attraction to Fredrick when they later meet while staying with the Crofts.
Fredrick had never forgiven her for rejecting him as it is revealed by the uncomplimentary comment he issues about Anne’s changed appearance. It is this social branding that trouble people later in their lives that Jane Austen was highlighting in the novel. To Jane Austen, persuasion faces moral dangers, as the decisions made afterward may not be to the person’s interest in the future.
In Jane Austen’s society as depicted in ‘persuasions’, a person’s place in the society was different from the manner it is in today’s society. An individual was not considered as so but as a social being whose place was influenced by their conduct and interactions with other people in the society. Manners were considered extraordinarily vital in depicting a person’s worth in the society.
Fredrick Wentworth is an admirable character in the book majorly because of his manners and an appealing character. Social interaction, which was the upheld expression in Jane Austen’s time, has been replaced by individualism. Appearing as a civilized person and upholding a strong sense were key factors for one to be considered as acceptable in the society. In choosing marriage partners, women had to look for suitors who fully conformed to a culturally set criterion.
The role of the family to an individual, when making personal decisions, is highlighted by Jane in her book. In her society, when a woman wanted to marry, she had to seek advice from family members and take the opinions of the family members into keen consideration.
According to Weissman, the character Anne Elliot made the decision to reject the marriage offer from the then young and poor Fredrick Wentworth after she was persuaded by her late mother’s confidante and her close friend the widow woman Russell (289). A person’s personal decision affected the entire family structure. That called for the need to make consultations whenever such a decision was to be made.
Inviting Fredrick Wentworth to become a member of the family would interfere with the family esteem and their reputation as the gentry. In today’s society, a person makes a choice based on his/her personal interests without putting into consideration what people would say about the family. In matters to do with love, putting the opinions of others into consideration does not hold for many people. Ownership of property in Austen’s society was mainly determined by the family in which a man was born.
Women in the 18th century were considered to be only in charge of the private lives while, on the other hand, men were considered determinants of the public affairs.
As a result, women were not entitled to equal opportunities as men in that society. Jane Austen had the rare opportunity of receiving education through her father who was a member of the clergy. Women in that society were, therefore, not able to own property or even inherit from their fathers. Therefore, marriage was left as the only way through which a woman could change her social standing in the society.
Through the depiction of the character of Anne Elliot as an intelligent and a courageous woman, Jane Austen introduces the notion of women as capable of doing the things that men are capable of and consequently triggered the women rights advocacy that came later. Anne administers first aid to Louisa when everyone else including Fredrick Wentworth just stood aside and watched thinking that she is dead. The place of the woman in that society is depicted as mainly indoors is challenged in ‘persuasions’.
Through Anne Eliot’s words, Austen makes a remark about the women’s condition as living under the mercy of males and only recording history. “Men have had every advantage of us in telling their own story…the pen has been in their hands, and I will not allow books to prove anything” (Spacks 277).
Anne Elliot is the first character that Jane Austen used in her work that is well past the bloom of youth and yet hopeful for a love filled future life. Jane Austen writes, “Anne longed for the power of representing to them all what they were about and of pointing out some of the evils they were exposing themselves to and she did not attribute guile to any” (Spacks 279). The happy conclusion of the book places it among the best fairy tales, which uplifts the woman and portrays the woman’s eminent victory in the end.
In cases where England was involved in warfare, this was considered as just a war of making a fortune. There was no discussion before this as to whether gaining through engaging in warfare was ethical. Young men whose situations would not allow them to inherit joined the army to make a living. Fredrick Wentworth was rejected on the basis that she did not possess the economic and social status qualifications and so he decided to join the navy to be able to change his situation.
“The navy, I think, who have done so much for us, and have at least an equal claim with any other set of men, for all the comforts and all the privileges which any home can give. Sailors work hard enough for their comforts, we must all allow”(Johnson 280). The morality of gaining through conquering other people was not questioned before Jane Austen wrote ‘persuasions’. Jane Austen’s brothers significantly succeed in the Royal Army.
Therefore, based on the expositions made in the paper, persuasion stands out as the means that Austen used to address the then society’s cultural weaknesses. She assertively urged women of her time to accord her the due support to fight the intolerable cultural issues that had taken hold of the then society.
Considering the time when Jane Austen wrote ‘Persuasions’, there was the belief that the English society, as well as the English institutions, were superior to others from anywhere else in the world. Jane Austen, therefore, pioneered the struggle for the change of cultural norms that were elevated by these institutions. Otherwise, Jane Austen’s Persuasion is an informative piece of masterwork.
Johnson, Claudia. The Unfeudal Tone of the Present Day. The text of persuasion. The Text of Persuasion. New York: Norton, 1995. Print.
Spacks, Patricia. Anne Elliot’s Education: The learning of romance in persuasion. The Text of Persuasion. New York: Norton, 1995. Print.
Weissman, Cheryl. Doubleness and Refrain in Jane Austen’s Persuasion, The text of Persuasion. New York: Norton, 1995. Print.
This research paper on Jane Austen’s ‘The text of Persuasions’ from a cultural stand point was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.
Religious hypocrisy in Dublin and Nationalism Research Paper
Updated: Nov 6th, 2018
Initially published in 1914, Dublin collects 15 short stories all Written by James Joyce. Virtually all the stories carry a bulky reflection of the middle class life encounters in the beginning years of the 20th century in Ireland around Dublin. Coincidentally, around this time Ireland was undergoing intensive process of nationalism awareness.
Consequently, the process of searching for a common national identity was at the peak. Various ideas coupled with influences afflicted the much-needed balance between culture and history. It is in these contexts that perhaps the Joyce’s perceptions of epiphany: a period within which some certain characters become illuminated, forms an essential trait of all the short stories contained in Dublin.
The initial stories in the larger extent reflect children protagonists. The latter stories, however, progress to address stories of gradually older people indicative of transitory stages of life: childhood, adolescence and later maturity. It is argued in the paper that stage of life of an individual is a key determiner of an individual’s perceptions of nationalism. The concern of this paper is, however, on children protagonist stories: The Encounter and The Sisters.
National symbols are significant for young people to ape from in pursuits of inculcation of nationalism spirit. However, reading The Sisters, from Dublin creates a different impression. In fact, The Sisters present tantalizing mysteries. As Benstock argues, the priest is in near state of mind breakdown as he is in the verge of losing the faith that he proclaimed in the church (32).
In this context, it stands out significant to argue that church give rise to a dangerous corrosive force. The short story provides a literary comparison of father Flynn and a boy whose name is widely not mentioned. The priest, having being relieved of the noble tasks of priesthood, acts as the mentor of the boy. The story onsets initiates by reflections of flashbacks of a boy who attempts to come into terms with illness and demise of father Flynn.
As Norris puts it, borrowing from the “flashbacks and memories scattered through the story, Father Flynn is shown to have been an intellectual priest strong religious vocation, but unable to cope with the mundane daily routine of being a parish priest – which finally led to his collapse” (Norris Suspicious readings of Joyce’s Dubliners 12).
The boy, being the narrator of the story, is an admirer of farther Flynn and closely profiled his traits and advices. However, the boy later feels immense pity coupled with guilt for not having checked on him as his days neared to end.
From the child’s environment, father Flynn is depicted in the short story as a hero and a likely vessel for propulsion of positive qualities of a real nationalist. Nevertheless in the adulthood environment: which is concealed from the narrator, father Flynn emerges as a complete failure.
As Benstock reckons, “his death is regarded with relief… considered to have been a miserable example from which the boy must be preserved” (33). His death consequently, widely curtails the extension and imitation of destructive influences to the society: erosion of religious values coupled with lose of faith.
The boy contemplates the word “gnomon” in relation to “paralysis” and “simony”. This depicts the story as reflective of priesthood approaches of the East from which father Flynn defers. In this context, “gnomon” stands out as, not just a symbol erosion of faith, but also forecast that young people under mentorship of people like father Flynn are likely to have Eastern influences (Norris Suspicious readings of Joyce’s Dubliners 104).
Joyce, despite being born in a strong Christian religious catholic family remained as a pessimist of religious hypocrisy. Through The Sisters, it is perhaps evident that Joyce advocates the replacement of religious values as they relate to the determination of peoples role models by liberal and intellectual mentors. This being the way forward to achievement of a subtle state of nationalism widely sort by Ireland in the early twentieth century.
Joyce extended the theme of religious battles to The Encounters from The Sisters. Somewhat similar to The Sisters, The Encounters” is also narrated a by a boy. The boy and his friend go to seek adventure in the shores. The boy claims, “The mimic warfare of the evening became at last as wearisome to me as the routine of school in the morning because I wanted real adventures to happen to myself.
But real adventures, I reflected, do not happen to people who remain at home: they must be sought abroad” (Bloom 38). In this context, the story brings into the lime light the people’s perception about external influences in the definition of their nationalism with what Ireland was battling.
The larger concern of the short story is based on a trip. Through the trip, the boy encounters numerous social events. Although he is at an early phase of his life, he can come into terms with some of the situations that involved segregation and subdivision of the national population into distinct groups. As a way of exemplification, some boys “are mistaken for Protestants by local children” (Norris Dubliners: Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism 258).
The boy narrator also appreciates that he notices that some children were enormously poor and “ragged”. Arguably, church retained hypocrisy by the fact that they acerbated the perception that by belonging to a differing religious denomination makes people different from their counterparts, yet they live in one nation. The feeling of oneness is also from another dimension impaired by the economic and social disparities in The Encounter.
While religious leaders in The Sisters are depicted as being insubordinate influences to young people, in The Encounters, on the other hand, old people who are supposed to act as the mentors of young people are pinpointed as being a real source of counterfeit influences. When the boy and his friend Mahoney decides to go exploring Dublin and fails to get anything funny they encounter an old man. As the story unfolds, the old man is an ideal sexual pervert.
The man exposes enormous sexual fantasies to the boy who does not know that such things existed. As a repercussion, the boy gets so frightened. “At one point, the man excuses himself, and it is implied that he touches himself before returning to the boys” (Norris Dubliners: Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism 301). However, there is no explicit textual proof provided to deduce that the man engages in masturbation. This perhaps extends the Joyce’s use of the gnomon as evidenced in many of her short stories.
In conclusion, Joyce’s short stories that utilize the children protagonists give the feeling that old people serve within the society as corrupt influences to the young people. Those who are supposed to mentor them introduce religious prejudices, hypocrisy and undue social behavior to children at an early age.
Dublin tales present a society struggling to establish a harmonizing environment for religious differences like protestant and catholic violence, blazing Irish poverty and other discriminatory perceptions. Arguably, these constitute substantial impediments to perceptions of nationalism by the virtue that they erode the spirit of national unity.
Benstock, Bernard. “The Sisters and the Critics.” James Joyce Quarterly 4.1(1966): 32–35. Print.
Bloom, Harold. James Joyce’s Dubliners. New York: Chelsea House, 1988. Print.
Norris, Margot. Dubliners: Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism. New York: Norton, 2006. Print.
Norris, Margot. Suspicious readings of Joyce’s Dubliners. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania press, 2003. Print.
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Why the Story of Beowulf Focuses on the History of the Main Character as a Hero Rather Than a King Research Paper
Updated: Jul 1st, 2020
In writing a story, the author usually has an underlying reason as to why he laid out the story in a particular way. In most cases, however, it is left to the a reader to point out why the story was written the way it was. The story of Beowulf, to a great extent, focuses on the history of the main character as a hero as opposed to a king. Depending on the reader’s understanding, a number of reasons could be linked to the author’s decision.
When going through the poem, what immediately stands out is that as much Beowulf had been born a prince, it was his courage and adventures that made him the man he became. And the deduction that leads to this conclusion is simply because one can be born in a royalty or even get anointed into it, but as long as his life is spent within the confines of the castle, his story becomes pointless to tell.
From the beginning of the story, where Beowulf travels to Denmark to help in dealing with the monstrous evil that is Grendel and his (Grendel’s) mother, one can tell that he is destined for greatness, and his path sets ground for a story that can be retold for generations. It even makes it interesting to read his preparation for the battles, as illustrated by the example below:
Beowulf got ready, donned his war-gear, indifferent to death; his mighty, hand-forged, fine-webbed mail would soon meet with the menace underwater. It would keep the bone-cage of his body safe, [His helmet] was of beaten gold, princely headgear hooped and hasped by a weapon-smith who had worked wonders (Williamson and Shippey 12 ).
Another school of thought can point to the fact that the story of Beowulf came out the way it did, purely by default. This is because Beowulf spent a lot of his noticeable public time dealing with monsters and dragons, amongst other dangers, than he spent on administrative chores. This, in effect, makes the story of his life easy to tell by analyzing his landmark victories as opposed to how great he was at drafting his country’s policies, if he did.
On his return to his kingdom, Beowulf again finds himself tackling a vicious dragon. With the assistance of one of his kinsmen, he manages to take it down, ultimately rescuing an entire people. To ensure that his legend lives on, the author allows Beowulf to die, a heroic death. With little attention given to the place of Beowulf in society, the author of the poem makes him more relatable with all and sundry.
The poem becomes more interesting when anyone who reads it can easily mistake Beowulf for any hero, who rose from the ground to build a name for himself, only to realize that he was actually born great, and he made himself unforgettable. This is well illustrated by the eulogy presented at the end of the poem.
O flower of warriors, beware of that trap. Choose, dear Beowulf, the better part, eternal rewards. Do not give way to pride. For a brief while your strength is in bloom but it fades quickly; and soon there will follow illness or the sword to lay you low, or a sudden fire or surge of water or jabbing blade or javelin from the air or repellent age. Your piercing eye will dim and darken; and death will arrive, dear warrior, to sweep you away (Williamson and Shippey 186).
In conclusion, it is worth noting that the story of Beowulf was meant to be an epic, illustrating the man’s desire to fight for his people. As such, it could only make sense if it was told in such a way that illustrates how the man came to be very popular with his people than looking at the man’s activities after he had been confirmed a king. Of importance to note is that because the author of the poem did not make an effort to explain his intentions or flows of thought when writing the poem, any reasons given are speculative.
Williamson, Craig and Tom Shippey., trans. Beowulf and Other Old English Poems. 2nd
Edition. Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. Print.
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