President Abraham Lincoln
My name is Abraham Lincoln. I was born on February 12 in 1809 in Hodgenville, Kentucky. I am most known for the emancipation proclamation, becoming the 16th President of the United States, and ending slavery. Before all of this, I led a peaceful life on a farm for the first 7 years of my life. Then 1816 rolled around, and my father Thomas had us move beyond the Ohio River to Indiana. Kentucky was a slave state. My father considered this immoral, as do I.
The soil we had was also not ideal among other things; it made most sense to leave. For the next few years, my father, mother Nancy Lincoln, and my sister Sarah settled in a place called little pigeon creek. Place I would learn to call home. Life was rather boring for the next few years.
A few years rolled by, my mother’s death resulted in father’s remarriage and my new mother Sarah entering my life, along with her children becoming my siblings.
She enrolled me in school, somewhere I finally felt like I belonged. I mostly learned things from self-reading, but being able to speak publicly and talk to new people in a new place was the most fun I had ever had. I was unable to explore my new interests as freely I’d like however. My father required me for farm work, which I dreaded.
By 1830, we left Indiana for Illinois, for new fertile land. At 21, being six foot four, I was always in demand on the farm, but I was about ready to try something new. That’s when I went to New Salem. The whig party in Illinois shared many views as I did regarding slavery and the expansion of the United States, so I gave them my support. They won the state legislature in 1834. After shop keeping, I decided to start taking things seriously. I always enjoyed the art of captivating an audience, and I have a great respect for the legal system, so I started self studying law. Every piece of knowledge I had unrelated to farming was practically learned through self studying, as no one could teach me things as good as myself. I started practicing law in 1836.
After moving to Springfield, Illinois, I took my practice more seriously. Serving anyone who would pay me. Didn’t matter how big or small. People started calling me ‘Honest Abe’. I’ll admit, it did have a ring to it. I met the love of my life here, Mary Todd. After complications, we eventually married in 1842. I could not be happier.
I became congressman for Illinois 1846, but I was unpopular, and returned back to Springfield in 1849. Stephen Douglas in 1854 was fighting for slavery to be territorially voted. I couldn’t stand this and reentered politics. After debates and a lost senate election, in May 1860, I was chosen as the presidential candidate for the republican party. My skills in debating made me popular among the politicians, despite my lack of experience. A familiar face, Douglas was my adversary in this election, but I managed to prevail over him and Breckenridge of the south. I was inaugurated in March 1861 as the 16th President.
During this time, there was a great divide between the North and the south, which had broken off as the ‘Confederate’ States of America. They were pro-slavery. There was a war taking place, and I studied strategy and tactics in order to assist best I can, helping the north, now known as the ‘Union’.
There were thousands of Americans ready to serve our country for the rights of their freedom, so on January 1st,1863, I issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which allowed all African-Americans to serve in our Army and Navy. I met with a man I do admire, Frederick Douglass on August 10, 1863 to discuss full equality of Africans. He was mostly self taught, like me. On November 19th of this same year, I delivered a speech in Gettysburg, dedicated to the lives of the soldiers lost. For liberty and respect to those who died fighting, for the freedom of our fellow men.
By January 31st, 1865, the 13th Amendment was approved by congress to abolish slavery, and is sent for ratification. The war went on until April 9th, when General Robert E. Lee of the confederate army had finally surrendered, and our long fought battle for true freedom, no matter what the color of your skin, was finally achieved. The 13th amendment is to be ratified soon. As a celebration, Mary Todd and I are heading out to see a play, ‘Our American Cousin’. In these closing moments, we must stay in unity, and liberty. Principles this nation was founded on. I will keep striving to reach these principles.
Abraham Lincoln’s Life and Presidency
Abraham Lincoln’s life before the Presidency was not that of an average person. With losing his mother at a young age, lacking formal education as he worked to support his family and with his father, facing lawsuit challenges that would eventually force his family to migrate multiple times. This would not seem like a successful path to becoming the sixteenth President of the United States. Throughout his younger years, Abraham Lincoln would try an assortment of occupations, volunteered for the Black Hawk War (1832) and then eventually finding that law was his true passion (Current, 2020).
He later became a supporter of the Whig Party, which then propelled his desire for politics and law.
With his upbringing, understanding of what hard work was and a determination like no other he was able to realign his course to success. Among his drive, confidence and work ethic, he was able to teach himself grammar and mathematics, but more impressive he was a self-taught lawyer, who would ultimately pass the written examination and start practicing law.
During his career, he quickly gained a reputation being one of the best lawyers in the nation, as well as a reputation for being honest, diligent and smart. Abraham Lincoln’s speaking ability was one of his strongest attributes that would ultimately direct his sights towards the political spectrum.
The next few years would be playing a much larger role in Abraham Lincoln’s path to the presidency. He would go on winning an election for a seat in House of Representatives for the Whig party in 1846, but he would only serve one term due to unpopularity views of his stance and the Mexican American War. During his term, he would also make it known for the first time he opposes slavery (Brooks, 2018). This would ultimately lead him back to Springfield Illinois where he would resume practicing law.
During Abraham Lincoln’s time practicing law, he never lost his true desire for politics. About five years later, he would find himself in the political spotlight yet again. This time he would be campaigning for a seat within the Senate, which would result in a loss. The following year he would campaign for a seat in Senate, resulting in a second loss in a row. Throughout his second campaign, he would have multiple debates that would eventually make his name known across the country and Republican Party. Though he lost the election, he had won the hearts of many Americans through his speeches.
Leading into the early 1860’s Abraham Lincoln would continue to address the public with inspiring speeches, resulting in the nomination for President at the Republican National Convention (Brooks, 2018). Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States on November 6th, 1860. He would win against the same man that he had lost to in the race for Senate, Stephen Douglas. He would be the 16th President to serve, but the first to serve when the country was almost at its worst in history. The electoral votes split almost in half amongst the Northern and Southern states of the country, parallel to how the states viewed slavery. This would also be the tipping point where the Southern states wanted to secede from the Union (Levy, 2019).
The Civil War would begin shortly after President Lincoln took office, leaving him with some major obstacles to overcome. He reluctantly took on the issue of slavery, as his primary focus at the time was to save the union. The Civil War would continue for four more years, where he would finally sway towards the idea of freeing all slaves. Until then he would have only signed one act that abolished slavery within the District of Columbia. During the Civil War President Lincoln would go on to sign and issue the Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves.
Abraham Lincoln: The Epitome of the Common Man
Some people wonder how Abraham Lincoln is so great to hold the title as the Epitome of The Common Man. Abraham Lincoln is the Epitome of the Common Man because of his past characteristics, use of characteristics during presidency, and the consequences of his characteristics. His past characteristics played a major part in him becoming the president. Without some of the great characteristics from the start he probably would not have became the 16th president. Another way he used his characteristics in a major way is by using them during his presidency.
His characteristics played a major role towards the blood thirsty Civil War. As the the quote says with every good thing their is a consequence you have to face along with it” Lincoln has a lot of depictions that represent how great his characteristics are. In Young Mr. Lincoln he has a couple of scenes that show some of his great characteristics. Statues inside the United States and outside the country represent his characteristics as well.
How Abraham Lincoln past characteristics help him became the 16th president of the United States?
As a young boy he was big on moral and mental growth. He believed in principles of right and wrong and always tried to get people to make the right decision instead of making the wrong decision. Also he believed that peoples emotional and intellectual response was more important than physical responses. He had charisma and was a people person which was very helpful towards becoming the president because of his ability to tell stories and to be able to strike up a conversation where ever people gathered. Good communication is a major quality to help him become the president.
He went to a lot of social gatherings that made him well known made much easier for him to become president. His task as a young boy shows he was responsible because he did things like run errands, bring in wood and water, weeding the garden, picking grapes and wild berries, and dropping the seeds at planting time. Lincoln had ancestors that were self- reliant, very moderate, respected by their neighbors. This why should not expect any less from Lincoln he is self reliant by showing himself how to read and learn things on his on instead of expecting school to teach him.
Lincoln was very moderate because even though a lot of people liked him did not make him become arrogant. Lincoln was respected by a lot of people because if they did not respect him they would not have listen to what he had to say. Abraham Liconln’s mom Nancy Lincoln was very intelligent, deeply religious, kindly, and affectionate. He picked up some of his mothers characteristics. Lincoln was very intelligent by learning so much about law that he was able to become a lawyer.
He was deeply religious because he read the bible on the regular basis and was committed to god but he did not consider himself that religious. He was very kind as in a scene in Young Mr. Lincoln he offers a family money to buy fanning shirts and Lincoln says keep the money and they do not have to repay him back, which he did that out of the kindness of his heart. Abraham Lincoln was persistent because even though he failed to to get United States Senate twice he eventually kept trying and became president.
According to New Salem friend Mentor Graham noted that Mr. Lincoln wrote letters for his less literate friends. Lincoln said to Graham that “he learned to see other people thoughts and feelings and ideas by writing their friendly confidential letters. ” Lincoln was part of the Whig party from 1830s to 1856. The Whig party promoted internal improvements, such as roads, canals, railroads, and deepening of rivers. The Whig Party was disintegrated after 1856, then Lincoln decided to join the Republican Party because his fellow Whig companions.
Being in the Whig Party ( Now Republican Party) helped Abraham Lincoln build on his politician characteristics. Abraham Lincoln worked as a ferry man on the Ohio River in Indiana. Which allowed him to come in contact with a lot of people from other parts of the country and world. Which means the more people that he knew the more people knew of him. According to Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial website Lincoln was elected Illinois House of Representatives in 1834, where he served three terms. Being in the House of Representatives helped build his politician skills as well.
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial suggest that he partially gained national prominence through debates with Stephen A. Douglas on the issue of slavery. Slavery being a major issue during that time period it makes logical sense how it made him widely popular and one step closer to becoming the president. He showed courage during his president years because he had to face problems of the Civil War by dealing with dissolution of the nation and issues with slavery. Also had to have courage to deal with politicians that did not agree with his views.
With Lincoln being so adventurous, on one of his trips he learned that the Mississippi River enabled people to transport goods through New Orleans to the world, which became very useful during the Civil War for the Union Armies. Lincoln bright idea became useful to the Union Armies because it allowed troops and supplies to travel deep into the South, which made it very hard for the Confederacy to survive. He showed humility by still being humble even though he had the highest position you can ever obtain as a man which is the president of the United States. Read about conflict in Salem the witchcraft trials compromise
He carried his ideals through instead of letting the president position or power get to his head. Lincoln used humor to his advantage by making his opponents laugh so he would not have to argue or fight and offer to become friends. He also used humor in his short stories and memorable quotes. To get his ideals across to his cabinet he would articulate rather then demand his associates. It shows that he was a good articulator too because he was good at getting the 13th amendment passed even though a lot of people wanted to keep their slaves.
Abraham Lincoln shows paradox during his term of presidency. He shows paradox by having slaves, but at same time trying to abolish slavery, then eventually fully believing in abolishing slavery all together by suggestion the 13th amendment. According to the website what makes a great president “for a president to be effective has to have a strategic vision and a direction in which the president wants to lead the country”. Abraham strategic vision and direction was to unify the nation and fix the issues of slavery.
Another characteristics of a great president according to what makes a great president is “the consistency of purpose but a willingness to change strategy in moments of crisis. ” Abraham Lincoln demonstrates this characteristic by at first only abolishing slavery just to unify the union but eventually changed the strategy to abolishing slavery for the good of the slaves as well. What makes a great president website suggest that “when a president is so great that the legacies have been left to the next current president. Lincoln was considered a great president because after he did the next current president benefited off what Lincoln did. Emotional intelligence is another characteristic of a great president according to what makes a great president website. Lincoln demonstrates emotional intelligence by separating his personal feelings from analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of his colleagues. Even though he was put into depression moments he knew that he could not doubt the outcome and had to come very comfortable with his decisions, which showed he was very self – reliant.
Another characteristic suggested by what makes a great president website is “a president is a recognition that the responsibility of leadership causes a president to have a healthy respect for public opinion, but not to be dictated to by opinion polls. ” Abraham Lincoln demonstrates this characteristic by always using positive propaganda, never using racism, and never letting past issues effect present ones. One good example of how he deals with public opinion is the Address on Temperance in 1842 “When the conduct of men is designed to be influenced, persuasion, kind, unassuming persuasion, should ever be adopted.
It is an old and true maxim ‘that a drop of honey catches more flies than a gallon of gall. ’ So with men. If you would win a man to your cause, first convince him that you are his sincere friend. Therein is a drop of honey that catches his heart, which, say what you will, is the great high road to his reason, and which, when once gained, you will find but little trouble in convincing his judgment of the justice of your cause, if indeed that cause really be a just one.
On the contrary, assume to dictate to his judgment, or to command his action, or to mark him as one to be shunned and despised, and he will retreat within himself, close all the avenues to his head and his heart; and tho’ your cause be naked truth itself, transformed to the heaviest lance, harder than steel, and sharper than steel can be made, and tho’ you throw it with more than Herculean force and precision, you shall no more be able to pierce him, than penetrate the hard shell of a tortoise with rye straw.
Basically what he is trying to say is you have to make the person believe you are trying to be there friend to have any attempt to dictate his or her judgment and if you do not be friend the person first they will not agree to what you have to say no matter how hard you force the issue it wont get through. Last characteristic from the website what makes a great president is “there must be a readiness to act and a comfort in deciding. ” Abraham Lincoln demonstrates this by taking a long time to make decisions, giving reason to why he made the decision, and standing by the decision.
The consequences Abraham Lincoln had to face because of his characteristics. Lincoln showed perseverance through adversity because he accomplished a lot but ran out of time ( got shot) before he could accomplish a lot more. Comparing Abraham Lincoln to Barack Obama by perseverance through adversity because they both are presidents that wanted to accomplish the great things but was unable to finish because of time constraints. He still carried out his ideals as president instead of changing them, which he faced the consequence of losing the president status because a lot of people disagreed with his views.
Another consequence is that he got killed because of his ideals. John Wilkes Booth Killed Abraham Lincoln because he believed that Lincoln had too much power and was not using his power to solve the Civil War and stop it. But Booth was wrong, Lincoln was trying his best to solve the problems of the Civil War. A consequence he faced was dealing with people in the nation that was against slavery and that did not want to be part of the United States. Abraham wanted to abolish slavery so the first step he took was suggesting the Emancipation Proclamation, even though slavery was a right in the constitution.
The Emancipation Proclamation a documentation that ended slavery only in Confederate states, but did not apply to slave states in the Union and allowed African Americans to serve the Union’s armed forces. But the consequences to this is that it was very hard to enforce, only limited slaves into the Union, no concrete methods that ensured freedom to the ex-slaves fleeing the South, and African Americans in Union armed forces received lower pay then the white soldiers. Abraham Lincoln tried to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation was good, but also bad for others that did not benefit from the document.
From The Lincoln Legend A Study In Changing Conceptions packet a consequence he had to face was the North not being able to retrieve his policy or their views were so different to the point that they were not able to be compatible with his policy. his made it very difficult to get his policy across to the North. From The Lincoln Legend A Study In Changing Conceptions quote from John T. Morse, Jr. , “For myself, having drawn the picture of the man as I see him, though knowing well that I am far from seeing him all, and still farther from seeing inwardly through him, yet I know that I cannot help it by additional comments.
Very much more than is the case with other men, Lincoln means different things to different persons, and the aspect which he presents depends to an unusual degree upon the moral and mental individuality of the observer. Perhaps this is due to the breadth and variety of his own nature. A friend once said to me: Lincoln was like Shakespeare, in that he seemed to run through the whole gamut of human nature. ” I agree with John T. Morse, Jr. because some might see Lincoln’s consequences as his benefits or vice versa. Some depictions that represent how great his characteristics were.
In Young Mr. Lincoln the wrestling, tug of war, log chopping,and rail splitting scenes all depict how strong he was physically. The scene in Young Mr. Lincoln when Abraham Lincoln was on a horse on Palm sunday which compares him to a god like figure. From the Lincoln Legend A study In Changing Conceptions packet they compared Abraham Lincoln to God by saying nobody notice how great he was until he died. Also from the Lincoln Legend A Study In Changing Conceptions packet they compare Abraham lincoln to god because some people praised and worshiped him.
The Gettysburg Address “Four Score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate- we cannot consecrate- we cannot hallow- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the lat full measure of devotion- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. The first part of the Gettysburg Address is saying that eighty-seven years ago the founding fathers eclaration got the country started. Second part of the Gettysburg Address is saying they are in the civil war and are not able to declare and bless the ground to the people who died in the war, but the people who died in the war are far more than what can be put into words and do not need to be praised but they should be. It makes since to finish the war so the people that died in the war did not die for no reason at all. They turned the place that all the honorable soldiers that died into a cemetery.
It is a statue of Abraham Lincoln in the United Kingdom, Edinburgh by George Bissell, which is a monument of two statues; one who crouching free slave is extending his arm out as gratitude to Lincoln. Also the freed slave is resting on furled flag, which symbolizes victory. It is a medallion that has the flags of Britain and the United States surrounded by thistles and cotton plant. The Edinburgh monument is remembered by the scots who fought in the Union Army that lost their lives in the Civil War.
Men from Britain, Ireland, and Canada who are dedicated to the Edinburgh monument. Another great depiction of Abraham Lincoln is the statue in United Kingdom, Manchester by George Grey Barnard which was made to link Manchester and the United States by Manchester being the largest processor of cotton made a huge contribution by choosing the boycotts Southern Cotton to help stop slave labour. Abraham Lincoln has a statue in United Kingdom, London, Westminster: Parliament Square, which depicts that he was about to make an important speech.
He did a lot of brilliant speeches during his time which is a logical reason as to why he has a statue showing him about to prepare for an important speech. Abraham Lincoln characteristics begin in him as a young child which were developed as he got older. Characteristics like responsibility, eagerness to learn in general and law, learned persistent from doing his regular task as a young boy, and joining the Whig Party which developed his politician skills, persistence from trying to get into Senate even though failed twice he kept trying and got president status.
When he became president he used those same skills and also learned additional skills as well. He developed on political skills by going from Republican party to the president status, which requires more responsibility. He demonstrated humility as well because even though he was president it did not change his attitude how he generally treated people. Lincoln shows persistence in how he took his time in making decisions.
The additional skill he learned was emotional intelligence which is the ability to not let personal feelings interfere with his presidential duties. Some of the consequences he had to face was that a lot of people did not agree with his views, which is a reason why he was killed by John Wilkes Booth. The speech the Gettysburg Address, which states beginning of new nation, do something good for soldiers that died, and burry them in the same earth they did their good deed is a great depiction of Abraham Lincoln.
Some scenes from Young Mr. Lincoln like wresting scene, tug of war, rail splitting, and log cutting represents how physically strong he was. Statues from United Kingdom in Edinburgh(remembrance of the scots who fought in the Union Army) and United Kingdom Manchester by George Grey Barnard(to link Manchester and the United States) Past characteristics, use of characteristics during presidency, and consequences of characteristics combined made him the man he was, which is the reason why Abraham Lincoln is The Epitome Of The Common Man.
Abraham Lincoln, Melungeon or Myth?
Some historian believe that Abraham Lincoln was born an illegitimate child to Abraham Enloe and Nancy Hanks. It is possible that Abraham Lincoln could be tied to the Melungeon heritage through both of his parents? Many growing number of historians believe that Abraham Lincoln possess many qualities that distinguishes him as a Melungeon, and in fact believe that he is a direct descendant. The questioning of his parentage generates much interest and theories in regards to this great Presidents past.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12, 1908.
His father was “said to be” Thomas Lincoln and his mother Nancy Hanks. He was born in a log cabin in Sinking Springs, in Hardin County Kentucky. After the death of his mother, his father remarried a wonderful lady named Sarah Bush. Abraham loved his step-mother and became very close to her and her 3 children. Despite his relationship with step-mother Sarah, Abraham did not maintain a good relationship with his father because of his resentment he held towards him having to turn all his wages over to him by some sort of law.
Because of Lincoln’s hatred of slavery, which denied to slaves the “fruits of the labor” (McPherson 3), some people believe it may have influenced Thomas Lincoln expropriation of Abrahams’ earnings. Their relationship became so strained that when his father called him to his death bed, Lincoln refused to make the 80 miles trip to see him. His father died with no goodbyes given. Despite Lincolns troubled and humble beginnings, he was able to self-educate himself, mainly by reading lots of books and became a very successful lawyer. In the American peoples’ eyes, Lincoln’s tale of “rags to riches”, is the ultimate “American” success story (Steers, Edward).
There have been many myths, hoaxes and misconceptions regarding one of our greatest President throughout the years. During his early political career there was lots negative campaigning that was used to the taint his campaign, just like we see and hear of today. Charges of illegitimacy were often hinted at because of the negative effect it had on the accused. “Illegitimate” people were considered defective. Lincoln’s paternity has long been in question due to the knowledge that a bastard son was born to a man named Abraham Enloe (Barton 18). The mother of the baby boy was a servant girl who worked in the Enloe household name Nancy Hanks (Lincoln’s mother). The question of his parentage generated much interest because of this claim and because Lincoln himself was reluctant to comment on his father and mother. Folks believed that it served as some sort of evidence of his knowledge and shame of his illegitimate birth. Authors Kennedy, N. Brent, and Robyn Vaughan Kennedy.
The Melungeons: the resurrection of a proud people: an untold story of ethnic cleansing in America. 2nd, rev., and corr. ed. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1997. Print. Presents the question of whether or not Abraham Lincoln was Melungeon himself, making him the first Melungeon (tri-racial) President. According to Ely Gallegos (a research team member), there is a great deal of circumstantial evidence that Lincoln shared a Melungeon heritage, possibly through both parents. Lincoln’s family fits the Melungeon model very well. Lincoln’s paternal grandfather also named Abraham Lincoln, immigrated with his wife Bathsheba Herring and their 5 children to Kentucky. Why would an established settler leave the beautiful Shenandoah Valley for the wild, untamed lands of Indian-dominated Kentucky? Money? Possibly a Melungeon movement? Lincoln’s father features also fit the description of a Melungeon. His mother, Nancy Hanks was born an illegitimate child to Lucy Hanks. History has no record of the identity of Nancy’s father.
Nancy also had many characteristics of a non-Anglo (Sandburg 30). Her hair dark, dark brown, keen little gray eyes, outstanding forehead, somewhat accented chin and cheek bones and a body of slender build. Because of the geographical location of the Lincoln’s family and outstanding questions of Lincoln’s heritage, this leads to the theory of many researchers that Lincoln could possibly be a Melungeon himself. If true, this would make Abraham Lincoln the first (tri-racial) President. Brent Kennedy, an author who wrote the book “The Melungeons”, a spent a great deal of time writing about a time of “ethnic cleansing in American” and shares details on how the Melungeons seemed to disappear during the time of the first “census taking”. Because of their tri-racial ethnicity, they did not fit under any category listed on the Census, so for “recordkeeping” purposes, they were categorized as either melotos/white/Indian/Africa American, when in fact they were “all”.
Melungeons were suggested to be descendants from “tri-racial isolates” (Los Angeles Times), a mixture of whites, blacks and American Indian who historians say interbred along Appalchia’s ridges during the 18th centuries. Old documents and stories passed down throught the generations tell a tale of “Portugese” Berbers, “sheperd-like” people who came to American in ships. They were proposed to be decendants of early Portuese, Spanish, Sephardic Jewish Mulims, Moorish, and/or Gypsy/Roma colonish in the southeastern United States (Kennedy 1997; Hirschman 2005; Price 1953), that were exiled from Spain and Portugal through a religious witch-hunt know as the “Spanish Inquisition”. Many of them settled in the hills of the Appalachian Mountians. Over time The Melugeons, were pushed off their lands, denied their rights, murdered, mistreated and became an embittered and nearly defeated people. They tried to fit in with Anglo neighbors, but lost their heritaage, their culture, their names and their original religion, but not their genetic structure.
Many folks who believed themselves to be of Melungeons decendant, have become a part of “on-going” research which even includes giving blood samples. There continues to be actual on-going Melungeon DNA studies still taking place still today. Lincoln’s paternity has long been in question due to the knowledge that a bastard son was born to a man named Abraham Enloe (Barton 18). The mother of the baby boy, was a servant girl who worked in the Enloe household named Nancy Hanks (Lincoln’s mother). The question of his parentage generated much interest and because Lincoln himself was reluctant to comment on his father and mother. Folks believed that served as some sort of evidence of his knowledge and shame of his illegitimate birth. During his campaign many people tried to use this information against him. They tried to discredit him, by calling him “illegitimate”. Many people still today are interested in the fact that Abraham Lincoln may been the first “tri-racial” President. A couple hundred years later after his birth, there are still many unanswered questions regarding Abraham Lincoln.
“Robert Ingersoll said it best. “Lincoln, he proclaimed” was a not a-type, He stands alone-no ancestors, no fellows, no successors”. Even the word Melungeon became a most disparging term. To be legally classified as a Melungeon, meant to be “Nobody at all”. What would it have meant for Abraham Lincoln, a “self-educated”, depressed human being, born in a one room cabin to illegitmate parents to be labeled a “Melungeon”? Would the American people have voted for him? Did Lincoln’s passionate spirit to “free the slaves” come deep from within or did it come from darker place then anybody could ever have imagined? Just how different would the pages of our history books read, if people would have truly believed that Abraham Lincoln was a “Nobody”, a Melungeon?
Alexander, J. Trent, Chad Berry, Beth Bissmeyer, Donna Corriher, Rodger Cunningham, Damon Falke, Steve Fisher, William Gorgy, Jesse Graves, Margaret Gregor, Elizabeth Hirschman, John Lang, Robert Ludke, Irene McKinney, Lindsey Martin, Phillip Obermiller, Eric Rademacher, Mark Roberts, Emily Satterwhite, Barbara Smith, Shilah Turner, Jennifer Westerman, David Whisnant, and Donal Yates. “Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review.” Toward a Genetic Profile of Melungeons in South Appalachia 38 (2010)111. Print.
Kennedy, N. Brent, and Robyn Vaughan Kennedy. The Melungeons: the resurrection of a proud people: an untold story of ethnic cleansing in America. 2nd, rev., and corr. ed. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1997. Print.
McPherson, James M.. Abraham Lincoln. Oxford: Oxford University Press,2009. Print.
Sandler, Martin W.. Lincoln through the lens: how photography revealed and
shaped an extraordinary life. New York: Walker Pub. Co., 2008. Print.
Steers, Edward. Lincoln legends myths, hoaxes, and confabulations associated with our greatest president. “Lincoln’s Father: The Paternity of Abraham Lincoln”. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007.14-28 Print.
A Short Analytical Paper of Abraham Lincoln’s “a House Divided”
The House Divided Speech was addressed by Abraham Lincoln on June 1958. He delivered the speech upon his acceptance of Illinois Republican Party’s nomination as the senator of the state. Thus the speech became a very important launching campaign for his success in politics thus giving him a national limelight that saw him in the elections to the presidency in 1860.The speech primarily addressed on the issue of slavery in America. Abraham Lincoln delivered his speech aimed at establishing his strong beliefs towards the acts of slavery.
The speech was also meant to point out a differentiating factor of beliefs from Stephen Douglas and the rest of the top governmental officials who seemed to practice corruption in their transactions.
According to Abraham Lincoln, “A House divided against itself cannot stand”. This was the major crucial theme of Abraham Lincoln’s speech. From this important statement,Licoln meant that the American nation could not in whatever terms or state face a positive survival phase when it was composed of a state of half-slavery and half-free.
He meant that only one of those two states could only exist. Thus his bold statement was that he expected that the division that existed had to cease so as to embrace success and good governance.
Lincoln’s speech helped rouse to the people of America the recognition of the extent to which slavery had gone. Lincoln’s speech is still relevant in this 21st century in that even today, each nation should embrace unity in all its undertakings whether political, social and economic. He believed that the ideals of a nation with freedom for all could not have a chance of coexistence whether socially, morally or in legal terms under one nation. Thus slavery should either be accepted among all people or be universally denied.
A universal truth is clearly bears a clear significance from Lincoln’s statement to the extent that such a statement even pervades a lot of importance to the modern society and even the governments in power today.
Such relevance can be clearly seen in the experiences in Sudan. Continued irreconcilable differences in culture and religion against the people of Sudan saw Southern Sudan seceding to become the republic of South Sudan. Such success for secession bears credit from the prophetic work of Abraham Lincoln. A division had always existed between the people from Northern Sudan who were associated with Muslim religion and the people from the Southern Sudan who were associated with Christianity. This scenario bred a situation of ethnic and cultural differences between the two states to the extent where secession could be avoided.
Even today, the American nation is still faced with challenging political divisions and differences especially between the parties of the Republicans and the Democrats. The unwillingness of the two parties to arise to compromised solutions has always been evident in most of the major recent crises facing the nation. Clear evidence is the recent crisis on the debt ceiling where the Republicans were on the favor of maintaining cuts on spending as opposed to the Democrats who were advocating for an increase in taxes so as to increase revenue collection in the country. Further differences saw a compromised situation of debt ceiling being arrived at as the solution. This led to the country facing an economic disaster as a result of the oppositions from the two strong political parties.
In the recent world, the institution of marriage can be compared to the speech of Abraham Lincoln. Marriage is a union of two people who are bound to each other by law. Division is prone to occur in a marriage situation in case of a divorce. For the married partners to embrace endured togetherness and unity in their marriage, they must appreciate common interests of concerns in their practices. In case one of the partners dissent from the unity and togetherness set up, the marriage is susceptible to division brought about by breaking of the legal bonds that hold the marriage partnership in unison. Continued lack of an amicable compromised solution between the two conflicting partners will thus lead to separation. Continued separation will see the two partners seek a divorce in a court of law and the marriage will fail completely. Most marriages nowadays are failing as a result of continued disagreements of interests between the married couple.
As per words of Lincoln that a divide house cannot stand, thus the divided marriage partnership cannot even endure survival thus it breaks up.
Even today, divisions in groups have been as a result of continued differences among the uniting groups. Humans have a tendency to incline towards the protection of their interest’s aid favors of their perceived groups. Such favourism makes them advocate fully for their interests posing a challenging opposing side to the interests of their unperceived groups. Many nations today are faced with such opposing groups having differing interests and ideals. People advocating for similar ideals tend to create strong ties of loyalty and even alliances creating a boundary to the opposing group or alliance. The existence of the two opposing groups as a whole sees each group maintain conflicting interests. Continued disagreement leads to one group conquer the other resulting to a failing side and a winning side. Ultimately such results create division in the nations.
Thus, Abraham Lincoln’s works from the speech “A House Divided” bears a lot of significance and relevance in our modern world.
Somebody-Wanted-But-So Persona Abraham Lincoln
The “Somebody-Wanted-But-So” chart is an excellent way to summarize important information from history. In it, you identify a person or group of people; their goal, need, or want; what conflict of interest stood in the way; and the outcome. This strategy works great because history depends on the needs, wants, and actions of humans.
Part 1 – Complete the following chart using information from the lesson. One example appears for you.
Somebody: President Abraham Lincoln
Wanted: the nation to heal as quickly as possible from the Civil War and planned to reunify the nation quickly But: he was assassinated in 1865 only days after Robert E.
Lee’s surrender So: plans for Reconstruction were taken over by Vice President Andrew Johnson, who became president after Lincoln’s death Somebody: President Andrew Johnson
Wanted: He wanted the same thing President Lincoln wanted except Johnson had patience. But: He vetoed laws, and then were overridden by the Congres and was impeached in early 1868, was the first impeachment of a U.
S. President. So: The Radical Republicans began what was called the Radical Reconstruction.
Somebody: Radical Republicans
Wanted: The Southern States and former Confederates to be severly punished if wanted to unify back with the Union.Also to make sure that slavery was abolished in the southern states. But: The Reconstruction ended when President Hayes was elected in office, he removed the remaining federal troops in the Southern States to win the elecotorials. So: Federal protection was over for pro-Republicans, African American Voters, and freedmen.
Somebody: Southern Democrats
Wanted: They wanted the federal troops of the North to leave and stay out of “state” buiesness But: But when the south lost in the Civil War, the North came into their territory as an oppsing force. Which was what the southern states didnt want to begin with. So: The reconstruction did work during its time, but as soon as the South got their way when Hayes was elected, it technically failed, Therefore i believe that the reconstruction was pointless, its very important, but only accomplished little.
Part 2 – Answer the following questions in a complete paragraph of your own words.
What was the main issue relating to Reconstruction that divided Republicans at the end of the Civil War? If you had been a member of Congress at the time, what type of plan for Reconstruction would you have supported and why?
1) The main issue/reason that the major disparity between the Radical Republicans and the Moderate Republicans (like Lincoln), was that the radicals demanded many changes that include civil rights for freedmen, abolition of slavery, and harsh consequences on former Confederates (e.g. those involved in local govts). However Radicals managed to come up with a “Reconstrustion” program which majority of Congress agreed to, but Lincoln quickly pocket vetoed the Act in 1864. Lincoln and other Moderate Republicans sought for gradual change without upsetting the balance of the Union and tried to avoid excessive punishment of former Confederates and planned to re-compensate those whose slaves where liberated.
2) If I had been a member of Congress of the time, I would have actually not have brought up another reconstruction act, but actually take side with the Moderate Republicans. The reason being is that i would want to unify the states as friendly and nicley as possible so that way both sides can unite peacefully, rather than hurting or punishing the south severly and they would then somewhat resist to join the Union. So therefore I would agree with what Lincoln tried to enact in the first place.
“Oh Captain my Captain” by Walt Whitman
“O Captain! My Captain!” is a poem written by Walt Whitman in 1865. The poem is classified as an elegy because it is a mourning poem that was written in the memory of someone. The poem was written to honor Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States. Walt Whitman was born in 1819 and died in 1892, so he lived through the American Civil War. Being born close to the founding of the country, he knew people that were a part of the American Revolution.
Through this he experienced the unification and division of the United States. Walt Whitman was extremely patriotic and wrote many poems about the prominence of America. He also wrote poems about urging people to fight for what is right. The poem was known as one of the greatest poems written at the time of the Civil War. The main political and social issue during Whitman’s time was slavery and the rights of African Americans. Whitman was self-described as the poet of America and, during the Civil War, the Union.
Whitman wanted to see the end of slavery; this was his hope for America. However, it broke his heart to see the nation fighting. He admired Abraham Lincoln immensely because of his political standpoint of universal equality as stated in the constitution.
The captain in the poem refers to Abraham Lincoln who is the captain of the ship; this represents the United States of America. The first line establishes a happy mood as it addresses the captain. The phrase “our fearful trip is done” is talking about the end of the Civil War. The next line references the ship, America, and how it has “weathered every rack”, meaning America has braved the tough storm of the Civil War, and “the prize we sought”, the end of slavery, “is won”. The following line expresses a mood of jubilation of the Union winning the war as it says “the people all exulting”; however, the next line swiftly shifts the mood when it talks of the grimness of the ship, and the darker side of the war. Many lost their lives in the American Civil War, and although the prize that was sought was won, the hearts still ache amidst the exultation of the people.
The repetition of heart in line five calls attention to the poet’s vast grief and heartache because the Captain has bled and lies still, cold, and dead (lines six through eight). This is no doubt referencing the assassination of Abraham Lincoln and Whitman’s sorrow for the death of his idol. In the second stanza the speaker again calls out to the Captain in a light-hearted manner and dictates to “rise up and hear the bells”, to join in on the celebration of the end of the war. The next three lines tell the captain to “rise up” and join in on the revelries because it is for him. He is the reason for their merriment: “for you the flag is flung—for you the bugle trills; for you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths—for you the shores a-crowding; for you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning”. Everyone is celebrating what Lincoln accomplished; this is not only the abolishment of slavery but also the formation of the Union and the coming together of people. Again the poet calls to the Captain as if he had never fallen. The poet does not wish to acknowledge the death of his beloved Captain, and he even asks if it is some dream (line 15) that the Captain has fallen “cold and dead”.
The third stanza begins in a somber mood as the poet has finally accepted that the Captain is dead and gone. Here there is vivid and darker imagery such as “his lips are pale and still” and the reader can picture the dead Captain lying there still and motionless with “no pulse nor will”. In line 17, the poet calls out “My Captain,” and in line 18, the poet refers to the Captain as “My father”. This is referring to Lincoln as the father of the United States. Lines 19 and 20 are concluding statements that summarize the entire poem. The United States is “anchor’d safe and sound”. It is safe now from war with “its voyage closed and done, from fearful trip, the victor ship, comes in with object won”.
The country has accomplished its goal of the abolishment of slavery and the unification of people after a fearful war. In line 21, the examples of apostrophe, ordering “shores to exult,” and “bells to ring” are again referring to how the nation is celebrating while “I with mournful tread, Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead”. Throughout the paper there is a distinct rhyme scheme, which is unusual for Whitman. The rhyme scheme in “O Captain! My Captain!” is AABCDEFE, GGHIJEKE, and LLMNOEPE for each stanza respectively. Two examples of alliteration are in line 10 “flag is flung”, as well as in line 19 “safe and sound”. Repetition occurs many times in this poem, for example “O Captain! My Captain”, and “fallen cold and dead”.
Rhetorical Strategies in Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address
In Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, he uses many different kinds of rhetorical strategies to unite a broken nation. During the time of the speech, it is four years into the Civil War and it is about to end. In this speech, Lincoln uses allusion, parallel structure, and diction to unify the North and the South.
A rhetorical strategy that is seen throughout Lincoln’s speech is allusion. He uses God and the Bible to show that the people both from the North and also the South have the same values.
Lincoln says, “Each looked for an easier triumph, and a result less fundamental and astounding. Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God’s assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men’s faces, but let us judge not, that we be not judged.
” What Lincoln said was from the Bible, and most people could relate because many of the citizens were very religious. Lincoln also states, “… Let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds…” That was also an allusion to the Bible, impacting the people to help fix the nation and to help come together as a nation. Religion was very important to many citizens of that time, so the religious allusion used in the speech was very effective.
Another strategy used in Lincoln’s address was parallel structure. The parallel structure emphasized what his goals were for the nation. For example, he says, “to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.” Abraham Lincoln’s goal was to establish peace again within the two sides and to rebuild the nation. Another example of allusion was at the beginning of the speech when Lincoln said, “All dreaded it, all sought to avert it.” He said, “all” to bring together both sides, saying that neither one wanted to fight, but now they have to come together to fix the “broken nation.”
Lastly, Abraham Lincoln uses diction to create a feeling of unity between the people. In his speech, Abraham says, “Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God.” Lincoln uses the word “both” often in his speech, which unifies the North and the South. It also says in his speech, “…let us strive on to finish the work we are in…” That statement reminds everyone that they’re all in it together by saying “us.” Diction throughout Abraham Lincoln’s speech adds onto the unity that was created by parallel structure and allusion.
In Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, he uses religious allusion, encouraging parallel structure, and repetitive diction to unify the North and the South. Lincoln’s goal when giving this speech was not to celebrate the North’s win, but to unify and to create peace between the broken nation.
Lincoln: Democratic or Autocratic
“Lincoln was one of the most democratic and also one of the most autocratic of presidents.”
Abraham Lincoln was a very democratic president. He believed in the Union and would do anything to keep it together after the secession of the south that followed his election as president. However, to regain the entirety of the Union, he had to make some risky decisions that may have labeled him as autocratic. The fact that he was both democratic and autocratic is valid for the most part.
However, the purpose of his tyrannical actions was to preserve the Union.
Lincoln could be seen as democratic through his persistent drive to save the Union. After his election in 1860, the deep south seceded from the Union off of the belief that their rights were being violated. Then, following the events at Fort Sumter, the rest of the south seceded. Lincoln did everything in his power to try and regain peace in the country and save the Union from destruction.
He stuck with the war for four long and bloody years while the Army of the Potomac was constantly struggling with defeat. If George McClellan had won the presidency, there would be negotiated peace. War would not have been sought out to bring back the southern states. Instead, there would be no guarantee that the south would even return to the Union. In addition, Lincoln did not believe in slavery. Even though he was still racist towards black, he saw the obvious immorality of the establishment. He fought for their freedom through his Emancipation Proclamation, which stated that all slaves in the Confederacy were free from their masters. Lincoln fought for the preservation of the Union, a symbol of equality and democracy. He would protect it at any cost. With that, he also freed the slaves in the United States, which supported the idea of democracy he felt he needed to protect.
Although Lincoln was a man of the people, he could also be considered as autocratic. But his tyrannical decisions and actions were not made for desire of power. He made them out of democratic intentions. Lincoln suspended the Writs of Habeas Corpus in the area between Washington and Philadelphia, a bold move on his part. The Supreme Court even ruled this action unconstitutional, but Lincoln ignored it. Without putting much thought into it, this does seem unfair and unconstitutional. Put it was wartime, and not all the same rules apply. Lincoln made this decision for the benefit of the war effort. There were mob attacks on Union troops passing through Baltimore, so by suspending the writs, civilians supporting the Confederacy could be arrested and held without a trial. In addition, Lincoln expanded the size of the Union Army without congressional approvement. But of course, this was vital to the war, since this action allowed the North to outnumber the South.
Also, the Emancipation Proclamation was considered unconstitutional by some. Lincoln pushed this act through that would free all the slaves in the Confederate territory without the vote from the states it would affect. But Lincoln’s reasoning behind this was that by making the war about slavery, it would prevent England and France from joining the fight, for if they did, it would be a lost cause for the North. In addition to this, Lincoln hoped that the free blacks would provide further trouble for the South. Not only would the freedom for all the South’s blacks completely shake their economy, they could also join the fight for their freedom. Lincoln did many things in extending his executive power that may have been seen as tyrannical and autocratic, but the reason he made these decisions was to protect and preserve the Union as a symbol and model of democracy.
Abraham Lincoln was clearly democratic as he fought to maintain the Union as a whole. He was also the one responsible for the freedom of African Americans. And even though he did take some autocratic action during his presidency, it always had some benefit for the war effort, whether it was disrupting the Southern economy to make the anaconda plan work faster, or to detain Confederate sympathizers in the Union. Without Lincoln’s bold behavior, the war would never have been won. Without him, the Union would be broken.
David Walker Appeal Paper
Prior to David Walker’s Attract the Colored People of the World during the 1800’s, there had not been any other type of anti-slavery documents released. Although the Appeal is directed to black servants, its effective moral message and indictment of white America’s hypocritical society and oppressive, ruthless system of slavery is an ethical message that resonates to all audiences, including whites. Walker’s Appeal requires servants to rebel versus their masters as the ways of reacquiring their humankind. Walker relies heavily upon spiritual worths of Christianity, communicating strongly with complimentary and enslaved blacks: The guy who would not battle under the Lord and Master Jesus Christ, in the remarkable and heavenly reason for flexibility and of God, to be provided from the most wretched, abject and servile slavery, that ever a people was afflicted with because the structure of the world, to today day, ought to be kept with all his children or household, in slavery, or chains, to be butchered by his vicious opponents.
(Walker Short Article 1) The Appeal sent worry and horror throughout the white neighborhood as some states even passed laws that would sentence blacks, or even whites, to severe penalty if captured with the pamphlet.
Finzsch cites to Eaton who points out that “in Georgia, Virginia, North Carolina, Louisiana and South Carolina anyone be it slave, free black or white who was caught with the pamphlet was tried and usually found guilty of inciting insurrection” and it also inspired enslaved blacks to fight for their freedom regardless of the consequences (Finzsch, 5). Walker’s purpose is a call for unity amongst slaves and to educate them as to their immediate need to fight back against their masters. In order to communicate his ideas, Walker attacks the values and the veracity of the United States history by pointing out the hypocrisy of the institution of slavery in a self-proclaimed nation that pretended to stand for constitutional equality, democracy and freedom. Walker powerfully challenges these notions by raising views that were being brought up mostly as a result of scientific racism and the idea that religion justifies slavery. Any discussion of abolition was always a radical, dangerous, and illegal conversation during the times of slavery. Slavery was the horrific social, political and economic system that allowed the United States to rapidly accumulate wealth, thus unjustly elevating whites to positions of immense power and privilege.
When Walker published his Appeal his document traveled throughout a political terrain that was controlled by whites, and these whites relied upon anti-black racist documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and Thomas Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia. All of these documents systematically deemed blacks as un-human, excluding blacks from political protection, and condoned chattel slavery. Walker’s message in his Appeal resonates in the white community of that time because it directly challenges the myths relied upon by those whites in their “mythical” documents. The historical opening lines of the Declaration of Independence read “we hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” This opening statement did not include black people, but rather it excluded them under the term that all “men” were not human. As the rest of the United States Constitution eventually clarified enslaved black people were not recognized as human beings and therefore were not entitled to the rights, privileges, and protection of the law.
Furthermore, slavery was a legal institution under these sets of beliefs. Another one of the most influential documents of the time was Thomas Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia of 1781. Although Jefferson owned slaves, he considered himself to be an opponent of slavery. Within the document Jefferson compared blacks to whites and concluded by holding that black people were inferior to whites on multiple levels. Have they not, after having reduced us to the deplorable condition of slaves under their feet, held us up as descending originally from the tribes of Monkeys or Orang- Outings? (Walker Article 1) Jefferson believed that emancipation for blacks should mean the removal of them from the United States based on the hostility that blacks would harbor to whites, Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia further entrenched the practice of the dehumanization of black people, something that Walker’s Appeal deeply emphasizes and a message that whites and black could easily understand. In order to support his call for slaves to unify and revolt against their masters Walker challenges the ideas of political documents relied upon whites. Walker effectively uses religion to pursued whites and blacks that the institution of slavery was massively unjust.
Walker states that God and religion actually discouraged all forms of slavery. For example he states, Are we MEN!! I ask you, my brethren are we MEN? Did our creator make us to be slaves to dust and ashes like ourselves? Are they not dying worms as well as we? Have they not to make their appearance before the tribunal of Heaven, to answer for the deeds done in the body, as well as we? Have we any other Master but Jesus Christ alone? Is he not their Master as well as ours? What right then, have we to obey and call any other Master, but Himself? (Walker, Article 1) Walker states that God is the lone master to which all humankind must obey. On these grounds Walker shuns the idea that black people must obey a white human master. Walker stands by the fact that the only master black people have are God himself and not the white man. Furthermore, he brings light to the fact that the white community will also have to answer to God for their acts of violence. Both blacks and whites can understand this religious and moral message. Not only did Walker challenge racism and the idea of religion to justify slavery, he also confronted Thomas Jefferson.
Walker states:Mr. Jefferson said, when a master was murdered, all his slaves in the same house, or within hearing, were condemned to death, Here let me ask Mr. Jefferson, but he is gone to answer at the bar of God, for the deeds done in his body while living, I therefore ask the whole American people, had I not rather die, or be put to death, than to be a slave to any tyrant, who takes not only my own, but my wife and children’s lives by the inches? Yea, would I meet death with avidity far! Far!! (Walker, Article 1) Walker uses vial language to get others to understand the grotesque acts of violence that the white society inflicted on the black body and states that he would rather die fighting for freedom than be a subject to slavery. He was speaking for others who were afraid and did not have a voice, and for others who just needed a backbone and needed to be supported. Douglass’s rebellion narrative, The Heroic Slave, clearly important in its own right, is vastly different from Walker in many ways. Douglass bases his work on the mutiny led by rebel slave Madison Washington on the Creole in 1841.
The narrative is powerful, but the organizational intent and style is vastly different from the approach taken by Walker. Douglass uses a “storytelling” method to make his points. For example, the international sea and Britain are used by Douglass in The Heroic Slave to symbolize freedom (see Sweeny generally) And, unlike the aggressive and direct language used by Walker, Douglass uses softer language to make his points in a more sublime manner. For example, in describing Washington as a self-emancipating figure, Douglass states, Washington is “standing erect, a smile of satisfaction . . . upon his expressive countenance, like . . . one who has just . . . .vanquished a malignant foe, for at that moment he was free . . . The future gleamed . . . .before him . . . his fetters lay broke at his feet. His air was triumphant (Douglass, Part 1).
- Finzsch, Norbet. “ David Walker and The Fight against Slavery ” 2012.
- Douglas, Frederick. The Heroic Slave. Sweeney, Fionnghula. “Visual Culture and Fictive Technique in Frederick Douglass’s The Heroic Slave,” Slavery and Abolition, June 2012: 305-320.
- Walker, David. “Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World ”1830.