Free Example Of Wars In Central African Republic Literature Review
This section review literature on the responsibility of Western Powers on Civil Wars as well as Rebellion within Eastern and Central Africa. From the reviewed materials, it is evident that the style of Western administration on the African continent left African countries unprepared economically as well as politically for independence. For that reason, it undermined the state of security within most countries from their start of self-governance.
The influence of Europe within Africa has contributed significantly in establishing conditions within many countries for rebellion and civil conflict to take place. The Western powers treat African states as strategic economic materials or assets. Additionally, they established artificial political and social divisions, which never took into consideration the realities of Africa. This resulted in disastrous consequences, for example, in Rwanda (Helen 5-11). The Western powers have promoted highly patriarchal styles of administrations over African countries and deliberately failed to promote democratic societal systems to emerge in Africa. The local infrastructures, as well as development needs of African states, are ignored except in regions they can act as a trading gain for Western powers. The African states are considered exporters by Western powers, this undermines sound self-governance of African states (Helen 5-11).
The Western powers have ignored valuable capacity building within the African continent, which has made the African states economically or socially unprepared for peace, justice, and democracy (Chukwuma 4). This has contributed significantly to setting the environment conducive for re-current crises, resulting in African countries collapse as well as civil war.
The origin of civil wars as well as rebellion in Eastern and Central Africa can be attributed to the comparative rise of the current European countries. The conflicts within Europe became associated with the emergence of powerful countries as well as the consequent increasing insecurity within the neighboring countries. Rulers raised troops particularly for the reasons of enlarging or defending borders; civil conflicts were internal problems. Nonetheless, the African civil conflicts have emerged via a process of reversing state-making, in which African countries were handed man-made borders existing beyond their influence range. The consequential disintegration of autonomous military as well as criminals groups, which originate from the self-reliant and decaying troops, externally supported, or state-supported paramilitary rebel groups (Robert 7-15).
The relationship between Western powers and African states can create rebels or civil wars via military support as well as the continuous support of trade in firearms. The military sale of America to African states perceived as strategic to its fight on terror has tripped between 2002 to 2006 to approximately 130 million dollars, whereas American manufacturers are approximated to have generated additional 92 million dollars from commercial firearms as well as material sales authorized by America in 2008 (Abdalla 10-13). The disregard of United Nations weapons embargoes have accelerated conflict within Sudan, Liberia, as well as Sierra Leone, and have been problematic within Somalia or the Democratic Republic of Congo (Abdalla 11-14).
The proximity of Somalia to the Arabian Peninsula as well as East Africa weapons trafficking networks or existing cold war firearms has facilitated firearms agents to concentrate on the war. Currently, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, most of the arms are from Cold War offered stocks. The government has taken over stockpiles of firearms that President Mobutu had sourced from America or skimmed off the U.S shipments to rebels of UNITA (Helen 7-10). On the other hand, the escaping army from Rwanda rearmed with a surplus of arms from former Soviet nations (Helen 5-11). France has offered Habyarima administration continuous access to arms as well as military training before the genocide (Helen 5-19).
The U.S has promoted the civil conflict under the disguise of its fight against terror. The government of President Bush is associated with the Al Shabaab attacks by Ethiopia within Somalia from 2006 to 2009. The circumstance enhanced an Islamist insurgence to rise within Mogadishu that resulted in the civil conflict following the withdrawal of Ethiopia (Abdalla 8-13). The incoming of China into African continent leaves many questions unanswered on the perceived threat it causes to the U.S strategic interest, as well as the consequences it can bring for internal insecurity or state militarization. Even though America may not indulge in Cold War style conflict within the African continent, the creation of AFRICOM or other investments demonstrates that the U.S is concerned on reconsolidating the influence of African continent (Abdalla 8-12), this is an issue that is posing a significant threat to internal security within many African countries.
The western powers are known for their preferences for capitalism and imperialism (Williams et al., 256). The concept of capitalism is enshrined in the context of political and economic systems whereby the industry and trading aspects of a country do not benefit the state but the private owners. Consequently, imperialism entails the reliance on military force and diplomacy to extend the influence or power systems in a country (Williams et al., 257). The western powers have utilized the opportunity of interacting with the African Countries and influenced them to adopt their systems of capitalism and imperialism.
The Central African Republic (CAR) has encountered wars and rebellions especially between the government forces and the Seleka rebel coalition (Gluckman 38). The country experiences are a consequence of imperialism injection into their culture by the Western powers. The inter-ethnic cleavages, struggling economy, and the disintegration of the state are elements of the capitalistic effects. The interests of the Western powers in controlling the mining sites for gold and production of diamond overshadowed their need to experience a civilized country. They supplied weaponry and forces to the country to protect their interests. Firearms reached the rebels as well as opposing groups, thus, escalating the magnitude of the wars. It depicts the culture of the west of looking at their interests above those of other countries (Boulden 208).
Wars in Kenya
Kenya is a victim of the capitalism consequences that are barbaric in nature (Gurr 232). The Western powers had invested in Kenya to represent their vision of a free market economy in Africa. They attempted to instill democracy in the country through their capitalistic approaches. The country battled with the new culture of capitalism amid the ethnically diverse context that is imminent in the country. The country encounters civil arrests and wars based on political differences and tribal alienation. The political system of seeking maximum benefits from the power has landed the country into the ashes of bloodshed. The imperialists’ elements of the Americas and the Britain accorded military support to the country in pursuit of maintaining their agenda in the country. The European people tend to misunderstand the wars in Kenya and base it merely on the concept of tribalism. The wars in Kenya were not the normal warfare entailing different tribes that disagree on issues. The Kenyan wars are a result of what the West has influenced in their cultural systems (Gluckman 42).
The enlightenment of the country on elements of civilized wars by their colonialists like the Britain created the magnitude of destructions in the wars. The political elite in the country acquired much of their higher education in the West especially in Britain, where they learned the elements of imperialism. They adopted the foreign systems, which they implemented in the country (Boulden 206).
Wars in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Congolese wars are belated on the presidency of Kabila, who received high levels of support from the West (Boulden 210). The U.S., in particular, had obtained their servant in the African country who could act as their client. The Western powers had hoped for an economic upheaval of the country and compared it to the Asian tigers. The victory of Kabila in the military was reflected as the victory for the U.S. imperialism rather than being for French imperialism. It demonstrated the struggle for control of markets or influence in Congo between Washington and Paris. The U.S. and Canada had preferred to support Kabila to protect their mining corporations since Mobutu had failed their capitalist corporations. It indicates the level of self-interests the Western powers had in benefiting from the African country. They wanted leadership that could look into their interests without considering the need for the country to establish its democracy (Gurr 236).
The legacies that can be associated with the imperialism in the countries in African comprise chaos, destruction, and wars. Essentially, the colonial forces had conflicted the countries dependent on tribal and ethnic groupings. They established arbitrary borders along which the genocides, wars, and massacres could escalate. The leaders in the countries have been unable to wade off the imperialist legacies that had been incorporated by the Western powers (Boulden 214).
Wars in Chad
Chad also experienced the challenges that were brought about by the imperialist and capitalist tendencies of the west especially European Union (Gluckman 37). The countries such as France took advantage of the situation in the country for exploitation. They disguised as intending to offer aid to the country together with EUFOR troops. The French army had targeted to assist the government in the wars to ensure they find protection for their interests. The interests of the Western powers to control shares of the natural resources in the country influenced their desire to take sides with the government. The country is endowed with oil resources and other raw materials for manufacturing companies. It established a situation of the battle over the resources between the western countries as they sought dominance in the country (Gurr 238).
The gaps identified are that recent documentation about the influence of Western powers is scarce. Additionally, literature fails to establish the identities of the individuals in the European states who were directly responsible for conflicts in Africa. The literature offers the grouping of responsible countries such as France, Britain, and the U.S. rather than reporting the lead individuals from the countries. Another gap is that the interpretation of events is extremely linked to the Western powers. It fails to recognize the ability of African countries to decide their fate without influences from the West. The literature has failed to raise pertinent issues in the wars especially, the modalities, weapons and the levels of casualties in most cases.
Abdalla, Bujra. “African Conflicts: Their Causes and Their Political and Social Environment. DPMF Occasional Paper” 4 (2002). Print.
Boulden, Jane. Responding to Conflict in Africa: The United Nations and Regional Organizations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Print.
Chukwuma, Obidegwu. “Post-Conflict Peace Building in Africa. The Challenges of Socio-Economic Recovery and Development Africa Region Working Paper Series” 73 (2004). Print.
Gluckman, Max. Order and Rebellion in Tribal Africa. London: Routledge, 2013. Print.
Gurr, Ted R. Political Rebellion: Causes, Outcomes, and Alternatives. London: Routledge, 2015. Print.
Helen, Hintjens. “Explaining the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. The journal of modern African studies” 37.2 (1999): 241-246. Print.
Robert, Rotberg. Failed States, Collapsed States, Weak States: Causes and Indicators. Cambridge, Mass.: World Peace Foundation ; Washington, D.C. : Brookings Institution Press, 2003. Print.
Williams, George W, and John D. Smith. History of the Negro Troops in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865. Bronx: Fordham University Press, 2012. Print.
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Literature Review This section review literature on the responsibility of Western Powers on Civil Wars as well as Rebellion within Eastern and Central Africa. From the reviewed materials, it is […]