The Five Stages of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in The Outsiders, a Novel by S. E. Hinton
“Psychology is the endlessly fascinating science of the human mind and behavior” (Gillespie 1). Psychological criticism is used to enhance the knowledge of literature by analyzing the behaviors and motives of dynamic characters throughout several theories. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is one of many theories. This concept has five stages: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization. The stages are arranged in a triangle, with the fundamental needs at the bottom. Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people and their actions, and this is shown through his pyramid. First, people are motivated to meet their basic survival needs including food and water. Once those are met, they move on to be motivated by the next stage up, such as esteem or belonging needs. Eventually, when all their needs are satisfied, they may move on to the self-fulfillment stage. In S. E. Hinton’s The Outsiders, Johnny Cade’s motives and actions, over time, can be categorized into all the different stages of Maslow’s theory.
Safety and love needs are closely related for Johnny. First, he reached his safety needs. “His father was always beating him up, and his mother ignored him… He would have run away a million times if we hadn’t been there”. Although he did not feel safe at home, he felt safe with the gang. Also, he had his love and belonging needs met along with the physical needs. “If it hadn’t been for the gang, Johnny would never have known what love and affection are” (14). The other greasers gave him a sense of belonging, especially considering his rough life at home. They loved and cared for him even if his parents did not. This also caused his shy and timid actions at the time since he struggled with his safety, love, and belonging at home. He was motivated to reach a feeling of belongingness or safety, and once he got there his motives affected his further actions.
As Johnny started to move past the basic needs, he eventually reached the stages of esteem needs and self-actualization. After he saved the children from the burning church, he was praised and respected. “Their lives are worth more than mine, they have more to live for. Some of their parents came by to thank me and I knew it was worth it”. He knew that endangering his life for them was the right choice to make, and he was content with it. He had earned the respect of other people, even though he was a greaser. After he satisfied the esteem needs, he reached the self-actualization stage before death. He told Pony, “Stay gold, Ponyboy. Stay gold…” . He fulfilled his life, and knew that dying was worth it to save the children. He also realized the meaning of the poem, and how it related to him and Pony’s lives. “You’re gold when you’re a kid, like green. When you’re a kid everything’s new, dawn. It’s just when you get used to everything that it’s day” . He wanted to tell Ponyboy to stay young and innocent, and not to make the wrong choices in life. Johnny made his way through all the stages, because once he met his physical needs, he moved on to satisfy his emotional and psychological needs.
In conclusion, Johnny’s actions over time can be categorized into the five stages of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. He was motivated to meet his safety and belongingness needs, and these were provided by the gang. Afterwards, he saved the children and was praised and respected, which fulfilled his self-esteem needs. Finally, at his death, he reached the self-actualization stage when he realized all of his choices were worth it. He realized that everything he did was worth his life, and he advised Ponyboy to stay young and innocent. Johnny shows that, even with rough conflicts and struggles in his life, he was able to move past them and was motivated to reach self-actualization.
The Influence of Bad Parenting or the Lack of Parents in The Outsiders, a Novel by S. E. Hinton
Without parents-or good ones at least- where would you be today? In a gang, in jail, or even dead? That is the lifestyle that too many children and young adults face and it is no different in The Outsiders, by S.E. Hinton, where good parents and a whole family are far and few between. Almost everyone in the gang, from Johnny to Bob is experiencing or has experienced at some point parent issues and this seldom has nothing to do with them being in a gang and going through mental and/or physical trauma. Hinton skillfully lets the readers infer the underlying theme of such common problems between the gang members. By the end of the book, it’s quite evident that parenting, and family as a whole, is an important part of how people develop and how they live their lives.
One of the first and most prominent examples of this in the novel is Johnny’s case horribly of abusive parents. His parents beat him and make him feel unwelcome to the point where he pretty much lives on the streets. Because of his family’s destructive behavior, Johnny joins a gang to get even a miniscule idea of what it’s like to have a family. Even when he is in the hospital, weak and vulnerable, his parents’ cruelty was never forgotten. “A nurse appeared in the doorway. ‘Johnny,’ she said quietly, “your mother’s here to see you.’ Johnny opened his eyes. At first they were wide with surprise, then they darkened. ‘I don’t want to see her”. His parents’ abuse towards Johnny even leads him to find himself on the streets when he gets jumped by Socs and kills one of them which subsequently leads to his death. Due to his terrible circumstances, Ponyboy even describes him at the beginning of the novel as, “a little dark puppy who’s been kicked too many times and is lost in a crowd a strangers”. Although this judgment may have seemed harsh at the beginning of the book, that is exactly what Johnny was, and the quote proves the point that the reason he found himself in a gang was because of him being “kicked around too much” by his parents. Johnny could of been a tremendously different and stronger person had it not been for the iron fist of evil his parents had clenched him with.
Although it’s not as evident in the novel, there are some rather large hints towards the fact that the Curtis boys would’ve been a much different and much more successful in life had it not been for the death of their parents and an auto crash. It’s mostly hinted that Darry would’ve finished school and done something with his life before the need for a parent figure appeared in the Curtis family. Due to this instantaneous succession and him needing to play the part of two parents for three children, Ponyboy makes a remark at the beginning of the book that sums it up nicely. “But then, Darry’s gone through a lot in his twenty years, grown up too fast. What Ponyboy is stating here is that Darry had matured very quickly and he later remarks that he dropped school to take care of Sodapop and Ponyboy. “One time, Steve made the mistake of referring to him as ‘all brawn, no brains,’ and Darry almost shattered Steve’s jaw…Darry has never really gotten over not going to college.” Darry quite obviously would’ve become a different person than he was in the book if his parents were still alive due to his feeling of necessity to dropout of school and him becoming the father figure and maturing very quickly. Parenting or lack thereof clearly took its toll on the Curtis family.
One last example of bad parenting or lack of family leading to unfortunate or unwanted results is Bob Sheldon. All the information about Bob that the reader receives is either from Randy, Cherry or from inferencing and reading between the lines. Randy tells Ponyboy that Bob wasn’t really a bad person but his parents let him do anything that he wanted with no sense of boundary, limit, or consequence which led to him joining a gang and terrorizing the Greasers. Cherry also reinforces a similar image of Bob being a good guy after Ponyboy inviting her to visit Johnny in the hospital and her declining saying, “‘You only knew his bad side. He could be sweet sometimes, and friendly. But when he got drunk.” . Bob had a good side but his bad side was a monster feeding off his parents’ negligence of it. His parents never even showed a watching or even caring eye about Bob’s activities and this leads to his death in the end. The inference the reader needs to make about Bob is near the end of the novel where Ponyboy is looking through an old yearbook and finally sees the Bob that Cherry knew. “What was he like? I knew he liked to pick fights, had the usual Soc belief that living on the West Side made you Mr. Supper-Tuff, looked good in dark wine-colored sweaters and was proud of his rings. But what about the Bob Sheldon that Cherry Valance knew?”. This is a moment of realization to Ponyboy, where he sees the real Bob, not the one his parents let take hold of him through turning a blind eye to his behavior. Maybe if he had better parents he wouldn’t have died such a young death.
In the novel, The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton, parenting plays a big role in developing characters and influencing their decisions from Johnny to Bob- two polar opposites. It affects who they are, what they do and most importantly, who they become in the novel. Parenting can have a positive or negative affect and bad parenting can cause people to be lost in life, and even die in the cases of Johnny and Bob. Through clear examples in the book, such a theme is almost hard to miss, and it plays such an important role in the evolution of each and every character.
“The Outsiders” by S. E. Hinton
I believe that, in the book “Ponyboy”, the Socs, socialites or social rich kids from the west, are more of a disgrace and menace to society than the “greasers”, the poorer students from the east. The Socs’ idea of fun is throwing big parties, including beer blasts, and jumping greasers. They drive Mustangs, Corvairs and Corvettes. “Greasers are almost like hoods. They steal things, drive souped- up old cars, hold up gas stations and have gang fights once in a while”. Page 3’. Socs wear madras shirts, wine coloured sweaters and ski jackets.
The greasers wear their hair long, dress in blue jeans, T-shirts, leather jackets and tennis shoes or boots. Socs get editorials written about them in the newspaper for being a public disgrace one day and an asset to society the next. Greasers, on the other hand, are known as juvenile delinquents because of their appearance and behaviour. “We take turns getting our names in the pape”. Page 48. The Socs make underprivileged people’s lives distressing. They also jump them for kicks. Ponyboy refers to them as cold blooded men who are heartless and don’t feel anything. “We’re sophisticated – cool to the point of not feeling. Nothing is real for us”. Page 47. Still, not all Socs are like that.
For instance, Cherry Valance and Ponyboy Curtis get along, sharing their love for literature and sunsets. Their bond can fill the gap between rich and poor. As Cherry said (on page 42), “things are rough all over.” Before Ponyboy met Cherry, he thought all Socs were rich kids who acted cruelly without motivation. The Socs have no loyalty, even to each other. When Johnny stabbed Bob, all of Bob’s friends ran off leaving him lying in a pool of his own blood. “They ran when I stabbed him. They all ran…Page 70. This shows that every person is for himself. But the greasers stick together like a big family although they are just friends. They are always there for each other no matter what the situation is. For example, when Dally found out what Johnny did he gave him a gun and 50 dollars and told him where to hide until everything was clear. Dally had nothing to do with it, but he still helped them. Also, Johnny wanted to turn himself in because he didn’t think is was it fair for Ponyboy to stay, especially with Darry and Sodapop worrying about him. There were many forms of violence used in this book, both physical and emotional. The characters used their fists, switchblades and guns.
They insulted each other and called each other trash. But the Socs looked for fights to entertain themselves, usually attacking those who would be outnumbered by them. “The Socs are rough they gang up on one or two”. Page 37. The greasers only fought in self-defense or to back up a friend. When you consider privilege and underprivilege, loyalty and disloyalty, fairness and unfairness, it is obvious which group is truly a societal disgrace and menace and which is simply trying to get by in the world. The greasers band together to try to survive their environment, while the Socs prey on everyone they consider to be weaker than they are. Which do you think is more menacing?
The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton Research Paper
“I wished I looked like Paul Newman. He looks tough and I don’t. The other thing-it’s a long walk home with no company…And nobody in our gang digs movies and books the way I do. So I lone it” (Hinton, 1967, p.6). From this passage, it is evident that the main character, Ponyboy Curtis, who is fourteen years of age, will be telling the story from the first person perspective. This is important to the story because he describes the events in a slangy, youthful voice that makes his narration easily believable.
I liked this passage because it shows that though Ponyboy belongs to a gang, he is not stereotypical as he loves being alone in pursuit of his own interests. On the other hand, this passage does not interest me in the sense that Ponyboy wishes to be another person, instead of focusing on his own strengths. The fact that Ponyboy regards himself as “superior,” despite his young age, to other gang members amazes me.
“…so I can still help Darry with the bills and stuff…Tuff enough. Wait till I get out…I told you he don’t mean half of what he says…” (Hinton, 1967, page 26). This phrase illustrates the method of communication between the gang members. Since they speak in street slang, this illustrates that the two rival groups of the greasers and the Socs share some things in common.
This potential for agreement is important for the story since the reader can feel the aversion between the two teenage groups when they are engaging in a conversation. I like this method of communication because it is able to harmonize the division between the groups. However, I hate it because it is full of grammatical errors. Though the interpretation of this street slang may be difficult, it is an interesting youthful way of talking.
“I could fall in love with Dallas Winston. I hope I never see him again, or I will” (Hinton, 1967, p.46). This quote is what Cheery told Ponyboy when they were having a conversation in chapter three. I like this conversation since it shows that Dallas Winston, the meanest person, could make a lady, like Cherry-a Soc girl with good habits, like him.
This also amuses me as well. I hate the words Cheery uses in this instance because she seems not to be considering the personality of Dallas. She is simply speaking because she has been driven by emotions. Cherry’s attraction to Dallas is of essence in the story since it illustrates that the conflict between the two teenage groups is reconcilable.
“I had to. They were drowning you, Pony. They might have killed you. And they had a blade… they were gonna beat me up…” (Hinton, 1967, p.57). These words were spoken by Johnny to Pony. I liked this phrase because it shows the sincerity in Johnny. Although he had killed Bob, he only did so to defend himself, otherwise he could have been killed instead.
One thing I hate about this incidence is that instead of finding an easier way of solving the problem, Johnny, a greaser, opted to commit murder. It is sad that Bob, who played a critical role in defending the Socs, lost his life in such an unfortunate way. The death of Bob increased the rivalry between the two contending gangs.
Ponyboy thinks, “That was the first time I realized the extent of Johnny’s hero-worship for Dallas Winston” (Hinton, 1967, p.76). This is another phrase that captures my attention in the novel. After reading Gone with the Wind, the boys come to terms with what they are going through.
I like this phrase because the book managed to open Ponyboy’s eyes such that he was able to seen the extent to which Dallas has been idolized. On the other hand, I doesn’t like the notion that the boys were unable to realize their own sense of worth by having a high esteem of the concerning the ideas of Dallas.
The tension between the two rival groups continued to increased after Ponyboy and Johnny came to that abrupt realization. And, Dallas even started to walk around with an gun so as to threaten his enemies.
“Greasers will still be greasers and Socs will still be Socs. Sometimes I think it’s the ones in the middle that are really the lucky stiffs” (Hinton, 1967, p.117). These words were spoken by Randy. He was informing Ponyboy that he will cease to engage in fights in the rumble. I find these words interesting because they signify the futility of the conflicts between the two groups.
Randy brings a good point by suggesting that the recurring Soc-greaser conflict will make them unable to rise above their social identities. This message is important in the story since it signifies the socioeconomic differences that were the root cause of the bitter rivalry between the two gang groups. These disparities between the social classes were the source of the tension between the greasers and the Socs.
Hinton, S. E. The Outsiders. (1967). New York: Viking Press, Dell Publishing.
Analysis of The Outsiders from the Perspectives of Social Work Theories and Applications Essay
Summary of the Book and Analysis of Characters’ Relations
The Outsiders is a book that narrates about social struggles premised on differences in social outlooks, wealth, and cultural beliefs (Hinton, 2005). The rivalry between the two gangs – the Greasers and the Socs – turns into the struggle in the context of social problems. Thus, the story represents a microcosm in which people with problematic backgrounds confront social challenges.
The main protagonist Ponyboy is a 14 years old boy who lives with his elder brothers – 16-year old Sodapop and the eldest brother Darry. The latter takes responsibilities for his brothers because their parents died in a car accident (Hinton, 2005). Ponyboy, along with his friends Johnny and Dally, confronts Bob and Randy, the members of the Socs, after returning from the cinema with Socs’ girlfriends Cherry and Marcia. Later, Bob and Randy decide to revenge on the Greasers and threaten Panyboy to kill him.
In a struggle, Johnny kills Bob because the latter attempted to drown Ponyboy. Both Johnny and Ponyboy decide to escape and hide in a church. However, when the church got on fire they rescue a group of children, but both teenagers are seriously wounded. Learning about the rescue of children from church, local newspapers proclaim Johnny and Ponyboy as heroes.
In a hospital, Johnny dies because of serious injuries whereas Dally suffers from Johnny’s loss and decides to commit suicide while confronting the police. After the accident and recovery, Ponybody returns home and leads a normal life, but his grades in school leave much to be desired. Then, he writes a term paper based on the story of his life, which later turns into a novel.
The book reveals a complex interaction between representatives of different layers of society resulting in rigorous struggles between the rich and the poor. The story is also about complicated family relations, as well as how family background influences teenager’s outlook on social interaction and communication.
In this respect, the three brothers – Ponyboy, Sodapop, and Darry – are left without parents’ attention and, as a result, they have to take on extra duties and responsibilities. Ponyboy is irritated by Darry’s extreme care. He befriends Johnny and shares his outlooks on life.
Sodapope is a handsome and carefree high school student who gave up studying. Along with his best friend Steve, he works at the gas station and knows everything about how to steel hubcaps. All these relationships are presented in the context of specific behavioral codes dictated by external constrains. All the members of the gang, therefore, are committed to the idea of honorable actions, which implies readiness to stand for each other in front of the Greasers’ enemies.
Johnny has also a problematic family history with his abusive mother and father paying insufficient attention to their son’s education. Therefore, he is vulnerable enough to the external environment. The three brothers are also left without attention and, therefore, they are ignorant of generally accepted codes of behavior in a community.
Exercising violence against other social groups seems to be the only means of protection accepted by the characters. In addition, there are also cases of substance abuse that can be seen the way drunken Socs attack Ponyboy and his friends.
Approaches Related to the Case
From a social worker perspective, many theories and approaches are applicable to the case. Particular attention should be paid to the social theories related to the analysis of the place of gangs in society, as well as the nature and causes of social struggles (Heinonen & Spearman, 2000). In this respect, consideration of community development theory, crisis theory, family relationships and processes, as well as ego psychology is imperative for explaining the social problems and concerns the book heroes encounter.
Applying Approaches to Solve Social Problems
Regarding the case under analysis, social work practice should be implemented by using strength and ecological perspectives. The idea of the strength perspective is premised on the theory of positive psychology and cognitive therapies that would enable individuals to search for their resourcefulness and worth.
Recognizing personal skills and abilities and acceptance of other views and outlooks can contribute to building a positive environment, as well as successfully interacting with other people (Ronen and Freeman, 2007 p. 7). From a social worker perspective, Ponyboy and Johnny should accept their worthiness and resourcefulness to fulfill themselves in such disciplines as literature and music. Moreover, the strength perspective allows the social workers to address resilience of individuals interacting in social and family context.
The need to focus on solutions rather than on challenges and problems is paramount as well (Ronen and Freeman, 2007). Flexibility and readiness to changes, therefore, should come to the forth when it comes to case of Dally’s suicide. Indeed, the hero fails to find a solution because he cannot reveal other way-outs. At this point, the Greasers have chosen the wrong tactics while confronting the outside society and considering those enemies.
From an ecological perspective, the situation presented in the book should be considered as a sophisticated interaction of microcosm, mesosystem, and macrosystem. The microcosm is represented in the form of relationships within the gang and between Panyboy and his brothers, which are quite complicated because each one encounters significant psychological problems (Pardeck, 1996).
These problems are also revealed while considering the interaction of the gang with other members of the community, which refers to the idea of mesosystem. Finally, macrosystem addresses the issues related to the conflicts and interaction between different cultures (Pardeck, 1996). Because the characters of the book have different family backgrounds and outlooks on life, social workers cannot solve the problem by analyzing psychological characteristics and behaviors separately.
Rather, social contexts should be considered to define what challenges and reasons an individual has while committing a particular action. In other words, the ecological perspective should address the “person-in-environment as one entity” (Greene & Rubin, 2008, p. 200). Social workers should deal with Ponyboy’s problems with regard to the relationships with his brother and his best friend Johnny and define what influence the gang as a social construct has on his outlook on society.
Conclusion: Social Perspective and Outcomes
Regarding the social and family problems experienced by the main characters in the book, the story provides a typical account on how different social layers interact, as well as how different social groups accept the reality. In fact, the title of the book, The Outsiders, provide sufficient explanation for social issues.
The principle of differentiating people according to social status, wealth, gender, and sex leads to spreading the concepts of superiority and inferiority where the dominant group disapproves the action performed by the outsiders. Therefore, the book provides an adequate portrayal of social struggles.
Judging from the above analysis, the outcome of social work practice should be similar to the one practiced in reality.
Greene, R., & Rubin R. (2008). Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice. US: Transaction Publishers.
Heinonen, T., & Spearman, L. (2000). Social Work Practice: Problem Solving and Beyond. US: Irwin Higher Education.
Hinton, S. E. (2005). The Outsiders. US: Penguin Group.
Pardeck, J. T. (1996). Social Work Practice: An Ecological Approach. US: ABC-CLIO.
Ronen, T., & Freeman, A. (2007). Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Clinical Social Work Practice. US: Springer Publishing Company.
The Outsiders: Critical Review Essay (Movie Review)
A film is a visual medium and normally attempts to portray certain parts on thoughts of characters not explicitly expressed. Recognizing themes of loyalty, moral crisis, honor, and revenge, Ford Coppola brings life into the film The Outsiders.
Thus, this analytical treatise attempts to explicitly and critically review the elements of storytelling, acting, cinematography, editing, sound and style, directing, themes, genre, and the impact of the film on the society, framing and scene selection in the film The Outsider. Besides, the treatise analysis the main themes in the film directed by Ford Coppola.
At the onset the film, viewers are introduced to the class stratification in the society and rivalry between the rich kids and Curtis’ camp. Its visual representational meaning conveys the relationship between Curtis and the depicted structuring of subsequent scenes. The creation of a visual representational meaning proposed the space-based model for analysis centered on the placement of objects within the semiotic space as represented in the plot of the film (Monaco, 2009).
The relationship between the visual participant-interactive or represented- in this film is realized by elements defined as vectors or processes which correspond to a group of action in the surprise of fear (Coppola, 1983, scene 8). The story takes place in a society consisting of clear lines between the rich and the poor.
Coppola has created an interesting fictional premise that takes the route of a thought-provoking path of action and chase scenes. Reflectively, this creates a feeling of an imaginative casting. Factually, the storyline is far more and fascinating than the film. Coppola even goes ahead to include slow motion pictures yet the film is a high speed genre.
This adversely distracts the flow from its original interesting and provocative aspects. For instance, in scene seven, where the Greasers are in the church, the audience is interrupted by their presence which the director modified through the use of slow motion pictures of them (Coppola, 1983, scene 7).
The theme of violence is fully exploited. However, the thriller misses the truly poetic orchestrations of actions and heroic displays of bravado especially on the aspect of flow. The film has an intriguing premise on the theme of violence: characters in the film are drunkards, smokers, bullies, and are involved in fights using crude weapons and even end up killing (Coppola, 1983, scene 2-8).
This metaphysical fiction genre captures the lives of the Greasers (Curtis, brothers, and friends living in the low income side of the town) and the Socs (wealthy kids living in higher income side of the town). Drawn from life experiences, this movie reveals the decay of the society as contributed by the themes of monopolistic corporations, misery, twin-self, paranoia, violence, peer influences, and drug abuse.
The actors are mostly young adults who still live a carefree life in the midst of poverty. From the third scene to the seventh scene, the Greasers are drunk. The state of anomy in the story line seems to suggest a weak social system and failed family life. For instance, Curtis brothers and their friends find themselves in the company of chaotic greasers. Across the film, a series of tragic events unfold and climax with death. The main character looks moderately concerned and a bit confused. In fact he fails to play his role convincingly.
Contact is one of the most important visual systems as it enables the viewer to distinguish between images that depict different objects and scenes, such as a person or an animal. Contact visualization has been achieved by use dark background that introduces the characters at the beginning of the film.
However, from the picture motions, the main character is very cautious in thought and action pattern. Furthermore, the lighting also creates an attitude which relates to the way the viewer relates to the image in either horizontal or vertical angle (Monaco, 2009). Reflectively, when the viewer looks from a vertical angle, it is in order to opine that it depicts class stratification. For example, when the viewer looks up from a low angle, the motion images show rebellion from authority.
On the other hand, when the viewer looks down from a high angle, the images show vulnerability. In the film The Outsiders, the above cinematic invisibility forms indicate the themes of vulnerability, fear of the unknown and class stratification surrounding this society. These themes are critical in exploring the plot of the film set in a background of poverty and violence (Coppola, 1983).
Visual communication relies on both the eyes that see the images and the brain that processes and makes sense of the information received. An active mind therefore is capable of remembering visual images; consequently having both text and images enables one to analyze the pictures (Monaco, 2009).
The frame in the storyline of this film deals with factors that the plot language is ill equipped to handle. To be precise, the visually salient elements of the subject and its spatial position are symmetric. In the third scene, the frame picture of Curtis invokes meaning by adding information to the words presented, for example, the story teaches on the importance family values of care, protection as a measure against deviant behavior (Coppola, 1983, scene 4).
This frame of the film creates a conceptual process that is visually characterized by the presence of a chronological order piece. This conceptual process defines, analyzes and classifies the place, people or things including abstract ones into a symbolic and analytical parameter. The classification categorizes people, things or places in a tree structure in which things are represented as belonging to a particular class or order. In the film, conceptual processes occur when Curtis and the brothers encounters a surprise fear of the unknown
Composition and Soundtracks
Since the invention of motion pictures, music has been a vital tool as a communication medium in films. As a matter of fact, the use of music resonates on the facets of the plot and its significance in defining and modeling the synopsis via the creation of desired effects (Monaco, 2009).
Often, music takes the form of filmic metaphor, that is, the message being communicated. The choice of instrument used and monotony of the soundtrack Stay Gold in the film The Outsiders and Tomorrow is a Long Time by Elvis Presley have created the unique coded sounds for recognizable geographical access.
Though constantly and consistently playing in the background, these soundtracks are not heard consciously. Rather, they function actively in the subconscious mind as they lead the audience to the preceding scene. Besides, tonal balancing makes these soundtracks a subordinate to visuals and dialogue, though they are part of the narrative vehicle (Coppola, 1983).
The background sound track Stay Gold by Wayne Wonder in the film createsan ambience in the plot and ensures continuity as integrated by emotions. In the process, emotional act is invoked for different characterized trait played by each character in the cast.The emotional play is organized into music to make the audience appreciate and feel the same way as expected from the film maker.
From the type of music being played, the audience can predict the turn of events in the next scene; whether bad or good. Besides, this soundtrack evokesthe sensational horror of the synopsis (Monaco, 2009). Without music, this narrative presented in motion pictures would have minimal impacts on the audience as compared to the same with a variety of musical soundtracks (Coppola, 1983).
In addition, the song Tomorrow is a Long Time by Elvis Presley in the film enables the audience to identify themselves with Curtis and relate to his role in the film. This composition relaxes the mood in the movie as sadness intensifies. To align to the traditional setting aspects of production design and the society, this composition heightens hyper-real palate of emotional expression.
Moreover, this choice of music was essential in the need for a proper balance of production aural, sound accordion, and permeates scenes (Monaco, 2009). Subsequently, this balance has facilitated the addition of decadent uncertainty feeling across the film and in the cast (Coppola, 1983).
Style and directing
As a matter of fact, irrespective of the level of knowledge and understanding of research facets, literature versions are inclusive of literature tools such as metaphors. Literature comparison is about enjoying the phrases, feeling the actor’s words in action, imagining, and placing oneself in the actor’s shoes.
Creation of scenes with consistent assumptions and symbolic insinuation add comprehensiveness to film perception by the audience.The film shows how an individual’s sense of identity is vulnerable to manipulation by others within the same peer group (Coppola, 1983, scene 5). Coppola relied heavily in a balance of irony, realism, and parody in the film The Outsiders to present a distinct literary style in depicting different societal setups.
The director artistically underscores the traditional position on triangulated desires as a trajectory and paradoxically dependent on desire nurtured by peer pressure to form the underlying huddles towards fulfilling the traditionally internalized protagonist beliefs in discipline as a normative social positioning institution. Reflectively, integrating this in the theme of triangulated desires to overcome introduces physical and emotional insistent which is climaxed in momentous fulfillment achievement as perceived by the Greasers.
The theme of hidden and recurring desires control the lives of the main characters in this wobbly plot. This aspect is narrow and creates an essence of assuming a static plot setting (Monaco, 2009). This is a wise way to maintain the literature touch, making it simpler to understand. Thus, the director has created a quantifiable and intrinsic viewer understanding of what metaphoric use of a character was about and the resultant effect created (Coppola, 1983).
Reflectively, human soul acquires great experience and remains unhurt in the experience of maturity in expression and emotional display. Human intellection is healthier when people lead the “life of nature” and are not troubled with societal challenges which in the real sense do not exist. Besides that, when people persistently build original intention, without conforming to recognized culture, they would never be confused in speculation. Instead their intellection would have achieved significant reality that other individuals would learn from them.
As a matter of fact, these events indicate that the Greasers and Socs had themselves to blame for their unfortunate situations. Their unruly behavior and abuse of drugs not only affected their lives but also the lives of their family members. In fact, their lives are consumed by series of sad events as it is apparent that the Greasers may not overcome poverty (Coppola, 1983). Besides, their low economic class is an impediment towards relating with the rich Socs.
From this film, Coppola displays the existing class discrimination on the basis of the economic worth. The haves always look down upon the have-nots simply because of the external advantages they may have above others. In addition, Coppola displays alcoholism and drug abuse as a rebellious strategy against the harsh realities of the society.
This film adopts a mixture of fantasy and western genre. Since the plot is directed towards a well arranged tone, the film can be classified as a genre film. The elements of tone, music track, and character of the cast is critical towards genre classification.
Criticism and Analysis
The film also elevates doubt of irony and actually misleads viewers with incorrect and strident imagery. Moreover, the film is a sarcastic declaration on unrealistic obsession with violence. Actually, this aspect is informed by the perception that the film holds a solemn disposition on the decay in the society. Actually, the director attempted to suggest a swift change of imagery which entailed street rivalry and darkness. Coppola deliberately uses such metaphors to portray a practical and likely result of an obsession with violence.
From the above reflection, it is apparent that Coppola’s film The Outsiderscombines the artistic presentation and the soundtracks to create a sense of drama within a minimal feeling of manipulation. Coherently, the level of auditory componenthasa different cinematic repertoire for sensory connection; commonly referred to as context modality.
Generally, from the stimuli created by movie excerpts and series of dynamic structural alignment in the film The Outsider, it is in order to accredit Cappola for his creativity. The performance of the cast is not condescending. Thus, it is in order to confirm that this film have lived to its potential.
Coppola F (Executive Producer). (1983). The Outsiders [DVD]. Warner Bros: California.
Monaco, J. (2009). How to read a film: movies, media, and beyond. London, UK: Oxford University Press.
The Outsiders by Susan Eloise Hinton Essay
Almost every literary tradition can present the world with at least one child prodigy — the author of a sensational book that makes a significant impact on the whole world. Susan Eloise Hinton, who wrote her novel The Outsiders in 1965, is the American version of such cultural archetype.1After its publication, the novel was faced with both a massive scandal and enormous popularity; in some states, it was prohibited, and in others, it was included in the school curriculum. The Outsiders is a small book that evokes different emotions among readers. The novel depicts teenage boys who are forced to protect themselves from the attacks of their peers from a wealthier neighborhood. Therefore, it is crucial to get acquainted with the essence of the novel and analyze its main characters to genuinely comprehend Hinton’s view on the challenges of the teenage age within the framework of this paper.
The Summary of the Novel
The main character of the novel, with a comical name Ponyboy Curtis, is a 14-year-old orphan with big dreams. His parents died in a car accident a year ago, and now he lives with two older brothers — a 20-year-old strong man Darry and 16-year-old handsome Gas. Gas is a favorite person in any circle, while Darry is cruel and arrogant: Ponyboy Curtis is convinced that he tyrannizes him in vain and wants to take his younger brother to a shelter. Ponyboy Curtis, his brothers, and their friends are “greasers”: they comb their long hair back, smoke cigarettes from their youth, steal from shops, and turn empty bottles into Molotov cocktails in one polished motion. What is more, many of the “greasers” have switchblades in their pockets. However, the main thing that all the “greasers” are busy with is the hostility towards the rival gang, the “socs”—neat and elegant children from wealthy areas.
The “greasers,” teenagers from working-class families living in poverty, are convinced that the “socs” are less valuable people since they are more privileged from birth. Thus, the “greasers” hate them to a great extent due to the difference in their social status. Moreover, the “socs” indeed behave in a challenging manner: they attack weaker groups of people, beat the smallest, and generally do not demonstrate fidelity to the street honor code.2 Once, Ponyboy and his best friend, Johnny, get in serious trouble: first, they want to date two girls from the “socs” party, then they get involved in a fight with their enemies, and later they accidentally kill one of the attackers. What happens next in the novel is entirely predictable. When Johnny and Ponyboy pull defenseless children out of the fire in the church, they appear heroes in readers’ eyes. The story ends with the bitterness of loss, Ponyboy’s long-awaited reconciliation with his brother, and a fantastic discovery that the “socs” are also people with the same feelings, problems, and challenges.
An Analysis of the Main Characters
The protagonist of the book, a teenage boy, Ponyboy Curtis, is a person with a complex and stubborn character. He suffers from a problematic relationship with his older brothers and has difficulty in finding common ground with peers. All his life Ponyboy lives with a feeling of hatred and rejection, especially in relation to a hostile gang, the “socs.” Later on, faced with poverty, hunger, and the pain of losing his best friend, Ponyboy realizes that all people are the same.
As a consequence, after realizing all the mistakes he made in life, Ponyboy says: “It seemed funny to me that the sunset she saw from her patio and the one I saw from the back steps was the same one. Maybe the two different worlds we lived in weren’t so different. We saw the same sunset.”3 Thus, within the framework of the novel, Ponyboy goes through the difficult path of rebirth to break free from hatred and evil and become a completely new person.
The other important character in the novel is Johnny, who is forced to hide in a church from the police after killing a boy from the “socs” group. Together with Ponyboy, Johnny lives in the church for some time, but the two boys do not use this time in vain, reading famous poems and novels. Subsequently, a terrible fire breaks out in the church, and trying to save the children, Johnny suffers from serious burns and finds himself in the hospital. He soon realizes that he will not survive and spends the last moments of life with his best friend, Ponyboy. Before dying, realizing all his mistakes in life, Johnny says, “Stay gold, Ponyboy, stay gold,”4 and peacefully passes away. Therefore, the main characters of the novel are a great example of a real friendship, mutual assistance, and support.
The Theme of the Novel
The most prevailing topics covered all through The Outsiders novel are social and class conflicts between youngsters. These conflicts take place between two opponent groups, the “socs” and the “greasers.” The distinctions in personal qualities and the financial status between the “greasers” from the East Side and the “socs” from the West Side have turned the two groups against one another in enmity. Throughout the novel, Ponyboy comes to change his point of view about favoring one side, and discovers that class conflict is unsafe and inefficient for all people in spite of the social and financial status. Accordingly, the main theme of the novel revolves around social differences and class conflicts.
Personal Opinion about the Novel
For me, The Outsiders is the novel that should not be judged by its retelling. It is a very uneven book with a rather weak plot. However, there is something in the story that cannot be found in more mature books: from Hinton’s novel comes lively energy that Kurt Cobain sang about in “Smells Like Teen Spirit.”5 This very teen spirit, the spirit of rebellious youth, completely naturally pays for all shortcomings of the novel. If readers are in their twenties, they will recognize themselves in this book, and, most likely, they will feel frustrated. In the contemporary world, not many people think about what real poverty is and how youngsters can survive it. The book The Outsiders shows the very life of poor people in distressed neighborhoods that have to survive challenges of modern life. However, the most valuable thing about the book is that it depicts how teenagers are trying to find their place in this cruel world.
Overall, the distinctive feature of The Outsiders is Hinton’s power to deal with difficult topics in an easy-to-read manner. In its essence, the novel shows the recognition by the narrator, Ponyboy Curtis, of the fact that there is no way out of the world of brutal gangs, discrimination, and poverty in which he lives. Heroes have to survive without the support of a stable family or state in constrained financial circumstances. Nevertheless, the author shows that embarking on the path of crime and violence as self-defense is the only possible way out for the protagonist-narrator and his friends. Although this story is very bleak and violent, Hinton brings a touch of optimism when Ponyboy, at the end of the book, realizes the need for change in his life.
Dorling, Danny. Injustice (revised edition): Why Social Inequality Still Persists. New York: Policy Press, 2015.
Hinton, Susan. The Outsiders. London: Penguin, 2016.
Prasad, Suji, and Rangasami Periyan. “Factors Influencing Intimate Partner Violence.” Indian Journal of Community Health 31, no. 1 (2019): 4–9.
Raudenbush, Stephen, and Robert Eschmann. “Does Schooling Increase or Reduce Social Inequality?” Annual Review of Sociology 12, no. 2(2015): 443–470.
- Stephen Raudenbush and Robert Eschmann, “Does Schooling Increase or Reduce Social Inequality?” Annual Review of Sociology 12, no. 2 (2015): 445.
- Suji Prasad and Rangasami Periyan, “Factors Influencing Intimate Partner Violence,” Indian Journal of Community Health 31, no. 1 (2019): 9.
- Susan Hinton, The Outsiders (London, United Kingdom: Penguin, 2016), 77.
- Hinton, 166.
- Danny Dorling, Injustice (revised edition): Why Social Inequality Still Persists (New York, NY: Policy Press, 2015), 77.
A Lesson Learned- An Outsiders Essay
A Lesson Learned
The Outsiders Essay
Imagine living on the streets, a brother for a parent and being torn between two deadly rival gangs. In the novel The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, three teenage boys wander around their hometown, unaware of the dangers that lurk behind each alley. Due to their chaotic experiences in the city, Ponyboy, Johnny, and Randy were able to learn important life lessons. Ponyboy learned that even though the city was separated into Greasers and Socials; they were all similar people.
Johnny realized that life was too short and did not have enough “good” in it. Lastly, Randy learned that precious time was being wasted for fighting. Overall, living on the streets can teach teens many valuable lessons.
Ponyboy Curtis was one of the first characters to learn from his past. First, he learned that they were all similar people, no matter what gang they were in. At the beginning of the story, Ponyboy assumed the Socs were rich socialites that owned expensive cars and jumped Greasers, because being part of the Greasers gang taught him that.
He later on realized that the Socs were actually similar to the Greasers; their social statuses were just separating them. Ponyboy narrates, “Maybe the two different worlds we lived in weren’t so different.
We saw the same sunset” (Hinton 41). He said this in realization that the two gangs were truly alike. Ponyboy also gained knowledge that the Socs often had similar problems as the Greasers. For example, some Socs are tired of fighting and wonder whether the rivalry was worth it; Ponyboy and Johnny share the same feelings. Ponyboy furthermore recognized that the Socs encounter feelings of pain, fear, and sorrow through past experiences, just as the Greasers do. In conclusion, Ponyboy realized that despite one gang was richer; the Socs were just as equal as the Greasers.
In addition to Ponyboy, Johnny also learned a multitude of lessons throughout his sixteen years of life. Firstly, Johnny learned that life is too short to be full of regrets. Prior to his journey to Windrixville, he remained as the frightened pet of the Greasers due to several beatings from his abusive parents and a group of Socs. As he lay in the hospital bed after rescuing kids from a burning building, Johnny told Ponyboy that before he had been considering committing suicide. After looking back at his life, Johnny finally realized that he was too young to die;
he had not lived his life the way he wanted to. Afterwards, Johnny discovered that staying good and innocent is the best way to live your life. Before he died, he said to Ponyboy, “Stay gold, Ponyboy. Stay gold…” (Hinton 148). Johnny wanted Ponyboy to stay innocent, or stay gold, by not turning tough and into a convict like the rest of the members in the gang. In the end, Ponyboy read a letter written from Johnny, saying he was glad he rescued the kids because they had more to live for than he did. On the whole, Johnny learned that you could live a longer life by remaining gold.
Lastly, Randy Anderson was one of the only Socs that learned a life lesson. After the death of his best friend, Bob Sheldon, Randy’s whole personality changed. Before Bob died, Randy was happily drunk from everything he got, since he was a Soc. Like Bob, he searched for a fight whenever and wherever he could. When problems went from bad to worse, Randy finally realized that fighting was not the answer. The rivalry between Socs and Greasers was not going to cause anything but hate. He says to Ponyboy, “So it doesn’t do any good, the fighting and killing. It doesn’t prove anything” (Hinton 117). Randy was tired of all the fighting because there was no point.
He realized that even if the Greasers beat the Socs in the rumble, it would not do anything. Greasers would still be where the city placed them, at the bottom, and the Socs would still be at top. Later on, Randy decides to not take part in the rumble and just flee the city. However, he gained respect from a Greaser, Ponyboy, from doing so. As a result, Randy ran away, knowing that fighting would not solve anything.
In the end, the three boys learned necessary lessons that will help them make better choices in the coming future. Ponyboy learned that a separation of groups does not change the fact that everyone is human and have their own flaws. Thanks to his friends, Johnny was able to make the last year of his life worth it and full of “gold”. Finally, Randy became the first Soc to realize that fighting each other would not solve any problems; it would only make the situations worse. To conclude, people can learn much from living in the streets, but how they choose to use that information is their choice.
"The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton
In the novel, The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, Dallas Winston is a complex persona that wishes to protect the other greasers from experiencing prejudice and adversity. (T)Dallas Winston is known as one of the most dangerous and spiteful greasers out there, he will not hesitate to go to jail for the sake of fellow gang members. Greasers are rebellious youths in the 1960s who style their hair with profuse amounts of hair grease. Compared to socs, greasers are often in tightly knit-gangs.
Though greasers are selfless and benevolent, the media and authorities state otherwise. Socs, also known as the west-side rich kids, are commended for their ”contributions to society.” Socs are seen as heroes while greasers are condemned and seen as disgraces among society. This a prime example of prejudice created by those who are seen as ”socially acceptable.” Dallas or Dally is a victim of this and knows well the tragic reality of it all. Due to Dally’s experiences at a young age, he wishes for the other greasers to lead a different path.
Therefore, Dally takes responsibility for crimes his friends committed because he is fearful of the effects jail might cause to their personalities. (E)Hinton writes, ‘ ”Johnny. Johnny, I ain’t mad at you. I just don’t want you to get hurt. You don’t know what a few months in jail can do to you. Oh, blast it, Johnny, you get hardened in jail. I don’t want that to happen to you. Like it happened to me??¦” (90) (X)This quote is significant because Dally, a person depicted as self-centered is openly saying that he cares for someone other than himself. Pony and Johnny are the youngest and most innocent among the gang. These two are seen as individuals Dally must protect, especially Johnny. During an encounter with Socs, Ponyboy is assaulted and beaten to the point Johnny had to intervene with force. In the process of saving Ponyboy, Johnny kills a Soc named Bob. Bob is a big-name within the community and his murder would make many headlines. Knowing this, Dally helps them by providing them with basic necessities and a place to stay. He even vouched to the police that the two were headed for Texas. (E)When Dally visits the two he states, ”Shoot, kid, the boys at the station know me by now. I get hauled in for everything that happens in our turf. While I was there I kinda let it slip that y’all were headin’ for Texas. So that’s where they’re lookin’” (Hinton 82).
Lying could get Dally into trouble by being an accessory. Furthermore, this quote shows how even though Dally is at risk of being accountable for the assistance of someone who committed a felony, he is willing to accept the punishments. Dally’s record is already tarnished with crimes such as assault and robbery. His record prevents him from pursuing possible dreams and living a fulfilling life. In reality, he has nothing to lose or gain, except the satisfaction of knowing he is helping out someone he cherishes. (Y)In other words, he would prefer to sacrifice his own wellbeing in order to give his friends opportunities he was not able to have. This sacrifice is one of his many acts of heroism throughout the novel. (T)Moreover, Dally’s emotional traumas have caused him to become distant and cold.
As seen throughout the novel, Dally has gained a reputation as a liar, drunkard, cheater, and thief. His malicious attitude and tough exterior have made him into a less than an ideal person. He is the embodiment of a stereotypical criminal, a lawbreaker. The police view him as a danger to society and constantly keep tabs on him. But underneath it all, he wishes for someone to give him a reason to continue living. Johnny gave him a reason to live even if he disliked everyone else. In fact, he doesn’t advise helping others because it won’t alter the public’s perspective on greasers. In spite of this fact, Dally aids Ponyboy and Johnny in saving the children in the burning church. He wouldn’t have acted this way if it weren’t for Johnny. Dally viewed Johnny as a little brother. His instinct was to save the boys from their own demise. In the end, each of them was left injured for the sake of those children.
This displays incredible altruism. In return, the boys were left with severe burns, broken bones and heroic titles. (E)After learning about Johnny’s condition he says to Ponyboy, ‘That’s what you get for helpin’ people. Editorials in the paper and a lot of trouble. . . . You’d better wise up, Pony . . . you get tough like me and you don’t get hurt. You look out for yourself and nothin’ can touch you’ (Hinton 147). As seen by this quote, Dally’s world hating attitude is actually a defense mechanism to protect his frail heart and tolerate his difficult life. (X)He became hardened to the point that he was indifferent to his circumstances.
In other words, Dally’s intent is to harden Ponyboy before he falls into a state of despair. Ponyboy is still a virgin to the feeling of utter loss and hopelessness. In comparison, Dally is no stranger to this feeling therefore he urges Pony to protect himself before he gets hurt. The haunting anticipation of loss causes Dally to act this way. (Y)Though Ponyboy is not aware of this, Dally’s words will bring about an epiphany that proves anyone can be a hero. The greasers will rise above adversity and financial status, proving that despite how they lead their life previously, everyone can become a hero.
Stereotypes – the Outsiders
Ever felt targeted? Witness someone be judged by how they spoke? Felt as if no one belongs? Is it because they dress, act, or learn differently or a certain way? Most young adults go through these types of struggles. Stereotypes are preconceived labels subjected on the public. When teenagers do things out of the ordinary, dress differently, or hang out with specific people they tend to be measured up into or against these stereotypes. A common occurrence in high school, these stereotypes that try to define teenagers, can affect them either positively or work against us in negatively.
When people are labeled it is usually through a stereotype, they are judged on their appearance, attitude, personality, and friends along with many other superficial components. “Instead of being presented with stereotypes by age, sex, color, class, or religion, children must have the opportunity to learn that within each range, some people are loathsome and some are delightful.” (Manson) Characterization is a tool used to depict someone through the traits of their personality and association with those around them.
Of course, with the clash of characters and imposed stereotypes, conflict between people is almost certain. Rivalry, a byproduct of conflict and the law of survival is always at play within society. S.E. Hinton uses these literary techniques of stereotypes, characterization and conflict throughout the novel of The Outsiders to depict they key theme of rivalry. In The Outsiders, every character has been classified as “a greaser”, being stereotyped like that is pretty cruel. When Ponyboy said, “We both need a haircut and some decent clothes. They’ll know we’re hoods the minute they see us!” (Hinton, 64) He admitted to succumbing to his stereotype.
Proving to the readers that the Greasers were based on their appearance. When people see them, they think that because they wear raggedy-down old clothing they are poor, not important, juvenile delinquents. Additionally, apart from being judged on their appearance, they are grouped together, all being seen as punks with no room for individuality. Ponyboy, Dally, and Johnny met two young Soc girls at the drive-in movie theater. Dally’s rude and unpleasant attitude gave the two girls a bad first impression of the Greasers as a whole. Later on, Ponyboy talked to Cherry, changing her perspective completely through the deep conversation he has with her, leaving her completely astounded at his intellectuality and at the discovery that the Greaser stereotype she had fitted him into was completely erroneous.
In the beginning, Ponyboy drops the story to spend a few pages feeding the readers with a brief summary on the characters mentioned throughout the book such as Sodapop, Darry, Steve, Two-Bit, Dally, and Johnny. Ponyboy tells the readers that the reason his group is called The Greasers is because of their long greasy looking hair. “My hair is longer than a lot of boys wear theirs, squared off in back and long at the front and sides, but I’m a greaser and most of my neighborhood rarely bothers to get a haircut. Besides, I look better with long hair.” (Hinton, 1) He informs the readers that the reason him and Sodapop have interesting names, is because it expresses the love their parents felt for them and it describes their personalities. He mentioned that Steve is smart and very cocky. Two-Bit never takes things seriously, always joking around, only goes to school for the kick of it not to go to learn or anything. Dally’s real name is Dallas, he mentions that he’s tougher, colder, and more mean than any other Greaser. Readers are left with the thought that Johnny is frightened, unloved, victimized, abused, and helpless.
When a car full of Socs pulls up, Pony and Johnny try to run away. Instead, those Socs pin them down. As Pony is about to drown in an ice-cold park fountain, Johnny stabs a Soc. The Soc who was handling pulls him out. Johnny tells Pony that he stabbed a Soc as Pony’s trying to recover his breath. Pony looks over to see a Soc on the ground and puddle of blood only to throw up. To avoid any more problems they leave and go to an old wooden church far from home. Spending five days there alone, they cut their hair to look different from the newspapers. Just as they were about to go home, the church catches fire. ”’I’ll get them don’t worry!’ I started at a dead run for the church, and the man caught my arm.
‘I’ll get them. You kids stay out!’” (Hinton, 91) Pony explains to the readers that several children are inside the burning church and there is not a whole lot of time to wait for the fire department to come and rescue them. Pony wakes up, in a hospital bed being reunited with his brothers. He is told that Dally is fine, but that Johnny is in critical condition and might die. When he gets out he’s told that there will be a rumble with the Greasers vs. the Socs. Being in good condition, Pony wants in on the fight. Dally is released just in time for the fight. After the rumble, Dally got the news that Johnny is dying. When he gets to the hospital to tell him the victory of the brawl, he is told that fighting doesn’t solve anything and see Johnny’s painful death. Dally being very upset pretends to be armed and goes to the police only to be shot to death, joining Johnny.
As demonstrated, conflict has arisen in this story as a cause of the two opposing forces of the Socs and Greasers. The stereotypes show the cause for misunderstanding and how stereotypes are never right and that a group of people can never are categorized as the same. True individuality shines through with the use of characterization, proving the stereotypes to be erroneous. The conflict in this story is the consequence, the price paid for the rivalry, which was cause of preconceived notions and ignorance. Stereotypes are revealed to be false, individuality is at last illustrated through the developing characterization throughout the story, and the final blow out is a representation of what ignorance, labels, and rivalry bring about.
Hinton, S E. The Outsiders. N.p.: n.p., 1962. N. pag. Print. Manson, Margaret. “Stereotype Quotes & Quotations.” Think Exist. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2011. <http://thinkexist.com/?quotation/?instead_of_being_presented_with_stereotypes_by/?327616.html>.