The Kite Runner

Hassan and Amir: The Relations, which Touch the Soul Compare and Contrast Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Hassan and Amir are the main characters of the novel The Kite Runner, written by Khaled Hosseini in 2003. These two little boys are considered to be the best friends from their childhood: they have common interests, games, and even sayings, which can mean nothing for the others, but change the whole world for them.

Hassan and Amir are the characters that help to comprehend how precious male friendship can be and how unpredictable the outcomes of one single mistake may become for their destinies, their future, and their lives. Taking into consideration that loyalty is one of the common features for both Hassan and Amir, their differences, which consist in family and origin as well as their attitudes to life, friendship, and respect, make them too close and too far to each other simultaneously.

First of all, boys’ origins were one of the serious differences between Hassan and Amir. Amir is a Pashtun boy, who is aware of how powerful these people are in comparison to the Hazaras, the origin of little Hassan. “The man is a Pashtun to the root. He has nang and namoos…Honor and pride” (Hosseini 145). Due to this fact, Amir truly believes in his superiority over his friend Hassan and thinks that their origins may be one of the factors to put own demands on the first place.

In comparison to Amir, Hassan never pays any attention to his origins and the roots of his friend. After his birth, he decides to devote all his life, his actions, and even his words to his best friend, Amir. He is not afraid of Amir’s enemies and is always ready to stick up for him. These two little boys cannot even comprehend that their origins’ differences should not influence their relations and mutual support and cost nothing in comparison to their future challenges.

Their second difference lies in their family relations and attitudes to the relatives. Baba, Amir’s father, demonstrates his love to both boys, but still, his attitude to Amir’s was too critical, because he thinks his son is not as that manly as he is expected to be. This difference between Amir and Hassan’s families turns out to be rather important, as their relations in families reflect on boys’ relations. Just in order to win the respect of his own father, Amir sincerely believes that Hassan’s rape may be regarded as a sacrifice that will play a certain role in their future.

In addition, Amir thinks that the rape of a young Hazara by a young Pashtun Assef does not matter anything, so, Hassan’s action is another one that will help Amir with his self-actualization. Hassan has no one to gain respect among his family as his father does not actually need this respect; this is why Amir is the only person, whose respect Hassan wants to win.

But when Hassan gets to know how unfair and cowardly the actions of his friends are, he has nothing to do but leave the place and support his father with his ideas and desires. So, their difference in family is one more issue that influences Amir’s and Hassan’s characters, attitudes to lives, and life’s priorities.

Finally, in spite of the fact that Amir and Hassan have so many differences of opinions, attitudes to each other, and purposes, these two boys are characterized by one strong similarity – their loyalty. Of course, this loyalty is not too each other, but still, it makes them so similar and so close.

From the very beginning, Hassan demonstrates and proves his loyalty to Amir for many times: “For you a thousand times over!” (Hosseini 67) Amir sees this very loyalty of Hassan and usually calls him “good old reliable Hassan”, because he knows that any time Hassan will rescue him, make a sacrifice, and believe his words even if they are not true and sincere. Amir demonstrates almost the same type of loyalty to his father. Baba is a brilliant example of how to be a real man, a real Pashtun, and a real father.

In order to prove his loyalty to Baba, Amir forgets about all those care that comes from Hassan and sacrifices their friendship in order to become more serious and more respectable for his father. The loyalty of these two characters shows how their trust to other people may be blind and tragic. To my mind, that loyalty that is inherent to little boys has to be controlled by their parents in order to show them the right way. And in this story, such control is absent and leads to deaths, sorrow, and guilt.

In general, the comparison of Amir and Hassan, who have so many differences, helps to realize how significant people’s origins and relations within families can be. The idea of loyalty that turns out to be one of Amir and Hassan’s main similarities is so absurd, and this is why it causes a terrible quarrel between the best friends, a long-term guilt of Amir, deep disappointment of Hassan, and absence of punishment in regards to such sadist like Assef.

Works Cited

Hosseini, Khaled. The Kite Runner. New York: The Berkley Publishing Group, 2003.

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The Kite Runner Essay (Critical Writing)

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer


Written by Khaled Hosseini and narrated by Amir, the story’s protagonist, The Kite Runner expatiates how a single event changed Amir’s life completely. Amir narrates of his childhood back in Afghanistan as he grew up in one of the wealthiest families in Kabul back then. Violence in the volatile Afghanistan dominates the text of this book as people try to replace monarchy with republicanism.

The book cuts across many social aspects tackling different themes ranging from inhumanity, through nationalism to family relations among others. This paper elaborates the theme of sin and redemption as applied in The Kite Runner.

Theme of Sin and Redemption

Redemption comes only after sin and this idea of redemption stands out in The Kite Runner because sin is so bearing. The story starts by highlighting the enduring nature of sin in this society.

Amir says, “It’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it. Because the past claws its way out” (Hosseini 1). What creeps back from the past? It is sin in this context. Amir betrays Hassan twice despite the fact that they are friends. The first incidence occurs when he finds Assef raping Hassan in the alley.

Even though Hassan had stood for Amir in the past, Amir does not help him from his predicament or report the issue to Ali for he would help Hassan! Amir is sinning by betraying his close friend. During his thirteen birthday celebrations, Amir betrays Hassan once again by plotting to bring him out as a thief. Again, sin abounds.

As the story unfold, it becomes clear that everyone is almost guilty of sin and he or she needs redemption. Assef is a sinner for he rapes Hassan. Amir learns later in the story how Baba, his father sinned. After Rahim Khan discloses Baba’s secret to Amir, he realizes that everyone is sinful and the reason why Baba was tough on is that he was guilty of his sin.

This makes Amir realize that their life has been one big lie; sin prevailed from yesteryears, and his betrayal to Hassan is just but a drop in a sea of sins. On the other side, to justify their cold blood killing of the adulteress, the Taliban are busy skewing Muhammad’s words to vindicate their actions.

They are sinful and they know that they need redemption and this is why they change Muhammad’s words; something that Amir compares to his sin. Unfortunately, Amir does not know the way to redemption. He asks Hassan to hit him to get hurt and repay his sins. Amir feels that the only way to redemption is getting hurt the way he hurt Hassan.

Amir does not complain after Assef tries to kill him for he thinks he deserves all this as atonement for his past sins. Soraya is guilt of her sin of running away with another man and she asks Amir to forgive her. Rahim Khan is shameful of her sinful nature of not disclosing to Amir what Baba had done.

She kept this as a secret even after Baba died; she could have told Amir for it is his right to know anything to do with his father. The woman soldier at the border is sinful for asks Baba to sleep with her even though she is married.

The idea of redemption sets in at last after Amir realizes that his past sins together with those of his father can only be atoned for by being good to people. He has to let go the sin of discrimination that he has kept for years. He realizes that helping others would bring joy to his life and this is why he decides to help Sohrab up the ladder of success and felicity.

Nevertheless, Rahim Khan wraps up the theme of redemption in this story. In his letter, Khan says, “I know that in the end, God will forgive. He will forgive your father, you, and me too … Forgive your father if you can. Forgive me if you wish. But most important, forgive yourself” (Hosseini 209). It is God only who forgives sins and redeems people from their sinful nature.

Amir understands this very well towards the end of the book when he asks God to remove Sohrab’s blood from his hands. People can also be redeemed from their sins by forgiving themselves. God is willing to forgive people of their sins; unfortunately, people hold on to their sins, letting guilt to haunt them while God has already forgiven them. As the book closes, Amir redeems himself after forgiving himself of his past sins.


One of the most outstanding themes in The Kite Runner is the theme of sin and redemption. Most of the major characters are sinful.

Amir sins by betraying his close friend Hassan. He lets Assef rape Hassan whilst he could do something to rescue him. His sin follows him and he betrays Hassan again during his birthday party. Baba has done many mistakes in the past and Khan is guilty of keeping Baba’s secret from Amir. Assef, the rapist is a sinner while Soraya has committed the sin of running away with another man.

Amir does not get the issue of redemption and he thinks the only way to it is by paying for it through suffering. However, Khan sheds light on the issue of redemption by indicating that God will forgive all people and people could redeem themselves by forgiving themselves. The theme of sin and redemption comes out clearly in this book.

Works Cited

Hosseini, Khaled. “The Kite Runner.” New York: The Berkeley Publishing Group, 2003.

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Friendship of Amir and Hassan in The Kite Runner Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

The novel The Kite Runner by Khaled Husseini, presents the relationships between Amir and Hassan. Amir is the son of a well-known man in all of the Kabul, Afghanistan; he grows up in this town and develops a friendship with his servant’s son, named Hassan. Time creates numerous challenges, which affect the lives of these two characters. One day, Amir got a chance to save Hassan’s life, but the way he acted had significant consequences on the lives of both boys and led them to choose separate paths.

The idea of friendship in The Kite Runner is considered to be one of the most important, particularly in terms of how friendship is appreciated by boys of different classes, how close the concepts of friendship and betrayal can be, and how the genuine idea of guilt may influence the consequences of friendship and future of other people’s lives.

“But he’s not my friend!…He’s my servant!” (Hosseini 41) This phrase by young Amir reflects his attitude to his friendship with Hassan, his comprehension of the essence of friendship in general, and his fear to realize that a poor boy may signify something more in his life than just a servant. The idea that friendship may be experienced because of social inequalities helps to analyze the bond as it is. Even though boys spend their childhood in the same houses, their status inequality bothers Amir all the time and makes him jealous of Hassan.

Rich people cannot allow themselves to make friends with poor people; such their attitude to the relations between humans shows that money, status, and recognition are somewhere above pure human feelings and interests. In my opinion, in this case, the attitude of poor people to friendship is purer and more humane: “for you a thousand times over!” (Hosseini 67) Poor Hassan never thinks about the consequences of his actions, which are directed to help his best friend, Amir, and always wonders if something may bother his friend (Hosseini 23). These attitudes to the friendship of people from different classes prove how considerable the financial position may be.

This essay on The Kite Runner proves that the idea of friendship and betrayal becomes the central one in this novel as well. Although Amir comprehends that his actions are wrong and unfair in regards to Hassan, he is too weak to ask for forgiveness and is ready to find out many reasons to keep silence and to avoid answering (Hosseini 111). The characters of the novel comprehend that fear is everywhere “in the streets, in the stadium, in the markets, it is a part of our lives here” (Hosseini 216), however, they cannot comprehend that the fear of betrayal is more severe and more terrible.

It is impossible to predict the results of betrayal, and this is why its fear may destroy the personality from the inside. Amir cannot even describe the “depth and blackness of the sorrow that came” (Hosseini 301) to find out the forgiveness. The friendship theme in The Kite Runner captivates and touches mind indeed, however, the concept of betrayal of friendship should affect not only the mind but also soul and teach its readers to accept friendship as it is, without paying attention to social status, original roots, and color of skin.

It is challenging for many people to take into consideration the events of the present to improve their own and other people’s futures. The Kite Runner is the novel that helps to comprehend how attitudes to friendship and friendship itself may have an impact on the future of different people. Mistakes, made by Amir in the past, led to the tragic end of Hassan but saved Hassan’s son, Sohrab’s future, and allowed Amir to see the smile on Sohrab’s face “lopsided. Hardly there. But there” (Hosseini 370).

Amir’s unforgivable sin (Hosseini106), his theft of Hassan’s safe future, cannot allow him to enjoy that smile, that happiness, that fairness. He comprehends that it is “better to get hurt by the truth than comforted with a lie” (Hosseini 58), but it was too late to save Amir and Hassan’s friendship, but it was just in time to save another life, the life of Sohrab.

One mistake in the past, one betrayal and abandonment of a friend, and one lie to a father have made Amir’s life beautiful and terrible at the same time. His inabilities to cope with his own fears made him weak and unfair to himself. However, his mistakes are educative indeed. The idea of friendship in The Kite Runner is correctly described by the author.

It helps to comprehend the essence of truth and the necessity to ask for forgiveness and to be able to forgive. Each person is under a threat of making mistakes and suffering because of them, and this story and the friendship, described there, teach its readers to develop pure friendship and not to be prejudiced by social inequality or different origins. Only in case human fears disappear, people will get a chance to create good friendly relations and enjoy these relations day by day.

Works Cited

Hosseini, Khaled. The Kite Runner. New York: The Berkley Publishing Group, 2003.

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Lessons learnt from Les Miserables and The Kite Runner Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Morality finds voice through minor characters. This is observable in case of both Les Miserables and The Kite Runner. The main theme of redemption is similar in both the concert Les Miserables and the novel The Kite Runner. Morality presides through the presence of minor characters – animate or inanimate.

In case of the musical and the novel, it is reflected through minor, nondescript characters. Both Les Miserables and Kite Runner narrate the process of redemption, and that is through human deed (Llosa 101; Hayes 95). In this story of redemption, there is a constant presence of two characters, which stay away from the hubbub of the main plot and remain as a constant remainder of morality or conscience.

These characters almost act as guiding angels who keep the mind of the main characters on the path to redemption. These characters are Bishop Myriel in Les Miserables and Rahim Khan in The Kite Runner. This essay discusses the way these two characters shaped the path to redemption for the other, more vital characters, and the way they became the moral voices.

Bishop Myriel and Rahim Khan are minor but essential part in both the musical and the novel. The candlesticks given to Valjean by Bishop Myriel are symbolic of the transgression of a hardened convict to a life of good. The Bishop’s act of mercy and sympathy transforms the life of a treacherous and conniving convict.

The Bishop welcomes the tired and starving convict under his shelter in the musical, and gives him food and “bed to rest till morning” (Hugo Act 1, On Parole). In the solo sung by the Bishop in the musical (Valjean Arrested, Valjean Forgiven) the Bishop helps in saving Valjean by misleading the policemen stating that he had given the candlesticks to Valjean as gifts and given two more to sell them. This act ensures freedom for Valjean from both the authorities and the symbolic freedom from evil, as is expressed by the Bishop:

And remember this, my brother,

See in this some high plan.

You must use this precious silver

To become an honest man.

By the witness of the martyrs,

By the passion and the blood,

God has raised you out of darkness:

I have bought your soul for God. (Hugo Act 1, Valjean Arrested/Valjean Forgiven)

Thus, Myriel becomes the moral force who that changes the course of Vajean’s life. This act teaches us that mercy done to others will save a soul. He becomes the symbol of goodness, a symbol that is shown to Valjean and changes the course of the musical. He shows Valjean the road to redemption, and obliges his mind to follow the path of goodness.

Rahim Khan is the moral voice in the story The Kite Runner. However, a minor character, and one that has not been developed fully, Rahim Khan plays a vital role in the novel. He was the best friend of Baba (Amir’s father) and a father figure to Amir. Amir often wished that Rahim Khan were his father instead of Baba: “When they left, I sat on my bed and wished Rahim Khan had been my father.” (Hosseini 28)

Rahim Khan is a character that stays away from the main plot or the main character. He is also different from them – from the good characters of Hassan and Ali, and the complete devilish character of Assef, and Baba and Amir lying somewhere in-between. Rahim Khan cannot be categorized in any of these character types. He is almost a celestial figure standing beyond the bounds of moral questioning.

He becomes the guiding light for Amir in his journey to redemption (like Bishop Myriel in Les Miserables). From the very beginning of the story, Rahim Khan had helped Amir and boosted his self-confidence. The note he wrote to Amir showed the character’s support to Amir: “My door is always open to you, Amir jan. I shall hear nay story you have to tell. Bravo.” (Hosseini 28) Rahim Khan told Amir his deepest secret in order to ascertain what was going through his mind.

He told Amir that he could tell him anything he wanted to: “You know, you can tell me anything you want, Amir jan. Anytime.” (Hosseini 87) Amir almost told him his betrayal of friendship towards Hassan but stopped as he thought that Rahim Khan would hate him for this, as he related “For a moment, I almost did tell him. Almost told him everything, but then what would he think of me? He’d hate me and rightfully.” (Hosseini 87) Though Amir did not tell his story to Rahim Khan then, he already knew.

Rahim Khan calls Amir to Pakistan from America and asks him to rescue Hassan and his family from Afghanistan. He is the one who reveal to Amir that Hassan is actually his half-brother. He asked Amir to rescue Sohrab from Afghanistan. When Amir said, “I can’t go to Kabul,” Rahim Khan simply said, “There is a way to be good again.” (198) Rahim Khan showed Amir the “way to end the cycle” (198) and showed the path to redemption.

Bishop Myriel and Rahim Khan are nondescript characters. However, they are the catalyst of the main theme. They become the wind that changes the course of the life of the main characters in the musical as well as in the novel. The right direction that can be found for redemption can be found from simple and non descript characters, rather than the more elaborate and complex characters.

In both Les Miserable and Kite Runner, the direction towards salvation has been clearly etched by two characters who are minor, but are strong in their own accord. Thus, it teaches us that a guiding light may be small, yet is significant in moulding the course of action.


Hayes, Judi. In search of The Kite Runner. Danvers, MA: Chalice Press, 2007. Print.

Hosseini, Khaled. The Kite Runner. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2003. Print.

Les Miserables 10th Anniversary Concert. By Victor Hugo. Royal Albert Hall Concert , New York. 1995. Concert.

Llosa, Mario Vargas. The temptation of the impossible: Victor Hugo and Les Misérables. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004. Print.

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Kite runner as a metaphor Research Paper

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer


Kite running refers to the act of manipulating the spool of the kite in order for it to move and beat other kites. This sport is quite common among children in Afghanistan and normally entails two boys who each have separate roles.

One is responsible for determining the actual direction that the kite will run while the other one changes the threads such that the movement is made possible. The kite runner is responsible for the latter task and he often does most of the hard work. Nonetheless, when declaring a winner, competitors normally acknowledge and award the controller of the kite and not the runner.

The metaphor

Having looked at the concept of kite running itself, one can clearly see how the title is metaphorical. First, because the kite runner never really gets much appraisal for his work, one can argue that the sport is a bit unfair. This may be likened to the situation in war. Parties involved in a conflict barely fight fair and square.

Such unfairness was especially replicated in a number of conflicts that the book covers including the US-Taliban war as well as Soviet occupation. The helplessness of the victims in the story is symptomatic of the injustice brought about by war just like the kite runner who never gets justice for his contributions. War has caused a lot of the main characters a lot of problems hence signifying the injustice inherent in war.

First, Baba was a wealthy individual who lived a fulfilling life back home in Afghanistan, however after the Soviet occupation, he had to escape to the United States and start from scratch. Not only did he have to leave his property in Afghan for a strange place, he also lost his status there (Hosseini, 45). Back home, Baba was a very influential merchant who changed the lives of members of his community through a number of initiatives.

However, this soon came to an end when he fled to the US because he became nothing more than a gas station employee. Additionally, he was forced to display some goods at a flea market in order to make ends meet. He and his son had to rent a worn out house in this foreign nation. The tale of Amir’s family is quite synonymous with the stories of many other Afghanis who have lost their status and wealth because of the wars.

Perhaps most importantly, one can say that the unfairness of war was manifested through the death of many innocent victims. Hassan was one such individual. During the reign of the Taliban, he had been confronted by one of them concerning Baba’s house. He attempted to salvage this piece of property and instead lost his life for it.

This was indeed great injustice because the Taliban had no right to simply take property that belonged to other people or to take their lives but they still went ahead and did it. Another individual who bore the brunt of war and its unfairness was Ali. This loyal servant to Baba lost his life as a result of land mines that had been placed at Hazajarat. Such incidences would not have arisen if there was no war and if it was not conducted in an unfair manner that leads to the death of innocent lives.

Alternatively, one may look at the characteristics of the kite as a metaphor for the characteristics of war. The kite by its very nature cannot move unless another person is controlling it. This means that even though the kite appears to be at one with nature or to be totally free, it never really is.

The kite runner and the kite fighter restrict the movement of the kite in order for it to move in an orderly manner. In fact, without the intervention of these two parties, the kite can never really be in motion. If these restrictions are too much or disorderly, then it may lead to chaos. Also if the restrictions are too weak then the kite will barely move.

Similarly, governments are supposed to restrict the activities of their citizens so as to maintain law and order. If a government overdoes this then it may result in chaos or war. The novel is set against the backdrop of the Afghan civil war of 1996 to 2001 that was spearheaded by the Taliban (Despain, 56). The fact that children can be bought from orphanages is a sign of the degree of lawlessness that had pervaded Afghanistan as a result of the Taliban rule. Assef wanted to exert his revenge upon Hassan and therefore chose to vent this out onto his son Sohrab.

This boy was bought from an orphanage using a certain amount of money. He was then made to perform heinous acts in front of Assef. Assef also defiled this young boy using his position as a member of the Taliban. The lack of control and general disorder in the country led to such acts being committed against innocent children like Sohrab.

This failure of the Afghan government to control its own people can also be witnessed through the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan that started in 1979 and lasted for ten years. The author of the novel frequently states that this war was the reason behind the immigration of the latter family to the United States. At the time, the Afghan army could no longer contain the frequent uprisings that were occurring in different parts of the country.

To this end, it requested for assistance from the Soviet Union. The latter state obliged and sent its troops to fight resistance forces against the government. The operations were mostly carried out against the Mujahideen. However, because the Soviet had enemies such as the United States then the latter country started getting involved. It was reported that the US did this through government opposition forces.

This war proved to be a tall order for the Soviet Union which was having logistical problems as well as problems with the geographical landscape of the Afghans. Also, continuous aid granted by the CIA to their enemies further complicated this matter. In the end, the Soviet had to come out of this territory and left Afghanistan under the leadership of Najibullah. In 1992, his reign came to an end when rival parties decided to form the Islamic State of Afghanistan.

However, because this arrangement was not all inclusive, it soon became clear that the country was not going to enjoy peace any time soon. One opposing party known as Hekmatyar started another civil war in order to gain power for himself. Things were worsened by the existence of two separate militias that were backed by foreign governments like Saudi Arabia and Iran. The situation became even more complex when a different force, the Taliban entered the scene with the backing of Pakistan in 1996.

They started taking over and controlling the latter city. They imposed several unrealistic rules such as requiring men to always wear their beards, stoning of adulterous individuals and the like. The Taliban unleashed a lot of terror especially because they considered a certain community in Afghanistan inferior to others so they abused their rights. This went on terrorizing others while Mahmoud was still president (Vogelsang, 39).

The latter individual started asking for help from the external world in order to overcome the Taliban forces. In 2001, the United States chose to participate in the affairs of Afghanistan. Through the support of the US army and anti-Taliban forces, the latter group was ousted in this very year. As can be seen, the history of Afghanistan is laden with several wars and conflicts. These conflicts were the backdrop against which the novel was set.

The numerous deaths, escapes and exiles revisited in the novel were brought by these conflicts. The author therefore preempts this through the use of his title the kite runner. In the same way that the kite depends on its runner and fighter to fly, the Afghan state depended on its government to survive.

As stated earlier, only the right amount of manipulation of the kite can ensure that it rises and stays up. Similarly, the right degree of restriction and law was needed in order to make Afghanistan a peaceful sate. The failure of its many governments to control and lead their people well is what led to the chaos that has pervaded this nation for decades. The relationship between Hassan, the kite and Amir was a metaphor for the conditions that can lead to war as witnessed later in the novel.

The title also testifies to the warlike nature of Afghanistan through the actual acts of kite fighting. In this sport, boys often fly the kites using strings made up of bits of broken glass. These often rub against the hands of the participants who still continue outdoing each other despite this obvious pain.

Additionally, the sport often focuses on putting one’s opponents down. In fact, it can be interpreted as some sort of battle between the contestants. These children will try to cut the others’ kites so that they can fall down. Once those kites fall, the person responsible for it will retrieve it and claim the kite as his own. Even Hassan tells his counterpart Amir that there are “No rules. Fly your kite. Cut the opponents. Good luck!” (Hosseini, 34).

These activities are quite similar to those that apply in war zones. Adversaries normally focus on putting each other down so that they may be in a position to claim victory. War is very violent in nature and this can be seen through certain incidences in the novel. For example, as an adult, Amir watches in horror as a couple gets stoned to death by the extremists in his nation for committing adultery.

He is visibly shaken by this act of violence. Such an incident would not have taken place if Afghanistan was a peaceful nation. However, the general atmosphere in this nation is such that it preempts such actions. It was under the Taliban that many violent acts were committed against individuals.

For example, one learns that Assef was a member of Taliban and as such he could get away with torturous acts such as physical violence and rape. Here, readers are told that Assef had raped and abused Sohrab – Hassan’s child. Violence can also be seen when we learn about the daughters of Farid the taxi driver (Darhis, 228). They lost their lives as a result of land mines that also mutilated his own body parts.

In times of war, members of one nation must unite so as to fight a common enemy. Even though these citizens may have their own personal differences, they normally have to leave those aside in order to put up a fight in war. Hassan and Amir were very different; Amir was the child of a wealthy businessman while Hassan was the servant’s son.

Hassan used to cater to Amir’s personal needs like washing and cleaning. Hassan and Amir also had very divergent interests and values. However, all those things were easily forgotten when they were kite fighting. In the same manner, citizens of Afghanistan would unite in order to fight a common adversary in many of the wars mentioned in the novel.


The kite was a metaphor and an indication of things to come in the novel. It can be interpreted as a depiction of the unfairness of war similar to the relationship between the kite fighter and the kite runner. Alternatively, the title can also be a metaphor for the characteristics of war as was seen in the violent nature of the sport.

One may also see the kite runner as a metaphor for the preconditions of war which entail a failure to exert the right governmental restrictions in the same manner that the kite runner does to the kite. Alternatively, the title may be understood as a way of bringing together diverse people against a common enemy as is the case in war and in kite fighting.

Works Cited

Hosseini, Khaled. The kite runner. NY: Riverhead trade, 2004

Darhis, Manhola. From memories there is no escape. New York Times, 14th December, 2008

Vogelsang, Willem. The Afghans. NY: Blackwell publishers, 2002

Despain, Dori. A brief history of Afghanistan. School Journal, 53(9), 56

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Examples of Loyalty in The Kite Runner [Essay]

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

The reading of Khaled Hosseini’s novel The Kite Runner leaves very little doubt as to the fact that the theme of loyalty plays a rather important role in defining the novel’s semiotic significance. After all – it is after having proven his loyalty to Hassan by the means of bringing his son Sohrab to the U.S. that the novel’s protagonist Amir was able to attain inner peace – hence, providing a semantic wholesomeness to the plot. In our paper, we will aim to explore the nature of loyalty in The Kite Runner.

Analysis of Friendship Between Amir and Hasssan

For the first time, the theme of loyalty comes to its prominence in the novel’s scene when, while trying to defend Amir, Hassan aims his slingshot at Assef: “I turned and came face to face with Hassan’s slingshot… Hassan held the slingshot pointed directly at Assef’s face” (21). Even though, while remaining friends with Amir, Hassan never ceased being treated with a subtle disdain, due to his ethnic background and his low social status, Hassan’s helping hand was always there for Amir. Thus, Hassan’s loyalty to Amir is evident.

Unfortunately, the same cannot be said about Amir because the main character’s lessened sense of loyalty did not derive out of his existential idealism, as it was the case with Hassan, but was instead a byproduct of his rationally functioning psyche.

The plausibility of this suggestion becomes evident in the scene when, after having considered the possible consequences of his involvement, Amir refrains from stepping forward, in order to prevent Hassan from being raped by Assef – hence, proving himself an ultimate coward in its own eyes: “I had one last chance to make a decision.

One final opportunity to decide who I was going to be. I could step into that alley, stand up for Hassan… Or I could run. In the end, I ran. I ran because I was a coward” (39). As the theme essay on The Kite Runner implies, at that time, Amir was not aware of the fact that his refusal to stand up for Hassan accounted for his lessened ability to act like a man while facing life’s challenges, as in the case when he resents Hassan.

Loyalty as an Intermedium for Friendship

Nevertheless, as the novel’s plot unraveled, it was becoming increasingly apparent for Amir that, for him to be able to relieve his deep-seated sense of guilt, due to the memory of what had happened, he would have to prove its loyalty to Hassan somehow. The problem was that, as it has been revealed to Amir by Rahim Khan, Hassan ended up being killed by a ravaging mob of Taliban guerillas. Yet, Hassan’s son Sohrab was able to survive an ordeal.

And, after having been presented with Hassan’s post-mortem letter, where his former friend was asking him to take care of Sohrab, Amir realized that his willingness to look into Hassan’s request would account for his ability to repay for Hassan’s loyalty with loyalty. This was precisely the reason why, despite being perfectly aware of the full spectrum of dangers associated with taking a trip to Afghanistan, Amir nevertheless had decided in favor of this undertaking.

It was Amir’s ever-present sense of guilt for his betrayal, which had prompted him to go to Afghanistan: “I have a wife in America, a home, a career, and a family. But how could I pack up and go back home when my actions may have cost Hassan a chance at those very same things?” (114).

After having arrived to Afghanistan, however, Amir realized that his price for proving loyalty to Hassan was even higher – it was not only that he had to face dangers of staying in Taliban-ruled Afghanistan, but that he also had to face the ultimate showdown with Assef, who by that time became one of Taliban’s war-lords. As such, his actions may be considered as one of the examples of loyalty in The Kite Runner.

And, it was not because he was able to subdue Assef physically, but because, for once in his life, Amir did not have any second thoughts, while defying his old arch-enemy, that he ended up achieving a moral victory over Assef: “I don’t know at what point I started laughing…

And the harder I laughed, the harder he kicked me… What was so funny was that, for the first time since the winter of 1975, I felt at peace” (147). The reason why, while fighting Assef, Amir experienced a sensation of inner peace, is that by doing it, he was able to prove its loyalty to Hassan.

As the novel’s consequential and highly mystical scene implies, the deceased Hassan did, in fact, appreciate Amir’s long-awaited token of loyalty. Just as Hassan used to do, his son Sohrab raised a slingshot and shot Assef right into his eye: “The slingshot made a thwiiiiit sound when Sohrab released the cup.

Then Assef was screaming. He put his hand where his left eye had been just a moment ago. Blood oozed between his fingers” (148). The context of this particular scene suggests that the consequence of Amir proving himself courageous enough to act loyally towards Hassan’s son, was the reestablishment of a friendship between Amir and Hassan, even though the latter was no longer living.


Thus, just as we had pointed out earlier, there are good reasons to believe that it is specifically the theme of loyalty in The Kite Runner, which binds the plot’s spatial developments into the semantically unified compound. Hosseini’s message about the importance of loyalty, forgiveness, and love is evident in the story. Apparently, it is the author’s masterful exploration of this particular theme throughout the novel’s entirety, which provides readers with insight into the fact that the extent an individual’s ability to act loyally towards his friends is being reflective of the extent of such person’s existential manliness.


Hosseini, Khaled. The Kite Runner. New York: Riverhead, 2003.

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The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer


The Kite Runner is a novel written by an Afghan-American author Khaled Hosseini. When Hosseini was a child, his family moved from Afghanistan to France, and then to the USA. This experience is partially reflected in the narrative of the author. Hosseini has written three novels, and The Kite Runner “has sold millions of copies worldwide and been classified as one of a classic” (Khadawardi 2017, 88). In this essay, the summary of the story, information on the main characters and themes, as well as a personal opinion about the composition will be presented.

The Kite Runner: Summary of the Novel

The story revolves around the life of a young boy from Kabul, Amir. He lives with his father, Baba, a wealthy man who never has time to spend with his son. Amir feels jealous when he notices Baba’s cordial treatment of his friend, Hasan, the son of their servant. To deserve his father’s love, Amir decides to take part in the kite competition with Hassan. Even though the two boys could keep their kite in the sky for a long time and won the first part of the competition, the event ended tragically. Hassan runs away, trying to find a place where the kite fell. After waiting for him for a long time, Amir decides to follow his friend and becomes a witness to the rape of Hassan by his enemy Assef. Amir is scared to interfere and help his friend and decides to go away and pretend he did not see anything. Feeling guilty for what he did, Amir stops talking to Hassan and does not want to be his friend anymore. He blames him for being a thief, and Hassan and his father leave their home.

Soon, the Soviet Union troops intervene in Afghanistan. To save their lives, Amir and his father immigrate to the USA. Many years later, after his parent’s death, Amir receives a letter from a family friend. From this letter, he learns that Hassan was his brother and that he knew about Amir’s betrayal but still loved him until the end of his life. Unfortunately, Hassan died with his wife during demonstrations in their country, but their little son, Sohrab, managed to survive. He was sent to an orphanage, and the author of the letter asks Amir to save the child and take him to the USA. Amir decides to go to Afghanistan and finds his nephew there. Even though it turns out to be difficult for Amir to adopt him, he promises Sohrab never to send him to an orphanage again. One day, when Sohrab notices that Amir is about to break his promise, he tries to commit suicide. Even though the boy survives, he starts to keep to himself being silent most of the time. One day, Amir buys a kite for Sohrab, and, for the first time, he sees a smile on his face. Thus, it is not entirely clear if the story has a happy ending or not. Even the protagonist of the story mentions that he does not know for sure if the story of Hassan and his nephew, Sohrab, ends happily (Hosseini 2013). However, the author gives readers the hope that the characters of the story will eventually find peace and harmony.

The Main Characters and Themes of the Narrative

The protagonist of the story is Amir, a young boy who was born in a wealthy Afghan family. It is not possible to tell if the personage of Amir is positive or negative. On the one hand, his sneaky nature allows him to betray his best friend. On the other hand, he is capable of feeling guilty and admitting his mistakes. Trying to make amends, Amir uses “a chance to put to rest his tortured past” (Summary and Analysis of The Kite Runner 2016, 8). He puts much effort into taking Sohrab to the USA and giving him a better life.

Baba, the father of Amir and Hassan, also feels guilty for his affair with a servant’s wife. He considers it the worst sin he ever committed, and, in his desire to redeem himself, helps other people until the last days of his life. In contrast to his son Amir, Baba is a very independent and decisive person. However, it turned out that he was not brave enough to tell Amir and Hassan that they were brothers.

It is evident that Hassan and Amir have many differences. Even being unaware of the fact that Amir was his brother, he loved him and considered his best friend. He forgave Amir for his betrayals and was always ready to spend time with him. Amir, on the contrary, “never displayed his feelings toward Hassan” (Hosseini and Zohdi 2016, 37). It remains unclear if it is caused by the lack of Amir’s love for Hassan or by peculiarities of his personality. Being a very kind person, Hassan also forgave his mother, who left him when he was a child and sheltered her at his house during the war in the 1970s.

The main themes of the book are forgiveness and friendship. The author shows that for friendship, it does not matter if people have or do not have much in common. Hassan and Amir are two boys from two different worlds. Amir belongs to the aristocratic part of the society, while Hassan is from a low-income family of servants. Baba is a handsome man, and Hassan’s father is miserable and limp. Hassan has an ugly harelip, while the deformity of Amir is not noticeable from the outside. Despite all these differences, the two boys become soul mates and real friends. Unfortunately, Amir’s weakness and villainy trigger the end of their friendship. However, nothing can make Hassan stop communicating with his friend, even Amir’s betrayal. Being aware of every harmful deed done by Amir, Hassan is still looking up to Amir, ready to forgive him for everything. Thus, the author shows that forgiveness is the main element of people’s lives that helps individuals to build happiness.

Personal Opinion about the Composition

The Kite Runner is one of the rare novels that invite readers to feel all the mental experience of the protagonist. This novel evokes a strong emotional response of readers and teaches them to be braver in some situations to avoid regrets in the future. It also shows that sometimes people neglect those who are sincere with them, and when they realize that they made a mistake, it is sometimes too late. This book shows the weaknesses and vices of human nature and makes readers think about their behavior.


It can be concluded that the novel The Kite Runner contains many significant ideas about people’s relationships. It teaches how important it is to forgive betrayals, love despite all, and bring goodness to this world. It also makes readers think about protagonists’ emotions and feelings and involves them in the process of reflections on their life. The author created an engaging narrative that should be read by both youth and adults because it raises questions that are always topical for all generations.


Hosseini, Akram, and Esmaeil Zohdi. 2016. “The Kite Runner and the Problem of Racism and Ethnicity.” International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, vol. 74, 33-40.

Hosseini, Khaled. 2013. The Kite Runner. 10th ed. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC.

Khadawardi, Hesham. 2017. “Superego Guilt, Redemption and Atonement in Khaled Hosseini’s the Kite Runner.” International Journal of Humanities, Social Sciences, and Education 4 (2): 88-99.

Summary and Analysis of the Kite Runner: Based on the Book by Khaled Hosseini. 2016. New York: Worth Books.


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Afghan History & Politics in The Kite Runner Film Essay (Movie Review)

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer


The Kite Runner drama film depicts the events that took place in Afghanistan since the early 1970s from the perspective of the main protagonist Amir Qadiri. Reviewing the contents of this film, the viewers have an opportunity to overview the recent events that took place in Afghanistan to better understand the state of political and social life. An interesting aspect is that the film begins with the glimpses of peaceful life in the country when the upcoming struggles of endless war are not yet familiar to the local people.

The viewers begin to become acquainted with the film’s main characters when they are mere children, and when they have no slightest idea about the hard lot the life has prepared for them. The following film review aims to observe the strengths and weaknesses of this film as an informative resource for the students of the political and historical background of Afghanistan.

The Plot

The Kite Runner film relates a story of an Afghanistan man, named Amir Qadiri, who feels guilty because he left his motherland and his close friend Hassan and became a refugee in Pakistan and then immigrants in the United States. The events of the film seem to be divided by the event of Soviet invasion: at the first part, the audience sees a peaceful life with its minor issues and daily troubles, but later the whole new period begins when millions of people become pushed to leave their houses in the home country and escape as refugees. For the people who continue to live in their homeland, life becomes hard.

When one day Amir returns to visit his father’s friend Rahim Khan, he learns that the new country’s leaders, the Taliban, are cruel and unjust. They act with prejudice over the minority groups of Hazara and Tajiks robbing them of their possessions and persecuting them in other ways. Amir learns that the Taliban killed his friend Hassan and left alive only his son Sohrab. All of a sudden, Amir learns that apart from being his best friend of childhood, Hassan was his half-brother. After learning about the hardships that Sohrab is facing because of his ethnic identity, Amir decides to adopt him. The film ends with a peaceful picture of Amir and Sohrab flying a kite in the peaceful atmosphere of San Francisco and with good hope for the future.

The Setting

The opening scene of The Kite Runner movie is set in San Francisco in the year 2000. The viewers get familiar with a writer of Afghanistan-American ethnic background Amir Qadiri and his wife Soraya. The characters are shown as they are watching kids flying kites at a bayside park. After their small rout, the couple returns home, where the husband finds the packages with his upcoming novel “Season for Ashes” published by a local printery. The wife speaks of this novel as of Amir’s child, giving an audience a hint that they are not able to have their child. The main events of the film begin here when suddenly a friend of Amir’s father from his motherland is calling1.

The Context

To fully grasp the value of experiences shown in The Kite Runner, a viewer should become cognizant of the main glimpses in the history of Afghanistan as well as the historical and political twists and turns that took place in the country beginning from the year 1979 when the country was invaded by the Soviets2. Before the year 1979, Afghanistan was a quite stable country in Asia with ancient history and its unique culture and ethnic background.

The ethnic structure of the country population is another interesting fact that is of importance for understanding the plot of The Kite Runner. The main nations populating Afghanistan are Pashtuns, Tajiks, and Hazaras3. Pashtuns are the leading ethnic group that traditionally occupies the man positions and possesses the major authority. Tajiks and Hazaras are inferior nations. People belonging to the nations mentioned above serve as the support personnel for Pashtuns.

The Main Protagonist

The main protagonist of The Kite Runner and simultaneously, its narrator is Amir, a representative of the leading Pashtun ethnic group4. Amir was born in Kabul in 1963 in the family of a wealthy and well-respected man, Agha Sahib. Amir acquired a brilliant education and immigrated to the United States after facing the political changes in his home country. Viewing the character of the main protagonist from the prism of historical light, Amir seems to be a witness of hardships both insider and outsider ones that the country of Afghanistan has faced. On the on hand, the life of Amir, a Pashtun man, reveals the problems of ethnic enmity in Afghanistan, on the other hand, Amir’s persona and his living experience help see the trials in his country has faced at the international arena.

The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Film as an Informative Source

An obvious strength of The Kite Runner film as an informative source is its effort to overview the historical events that took place in Afganistan beginning from its peaceful and prosperous times, and ending with the time of war, political instability and terror. This aspect of this film art piece undoubtedly makes it an interesting agenda. As for the weaknesses, it should be noted that although the film dedicates much of its attention to the problem of ethnic enmity between Pashtun and Hazara, it does not fully reveal the issues that stand behind such cruelty and animosity. The question of why Assef acts with such a degree of utter hostility remains in the mind of numerous viewers after watching The Kite Runner5.


In conclusion, it should be pointed out that the film The Kite Runner presents a thought-provoking framework for observing historical, political, and ethnic issues of Afghanistan. An important aspect of the political studies is that the film begins with the glimpses of peaceful life before the war, terror, and instability arise, and shifts to the detailed depiction of the changes that take place. Watching this film, the viewers have an excellent opportunity to overview the new historical events that took place in the country to better understand the peculiarities of its political and social life.


Dan, Susan. “A Study of the Kite Runner from the Perspective of Cognitive Poetics.” Foreign Language and Literature (2014): 1-10.

Khan, Muhammad Usman. “The Kite Runner-A Historical Novel or Stereotyping Propaganda against Pashtun Majority of Afghanistan?” International Journal of Research (2014): 452-462.

Malik, Muhammad Asghar, Ghulam Murtaza, and Kazim Shah. “Representation of Power Relationships in The Kite Runner.” US-China Foreign Language (2014): 17.

The Kite Runner. Directed by Mark Foster. 2007. Universal City, C.A.: DreamWorks Pictures, 2008. DVD.


  1. The Kite Runner, directed by Mark Foster. 2007. Universal City, C.A.: DreamWorks Pictures, 2008. DVD.
  2. Muhammad Usman Khan. “The Kite Runner-A Historical Novel or Stereotyping Propaganda against Pashtun Majority of Afghanistan?” International Journal of Research (2014): 462.
  3. Ibid., 461
  4. Susan Dan. “A Study of the Kite Runner from the Perspective of Cognitive Poetics.” Foreign Language and Literature (2014): 10.
  5. Muhammad Asghar Malik, Ghulam Murtaza, and Kazim Shah. “Representation of Power Relationships in The Kite Runner.” US-China Foreign Language (2014): 17.
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Redemption in Kite Runner

August 26, 2020 by Essay Writer

Guilt can drive people to the ground. It can ruin ones life from top to bottom. Some people spend their whole life being guilty and they lose sight of what is really important in life. They spend way too much time trying to redeem themselves and it is in their conscious forever. In the case of Amir, he spends his entire childhood and midlife trying to redeem himself. He feels guilty for many reasons and all of his struggles in the novel are because of his feelings of guilt.

Guilt and redemption are what drive this novel. Guilt starts for Amir at the very beginning of his life.

When he Amir is born, his mother, the love of Baba’s life, is killed during birth. Amir always feels guilty for this and feels like Baba does not like him as much. This guilt fuels the fire for the rest of Amir’s childhood. He is always trying to prove himself to Baba.

He even feels guilty when he cries at the match of buzkashi. He thinks that he embarrassed Baba. He also overhears Baba telling Rahim Khan that he thinks Amir is weak and thinks that he will become a man who can’t stand up for anything. Because of this, Amir wants so badly to redeem himself to Baba.

He becomes to resent Hassan too because Baba respects Hassan. Amir thinks bad thoughts about Hassan and starts to distant himself from him. Amir’s constant desire for redemption with Baba leads to even more guilt. Amir is about to win the kite running tournament. He cut down the last kite and Hassan is running to go get it. Amir finds Hassan in the alleyway being beaten and raped by some boys. Amir has a chance to stop it but he wants the blue kite so badly so he can finally redeem himself to Baba so he lets Hassan get raped. However, this leads to the ultimate guilt.

Amir can never stop thinking about it. He did the wrong thing. He stops talking to Hassan entirely and gets him kicked out of the house. He can’t stand to look at Hassan anymore. The guilt is too much. This guilt stays with Hassan for the rest of the novel. Amir had been living with his guilt for decades now. He was living in San Francisco with his wife. He had never spoken to anybody about the events that had happened that made him feel so guilty. The guilt was killing him. He finally received a call from Rahim Khan near the end of Khan’s life. Amir was given a chance to finally redeem himself.

Khan told Amir that he had to rescue Hassan’s son, Sohrab from an orphanage in Kabul. Kabul at the time was a scary city run by the Taliban. Amir didn’t want to do it but Khan convinces him too. It was finally Amir’s chance to get rid of all the guilt that he had pint up inside of him. Amir had to risk his own life to save the life of boy he did not even know. In life, I think anybody can redeem themselves. If someone truly is sorry for what they did, then the can atone for what they did. God does the same thing with confession. Even mass murderers can have redemption in God’s eyes.

Why can’t anybody else have redemption? Rahim Khan says in the novel, “True redemption is when guilt leads to good. ” If somebody atones for their sins and makes them right, then they have reached redemption. So yes, I do believe that Amir has redeemed himself in this story. His guilt leads to him saving a boys life. He risks his life because he finally wants to do the right thing. He ends up adopting the boy and no longer feels guilty. I think that Hassan would have been proud of Amir and would have forgiven him if he were alive. Amir reached redemption by getting over his guilt and doing the right thing.

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The Importance of Loyalty and Betrayal in The Kite Runner, a Novel by Khaled Hosseini

June 3, 2020 by Essay Writer

The themes of Loyalty and Betrayal in The Kite Runner

The Kite Runner was the first novel written by Khaled Hosseini, and was published in 2003. The story is told through the eyes of the protagonist Amir, and the events of his life in Afghanistan, fleeing from Afghanistan to America because of the Soviet-Afghan war, and finally returning to Afghanistan to rescue Sohrab, his half brother’s son. There are various themes that influence the development of the story, including love, loyalty, betrayal, redemption, race and many more.

These themes are present throughout the novel and helps build up to the suspenseful turning points and conflicts that make The Kite Runner exciting to read. All of the characters display these themes, especially Amir and his childhood friend/half brother Hassan. Although there are many themes in The Kite Runner, two of the most important themes in The Kite Runner are loyalty and betrayal as loyalty is what connects the characters together and form relationships, while betrayal breaks relationships and causes conflicts.

Loyalty is a strong feeling of support to someone or something. The most noticeable display of loyalty is Hassan towards Amir. Early on in the novel, Hassan displays loyalty to Amir and his father Baba, and stays loyal to them until he dies. Because of Hassan’s loyalty, he can be described as selfless and caring. In chapter 5, when Amir and Hassan were picked on by neighbourhood bullies Assef, Kamal and Wali, Hassan defends Amir and himself by scaring Assef with a slingshot. When Hassan runs the kite for Amir in chapter 6, he says “For you, a thousand times over” to Amir. Hassan is expressing his loyalty to Amir by telling Amir he would run the kite a thousand times for Amir. Another instance of Hassan’s loyalty to Amir is in chapter 7, when Hassan got raped because he did not let Assef take the kite. Hassan did not want to break his loyalty with Amir by giving up the kite. Even after the rape, Hassan stays loyal with Amir, and continues serving him. In chapter 9, Amir betrays Hassan by framing him, but even though Hassan knew he was framed he continues his loyalty with Amir and does not tell Baba he was framed. Even though Amir betrays Hassan, Amir starts becoming loyal to Hassan later in the novel. After Hassan dies and Amir finds out Hassan’s son Sohrab is in trouble, Amir flies back to Afghanistan to rescue Sohrab. Hassan and Amir are not the only characters who display loyalty. Baba displays his loyalty to Hassan by hiring a doctor to fix his harelip, even though Hassan was a Hazara and a servant. Loyalty is important as it bonds the characters together and leads Amir to rescue Sohrab for Hassan.

The theme of betrayal is important in The Kite Runner as it leads to major turning points and conflicts in the story. Both Baba and Amir betrayed the people who were closest to them. Amir never treated Hassan as if he was a true friend, and betrays Hassan multiple times in the novel by not willing to help Hassan and pushing him away. In chapter 7, Amir watches Hassan get raped but does not go to rescue Hassan, despite being Amir’s best friend and always helping Amir when he needed help. After the rape, Amir continues to betray Hassan. In chapter 9, Amir frames Hassan by hiding a watch and money under his bed, then accusing him for stealing it. This act of betrayal by Amir leads to one of the major turning points of the novel, with Ali and Hassan’s departure from Baba’s house. The feeling of guilt resulting from Amir betraying Hassan haunted Amir for many years, until he redeemed himself. In addition to Amir’s betrayal to Hassan, Baba betrays Amir by lying and not telling Amir that Hassan was his half-brother. After Amir heard the news, it changed how Amir viewed Baba forever. Baba was known in the novel as a well-respected man with good morals and no tolerance to stealing or lying. Baba breaks his own morals by lying to Amir and stealing Amir’s rights to know Hassan was Amir’s half brother and not just a servant. As multiple incidences has shown, betrayal led to destruction of friendships and conflicts in the novel.

Loyalty and betrayal are important central themes in the story. These themes changed the outcome of many of the events in the novel. Loyalty and betrayal are considered opposites, as loyalty is associated with friendship, trust and support, but betrayal is associated with conflicts and dishonesty. Amir is the character who betrays others often and Hassan is the character who is loyal to others, making Amir and Hassan somewhat opposites. This is one of the reasons why Hassan and Amir never fully got along with each other and had so many conflicts. The guilt caused by Amir betraying Hassan in addition to Amir’s loyalty to Hassan caused him to risk his life to save Sohrab. The central plot, Amir trying redeeming himself by saving Sohrab is a result of Amir realising he made a mistake by betraying Hassan after Hassan’s loyalty to Amir.

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