The Hot Zone

My Thoughts about The Hot Zone by Richard Preston

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Hot Zone by Richard Preston is a fascinating book that goes through various dangerous viral biological outbreaks occurring mainly between the 1970s and the 1980s. The Hot Zone is not a fictitious work, rather, it is documentation of a series of dangerous virus outbreaks located primarily in Africa. It begins with information regarding an outbreak of the rare and extremely deadly Marburg virus. Frenchman Charles Monet is in Kenya in 1979, working at a sugar factory. He decides to visit Kitum cave with a friend, and later contracts the Marburg virus. The Marburg virus behaves almost identically to the Ebola virus, its symptoms including fever, red spots, swelling, low blood pressure, internal bleeding, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, headache hemorrhage, and shock. Charles Monet takes a plane and then a taxi to Nairobi hospital, where he loses consciousness and collapses bleeding onto the Emergency Room floor. He is treated by Dr. Shem Musoke but unfortunately infects Dr. Musoke before dying in the Intensive Care Unit. Dr. Musoke’s case is picked up by another doctor, Dr. Silverstein. Preston goes through different Marburg virus outbreaks before shifting to multiple strains of Ebola. He outlines the extraordinary danger that comes with handling the viruses and describes in graphic detail all the precautions that Major Nancy Jaax took when she worked with viruses in the “hot zone” (the areas of a laboratory contaminated with a virus) of the United States Army Medical Research Insitute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). Preston does a fantastic job outlining the handling of each outbreak as well as the dangers of each virus and the significant threat they each pose to humanity.

Anyone interested in the medical field, biology, or taking/planning to take Honors Biology should read The Hot Zone by Richard Preston, which details horrifyingly dangerous viral agents in addition to their treatments and the extreme threat they pose. Preston does a great job describing the viruses. When a new strain of Ebola is discovered, he details its shape, saying the viruses look like “snakes, pigtails, branchy, forked things that looked like the letter Y… a classic shape… Shepherd’s crook” (Preston 72). He uses virologists as sources in his book, such as Karl Johnson, who helped discover Ebola (Preston 72). Preston does not just talk about the shape and discovery of viruses but also talks about their effects. He states that Monet’s liver “had ceased functioning several days before he died… It was yellow, and parts of it had liquified… It was as if Monet had become a corpse before his death” (Preston 18). The great detail he provides to readers would be especially interesting to those studying or interested in studying biology or biological agents, as he provides far more detail about the real-world impacts of these viruses than the biology textbooks currently used do. After Preston gives plenty of background on a virus, he describes their treatments. When detailing Dr. Musoke’s time with the Marburg virus, he describes how difficult it is to care for Marburg patients. Dr. Silverstein, who treated Dr. Musoke, told Preston that he “tried to give him nutrition, and tried to lower his fevers when they were high… was basically taking care of somebody without a gameplan” (Preston 21). Preston makes it a point to show where treatments fail as well. He points out that “even in the best modern hospitals, where patients are hooked up to life-support machines, Marburg kills a quarter of the patients who are infected with it” (Preston 23). He shows the real danger of these viruses not only with their effects but also with the effectiveness of their treatments, which can be alarmingly minimal. As Preston discusses the treatments for viral agents like Marburg, he shows the lack of knowledge regarding the topic as well as how deadly these viruses could be. Finally, Preston shows how threatened even trained and suited up experts are by viruses like Ebola and Marburg, which capitalizes on the risk they pose to humanity. He explains that the “doctors in the city thought the world was coming to an end” and even includes a letter from Karl Johnson, a former CDC virologist, who said that “unless you include the feeling generated by gazing into the eyes of a waving confrontational cobra, ‘fascination’ is not what I feel about Ebola. How about shit scared?” (Preston 23, 72). The fact that trained medical professionals are terrified of viruses that are halfway around the world from where the doctors live, and that medical professionals remain terrified when handling the viruses despite wearing many, many layers of protection provided by what is literally considered a “biological spacesuit,” is proof that these viral agents pose a serious threat to all of mankind (Preston 44).

One could argue that this book is overdramatic or exaggerated and that that takes away from its validity, but that (unfortunately for humanity) simply is not the case. Preston does not make up viruses, outbreaks, or experts in his book. Instead, he contacts experts involved in them. Preston has relentlessly pursued truth and accurate information, stating that “my fax was received [by an expert he contacted], but there was no reply. So I waited a day and then sent him another fax” (Preston 72). Preston followed similar determined pursuits of information with his multitudes of other sources, such as Major Nancy Jaax, Dr. David Silverstein, Dr. Musoke, and USAMRIID (Preston 30, 20, 16, 36). The fact that Preston has gone to such great efforts for accurate information, and that he has described these efforts so as to ensure his audience understands that he is not overstating anything is proof that Preston is writing to raise awareness and caution rather than creating exaggerations for causing panic. If Preston was interested in publishing overly dramatized books on viral outbreaks, he could do that easily with a fictitious book and far less time spent researching. But he did not do that. Instead, he involved every expert he could.

To conclude, The Hot Zone by Richard Preston is a phenomenal book detailing the characteristics, treatments, and tremendous risks associated with the world’s deadliest viruses, and should be read by anyone interested in the medical field so they know exactly what kind of world they are getting involved with.

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The Carelessness of Humans in The Hot Zone by Richard Preston

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Hot Zone is a book written by Richard Preston. Richard Preston is an American writer that has written over a dozen books both fiction and non-fiction. The Hot Zone is a book of non-fiction based off of interviews and extensive research. The primary focus of The Hot Zone is the filoviruses Marburg and Ebola and their origins.

The book is about the filoviruses marburg and ebola and the effect they had on primates in Africa, Asia and North America. The theme of the book is the carelessness of humans. Examples of this are the dirty needles being used in hospitals and the sick monkeys not being examined properly. Page 102 “At the beginning of each day, the nuns at Yambuku.

Hospital would lay out five hypodermic syringes on a table, and they would use them to give shots to patients all day long.” If the nuns were not being so careless they virus may have stayed with the first one to contract it. Page 166 “He had counted twenty-nine deaths out of a shipment of 100 monkeys. That is, nearly a third of the monkeys had died.” If the company in the philippines that distributed the monkeys to the monkey house weren’t so careless and examined the monkeys properly the whole incident could have been avoided. Human carelessness is not the only theme however there is plenty more such as the selfishness of the doctors that could have been infected but chose to keep it a secret to avoid the slammer. The message I received from the book is that humans are to blame for their own mistakes, if dirty needles were not used then people would not have gotten sick. The book did a good job teaching that humans are not perfect and can make mistakes very easily, but with caution disasters can be prevented.

Richard Preston makes his book come alive with vivid imagery and characters that the reader can relate to. The book starts with Charles Monet a simple laborer working at a sugar factory in Kenya when he suddenly gets sick after visiting a cave. The next characters introduced are Nancy and Jerry Jaax. They are husband and wife veterinarians that work for the military. They are portrayed as a good family that can balance work and family. The next character introduced is Eugene Johnson. He is a virus specialist that leads an expedition to kitum cave to search for marburg. The reason he goes to kitum cave is because of Peter Cardinal and Charles Monet’s illnesses after going there. Next up is Peter Jahrling, he is a virologist and co discovered the reston ebola virus. The other co discoverer of the virus is Tom Geisbert, he was an intern at USAMRIID. Other main characters include Clarence James Peters the leader of the reston biohazard operation, Philip Russell who gave the order to dispatch military units to reston and Dr. Joseph B. Mccormick the chief of the special pathogens branch of the C.D.C. he was the doctor that accidently stuck a needle in him when treating Ebola patients. He chose to stay and help the people and later found out that the needle was not ebola but possibly malaria.

The book takes place primarily in the 1980s around Washington D.C and Kenya. It starts in Kenya with Charles Monet living their and then Peter Cardinal visiting and getting sick. Then it goes to Reston, Virginia where the monkey house is and Reston Ebola is discovered.

The story was well written and held my attention throughout. I liked the imagery such as when Nancy cut her hand and it though described it in flawless detail and when she he suit was breached but she was just bleeding from the previous wound.

The Hot Zone was an interesting read that kept me entertained and educated me with facts. I learned a lot more about viruses and diseases and realized just how deadly they can be. It also taught me how humans are the top of the food chain but with one mistake they can all be wiped out from a small virus.

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The Main Themes of The Hot Zone

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Books, stories, etc.offer alternate insights to someone’s writing, by providinga wide perception of a given topic for viewers. Writers allow readers to have a chance to dig into a problem’s past. Richard Preston’s The Hot Zone is one of suchbooks. A book on the origin of a deadly virus, Ebola, both in the human body and in the outside world. The book is a synthesis of the author’s facts, scientific knowledge, and personal experiences. There are a number of medical issues in this novel. Two of these medical issues will be discussed in this report which include the bravery and teamwork presented by almost everyone in The Hot Zone of it, and human error in the lab and the clinic.

While most of the Hot Zone’s content is disturbing, one of its few high points is the clear courage and coordination demonstrated by the Ebola researchers, particularly USAMRIID’s military soldiers and scientists. Nancy and Jerry Jaaxare excellent examples of researchers who jeopardize their life and sacrifice certain parts of their lifeto make sure others are protected from a possible Ebola epidemic. Jerry’s soldiers’ group also reveals how important these abilities are to curb the virus’ distribution.Even though their job is veryfrightening and hellish — killed hundreds of Ebola-carrying monkeys — they do so with devotion, knowing that they might haveto sacrifice oneself for the sake of the wider public. Several scientists and doctors with these principles exist in the Hot Zone (like Dr. Shem Musoke, who catches Ebola whilst treating patients, also Gene Johnson, who actively works to combat Ebola while being frightened by it), and it is attributable to them, Preston suggests, that the majority of us can live our lives without being conscious of the hostile world of viruses surrounding all of us.

Using research — to support her statements — and horrifying details, Preston clearly indicates that perhaps the spread of viruses such as Ebola (and other viral diseases, such as HIV) is often caused as a result of human error. Either consuming tainted animal meat, transmitting pathogens by sexual intercourse, constructing roads that become plague routes, or using contaminated needles, individuals are regularly exposed to debilitating and destructive diseases.

By fixating onto the Ebola epidemic in Reston — a calm and peaceful neighborhood — Preston clearly states how delicate daily life already is, and also how readily any numberof evolving ailments can wipe it all out. Also, taking precautions, like using spacesuits or other protective garments, donot provide a reliable disease preventative defense. Spacesuits can betorn, oxygen runs low, and syringes (or angry monkeys, or test subjects) will puncture the gloves. Blood is also a grea timage of human vulnerability in this scope. While blood usually transports energy and nutrition, the blood from an infected individual is also a disease-carrying system, and exposure to one bit can lead to contamination, eventuallyresulting in death.With the use of infected/contaminated needles in the Yambuku Mission Hospital as well as the Maridi hospital, to the incompetence of Hazelton Research Products in intentionally buying contaminated monkeys from Philippines, human negligence can be attributed to most of the outbreak incidents depicted in the book. Preston often mentions many cases where neglect may potentially have contributed to an epidemic in varying conditions, including when contaminated needles were left just outside of the Reston plant or even when Dan Dalgard wraps infected monkey specimens in a pure tin foil when presenting the specimens to USAMRIID.

In any case, Preston clearly states that an individual member of the population canassess, and therefore dictate, the risk for a catastrophic epidemic.In summary, Richard Preston’s Hot Zone presents readers with an opportunity to dive into an individual and global experience of the deadly Ebola virus. Several of the topics discussed in this book are vital topics required in the clinic and the laboratory. The book characters’ encounter when interacting/copingwith thedeadly Ebola virus made them fear for their lives, but they also wanted to help others not to be infected with the same lethal virus. Ebola reflects a destructive and lethal power at its purest level, no matter how very much technological advancement develops, and no matter how very much people try to protect themselves, Ebola still finds an infection, and after which, a disease pathway.

As a matter of fact, Ebola is also using human advancement, innovation and globalizationto disperse faster and much further than ever. Ebola does thisin the form of quicker and more efficient modes of transportation, such as highways and aircraft. Therefore,when dealing with medical problems, it isn’t just about treating a disease. It is also the prevention of the spreading of the disease.

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The Hot Zone by Richard Preston: Style Critique

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

“Style Critique on The Hot Zone”

“Lassa is a Level 4 virus from West Africa, and it was one of Peter Jahrling’s favorite life forms-he thought it was fascinating and beautiful, in certain ways. He had held in his gloved hands virtually every hot agent known, except for Ebola and Marburg. When people asked him why he didn’t work with them, he replied, “I don’t particularly feel like dying.”

Richard Preston traces the known paths of Ebola and Marburg in The Hot Zone. He tells of their discovery, effects, and the outbreaks. Level 4 scientists for the Army, the CDC, and several civilian scientists track down the viruses in order to conduct tests and find the secret hiding place of the viruses. The height of the story occurs when Ebola Zaire is discovered in a monkey house near Washington, D.C. and the Army has to decontaminate the entire facility. Luckily, the airborne strain only affected monkeys and didn’t infect humans. Preston concludes with his own trip to Africa to look at a possible reservoir of the viruses.

Preston’s style is sensational journalism. He uses graphic detail when describing the effects of the viruses to make it sensational. Doctors would be brief and scientific in their reports on the symptoms. Preston description’s are not brief and are graphic. ” His face lost all appearance of life and set itself into and expressionless make…the eyeballs themselves seemed almost frozen in their sockets, and they turned bright red. He began to look like a zombie…and then you see that his lips are smeared with something slippery and red, mixed with black specks, as if he has been chewing coffee grounds. …. He is going into shock. He leans over, head on his knees, and brings up an incredible quantity of blood from his stomach and spills it onto the floor with a gasping groan. The only sound is a choking in his throat as he continues to vomit while unconscious. Then comes a sound like a bedsheet being torn in half, which is the sound of his bowels opening and venting blood. The blood is mixed with intestinal lining.” No doctor would ever describe the effects like Preston did. He is graphic to make it more interesting and exciting. He “spices” it up to attract and draw the attention of the reader, to get his point across.

Preston occasionally adds the character’s thoughts as they recalled them during their interviews with him. Preston states that ” if you ask a person, “What were you thinking?” you may get an answer that is richer and more revealing of the human condition that any stream of thoughts a novelist could invent.” He’s right; fact is stranger than fiction. ” Aw, crap! They’ll put me into the Slammer. And Tony will be filling out accident reports while I’m breaking with Ebola. And a week later, I’ll be in the Submarine. Shit! Jerry’s in Texas. And I didn’t go to the bank today. There’s no money in the house. The kids are home with Mrs. Trapane, and she needs to be paid. I didn’t go the market today. There’s no food in the house. How are the kids going to eat if I’m in the Slammer?” Preston used their thoughts to make it more realistic and to give the human perspective. Their thoughts showed that some were “*censored* scared” and didn’t want to touch it while others were fascinated with the virus and wanted to work in Level 4.

Preston tries to develop the characters, make them more reals. He gives background information, physical description, and occasionally talks about some personal habits or what others thought of them. “Some of the officers at Fort Detrick had noticed a certain abrupt quality in her hand motions and had accused her of having hands that were “too quick” to handle delicate work in dangerous situations. Nancy had begun martial-arts training partly because she hoped to make her gestures cool and smooth and powerful, and also because she had felt the frustrations of a woman officer trying to advance her career in the Army.” Preston’s outline of the characters makes it easier to understand their actions and why they were involved with the viruses. It makes them more of a human, not just a character in some story.

The story narrated by Preston. He is the omniscient narrator; he comments and acts like he knows their thoughts. “First Nancy inspected the monkey, looking through the bars. It was a large male, and he looked as if her was really dead. She saw that he still had his canine fangs, and that made her nervous.” Periodically he tells about his interviews in the 1st person, “Are you worried about a species-threatening event?” He stared at me. “What the hell do you mean by that?” “I mean a virus that wipes us out.” The final chapter, when he visits Kitum Cave in Africa, is also told in the 1st person. Preston uses the 1st person to make it more personal. He also uses it at the end in order to portray his feelings toward the subject.

” Ebola had risen in these rooms, flashed its colors, fed, and subsided into the forest. It will be back.”

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The Critical Review of the Style and Narration of The Hot Zone

December 10, 2020 by Essay Writer

“Style Critique on The Hot Zone”

“Lassa is a Level 4 virus from West Africa, and it was one of Peter Jahrling’s favorite life forms-he thought it was fascinating and beautiful, in certain ways. He had held in his gloved hands virtually every hot agent known, except for Ebola and Marburg. When people asked him why he didn’t work with them, he replied, “I don’t particularly feel like dying.”

Richard Preston traces the known paths of Ebola and Marburg in The Hot Zone. He tells of their discovery, effects, and the outbreaks. Level 4 scientists for the Army, the CDC, and several civilian scientists track down the viruses in order to conduct tests and find the secret hiding place of the viruses. The height of the story occurs when Ebola Zaire is discovered in a monkey house near Washington, D.C. and the Army has to decontaminate the entire facility. Luckily, the airborne strain only affected monkeys and didn’t infect humans. Preston concludes with his own trip to Africa to look at a possible reservoir of the viruses.

Preston’s style is sensational journalism. He uses graphic detail when describing the effects of the viruses to make it sensational. Doctors would be brief and scientific in their reports on the symptoms. Preston description’s are not brief and are graphic. ” His face lost all appearance of life and set itself into and expressionless make…the eyeballs themselves seemed almost frozen in their sockets, and they turned bright red. He began to look like a zombie…and then you see that his lips are smeared with something slippery and red, mixed with black specks, as if he has been chewing coffee grounds. …. He is going into shock. He leans over, head on his knees, and brings up an incredible quantity of blood from his stomach and spills it onto the floor with a gasping groan. The only sound is a choking in his throat as he continues to vomit while unconscious. Then comes a sound like a bedsheet being torn in half, which is the sound of his bowels opening and venting blood. The blood is mixed with intestinal lining.” No doctor would ever describe the effects like Preston did. He is graphic to make it more interesting and exciting. He “spices” it up to attract and draw the attention of the reader, to get his point across.

Preston occasionally adds the character’s thoughts as they recalled them during their interviews with him. Preston states that ” if you ask a person, “What were you thinking?” you may get an answer that is richer and more revealing of the human condition that any stream of thoughts a novelist could invent.” He’s right; fact is stranger than fiction. ” Aw, crap! They’ll put me into the Slammer. And Tony will be filling out accident reports while I’m breaking with Ebola. And a week later, I’ll be in the Submarine. Shit! Jerry’s in Texas. And I didn’t go to the bank today. There’s no money in the house. The kids are home with Mrs. Trapane, and she needs to be paid. I didn’t go the market today. There’s no food in the house. How are the kids going to eat if I’m in the Slammer?” Preston used their thoughts to make it more realistic and to give the human perspective. Their thoughts showed that some were “*censored* scared” and didn’t want to touch it while others were fascinated with the virus and wanted to work in Level 4.

Preston tries to develop the characters, make them more reals. He gives background information, physical description, and occasionally talks about some personal habits or what others thought of them. “Some of the officers at Fort Detrick had noticed a certain abrupt quality in her hand motions and had accused her of having hands that were “too quick” to handle delicate work in dangerous situations. Nancy had begun martial-arts training partly because she hoped to make her gestures cool and smooth and powerful, and also because she had felt the frustrations of a woman officer trying to advance her career in the Army.” Preston’s outline of the characters makes it easier to understand their actions and why they were involved with the viruses. It makes them more of a human, not just a character in some story.

The story narrated by Preston. He is the omniscient narrator; he comments and acts like he knows their thoughts. “First Nancy inspected the monkey, looking through the bars. It was a large male, and he looked as if her was really dead. She saw that he still had his canine fangs, and that made her nervous.” Periodically he tells about his interviews in the 1st person, “Are you worried about a species-threatening event?” He stared at me. “What the hell do you mean by that?” “I mean a virus that wipes us out.” The final chapter, when he visits Kitum Cave in Africa, is also told in the 1st person. Preston uses the 1st person to make it more personal. He also uses it at the end in order to portray his feelings toward the subject.

” Ebola had risen in these rooms, flashed its colors, fed, and subsided into the forest. It will be back.”

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Literary Analysis of The Hot Zone by Richard Preston

December 10, 2020 by Essay Writer

The Hot Zone

Setting:

The setting g takes place in two major places. Reston Maryland which is a suburb of Washington DC. and the second major area is in Kenya Africa. The story takes place in the 1980’s.

Main Characters:

Since this story is a true story there is no one character that is a main character. The author does not create the story around any one main character so I’ll just list every character I can remember from the book.

  1. Charles Monet: He was the first host to the deadly ebola virus breakout in Africa. He was 56 years old and was kind of a loner according to the authors interviews with people.
  2. Dr. Mosoke: He was Charles Monets doctor when Charles crashed and bled out which means when the host suddenly starts bleeding infectious blood out of every orifice in the body.
  3. Nancy Jaax: She was a veterinary pathologist at a military fort in Maryland..
  4. Jerry Jaax: He was a veterinarian and husband to Nancy Jaax.
  5. Peter Jahrling: He was a disease expert at Fort Detrick
  6. Gene Johnson: He was in charge of the Reston operation. He also was the discoverer of Ebola Sudan.
  7. Nun: The Nun’s name was unknown but she had the very first recorded case of Ebola Zaire which is the most dangerous of the three strains.

Summary:

This is a true story. On New Year’s Day 1980 a man named Charles Monet went on a trip with a girl friend of his up to Mnt. Elgon in West Kenya. They spent the night there and went to a large cave there called Kitcum cave. After his trip to Kitcum cave he went home and three days later had a huge headache that wouldn’t go away. That is the first symptom of this deadly disease. A few days later he went to the doctors and they told him he should go to a bigger hospital in Nairobi. Charles caught a flight to Nairobi an the ninth day after his visit to kitcum cave. All through the flight to Nairobi he was throwing up blood mixed with a black liquid. When he got to the hospital he sat down and waited to be served. Then his spine went limp and nerveless and he lost all sense of balance. he started going into shock. He then started throwing up an incredible amount of blood from his stomach and spilt it on to the floor. The people who were there said the only sound was the choking in his throat from his constant vomiting while he is unconscious. Then came the sound of bed sheets being torn in half which is the sound of his bowels opening up and venting blood from the anus. The blood is mixed with intestinal lining. His gut is sloughed. The linings of his intestines come off and were being expelled from his body along with huge amounts of blood. This dying process which happens to nine out of ten people who come in contact with the deadly disease is called crashing and bleeding. Samples of his blood were flown to all the major disease labs in the world. The disease was a Marburg Strain.

In Sudan the same types of deaths were wiping out whole tribes. So Gene Johnson flew over there and worked with sick members of the tribes to try and find a cure. This strain of Marburg was called Ebola Sudan for were it was found. Later in Zaire there was an out post of missionaries who would give vaccine shots and penicillin to local tribes. One of the nuns there became sick with a similar disease. She died and her blood was sent to disease labs all over the world. The strain was called Ebola Zaire since it was discovered in Zaire.

In Reston Maryland there was a monkey house that would ship monkeys all over the US. to labs for medical experiments. Suddenly all the monkeys started dying in one room. Tom Jahrling from fort Detrick came down and took a look at the monkeys and took some samples. He took back and he and Tom Geisbert looked at it and thought it was just a small monkey virus and try smelled it which is a way to tell what something was. They couldn’t tell what it was so they looked at it under a electron microscope and it looked allot like Marburg. They were scared because they had smelled the container of the marburg. They didn’t tell anyone that they had been exposed.

The Military and the C.D.C. (Center for Disease Control) sealed off the whole building and Nancy Jaax and Jerry Jaax led squads of people inside the building wearing space suits. Two people while working inside the building were cut and their space suits were torn which means they were exposed to the virus. They found out that the virus they were working with was a close relative to Ebola Zaire. They killed all the monkeys in the building and locks their corpses up because they were predicting that if the virus got out it would total the human population. It would be like another Black Plague, but the Black Plague only killed 50% of those infected while this killed 90%. They put a special chemical in the building and let it sit four three days. After the tree days nothing was alive in the entire building not even a tiny microscopic virus could live. But four people had been exposed to the virus and surprisingly they all lived they later realized that the virus must have mutated so it would not harm humans but if it mutated again and could effect humans it would be devastating. This new virus was called Ebola Reston.

Opinion:

I thought the book was really scary. It was scary to see that there are diseases that could completely wipe us out and that we got really lucky at Reston. I thought the book was also very educating. From a scale of one to ten I give it a ten because the author uses great detail. for instance when the author tells the effects of the disease.

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