The Glass


Production Plant, Equipment And Resources

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

In the glass fibre composite plants, workers are required to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) by OH&S to ensure their safety and the safety of people around them. They are required to always wear safety glasses, Organic Vapor Respirator, body suit and gloves when working with a resin gun or handling chemicals. The glasses protect the worker from any chemicals, vapours and their eyes from any hazards. The Organic Vapor Respirator will protect them from any fumes, dust, vapours and gases by filtering the bad air using cartridges of granulated charcoal, these cartridges need to be changed according to the manual, and thus providing good air to the worker to breath in. 2 pairs of gloves are worn, one outer rubber pair to protect against glass and resin, while the cotton pair for extra comfort and to absorb perspiration that the worker may have. The body suit and gloves which are taped tight to the wrist are worn to prevent resin exposure and to protect against spills, splashes and aerosols.

In addition to protecting the worker in a glass composite plant, they use exhaust fans to extract overspray from the resin gun, hence providing a safer environment for the worker by leaving them with cleaner air then if an exhaust fan wasn’t used. In the laminating process, when the first layer and chop waving is applied, an airless spray gun is used. Using an airless spray gun allows for less waste as there is less overspray compared to a regular spray gun. The resin and the catalyst are mixed within the gun and then hydraulically atomised without atomising the air, thus reducing the solvent consumption. The airless spray gun will also provide a uniform application and also reduce styrene emissions, thus improving the working environments. The thickness of the laminae is measured using a comb gauge that has varying tooth length, each tooth is calibrated on a gradient. When the comb gauge is pushed into the wet laminae, the worker can read the thickness. Workers then use wedges and compress air the bonnet is split from the mould. To speed up the curing process after demoulding, the fiberglass composites can be baked in a big commercial ‘oven’ at 70 degrees Celsius for 2 hours. In the production of catamaran hulls, vacuum bagging is used to produce high quality products with high intricacy. Peel ply, which speeds up the sanding process or it can ensure excellent bonding of the fiberglass composite by giving off a textured surface when it is peeled off the fiberglass composite. A perforated plastic film is then added, which gives a good internal surface finish. Perforations allow the excess resin to moved though and be soaked up by the bleeder fabric which after debagging is stripped of and thrown away, thus eliminating the surplus resin. The bleeder fabric also acts to even disperse the vacuum evenly across the job.

There are various tools and method used to cut fiberglass composites. Fiberglass composites are more abrasive in nature due to all the different layers of various materials and can cause regular cutting tools to wear out at a much faster rate then cutting wood or any other material, for this reason is why high-speed steel (HSS), carbide or diamond-coated blade with a sharp edge attached to a hacksaw as well as a handsaw would need to be used. HSS, which is the least costly and has the shortest lifespan out of the 3 cutting choices. a diamond-coated blade on the other hand is the most suitable option out of the three as it has the highest wear resistance however all these tools tend to wear down and shrink in diameter. The fiberglass is secured on a vibration-free bed. When these tools begin to become dull (loose sharpness), it catches onto the fibres, pulling and unwinding fibres from the part instead of cutting them. When cutting fiberglass, a coolant like water can be used when necessary to keep the temperature of the cutting tool edge under control, so it does not degrade the composite by damaging the resin or the cutting blade. A robotic waterjet may be also used. It is a big robotic with a waterjet and it easily automates the cutting process. It works by pumping water through an orifice at an extremely high pressure of up to 90,000 PSI. Using such an ultra-high pressure with a small opening allows the water to reach speeds of up to 900m/sec, allowing it to cut fiberglass effortlessly while keeping the material cool and dry. The water can also be flowing in a loop, so the water can be reused again and again, saving costs and water.

Drilling into composite fibres uses similar process except it is drilling instead of cutting. A diamond drill bit must be used to drill the hole due to the composite’s abrasive nature. The drilling must be at a slow and steady rate or the composite will heat up and damage just like if you were to cut it. The commonality between cutting and drilling is that they both use lubrication to reduce heat transfer onto the tip or the blade when drilling or cutting to vastly improve the tip life. Using the lubricant, most of the dust from the drilling doesn’t become airborne, the water will act as a collector for the dust building up a pile of dust around the hole drilled. There are different methods of lubrication including the hose method, clay dam and pan drilling. The hose method uses a simple water hose which is placed near the drilling hole and turned on ever so slightly, just proving enough water to fill the hole up. This method of lubrication needs the use of the ‘pumping’ technique, where the drill is raised several times during the drilling process to let the water flow inside the hole to lubricate the tip of the drill bit.

Fiberglass filler, short hair and long hair is used to repair damages to fiberglass or cars. For long hair fiberglass filler, it is harder, stronger and thicker than conventional body filler. However, this makes the filler harder to sand to make it level, which is why its recommended to only apply a small amount of fiberglass filler. The advantage to using fiberglass filler compared to regular filler is because of its waterproof properties, it doesn’t absorb moisture like conventional body filler which causes corrosion and rust. The short hair fiberglass filler is best used for fiberglass repairs.

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The Glass Castle by Jeannette Walls: a Critical Review

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Glass Castle

According to anthropologist and cross-culture researcher, Edward T. Hall, “Communication is culture and culture is communication.” Hall believed a person could only communicate with other people when that individual understood his or her culture. However, in today’s society people seldom recognize the fact that our sense of self is shaped by the culture in which we have been reared (Adler 47).

The relationship between communication and culture is very complex and intimate. Based on the Merriam Webster dictionary, culture is defined as “the beliefs, customs, arts, etc., of a particular society, group, place, or time. In a sense, it is not so much that individuals set out to create a culture when they interact in relationships, groups, organizations, or societies, but rather cultures are a natural by-product of social interaction. Therefore, one can say culture is created, shaped, transmitted, and learned through communication and communication practices are largely created, shaped, and transmitted by culture.

Before discussing “The Glass Castle: A Memoir,” by Jeannette Walls, it is important to understand the implications of this communication and culture relationship. It will be necessary to understand that self-concept is a relatively stable set of perceptions which individuals hold about themselves, while self-esteem has to do with evaluations of self-worth and can be defined as “being proud of oneself or evaluating one’s attributes highly” (Wylie 127). Some of the characteristics of the self are a result of inherited personality traits. In addition, the self-concept is created through messages from significant others, reflected appraisal, and through social comparison with reference groups. The self-concept is subjective and “incorporates all that you think and feel about yourself” (Roberts 22). Other factors that affect the self-concept are culture and gender. One’s self-concept, as well as the self-concepts of others can be changed through self-fulfilling prophecies.

Likewise, an important issue in interpersonal communication is self-disclosure, defined as “the process of revealing oneself to others” (Derlega 137). The social penetration about the self that is intentionally directed toward others. The social penetration model and the Johari Window are tools for describing our self-disclosure with others. Communicators disclose personal information for a variety of reasons and benefits: catharsis, reciprocity, self-clarification, self-validation, identity management, relationship maintenance and enhancement, and social influence. On the other hand, the risks of self-disclosure include: the possibility of rejection, making a negative impression, a decline in relational satisfaction, a loss of influence, and hurting another person. Nonetheless, the four alternatives to self-disclosure are silence, lying, equivocating, and hinting, these ethical alternatives depend on the speaker’s motives and the effects of the deception.

With that being said, as I inform the reader from a critical perspective of “The Glass Castle: A Memoir,” by Jeannette Walls, it will be vital to continue to follow the belief that communication shapes culture and culture shapes communication. As I critique the book based upon the terms and concepts we discussed throughout the tenure of the semester it is important to keep the concepts of culture, class, and communication in mind. In addition, as I mention the several issues covered in the memoir, such as mental illness, poverty, family communication, self-esteem, self-concept, and perception it is critical to keep family culture in mind.

In the memoir, Jeannette portrays the culture of her dysfunctional family and her difficulties growing up through the way she communicates. Although according to the Social Science Research Council, “from whatever angle the study of childhood and parenting is approached certain problems inevitably arise” (Gelles 58).

Throughout “The Glass Castle: A Memoir,” Jeannette is faced with numerous barriers in her life, yet she never complains because she thinks along the lines that “the person we are is also derived from the particular cultural and historical contexts we find ourselves in” (Stevens 22). Despite the many obstacles set forth by her parents during her childhood, Jeannette develops into a successful woman later in life. One of these obstacles is that Jeannette must cope with is the carelessness of her mother, Rose Mary, and the destructive nature of her father, Rex. Subsequently, Jeannette uses plot, characterizations, and conflicts to influence the way she communicates with the reader.

After reading Jeannette’s memoir, the patterns of communication in the Walls family become clear. It became very transparent that there were many repetitive factors that shaped the Walls family’s lives. These factors changed the way I interpreted the memoir. Unlike anything I can relate to, I tried to have empathy rather than sympathy because “one must not make the error of believing that poverty is simply an accident or unfortunate consequence of the ‘way things are’” (Benson 252).

“We live in challenging times” (Smith 3) and Jeannette’s life is no different as the Walls family is constantly moving from place to place, struggling to make enough money, and faced with numerous accounts of sexual abuse, parental alcoholism, evidence of mental illness, and poverty throughout their childhood.

Often, “the disturbance that upsets the balance of a family occurs within the family system itself. The presence of an alcoholic, for example, produces change in the behavior patterns of the other family members. The focus of the family becomes the alcoholism. The presence of other types of compulsive behavior can similarly affect families. A family member experiencing a chronic illness or a mental health problem can also throw a family out of balance. Such unbalanced families do not function well; they are dysfunctional” (Dysfunctional).

Based on the article from the North Carolina State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, in “The Glass Castle: A Memoir,” Jeannette mentions several cases of sexual abuse during both her and her sibling’s childhood. She communicates with the reader about her own experience with Billy Deel, a stranger, and Stanley, as well as her brother’s experience with Erma.

The first assault occurs when Jeannette is playing hide-and-seek along the tracks with some of the neighborhood kids. “I found the perfect hiding place, a small tool shed behind a clump of sagebrush that no one had hid before, But just as the kid who was [It] was finishing counting, the door opened and someone else tried to get in. It was Billy Deel. He hadn’t even been playing with us.” (Walls 85). However, after hissing and telling Billy that there was no room, he crawled inside and arranged his legs so that they were pressed up against Jeannette’s. Then as the two children heard the muffled shouts of the other kids being chased by the boy that was looking for them, Billy ‘smushed’ his face up against Jeannette’s then grabbed her hair and made her head bend sideways so he could stick his tongue in her mouth. Eventually, Jeannette bit Billy’s ear to stop him, Billy punched Jeannette in the face, and the other kids came running into the shed after hearing the ruckus. Afterward Jeannette was reluctant to tell her father because she had a feeling it would cause problems.

The second assault Jeannette describes was when she was almost ten years old. “I was awakened by someone running his hands over my private parts. At first it was confusing. Lori and I slept in the same bed, and I thought maybe she was moving in her sleep. I groggily pushed the hand away.” (Walls 103). Shortly after the stranger said, “I just want to play a game with you” (103). The next day, when her Dad came home from work the children told their father what happened and “he said he was going to kill that lowlife sonofabitch” (103). Although, just like the first instance, no serious action was taken to find the pervert or prevent it from happening again.

The third offense took place while the Walls siblings were under the supervision of their Father’s alcoholic mother, Erma. She told Brian that he needed his pants hemmed and demanded him into their grandfather’s bedroom. According to Jeannette, “she could hear her brother weakly protesting, so she went into the bedroom and saw Erma kneeling on the floor in front of Brian, grabbing at the crotch of his pants, squeezing and kneading while mumbling to herself and telling Brian to hold still, goddammit. Brian, his cheeks wet with tears, was holding his hands protectively between his legs” (146). Likewise, when the children told their father of the assault he responded by first blaming Brian calling him a ‘pussy’ and saying “Brian’s a man, he can take it. I don’t want to hear another word of this” (148). Then after their father left, the children began speculating if Erma had ever done to their father what she did to Brian.

The last assault mentioned by Walls was in an experience of her own when nobody else was around. “I felt Stanley’s hand creeping onto my thigh. I looked at him, but he was staring at the Hee Haw Honeys so intently that I couldn’t be sure he was doing it on purpose, so I knocked his hand away without saying anything. A few minutes later, the hand came creeping back. I looked down and saw that Uncle Stanley’s pants were unzipped and he was playing with himself.” Although Walls felt like hitting Stanley, she was afraid she would get in trouble the way Lori did after punching Erma, so she hurried to her Mom, who just said, “Oh, you’re probably imagining it” (184).

Jeannette then replied, “‘He groped me! And he’s wanking off!’ Mom cocked her head to the side and looked concerned ‘Poor Stanley’ she said, He’s so lonely.’ ‘But it was gross!’ Mom asked if I was okay. I shrugged and nodded. ‘Well there you go’ she said. She said sexual assault was a crime of perception. ‘If you don’t think you’re hurt, then you aren’t she said ‘So many women make such a big deal out of these things. But you’re stronger than that” (184).

Consequently, based on the examples above, Jeannette’s descriptions of her parent’s responses clearly influence the way she communicates with the reader. In addition, her parent’s patterns of communication when it comes to sexual abuse are very odd because her parents believe that the sexual abuse toward their children is an act of violence only when it is inflicted by a nonrelative. Therefore, I disagree with her parents beliefs because in my opinion this leads me to the idea that both parents may have been victims of sexual abuse while they were children and thus they dismiss it from being a serious matter.

In relation, after reading the story of the Walls family I believe Jeannette certainly did not have the easiest life growing up, but she may have had one of the most interesting lives. In whole, I enjoyed the book because the experiences Jeannette and her family went through make for a very exciting read. The experiences are out of the ordinary and do not represent how a typical family would live.

Jeannette was born into a rather odd family which influenced the way she communicates with the reader because her parents were not the most cautious of her well-being. Her parents raised their children completely different than I was raised and made several assertions I did not agree with. Her parents believed their kids should be able to take care of themselves and that too much parental intervention would lead kids into becoming too dependent. Therefore, Jeannette and her siblings were constantly in dangerous situations since their supervision was limited. For example, Jeannette writes that her earliest memory was being on fire. She was cooking hot dogs over a stove and caught herself on fire when her mother thought that it was a good idea to let her three year old daughter cook hotdogs over an open flame. Luckily she was not injured, other than a few burns and hospitalization, until her father came in and told her, “we are going to check her out, Rex Walls-style” (Walls 14).

In conclusion, throughout “The Glass Castle: A Memoir,” I realize that Jeannette and her siblings must leave their parents in order for their lives to get any better. The children eventually start to comprehend that their parents are holding them down with their ridiculous lifestyle. Ultimately it is the way the members of the Walls family lived their lives is not only eccentric and different and influences the way Jeanette communicates with the reader.

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The Huawei P Smart

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

The Huawei P Smart is a piece of an influx of telephones that appear to be like those discharged a half year sooner yet have a vast (or long) screen. It’s likewise fundamentally the same as the Honor 9 Lite, yet has an aluminum back rather than a glass one. It doesn’t have a ultra-high spec camera or an executioner chipset, yet is a quality telephone sold at the correct cost. You’ll spare a considerable measure of cash over a 2-year contract with a Huawei P Smart.

See all Huawei P Smart arrangements

  • Huawei has figured out how to mix the correct level of specs with an eye-getting sticker price, which makes the P Smart a luring spending purchase.
  • Huawei P Smart cost and accessibility
  • Current cost: £143.99 (around $190, AU$250)
  • Discharge date: December 2017

The Huawei P Smart initially propelled as Vodafone selective in the UK, however its accessibility has since augmented and you can lift it up for a clean £143.99 (around $190, AU$250) SIM free. Contrasted with other Vodafone gadgets at the value, this makes the Huawei P Smart an incredible arrangement. Contending picks are the Huawei P8 Lite and Vodafone Smart N8. The Huawei P Smart is superior to both. Looking more extensive, different choices incorporate the Samsung Galaxy J5, an obviously lesser telephone in a few regards. The models we’d suggest considering too incorporate the Moto G5S Plus and Honor 9 Lite.

A decent outline

The Huawei P Smart is a moderately minimal effort telephone, one that contends with models like the Moto G5S Plus and Honor 9 Lite. Its most vital element is a 18:9 angle proportion screen, which leaves less clear outskirt above and beneath the show. You get more screen inch per inch of telephone with this now-basic plan. It likewise has a development style that, similar to the Moto and Honor, isn’t that effectively recognized from a more costly telephone.

The equipment inside is that of a low to mid-extend gadget, however. It has an octa-center chipset without the rankling execution found in more costly opponents. And keeping in mind that the Huawei P Smart has double back cameras, the 13MP and 2MP cluster won’t get you the picture quality or level of foundation obscure impact an iPhone X would. In any case, relatively each and every trade off in the Huawei P Smart is anything but difficult to acknowledge as long as you keep your desires in accordance with the cost.


Aluminum raise with plastic tops

Low-encompass plan

Thin at 7.5mm thick

The Huawei P Smart’s activity isn’t to energize you like an iPhone X. It simply needs to look and feel sufficient to make burning through 3-4 times the cost appear to be senseless. Huawei has completed a great job of sprucing up what is, best case scenario a mid-run development as something top of the line. How about we manage the back first.

The square shape flanked by the two brilliant shimmering strips is anodised aluminum. Be that as it may, above and beneath it, the end tops are plastic. It’s the sort of trade off you’ll just notice in the event that you go searching for it, however this makes the Honor P9 Lite a higher-end outline than the Huawei P Smart. Its external is all glass and aluminum.

The Huawei P Smart likewise has a blend of avant-garde and more established equipment highlights. There’s a decent unique mark scanner on the back. It’s essentially recessed, so you can’t miss it, and works rapidly. Be that as it may, the Huawei P Smart additionally has a smaller scale USB charge attachment as opposed to a USB-C. While the principle true advantages are essentially having the capacity to connect it to whichever way around, and bolster for future USB extras like earphones, it seems dated now.

There’s an earphone jack as well, which some of you may well have exchanged a USB-C away for at any rate. The Huawei P Smart isn’t dilute safe and doesn’t trim the screen encompass as much as some ongoing, more costly telephones. However, it’s generally simple to live with. The telephone is smaller than a Moto G5S and is anything but difficult to deal with. At 7.5mm thick it’s additionally thin.


  • Stylish 18:9 angle proportion
  • 1080 x 2160 determination
  • IPS LCD board
  • Ad

Wide angle screen telephones like this influence you to reevaluate what a ‘major’ screen measure truly is. The Huawei P Smart has a 5.65-inch screen however in taking care of terms the telephone is like one with a 16:9 5.2-inch screen.

Its screen utilizes an IPS LCD board with a determination of 1080 x 2160, the same as pretty much all lower-cost 18:9 viewpoint telephones. Shading, differentiation, sharpness and brilliance are strong. For reasons unknown a few applications appear to keep running at 720p, however that is the product’s blame, not the screen.

Ultra-profound shading is the thing that you miss contrasted and a more costly telephone. Tones look genuinely regular and very much soaked, however contrasting the Huawei P Smart and the ‘DCI P3’ silver screen method of the as of late evaluated HTC U11 Plus, the more costly HTC’s screen is more extravagant still. You can’t tinker with the Huawei P Smart’s immersion or differentiation, yet there is a shading temperature control. Distinctive eyes will lean toward various changes. We very like the telephone with a slight warm skew.

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Light and Music in The Glass Menagerie and Master Harold…And the Boys

December 10, 2020 by Essay Writer

Light and music are two elements of drama that can become significant in developing the plot and characters. Certain playwrights may further incorporate stage lighting including directional lighting and setting lighting in order to not only divert attention to the critical area of the stage, but as well to adequately present their ideas. Correspondingly, music as well can be indirectly implemented in plays through the characters’ dialogue and allusions to musical pieces; thus, becoming symbolic. Furthermore, this music can be directly presented in the background of the play. Both playwrights, Tennessee Williams and Athol Fugard employ the elements of lighting and music in their respective plays, The Glass Menagerie and Master Harold and the Boys in order to both intensify the reality of their plays as well as develop the theme of escapism and the accompanying theme of hope and hopelessness.

Williams uses light for stage directions and as a symbol in The Glass Menagerie in order to develop his theme of hope; more specifically, to portray Laura’s ultimate sense of hopelessness. The stage directions call for “gloomy gray” lighting with a “turgid red glow” and a “deep blue husk”. This form of lighting helps construct the images of memory and its unrelenting power as well as its associated mood of nostalgia and deep melancholy. Such a mood is one that alludes to a sense of hopelessness for which Laura experiences. This hopelessness is emphasized through the symbol of light rather than the stage lighting. That is, the following simile is developed where Laura is described to be “like a piece of translucent glass touched by light, given a momentary radiance, not actual, not lasting”. Such a description not only forecasts her inability to maintain confidence but as well suggests that her beauty is innately tied to her delicacy and the disadvantage she has with her condition. Moreover, it displays the impermanence of hope in her life, as it comes as quickly as it goes. Williams further emphasizes Laura’s delicacy through another character—Jim. Upon Jim’s arrival to their home, and Laura’s refuge, there is a “delicate lemony light” that appears and eventually a soft light that brings out Laura’s “unearthly prettiness”. As the light symbolizes hope, it becomes evident that Jim provides Laura with a temporary sense of hope upon his arrival. The “lemony” or yellow color that the light is described through, however, becomes of significance as it becomes cautionary of the damage that Jim will ultimately provoke in Laura. Though Jim enlists hope in Laura by providing her with comments that temporarily raise her self-confidence, he flees abruptly, leaving Laura hopeless once again and thus sparking the argument that the play ends on a rather pessimistic note. Williams underscores this lack of hope through Tim’s physical escape from the house; that is, his attempt to escape their reality suggests that he too has withdrawn all his hope in Laura having a better, happier life.

Williams further conveys the very theme of escapism and demonstrates the characters’ abstinence from confronting reality by incorporating music in his theatrical piece. Not only does the music hold a great degree of symbolic significance, but it as well provides emotion to the scenes. In the fourth scene, for example, Williams incorporates “Ava Maria” in the background in order to allude to the harsh responsibilities that Amanda has as a mother. These responsibilities are what ultimately fuel Amanda’s desperate efforts in obtaining a better life for her daughter. In the process of doing so, Amanda feels inclined to escape her reality and own failures as well as the reality of Laura’s handicap. As Tom attempts to make his mother face the reality of her daughter’s handicap, “the music changes to a tango that has a minor and somewhat ominous tone”. The music helps to provide a worrying impression and thus demonstrate Amanda’s fear of reality and the consequences that come with confronting reality. Another character whose attitude towards reality is described through music is Laura. That is, as Jim arrives, Laura becomes terrified and begs her mother to open the door, but she refuses and forces Laura to open it. Before reluctantly opening the door, however, she winds the Victoria to play music. Laura attempts to play this music in order to escape from the intense situation—to escape reality. With Amanda escaping from her past, Laura escaping her troubled existence and Tom escaping the house with its responsibilities including the burden of obtaining a better life for Laura, the characters ultimately push each other farther apart as they retreat into their own imaginations. Hence, music aids in conveying not only the idea of escapism but as well in depicting the alienation the characters feel from not only one another, but from society as a whole.

Fugard as well employs light in his play, Master Harold and the Boys merely as a symbol for hope. When Hally and Sam discuss ballroom dancing, and whether or not dance is considered a form of art, Hally argues and describes that in his imagination, dancing simply involves people “having a so-called good time”. Sam offers another description, claiming that it Hally’s imagination “left out the excitement” and that it is “not just another dance…there’s going to be a lot of people…having a good time…party decorations and fancy lights all around the hall…the ladies in beautiful evening dresses!” The lights evidently become symbolic for positivity and hope as the description of such lights aid Sam in defying Hally’s pessimistic outlook on ballroom dancing. Fugard associates “fancy lights” with the extended metaphor of ballroom dancing in order to present ballroom dancing in a rather positive and hopeful manner. By doing so, Fugard describes the dreamlike quality that the dance and dancers possess. This sort of description demonstrates the dance as a metaphor for social harmony. The symbolic element of light is again presented at the end of the play when the jukebox “comes to life in the gray twilight”. This gray light is incorporated at the end of the play in order to further emphasize the hope for such potential harmony and peace among Blacks and Whites. As gray is midway between black and white, Fugard deliberately incorporates this light as a means of conveying the hope for Blacks and Whites to come together as one. This very idea is further highlighted through Fugard’s employment of the motif of music and the corresponding theme of escapism.

Fugard uses music to not only provide movement to the play, but as well to develop theme of escapism; more specifically, escaping reality as attempted by Sam and Willie. Throughout the play, Sam and Willie practice the “waltz” and “foxtrot” for their ballroom dancing. Similar to light, music as well becomes associated with the extended metaphor of ballroom dancing. Thus, the music helps to allude to a dreamlike, collision-free world by which the dancers are capable of enlisting order in a disordered world, and respectively, an ideal society with no “collisions” between Blacks and Whites. Sam and Willie use music and ballroom dancing to escape their realities; however, Hally interferes with such an escape as he claims “The truth? I seem to be only one around here who is prepared to face it. We’ve had the pretty dream; it’s time now to wake up and have a good long look at the way things really are. Nobody knows the steps, there’s no music, the cripples are also out there tripping up everybody and trying to get into the act, and it’s all called the All-Comers-How-to-Make-a-[Mess]-of-Life-Championships.” As music becomes a symbol for escaping reality, Hally specifically indicates that there is “no music” in order to suggest that escaping reality is impossible. Fugard does not, however, allow these words to convey his final message. Rather, he officially ends the play with lyrics of a song sung by Sarah Vaughn called “Little Man, You’ve had a Busy Day”. This song becomes significant as it suggests that Hally is the little man who was compelled upon adulthood. The little man in the context of the song is in tears because he lost his toys; this seems so simple and foolish to the adult but heartrending to the child. Rather than neglecting his child or disregarding his sadness, the father comforts the child and suggests for him to go to bed. Correspondingly, Sam, who is presented as the ‘father’ of Hally provides him with unconditional support, and suggests for him to sleep so as to allude to escaping the harsh reality of the apartheid system. Though insulted by Hally’s spitting, he ultimately does not lose hope on Hally waking up and realizing that he can control his life and personal decisions and overlook the system of apartheid.

Both Athol Fugard and Tennessee Williams develop the theme of escapism and theme of hope and hopelessness in their plays Master Harold and the Boys and The Glass Menagerie through their incorporation of light and music in the form of stage directions and motifs. Though there is an evident similarity in the manner by which the two playwrights develop these themes, there is also an apparent difference in the final meaning that the two are attempting to convey. That is, Tennessee Williams uses light to convey a sense of hopelessness while Athol Fugard employs this light to leave the audience with a more hopeful attitude towards the future by the end of his play. Williams’ use of light helps justify the characters’ desire to escape their reality and retreat into their fantasy world. Because there is no hope in enhancing their lives, all the characters cope through a complete escape. Fugard offers an antithetical message; rather than the characters’ hopelessness propelling them to escaping their reality, it is their ability to escape the harsh reality of the apartheid system that provides them with hope.

The difference in the two plays is further understood through the macrocosmic vision that the two playwrights allude to. In The Glass Menagerie, Williams portrays a sense of hopelessness and an ultimate desire to escape in his play in order emphasize the way in which individuals viewed the 1940s as an exciting escape from the 1930s. Hence, Amanda, Laura, and Tom become associated with other Americans in the Great Depression who sought relief from their distressing lives by escaping their reality through films, false identities, and fantasies. By making such an association, Williams demonstrates the negative affect of The Great Depression. In Master Harold and the Boys, Athol Fugard ends on a more optimistic note in order to send out an anti-apartheid message—a message that transcends the norms of South Africa at the time. He encourages the fight against the racial segregation as he suggests that society can be a whole and can be harmonious if Blacks and Whites function in unison with each other. Thus, it becomes evident that the manner by which the two playwrights present their themes in their plays correspond with their macrocosmic visions—with and without hope.

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