Different Types of Ethics, and Persuasion
Ethics is one of those things that is up for one’s own judgment or meaning, it does not matter whether it is used for your personal life or professional life. If you believe in something then ethically you can sale something, even if it is faulty so to speak. As long as you believe in it you can do it. But being able to convert a person’s point of view is common in all aspects of life. People tend to promote ethical behaviors so they can persuade someone else’s ethics, beliefs and morals.
Utilitarian Ethics, also known as teleological ethical system, states the greatest good for the greatest number of people. “Utilitarianism, as espoused by philosophers John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, holds that one should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people. In other words, the ethical choice is the one that lets the greatest number of people experience the beneficial consequences of that choice.” (Magee, 2014, pp. Chapter 3, Sec. 3.3). Politicians use the utilitarian ethics a lot to satisfy their own needs and wants for themselves and their party. If you have ever noticed politicians are famous for changing laws for the greater good that affect the most voters or representatives. Let us look one of the biggest controversies out there, gun control. Politicians use the utilitarian ethics in order to influence the public that guns kills people, however it is the person that is holding the gun that kills people with the guns. If one does not pull the trigger the gun will not go off. If we go by this logic then there should be laws against silverware or fast food restaurants. It is not the silverware or the restaurants that make people overweight, it is the person that uses the silverware or goes to eat at the fast food restaurant. When politicians try to push more and more gun control laws they are hurting the gun owners that obey the laws, they make it more difficult for honest gun owners to purchase firearms. A criminal who does not care about laws will just go around them in order to purchase a firearm. The argument for the stricter gun laws can be justified and it can be said it does make the public feel safer, by having more security for the greatest number of people.
Teleological ethical system is useful as it is easy to follow along and pretty straight forward. Going back to the gun control, my parents live in California and they do not allow high capacity magazine “Restricting large capacity magazines and preventing them from ending up in the wrong hands is critical for the well-being of our communities. I will defend the will of California voters because we cannot continue to lose innocent lives due to gun violence.” (Becerra, 2017). High capacity magazines are described as anything that has more than 10 rounds of bullets or ammunition. When traveling to California I need to be careful not to bring my concealed weapon since it holds more than seven arounds, even though I do not reside in California I can still get in trouble for having it in that state. So with this being said is the greatest good for the greatest number of people affected here, where does the line get drawn? Using the teleological ethical system, politicians are able to coax the voters to sympathize to their views on so many other items out there, not just gun control. With a politician providing certain facts on any subject they are able to show research and documentation only that will help their cause or argument that will persuade people to agree with their views or ideas, even if they leave out other facts that can be crucial to the subject.
Kantian ethics, better known as Deontological ethics “consists of categorical imperatives, or moral commands, that apply in an absolute sense in every situation. Instead of letting the potential consequences of your action guide your ethical decisions, you should act in a way that is universally consistent, regardless of the outcome.” (Magee, 2014, pp. Chapter 3, Sec. 3.4). With the Deontological Ethics it is doing the right thing even if nobody is looking, another words having morals and sticking to it.
Working in accounting you will always deal with billing disputes. When I was in accounts receivables, I needed to make sure that I was billing the right customer and the charges were correct. I could add extra charges stating there was a increase in our prices, this would help the company’s profits. However using the Deontological Ethics, doing the right thing even when no one is looking or paying attention.
With the Kantian ethics all customers are treated the same. The company I used to work for in accounts receivable was not the cheapest when it came to rates, however, we did promise to treat all customers the same both morally and ethical. With that being said we have kept 95% of our customers and continue to receive calls for quotes and credit applications for new customers. Using the Kantian ethics the company reminds our customers of the company’s moto, all customers are treated the same.
However, using the Deontological ethics it means all customers are treated equally and have to be held to the same standards. But there is always that instance where some customers will get different pricing, but still need to held to the same rules and standards. “There are situations—unfortunately not all of them thought experiments — where compliance with deontological norms will bring about disastrous consequences.” (Alexander & Moore, 2016, pp. Sec. 4, Par. 1). Some customers do fill they are above our policies and ask us to change our procedures for them, but we stick to our moral all customers treated equally, even though frustrated they understand.
With Kantian ethics people can persuade others to a fair and right away. The Deontological Ethics lets companies produce guidelines that have morals and ethics. This allows customers to know they are treated equally no matter how much business they do.
With all that being said ethical behaviors no matter what they are have a big role in persuasion. Ethical behavior is for the greater good, fair and equal. Persuasion is part of our everyday life, it includes morals and ethics especially when persuading someone’s thoughts and ideas. You can do this by showing you are doing the greatest good for the greatest amount of people and or being equal.
The 3-Step Process to Persuasion
Persuasion is a process which aimed at changing a person attitude or behaviour toward some event, idea, object, or person, by addressing the arguments and using written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination of them. Persuasion is an essential skill for the success of business. Persuasion is classified under two routes
Central Route Persuasion
Peripheral Route Persuasion
My previous background is from business and I belong to a business family. Today I choose a topic of persuasion in this assessment and I am going to share my personal experience with persuasion that how I used my persuasion skill in my personal life. Well there are a lot of experiences in my personal life where I used persuasion like I worked as a sale representative on commission based agency and now I am working as a team member in an Indian restaurant. Here, I am going to share my experience at Indian restaurant.
To differentiate and choose one superstore for raw material purchasing from the two stores, that which store is cheaper that another. In the last month at my job at Indian restaurant there was a big debate going about the purchasing of raw materials that where to buy from ‘Countdown’ or from ‘Pak n save’. All the raw material was available at both of the stores but there was some price difference in between both of stores. Before casting my vote, I researched about their concessions and loyalty points but whereas ‘Pak n save’ was a bit near to our restaurant and countdown was a bit away. After researching I found that ‘Countdown’ was providing huge benefits as compare to another. I just make a graph which represents the loyalty benefit of Countdown. Then I insist my colleges and owner to understand the monetary difference between the purchasing of restaurant and after a huge argument we all moved to Countdown. In this argument I used an element from persuasion that is ‘Logic’ that my argument was strong.This is how I used my persuasion skills in my professional life. Here I used the second phase of persuasion that is peripheral route for persuasion that mean all the team was having right knowledge of product and they just got influenced with the additional policies and benefits by shifting to another company and at last we shifted to ‘Countdown’.
Change through Persuasion: Overview of the Required Steps
In the Harvard Business Review Change Management article, Change through Persuasion, it involves the process of a strategic four part plan being implemented in order to save a failing hospital from inevitably succumbing to its potential fate. This plan was designed to effectively persuade a workforce to embrace and execute a change that was well needed. The four steps mentioned in the article were: 1) Set the stage for acceptance. 2) Frame the turnaround plan. 3) Manage the mood. 4) Prevent Backsliding.
The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), located in Boston, was a product of a 1996 merger between two hospitals. Issues had begun after the merger of the two hospitals such as the focus on clinical practice, a failure to reduce costs, a constant inability to execute plans, and adapting to changing conditions in the healthcare marketplace. The hospital was losing around $50 million a year, relations between the administration and medical staff were strained as well as the relations with management and the board of directors. Not only was the hospital losing money and relations were deteriorating, but employees had also become discouraged after witnessing the decline in a once accredited and legendary status hospital and reoccurring failures.
Paul Levy, who had never managed a hospital before, seemed like an unfit candidate as the CEO of BIDMC although he had previously worked as an executive dean of administration at the Harvard Medical School. “His claim to fame was his role as the architect of the Boston Harbor Cleanup, a multibillion-dollar pollution-control project that he had led several years earlier. (Based on this experience, Levy identified a common yet insidiously destructive organizational dynamic that causes dedicated teams to operate in counterproductive ways . . .” (Garvin and Roberto, 2011). Before Levy had stepped in to take control, he first negotiated his conditions for employment. He notified the directors that if hired, they could no longer intervene with day to day management decisions. He also insisted the board to come to a quick decision based on his appointment so that he could start before the release of the Hunter report. The board was convinced to appoint Levy in the position in hopes to lead a successful turnaround as well as accepting his terms.
This article brings an interesting perspective to my life. I haven’t experienced a change through persuasion within the workplace, but interesting enough I have experienced a change through persuasion as an athlete, which is my job. At a previous school that I attended, the coach that recruited me was fairly new to the athletic program and I was a part of the coach’s second group of recruits. The coach had already inherited players that were the previous coach’s recruits and the players seemed to already have an established culture, which the new coach had disapproved of. The coach didn’t like certain habits of the team as well as their priorities. Although these issues were addressed in meetings, no one ever complied with what was being asked of them. They were reluctant to change and refused, which made it harder for the coach to establish authority as they continued their habitual actions.
As the next season had approached, all of the players that were previously there had graduated and the coach had a team full of their own recruits. One of the steps that was implemented was setting the stage of acceptance. In the article for example, Levy emailed the staff stating the hospital’s achievements as well as confirming the threat of possibly selling the hospital. The email also included actions he would take. The attempt to start a change that would work is that the coach had put together a pre season meeting that discussed new expectations and standards as well as establishing a new culture for the team and to soon become a respectable and championship program. The coach was adamant about the reasons to change and do things differently, therefore the coach did recognize previous achievements of the program, but wanted to convince us that we can do achieve beyond that and make the program worthy of respect as well as threaten that if anyone disagreed they could leave the team now.
The second step taken was framing the turnaround plan. In the article for example, “Levy augmented his several-hundred-page plan with an e-mail that evoked BIDMC’s mission and uncompromising values and reaffirmed the importance of remaining an academic medical center. He provided further details about the plan, emphasizing needed tough measures based on the third-party report” (Gavin & Roberto, 2011). Similar to what Levy had done, my coach had developed a winner’s manual that included rules regarding to practices, game days, new standards and rules, drinking policy, social media rules, inspirational quotes, and so on. This manual explained what was expected of you as a player and failure to abide by these rules would be an automatic dismissal from the team. These ideas were what my coach believed to be a secret formula to success.
Another step that was partaken was managing the mood. In the article, “ Levy acknowledged the pain of layoffs, then urged employees to look forward to “[setting] an example for what a unique academic medical center like ours means for this region.” He also issued progress updates while reminding people that BIDMC still needed to control costs. As financial performance picked up, he lavishly praised the staff ” (Gavin & Roberto, 2011). The way that my coach managed the mood was to have individual meetings with us before and after the season that enabled us to give feedback as well as reminding us to execute and speak the plan into existence.
The last step utilized was preventing backsliding. In the article it had mentioned, “When one medical chief emailed Levy complaining about a decision made during a meeting—and copied the other chiefs and board chairman—Levy took action. He responded with an e-mail to the same audience, publicly reprimanding the chief for his tone, lack of civility, and failure to follow the rule about speaking up during meetings” (Gavin & Roberto, 2011).
The way that my coach was able to prevent backsliding in a similar way is that we would always have team meetings as an update as well as a way to bond and build the culture of the team. In these meetings, you had to be open minded to criticism and everyone had to speak at least once and just like Levy’s method, we were allowed to disagree, but not disagreeable. If an individual did not agree, they needed to present to the team with a reason why as well as an alternative solution. If one failed to abide by the rules and complained later, coach would find out and you would be made an example out of what not to do. This aided in the practice of desired behaviors rather than divisive behaviors.
After reading this article, the effects of change management may or may not affect you greatly. Either you comply with the change or be forced out for being immutable. Many are reluctant to change and not only can the change be difficult for the employees, but it can also be an adjustment for the employer. Jumping into something unfamiliar can be daunting and many may not know what to expect. Some change initiatives may fail and some may be successful, reason being is because people may see this change as a threat to create vulnerability within and take one out of their comfort zone. Change is inevitable, it will happen regardless if you like it or not.
Singing to Persuade: Analysis of Three Songs
In this assignment, I will be looking into what kind of persuasion three songs use. The songs I have chosen to examine are “Generique” as performed by Miles Davis, “Mount Vernon” as performed by the Salem Church Sacred Harp Singers, and “Cottontail” as performed by Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. To support my arguments, I will be using the three external conditions that are needed for invitational rhetoric to exist put forth by Foss and Griffin in Beyond Persuasion: A Proposal for an Invitational Rhetoric. These external conditions are safety, value, and freedom. As I will address in more detail later in this piece, the songs I will look into do not meet any of these three external conditions, therefore they do not create an environment wherein invitational rhetoric can exist. These songs are traditional rhetoric.
The first external condition that must be met for invitational rhetoric to exist is safety. This means the audience must feel a sense of security and lack of danger from the rhetor. This condition is not met in the song “Generique”. This song invokes a mysterious and enchanting atmosphere that draws the listener in but, like a siren song, it deceives the listener and brings them closer to danger. Like the apple offered to Snow White, it appears safe on the surface yet leads to chaos and destruction. Instead of feeling accepted by the song, I feel confused and uneasy. I hear the song and feel like I am intruding on something that I am not supposed to be a part of, an intimate moment that I stumbled upon and will be “taken care of” later for hearing. The rhetor here is pulling back a velvet curtain and offering me a look, while knowing that whatever lies on the other side will cause me harm. I am torn between the seductive swell of the music and the change to my life that would occur should I take the leap. To establish a safe context, the rhetor must create an environment where no harm will befall their audience; in this case, they fail to do so. The fact that I am apprehensive towards the situation and the rhetor means that I cannot give myself or my attention to my greatest capacity. Our relationship is unbalanced. In this way, the rhetor violated the necessary aspect of safety. This song is traditional rhetoric.
The second external condition that must be met for invitational rhetoric to exist is value. This means the audience has an intrinsic worth and a right to exist as an individual. This condition is not met in the song “Mount Vernon”. The song features a choir group singing a hymn together, their voices melding together to create one solid wave of music. The choir exists as a unit, and cannot function unless every person involved performs the same action. In this situation, my individual self, my experiences, my ambitions, my past, will all be ignored and denied. I will no longer be an individual, but a part of a massive whole that does not care for my individuality. They do not recognize me as an individual and are therefore denying my very personhood. This relationship goes both ways. I cannot give up my voice and the collective will not recognize its power and importance. The external condition of value calls for each side to acknowledge at least one point, but in this case, I cannot give in on even one thing. I must stand for who I am. I am uninterested in performing a role that strips me of my individual voice, demanding that I release it to the collective and conform. The collective cares only for itself; my voice will only add to its numbers but it does not attempt to see from my perspective, denying the concept of “reversibility of perspectives”. In this way, the rhetor violated the necessary aspect of value. This song is traditional rhetoric.
The third external condition that must be met for invitational rhetoric to exist is freedom. This means the audience is free to say whatever they please without fear of consequences or retribution. This condition is not met in the song “Cottontail”. The song features a fast, jumpy beat that practically forces the audience to dance. It is in this way that the song is restricting freedom. The goal of music that exemplifies invitational rhetoric is to exist and be heard, but this song’s goal is to spur people to get up and dance, using the music as a means to an end. It exists to fulfill a bigger goal than just to exist. It wants me to accept the action of getting up and dancing even if I do not want to, giving it the ulterior motive of attempting to change my behavior, even if it is not successful. The song’s quick pace and catchy rhythm offers no time to stop and rest, not even for a moment. It is unrelenting in pursuing its goal; I have no opportunity or choice to stop, even if I wanted to. I feel a need to participate and fulfill a role in the song because if I do not do so, the rhetor will not respect me or recognize my worth. This establishes an unequal power dynamic between the rhetor and the audience. The rhetor is pushing the message that I must perform the role that they have written for me and I do not have the freedom to make my own decision over whether I wish to fill that role or not. In this way, the rhetor violated the necessary aspect of freedom. This song is traditional rhetoric.
In this assignment, I covered what kind of persuasion the songs “Generique”, “Mount Vernon”, and “Cottontail” use. Using the three external conditions that are needed for invitational rhetoric to exist put forth by Foss and Griffin, I argued that all three of these songs are traditional rhetoric. Since these songs did not meet the conditions of safety, value, and freedom, the three songs do not create an environment in which invitational rhetoric between the rhetor and the audience can take place. By denying the audience their safety, value, and freedom, the rhetors exemplify non-invitational rhetoric. These songs are traditional rhetoric.
The Influence Of Persuasion On People’s Belief
Persuasion is being use to influence people’s belief, attitude and behaviour. Persuasion is the process of sharing that persuaders would convince the persuadee by convey information based on their knowledge and added with their own perception by using verbal and nonverbal symbol. Aristotle’s theory stated that the persuasion is made up of artistic and inartistic proofs. Richard N (2018) said that, artistic proof is created by the persuader who could control the persuadee. Inartistic proofs are the proofs are come from outside persuader that is not under control by persuader. Richard N (2018) said that, inartistic proofs are including laws, contracts, oaths, and the testimony of witnesses. In Aristotle’s rhetorical theory, persuasion is including ethos, pathos, and logos.
Ethos are the proof about the ethic of the speaker. The persuader who convey message must have trustworthiness to convince people that the credibility is the only way to make people to trust and believe in your words. The persuadee would reject the message from the persuader once they choose to not to believe of the persuader. So, etho must depend on whether the persuadee find out the credibility from the persuader that the persuadee are able to believe or reject them.
Pathos are the proof about the message that touch the emotion of the persuadee. Pathos used to target feeling of persuadee with the meaningful pictures or advertisement to evoke their feeling such as anger, anxiety and the feeling of fear. It also can be positive emotions to convince persuadee.
Logos are the proof for logical argument. The message must be logical statement that explain with evidence to convince the persuadee. The statement must makes sense to the reality that the persuadee would think logically to accept the point of view from the persuader. The persuader must provide with facts and statistic to support their point that able to convince others.
Background of Snickers and Munchy’s Company
Snickers is a chocolate bar produced by the company Mars located and built in America. Snickers was originally sold under the brand Marathon. This product is an energy bar that is made up of nougat, caramel, peanuts and milk chocolate. It was introduced in the 1930s. Throughout the years, various of advertisement has been made to promote and introduce the brand worldwide. The slogan that Snickers promote is “you’re not you when you’re hungry”.
Munchy’s is a well known brand in Malaysia for its healthy snacks manufactured in Batu Pahat. The headquarters also are located in Klang Valley. This product is available in more than 15 countries such as Hong Kong, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. It is famous for its healthy snacks as it is made in wheat and oats. Advertisements in video forms or in flyers form are always available as they constantly promote their snacks.
As we are using both Snickers and Munchy’s advertisements, this report will determine whether their advertisements are using the 3 elements which is pathos, logos and ethos. Then, the advertisements are to be discussed in further details whether it can achieve the objective per said by the organisation of both companies.
Munchy’s advertisement was aired in 5th of April 2018 which they discuss about the Oat Krunch. In the advertisement itself, it can be seen that a lady was requesting for lesser sugar contained in her ice lemon tea, and then was introduced to the Oat Krunch by her friend later on. It also mentioned about the snacks which contain high amount of wheats without preservatives. Inside the advertisements, it is shown that the 2 ladies were walking out of a cafe smiling happily while eating the Oat Krunch. The advertisement is trying to convey the message which says that the snacks they provide is more healthy and delicious as the ladies smiles happily while eating.
This advertisement of Munchy’s are using the element of persuasion as suggested by Aristotle which is the pathos. Pathos refer to the emotional appeals which is used to stir feelings of their particular targeted audience. It can be from the words that are used that may be positive and negative forms. In this case, they uses positive forms of words as they portray happiness in their verbal communications. Not only that, pathos can also be related to the audience’s senses of smell, touch, taste and so on. In the advertisement, it can be seen that their sense of taste has been used in the advertisement as the ladies are eating the Oat Krunch.
Furthermore, this advertisement of Munchy’s also uses the element of persuasion by Aristotle which refers to logos. Logos refers to the rational side of the audiences which they conclude with their knowledge about a certain product or services. In this advertisement, they came up with the statistics and data of the ingredient of the Oat Krunch which mainly consist 50% of wheat as stated in the advertisements followed by the oat flakes and chocolate chips. The audiences will go for this snacks as it is proven much healthier compared to the other snacks yet it is also delicious. Therefore, audiences with more knowledge on this product will go for this snacks for a healthier body as they think wisely about their health being and being conscious of the advantages of Oat Krunch.
Most of the people that would consume these would usually be teenagers from high schoolers up to young adults as it contains high fibre and wheats and it contains less fats and is healthier. Therefore, many would choose Oat Krunch.
Snickers advertisement was aired through YouTube and TV broadcast. The advertisement was filmed by Rowan Atkinson that he acted as spy and he walk clumsy on the rooftop but end up he was crashing through it and there are enemies surrounded him. His partner throw him a Snickers chocolate bar to Atkinson and after he ate Snickers he become a Kung-fu master and against the enemies. The message that tried to convey from this advertisement which said that every person is not themselves when they feel hungry and Snickers will helps to kill hunger in very short time.
The advertisement of Snicker is using ethos, which is the element of persuasion under Aristotle theory. Ethos is appeal to character who have credibility to makes people to trust them. Ethos can be categorised when the advertisement is using a famous person to convince people to purchase their product. Atkinson is a famous British actor and his best known of his work is Mr Bean. He acted as the persuader in the advertisement who tell public that Snickers chocolate bar really helps to kill the hunger in short moment. The public, play role as persuadee that they would trust Atkinson because of his reputation.
Snickers mostly targeting the people who aged 13 and over. According to Snickers, this is because Snickers believe that these age of people could making informed choice for consume snack sensibly. The message that convey in the advertisement convince the people that Snickers is convenient for consume. The message disseminated has becoming the main reason to purchase Snickers among the youngsters who always pursuit convenient and fast for killing hunger.
In conclusion, although both Munchy’s and Snickers did include the element of persuasion stated by Aristotle, however, they did not fulfilled all three elements. Therefore, the advertisements were lacking compared to other advertisement that successfully include all three elements. For instance, Munchy’s did include emotions in the advertisement which is pathos and also the statistics to gain trust from the audiences which is the logos which allowed them to think wisely before choosing a snacks which is better for them. However, they missed out one of the elements which is ethos. They did not mention about the trustworthiness the audiences had in them over all the years. This elements could help in creating more potential customers as people would see and judge based on what they see in an advertisement.
Next, Snickers used the ethos that they used the famous people, Rowan Atkinson who has high reputation and credibility that could easy for creating the feeling of trust among their targeted audiences and to convince them to purchase their products. Nevertheless, the elements they missed out are patho and logos. The advertisement is not using pathos that it does not relate to the emotions of the audiences that evoke their feeling to the advertisement. Then, another element does not being use in Snickers advertisement which is logos that the advertisement does not apply with any statistic or data to show for the audiences. The elements, pathos could helps advertisers to evoke the feeling of audiences and also the element, logos that relates to statistic or datas could helps the audience to have a rational thinking for making their purchase wisely.
Strength of Weakness in Jane Austen’s Persuasion
Jane Austen quotes in her novel, Persuasion, “Here and there, human nature may be great in times of trial, but generally speaking it is weakness and not its strength that appears in the sick chamber, it is selfishness and impatience rather than generosity and fortitude, that one hears of […].” In other words, when people are in the midst of suffering, their instinctual reactions are filled with self-indulgence and impatience. They naturally tend to think of only themselves and not about others when faced with troubles and are quick to seize help for themselves in fear of failure. Based on instances from Betty Smith’s novel, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, and Mark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, I defend the validity of Jane Austen’s claim discussing human nature in times of trial.
Betty Smith demonstrates in her novel, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, the impulses that humans react to in certain situations of suffering to make themselves feel better. For instance, before Francie and Neely went to be vaccinated, Katie refused to go and comfort them because “she knew she couldn’t stand the ordeal” and justified her actions by thinking, “They had to be vaccinated. Her being with them or somewhere else couldn’t take that fact away. So why shouldn’t one of the three be spared?” (Smith, 144). As a mother, she knew it would be painful to see them in pain, so instead of being there for them as she should, she decided to spare herself that pain by leaving them alone to handle the pain on their own. She selfishly dumped an even deeper pain on her children by abandoning them to face a great fear without the presence of their mother in order to relieve herself of the pain she would have shared with her children, if she was there to comfort them. Furthermore, when describing the brutality of the teachers in public schools, Smith explains, “Married women were not allowed to teach in those days, hence most of the teachers were women made neurotic by starved love instincts. These barren women spent their fury on other women’s children in a twisted authoritative manner.” (Smith, 153). Because these women were suffering the deprivation of love and marriage, they made others suffer as well by treating the product of others’ relationships cruelly. Instead of properly doing their job, they decided to take out their frustration on the students, who were already having a hard time with their peers, in order to somewhat relieve their own misery. Moreover, when Francie and her brother challenged the man to throw the tree at them in order to possibly take it home, the man agonized, “Why don’t I just give ‘em the tree, say Merry Christmas and let ‘em go,” but realized “if I did that, all the other would expect to get ‘em handed to ‘em. And next year nobody a-tall would but a tree off of me… I gotta think of myself and my own kids.” (Smith, 203). Therefore, the man chucked the tree at the kids and risked the lives of the children by putting them in danger because he was fearful that he would run out of business and money for him and his family. He chose money over the kids’ health and cost them a lot of pain so that his family would be saved from the pain of poverty. In times of suffering, it seems that human beings, such as the ones in A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, automatically care for themselves out of fear rather than help each other out in times of need, creating a narcissistic environment.
Mark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, also illustrate ideal examples of the greed that is developed through hardship and suffering. For example, after Injun Joe stabbed the doctor, he “put the fatal knife in Potter’s open right hand,” accusing him of his own crime. (Twain, 64). Knowing he would suffer plenty if convicted of murder, Injun Joe frames Potter in fear that he would be caught of his terrible actions. He places the burden on Potter instead of accepting the consequences and unfairly claims freedom for himself. Additionally, after Tom claims that he is a “forsaken, friendless boy” whom nobody loved, he decides to run away and “lead a life of crime.” (Twain, 81). After experiencing a heartbreak, Tom, stuck in his own misery, decides to run away without thinking about anyone else’s future sufferings due to this rash resolution. Instead of worrying about how this would affect his family and friends, he pursues his own interests of alleviating his troubles by running away from it and completely disregards everyone else’s struggles. Furthermore, when Huck and Joe both deplored Tom of their yearnings to go home, Tom, still consumed by his grief, refused to let them go; when they did, he realized it was “very lonely and still” and “made one final struggle with his pride” until he bribed them back. (Twain, 99). Tom couldn’t bear to dwell alone in his sorrows so he tried all sorts of things to bring them back to suffer with him. He chose to ignore his peers’ desires and fulfill his own by going against their wishes and forcing them to stay on the island with him. Ultimately, when faced with difficult situations, people will look to their own outlet of relief and neglect their own companions.
Betty Smith’s novel, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, and Mark Twain’s novel, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, confirms Jane Austen’s assertion about how often times, human nature is brought to be selfish than generous in times of suffering. Blinded by pain and suffering, people will tend for their own needs rather than cooperate with others to assist one another because they are so afraid of falling and not being to get back up. Even if there is a rare case of generosity, there will always be that hesitation inside of them that wonders whether it is worth it to sacrifice rather than to indulge.
Persuasive Arguments Why Marijuana Should Be Legal
Cannabis is a medication that is continually being discussed everywhere throughout the media. There is steady discussion on whether it ought to be legitimized or not. Likewise, banter on if it somehow happened to be authorized, how they might make it work. Every one of these inquiries are things the administration considers each day. There is a major partition between individuals’ convictions on this issue. A few people figure it ought to be, others figure it shouldn’t, and some figure it ought to be with certain changes on the use. At the point when you take a gander at the advantages, there is no doubt that marijuana ought to be legitimate all through the whole nation. There are much increasingly positive things that could leave it being legitimate.
The primary explanation marijuana ought to be authorized is on the grounds that what number of different medications are legitimate. Marijuana is one of a couple of not very destructive medications that are unlawful. Numerous hard medications, for example, painkillers, courageous woman, and cocaine are drugs that are damaging to your wellbeing and perhaps even your life. Marijuana ought not be put under a similar class as these medications. It ought to be under the classification that incorporates liquor, tobacco, and even sugar. These medications are more ordinarily identified with marijuana than hard medications. Likewise, plainly liquor and tobacco are increasingly hurtful to an individual that marijuana. That is the reason I don’t see how the strategy on pot isn’t rise to if not more in favored than the arrangements on liquor and tobacco. Indeed, even sugar in numerous wellbeing angles can be viewed as more destructive than marijuana. Pot is a medication that is much more secure and harder to over portion than liquor. That is the reason many can’t comprehend why marijuana isn’t lawful and liquor is. Cannabis ought to have reasonable lawful arrangements simply like the various ‘drugs’ that are viewed as in a similar class as it. The arrangement must be changed.
The following explanation pot ought to be sanctioned is on the grounds that it would keep kids off the lanes and away from drugs that are increasingly destructive. Marijuana by and large could be sold from vendors who additionally sell hard medications. In this manner, if pot was lawful and sold in a store in the right way, it would assist kids with avoiding different medications that sellers bring to the table. Additionally, it would prevent kids from getting into the medication managing business. They would have less thought processes to offer to their companions and others. On the off chance that the strategy was changed, and it could be sold in stores it would prevent kids from selling all together. Being a vendor would be way less successful and it could stop many street pharmacists and tidy up the avenues. Marijuana will be sold in any case, so it should be sold legitimately. If the arrangement was changed, and it was sold lawfully it would keep kids out of threat and make it harder to be a street pharmacist.
Another generally excellent motivation to authorize marijuana is the amount it could set aside our administration cash, and perhaps make cash out of it. Cannabis is exceptionally hard on our equity framework monetarily. On the off chance that the strategy was changed, and it was authorized it could be burdened and utilized for government subsidizing. It has been considered and numerous investigations show that marijuana could make generally excellent income. Not exclusively can lawful marijuana help profit however it can likewise assist the equity framework a great deal. More than 750,000 individuals are captured for marijuana a year. This number is insane on the off chance that you consider the threat level of marijuana. 750,000 individuals are captured for something that doesn’t legitimately make hurt any other person. Additionally, in addition to the fact that enforcement must capture these individuals they need to pay for every individual case. Another way it could assist the equity framework is by opening prison spots. Marijuana clients take up far too much prison space which could be utilized for considerably more genuine guilty parties. With everything considered, sanctioning pot could assist the equity framework gigantically and the arrangement ought to be changed right away.
The wellbeing and solace of the individuals ought to be the significant worry of the legislature. Marijuana has numerous constructive characteristics that could help individuals in consistently life. Numerous Americans that are experiencing feeble manifestations could utilize this medication. Marijuana could be utilized to help with torment, queasiness, spasticity, and different indications that typical medications just aren’t relieving. Likewise, it could be an extraordinary method to enable individuals to loosen up themselves on an ordinary premise. For the most parts the manifestations of marijuana are mellow and are anything but difficult to manage. Not regularly are individuals wild or in a condition of peril when utilizing this medication. Pot is a medication that effectively constructs resilience and enables individuals to deal with the manifestations better. On the off chance that individuals can deal with the side effects and utilize the medication appropriately I don’t comprehend why it shouldn’t be authorized. Numerous Americans will disclose to you that the side effects are considerably more positive than negative.
Last, does the administration ever ask themselves the inquiry ‘has anybody ever kicked the bucket from marijuana use?’ They should not ask themselves that inquiry because the appropriate response would be no. There isn’t even a segment for marijuana in the illness control and assurance area. That is on the grounds that pot isn’t connected to death in any capacity. Likewise, it is appeared to have no connection to malignant growth or some other unsafe infections there are out there. Marijuana isn’t connected to lung disease. Numerous individuals would figure it is connected to disease particularly of the throat however that isn’t the situation (huffing). The way that marijuana doesn’t straightforwardly cause passing and furthermore doesn’t prompt other destructive infections just demonstrates why it ought to be lawful. The arrangement unmistakably ought to be changed if the administration doesn’t consider the medication a peril to infection. Notwithstanding, the administration has such a major worry on liquor use and invests most its energy stressing over that. If marijuana is certifiably not a significant worry for the administration, at that point why not simply make it legitimate. On the off chance that it isn’t sufficiently hazardous to try and have a class, at that point is there any good reason why it wouldn’t be lawful. The strategy is plainly wrong and much be changed.
The utilization of marijuana has consistently been addressed yet right now is an ideal opportunity our nation is at a time where the use of the medication is at a pinnacle and the issue should be tended to. It is never again adequate to not consider authorization since states inside the nation have just brought issues into their very own hands by making it legitimate, Colorado and Washington were the first to do so this past political decision season. The counter contention to legitimization of marijuana would be considers that show smoking ‘marijuana’ would change emphysema and bring down IQ’s nevertheless smoking cigarettes or any tobacco item likewise cause emphysema and drinking liquor is demonstrated to hurt your IQ and slaughter your synapses.
With everything considered, cannabis ought to be legitimized and the arrangement ought to be changed right away. There is an excessive amount of good to originate from this arrangement changed not to do it. There are numerous individuals that concur with a strategy change and the administration needs to do likewise. Marijuana can obviously help improve this nation for the individuals from multiple points of view. Wellbeing is clearly a significant worry for the legislature and that is the reason they may dither to sanction it. Be that as it may, as studies appear there are hardly any wellbeing dangers and even some positive wellbeing factors that marijuana could contribute. Likewise, how much lawful marijuana can help our administration financing and equity framework is another explanation the strategy should be changed at this point. Keeping kids off the avenues and street pharmacists from offering to kids is likewise progressively verification of how ineffectively the present arrangement is running. Legitimate cannabis could help hard medications from spreading to an inappropriate people. Additionally, it will keep the measure of street pharmacists down and the measure of lawful shops up. With everything considered cannabis would do substantially more positive than it would negative if it somehow happened to be legitimized. The strategy that is averting the legitimization of marijuana must be changed without a moment’s delay. Lawful marijuana can help. The administration needs to see these realities and change the cannabis strategy as quickly as time permits.
Discussion On Whether Marijuana Should Be Legal In The US
Marijuana may be a terribly disputed topic once it involves legalization. In today’s society, marijuana is usually utilized by several teens and adults. Whether or not it’s for medical reasons, socialization, getting a high or escaping depression, marijuana has greatly compacted the lives people humans. Although cannabis is a smuggled drug, innumerable amounts of individuals don’t stop from obtaining a hold of it. There’s solely such a lot the enforcement will do if the individuals don’t wish to pay attention. There’s no purpose within the war on medicine in relevancy marijuana if the individuals can ne’er stop exploitation it’s a more robust plan to use the people’s love of the drug to profit the state. The plant itself is value an honest quantity of cash that can be accustomed to our nation’s advantage economically. Making a precise share of tax on the merchandise might be of big facilitate for the government, that is trillions of American dollars in debt. Also, the meditative use of marijuana will profit a colossal quantity of patients worldwide, and it should probably become a cure for a few of the worst, incurable sicknesses and diseases familiar to this point. Some individuals argue that marijuana legalization threatens the protection of the state on roads, in health and in enforcement as a result of it’s thought of a drug of abuse. Though marijuana affects the natural brain functions that affect general health and driving ability, permitting it to remain smuggled causes very little to no distinction in its everyday usage by the Yankee individuals. Marijuana may be a usually used drug thanks to its skillfulness of use; and therefore the unlawfulness limits the quantity of cash which will be made to assist our nation, conflicts with different a lot of necessary problems that require being prescribed, and prevents bound diseases from being treated.
Marijuana (or cannabis) may be a plant which will be employed in numerous ways that. It may be each smoke-cured victimization joints, pipes bongs or different equipment and eaten by baking it into food or ingesting focused fuel hash oil. ingestion the mixed in psychoactive drug with food causes a slower method of reaching a high since it’s to induce digestible 1st before the psychoactive drug will reach the bloodstream. Smoking the marijuana permits the Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to maneuver through the bloodstream faster than once eaten which provides the user a quicker high. Thus, smoking marijuana is a lot of common among users, however, at constant time, it’s a lot of dangerous since the lungs area unit engrossing all the tar. Their area unit several affects it will wear the brain like memory, coordination, learning and therefore the ability to resolve issues effectively. Once somebody smokes marijuana, psychoactive drug stimulates the CBRs (cannabinoid receptors) that interfere with the functions of the cannabinoids. AN overstimulation in these receptors of the brain causes the marijuana “high,” further as different effects on mental processes. Over time, this overstimulation will alter the operate of CBRs, which may cause addiction and withdrawal once drug use stops. The drug is therefore usually and simply used that the govt is de facto solely wasting resources trying to limit and stop its prevalence.
Many people believe legalizing Marijuana is wrong and will not be a possibility in the slightest degree. A typical argument against the legalization of marijuana is that creating “marijuana lawful would encourage the legalization of stronger medicine like hash and hash oil”. Also, it might cause difference for a lot of harmful medicine to be legalized. Though there’s a high risk of debates for the legalization of different medicine to occur; there must be valid reasons so as for the drug to be allowable. Marijuana isn’t solely a social drug, however, it may be prescribed to assist treat bound diseases further. whereas individuals believe that marijuana itself may be a drug of abuse, there are arguments by several like Diane Russell, a government representative World Health Organization says that the criminal is that the entryway, not the drug itself. She additionally same that “marijuana isn’t physically habit-forming and doesn’t essentially lead users to ‘graduate’ to stronger and a lot of dangerous medicine — whereas smuggled drug dealers push those stronger medicine on customers World Health Organization come back to them for marijuana”. Also, the toll for marijuana consumption is nonexistent whereas a range of different medicine is a cause of death. Additionally, the effects marijuana use has on the body is considerably less damaging than different medicine that area unit attainable candidates for turning into legalized. Therefore, marijuana has a footing over different medicine once talks of legalization occur.
Another argument against the legalization of marijuana is that it might cause traffic violations to extend although alcohol is thought to possess worse effects. Since marijuana “intensifies the results of encephalopathy and psychosis”, it might cause several traffic accidents and therefore the toll might remarkably increase. The answer to the current issue is very simple, and it doesn’t add up to even build this argument. If marijuana were to be created legal, there would be rules and laws enacted so as to regulate its use. Alcohol consumption, as an example, is against the law once driving. If laws were established stating that one couldn’t drive with a precise quantity of psychoactive drug within the bloodstream, fewer traffic laws would be desecrated. Thus, making a “no smoking and driving” rule may be a project. The sole factor that ought to be up for discussion is that the actual penalty for victimization it whereas driving. There ought to be a base-level DUI and a possible license suspension as a penalty for driving with a precise quantity of psychoactive drug within the bloodstream; the rise in penalties would be directly connected with the inflated quantity of DUIs. One thing to stay in mind is that driving high is considerably safer than driving drunk since marijuana doesn’t have an effect on the user’s vision in the slightest degree, thus it wouldn’t have as harsh of a penalty to the user once caught. Additionally, there are more incidents of poisoning and death from alcohol consumption than death or grave sicknesses caused by marijuana.
One different common argument against the legalization of marijuana is that health hazards would increase around the nation. The opposite medicine in our nation even has a lot of negative impacts than will marijuana, however there are some risk factors to any form of smoking. Since “marijuana has five hundredths a lot of tar than will tobacco”, several people’s lungs can change into worse conditions than they’d started in before beginning to smoke. To feature on to those poor health conditions, “smoking marijuana damages the brain, lungs and therefore the male procreative system” and “one joint will have the result of sixteen cigarettes thanks to pot smokers’ common habit of breathing deeply and holding smoke within the lungs many seconds before exhaling”. However, there has been an enormously bigger quantity of diseases developed through cigarette smoking than marijuana smoking. Also, there are more incidents of alcohol poisoning and death from alcohol consumption than life-threatening sicknesses caused by marijuana. Wife Donner, a student from Santa Monica faculty same, “cigarettes kill a calculable 328,000 individuals a year, however no one has died from smoking marijuana” which “’Twenty-two a million individuals during this country area unit referred to as criminals’” though they use a drug that has not even been recorded once to possess caused a death”. Yet, alcohol and cigarettes area unit legal. Additionally, though the health hazards would increase, marijuana might be won’t treat health conditions. Meditative marijuana is legal in an American state, and as a result, several patients have found closure with their health issues.
As there are several arguments against the legalization of marijuana; there also are several valid reasons for the justification of the law’s implementation. One key reason is its potential to spice up the U.S economy to its former glory. in line with eating apple Leavitt, the director of the ME Marijuana Policy Initiative, since “marijuana is that the state’s most respected harvest, value AN calculable $122 million a year”, onerous the merchandise would solely profit the govt. the sole means for the govt to profit from the profits of growing and victimization marijuana is to create it legal to use and grow it. Leavitt additionally same “the state’s smuggled marijuana crop is valued over painting merchandise like potatoes and blueberries”. Russell was within the method of making a law that “introduced a bill to create marijuana legal, permit individuals to grow little amounts for private use and subject sales to a seven % tax, with the revenue directed to enforcement, agricultural programs, land preservation, weatherization and better education”. Not solely would this subsidize the govt and boost the economy, however it might additionally permit innovative technology to be cheap.
Another valid reason for legalizing marijuana is that a full heap of your time, money, and energy would be saved for different a lot of necessary matters. Being the foremost fashionable drug nowadays, keeping marijuana smuggled simply doesn’t build a lot of sense in the slightest degree. Individuals area unit still finding ways to buy and smoke the drug which adds to the actual fact that “making possession and provide of weed smuggled has done very little to limit accessibility. Instead it unveils a chance for criminal gangs, wrecks the lives of users World Health Organization area unit branded with a record, and distracts the police from a lot of necessary work”. An oversized portion of the police department’s time and cash is being sucked into court dates and papers for individuals being penalised for the possession of marijuana. Rather than victimization these wants for such AN insignificant crime, the govt may use them to assist notice the cure for several completely different diseases like cancer, or maybe pay off the massive debt our nation is in. Also, the “legalization would save cash by permitting police to focus on a lot of serious crimes and reducing jail costs”. Therefore, the advantages may probably outweigh the cons betting on what the govt will do thereupon saved money — not to say the Brobdingnagian quantity that may be coming back in if the drug was taxed.
And after all, marijuana’s medical aspects area unit a large argument for its legalization. Not like several of the opposite medicine out there, marijuana may be wont to facilitate treat bound diseases. In line with the muse of Disabled World, “Cannabis has been used for meditative functions for roughly four,000 years. Writings from ancient Asian country ensure that its psychedelic properties were recognized, and doctors used it for a range of diseases and ailments” The Disabled World additionally states, “Marijuana may be won’t to enhance personal spirituality. The herb tends to reveal you are true self. It uncovers inner confusion and divulges your true direction”. Not solely will the drug facilitate treat diseases physically, however it additionally incorporates a large impact on the patient mentally.
In American state, medicative marijuana is legal and is prescribed to patients in want. in line with Proponents of medical marijuana, “it may be a secure and effective treatment for the symptoms of cancer, AIDS, induration, pain, glaucoma, epilepsy, and different conditions”. Also, patients use medicative marijuana to decrease the number of seizures they need in a very specific time span. additionally, “marijuana and/or its parts could facilitate alleviate suffering in patients with a range of great diseases. Healthcare suppliers will best minimize short-term adverse consequences and drug interactions for terminally unwell patients by having an intensive understanding of the medical specialty of marijuana”. These edges of the cannabis drug reinforce the argument of legalization for the great of the individuals.
Although marijuana affects the natural brain functions; permitting it to remain smuggled impedes on the quantity of cash which will be made to assist our nation, inflicts on different a lot of necessary problems that require being prescribed, and prevents bound diseases to be treated. Marijuana is that the most generally used drug nowadays that demonstrates the failure of keeping it smuggling. Also, the crop itself has valued tens of thousands of bucks, that may gain advantage our economy overall.
Finally, the meditative use might be an amazing facilitate to patients around the globe. The numerous arguments against the legalization of marijuana have valid counter-arguments. As an example, though legalizing marijuana would cause difference for the legalization of different a lot of harmful medicine, there would wish to be effective, and controversial reasons so as to really allow their use. Moreover, traffic violations may stop to extend exceptionally if rules and laws were established to forestall smoking and driving. Lastly, marijuana is that the one in every of solely some medicine that has not been an explanation for death. So, life threating health hazards shouldn’t be a problem once talking regarding legalization. Therefore, permitting marijuana to become lawful within us would inclusively be helpful for our economy, our public, and our nation as a full.
Song As The Art Of Persuasion
Persuasion is a type of communication which is meant to convince someone to follow or agree to a given statement or idea. These normally involve people of different parties who have different views about a given object, idea, or somebody. There are several means which are used to convey persuasive messages which include art work such as songs, poems, movies, video clips, paintings, and speeches among other methods. This paper seeks to examine how Bruno Mars’s song “Just the Way You Are” conveys a persuasive message.
Songs are a common form of entertainment in most cases but it is also a way of communication because it always carries a message. Song writers are always inclined to what they want their audience to get as a message from listening to their songs. Some will inform, others advice while others educate and others persuade people towards a given direction or to change their belief about something while others help other people to strengthen their belief about something.
Bruno Mars in his song is expressing how he feels about the girl he is singing to. From the lyrics of the song we get to understand that he is telling the girl that she is so beautiful that even if he was given a chance to change her, he would not change a thing because she looks just perfect. From this statement it seems that according to him, the girl did not hold a strong belief in her beauty. Bruno says that when she asks him if she was okay she would gladly tell her how beautiful she is the way she is.
Bruno uses the song to describe every part of the girl telling her how beautiful she was as if to persuade her that she is really beautiful. He says that her hair is perfect even without her tying and he mentions that he tells her about her beauty every day. This means that Bruno is trying to make it sink into the girl’s mind that she is really beautiful because in Bruno’s words he thinks that the girls doesn’t see the beauty in her “I know, I know when I compliment her she won’t believe me, and it’s so, it’s so sad to think that she don’t see what I see”.
However, he says that when she asks him how she looks he compliments her beauty by telling her that when he sees her face there is nothing that he can change because she is amazing just the way she is. He goes on to tell her that when she smiles the whole world stops and stares for a while because of her beauty. He further describes how he likes her lips and laugh although she may not like it but to him she is just perfect the way she is.
This song is persuasive because it tries to let the girl belief and see the beauty she has as Bruno describes it. He says that he is saddened by the fact that the girl he is describing does not see the beauty he is seeing in her. It means that what he telling her is for her to belief in her beauty and in accordance to persuasion, these arguments make the girl that the artiste is describing to have strong
These arguments are effective because in the video of the song “Just the You Are”, the girl seems to be contented and happy about the comments that the singer is using to compliment her. They are also effective because they describes the beauty of a girl in a manner that will see her have a strong belief in what she believed at first. Under normal circumstances, everyone will always see himself/herself as being beautiful but when you hear it from another person, it becomes more real and one gets to hold those beliefs strongly.
Among the persuasive theories I wish to align this art work with elaboration likelihood model where the persuasion is taken as a cognitive event which seeks to influence an individual based on what they get from the art. Dainton and Zelley (2005) argue that this theory sees persuasion as being primarily dependent on the prior beliefs of the individual in question about the idea being sold to the receiver. I find this theory applicable to my selected art because Bruno tells us that he is sad because the girl is praising her in terms of beauty does not see this herself. He says that he knows the girl may not like her lips and laugh as well as smile or rather she may not see it in the angle that Bruno is seeing but he tries to make her see it through his words.
From the arguments and discussion above, it is evident that what we may actually take for granted as just entertainment may not actually be only that because it portrays more than that. Most of the times we listen to or look at art work as form of entertainment without really thinking over it until we have a similar scenario as that which is portrayed in the work concerned work of art. However, when we have a clear understanding of the work, we tend to give it the attention it deserves and that is why we find people dedicating songs in most cases that go line in line with what people are going through. This is to persuade them to look at their scenarios in line with the message carried in the art work.
Bruno’s song is a perfect example of art work which seeks to persuade someone to see the beauty in another person without necessarily having to make adjustments on their looks. Someone who does not identify with this kind of a situation may not understand; say young children may only take this song for entertainment but someone who knows what such compliments may mean carry will give it a totally different meaning.
Persuasion Strategies and Its Use in Public Speeches
In the universities that existed during the middle ages, rhetoric used to be taught as liberal arts. Eventually as time went by and people started having a better understanding of the depth of the subject, rhetoric began to be recognized as a field in social or human sciences. The historical backdrop of rhetoric itself is as old as the history of any existing language in the world we live in today.
Examples of classical rhetoric can be found almost every day in almost every aspect of our lives. Take for example something as simple as a child trying to convince his/her mother to allow them to attend an excursion from school. Buddha and a large number of religious figures too use classical rhetoric in order to influence and persuade people. The best example can be of those democratic leaders or great leaders in history who through this powerful tool in order to sway the hearts of people by their admirable rhetorical skills.
Rhetorical styles and strategies
In his book, “The Art of Rhetoric”, Aristotle says that of the methods of persuasion outfitted by the spoken word are of three sorts. The first sort depends solely on the personal character of the speaker; the second is to put the audience in a specific mind frame; the third is the proof which is being made apparent by the speaker himself. Persuasion is usually achieved by trying to figure out the personal character of the speaker himself because we tend to believe fully only good men than the others. This particular aspect of influence ought to be accomplished by what the speaker says, not by what individuals think of his character before he starts to talk.
It isn’t valid, as certain writers accept in their treatises on rhetoric, that the individual goodness uncovered by the speaker contributes nothing to his capacity of influence; despite what might be expected, his character may nearly be known as the best methods for influence he has. Besides, persuasion may get through the listeners, when the discourse blends into their feelings. Our decisions when we are satisfied and friendly are not equivalent to when we are tormented and antagonistic. It is towards creating these impacts, as we keep up, that present-day authors on rhetoric direct the entirety of their endeavors.
Thirdly, persuasion is affected through the discourse itself when we have demonstrated a reality or an apparent truth by methods of persuasive arguments reasonable to the case.
These three points are also referred to as ethos, logos and pathos respectively. The examples of their usage can be clearly understood through the following explanation. The first strategy being ethos is usually incorporated in the commercials which we see that include a celebrity or someone of the sorts in order to coerce us to trust the speaker and therefore it ends up with us investing in the product. The usage of the logos strategy which is associated with reasoned proof is mainly used by the domain of modern science. Lastly, the pathos strategy is used to gather money from us in order to give it to a group of people who have been struck by disasters.
Another rhetoric strategy is the rhetoric triplet. This term has been derived from Greek which originally means three. In other words, a progression of three expressions, sentences or words that works along side by side in rhythm, structure as well as length.
An example of this strategy can be observed in the famous words spoken by the great leader Abraham Lincoln,
“With malice toward none,
With charity for all,
With firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right…”
Application to a chosen text
Now we will try to apply the three strategies we learnt about in the previous section to a speech text. The text chosen is from the famous speech delivered by Dr Martin Luther King Jnr in 1963 called ‘I have a Dream’.
Ethos: He begins by saying, “I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greatest demonstration of freedom in the history of the nation.” Through these lines he is giving a call to everyone to unite and take a stand against discrimination. He also gives an idea to the crowd about what his ambition for the future is and what dreams he envisions along with his people. He paints an image of the future which gives hope to the people and shows them that he is here to eradicate the injustice people had to face. He makes clear his hatred for the fake promises Lincoln made to the black people. All these factors make the crowd believe him fully because of the good in him which people see.
Pathos: As his speech moves further he keeps stirring a variety of emotions in the hearts of people especially anger stemming through the violence committed against them. His words remind them of what they had to face and how they must stand up against the abuse they faced. He speaks with immense passion and even now if we were to read the speech we would too feel the surge of emotions the crowd must have experienced. In order to achieve that he used phrases with immense magnitude such as, “seared in flames of withering injustice”. He uses a technique where he contrasts the lives of black people in the dream he envisions for them and their harsh reality. He in no way wishes bad upon the white people but in fact he wants them both, the white and the black, to function harmoniously in a society which treats everyone like a human without discrimination based on something as petty as color.
Logos: The main domains of King’s dream were unity, harmony and equality for all. He wanted to accomplish his dream as fast as possible and he knew the people had dreams too. He gives people strong logic and proof from the past as to how their promises were broken and dreams were crushed and basic rights were violated. He wanted them to take up nonviolent methods in order to show to the white community how peace and success could be achieved by such rational and nonviolent ways.
In short, persuasion is an important tool required in the proceedings of daily life and it is practiced by everyone at every step of their lives. There are certain rules that are required to make your speech powerful and to sway hearts if you intend to influence others. It stems its roots way back in to ancient Greek history and is as old as the history of currently existing languages. Great leaders use this tool to their advantage to gain mass support of a majority. It is a beautiful art if used positively and it is eventually mastered with great knowledge and experience.