Nelson Mandela in the film Invictus
Invictus a movie that touches on a lot of issues Nelson Mandela and the South African people faced as a nation. Nelson Mandela was faced with bringing a nation separated due to racial segregation and he accomplished this goal by helping the South African rugby team win the world cup. This movie can be closely related with our class because Nelson Mandela is one of the greatest leaders of all time and too see how he implemented his leadership to help the Rugby is just a fragment to what he actually accomplished.
Throughout this movie you can go think about what we learned in class its goes hand and hand. To give a complete analysis to this movie from the prospective of Nelson Mandela being a leader in the sports world in this essay I will explain the different styles of leadership Nelson Mandela implemented, group dynamics, communication, managing difficulties, issues of diversity. All of these where present in this movie and a direct correlation to how Nelson Mandela was a leader in sports.
In this movie Nelson Mandela wasn’t the only called upon to be a leader in sports South African rugby Captain Francois Pienaar also played a major role a leading his rugby team through a very difficult season to becoming a great team and family. Without the help of Francois Pienaar I don’t feel as if Nelson Mandela’s plan to unite the nation would have went so smooth.
Throughout the movie Nelson Mandela used a couple of different styles of leadership, this shows to be a great leader you have to mix and match different leadership styles. In Mandela’s case being the president of South Africa in the mist of segregation you have to appeal and lead many different types of people, some of the groups don’t respond like the others forcing him to differ from his nitch of democratic leadership. To reach the different kinds of groups he realized he would have to be stern sometimes and be more of a autocratic leader. Nelson Mandela being a South African native faced a very hard decision when he walked into a rally by some of the black population who were against the name of the rugby team and felt very strongly about changing it. Mandela being the leader he was realized the Springbok name was sacred to the Africana (white population) and to bring the nation together the name had to stay. After this decision was clear to Mandela to keep the Springbok name based off the knowledge he gained while being incarcerated he knew that he was a minority and it would be tuff to get voted. Thus he implemented autocratic leadership style walked into the rally gave them all the background information on the name then told his follower the name will stay. Mandela knew what he was doing would be good in the long run but still asked for the support of his followers and of the rally he had one person that was on his side.
Throughout the movie he also was forced to inhibit the Laissez-Faire leadership style against his own will. Bringing a nation together can sometimes become overwhelming and with his strenuous schedule Mandela overworked himself to the point he blacked out. After his accident he was forced to relax and take a back seat for a couple of days. For the period of his recovery he was helpless and had to go with the flow being forced into the laissez-faire leadership style. Nelson Mandela middle name should be democratic, that is how strongly he embraces this leadership style. He just wanted everyone in South Africa to be equal and get along, while trying to accomplish this he took different ideas from co-workers and people of South Africa.
A recurring theme in the movie is Nelson Mandela’s wise words to his followers and friends at the most opportune times bringing encouragement, support, wisdom and comfortably. In the beginning of the movie he steps into his presidential chambers where all of the workers were at and began to give them a speech, most of these workers were Africana’s from the previous South African president. Now here comes this black political guy fresh from jail into the presidents office, so most of these workers didn’t plan on staying and didn’t believe in Mandela. He gives them a speech with great compassion and knowledge treated all of them as equals and ends the speech with “ if you guys stay you would be doing me and your country a great service”. Mandela gave all his workers the opportunity to leave but after his great speech he didn’t lose not one worker, this give you and example how strong and powerful his words could be.
Communication in my eyes is 10 percent verbal and 90 percent non-verbal, a person can say all the right things but if they don’t give eye contact and have bad body language it can automatically negate everything they just said. Africana’s were really hard on Mandela but he continuously gave them reasons to love and respect him, when he went to the first Springbok game a fan throw a can at Mandela that barley missed him but he didn’t even flinch. That fan wanted nothing more than for Mandela to react and get out of character but Mandela just ignored it showing them his mental strength. Its easy for a person to react by it takes a real leader to preserve them selves and ignore ignorance.
Nelson Mandela was forced to manage difficulties through the whole movie trying to evolve his nation to bring blacks and whites together, enlighten people including his own daughter and help the Springbok win the world cup. What I learned from Mandela about managing difficulties is that sometimes you don’t have to automatically attack the problem head on and sometimes you should just relax and let things fall into place by making strategic moves. When Mandela knew what was best for the nation he made a group of very smart decisions to bring the rugby team back to relevancy and their winning culture. The best example of this was making the Springboks do clinics in near by villages. By inviting Francois Pienaar to tea he installed these values and coached him up to be a better leader to his team so he can also manage difficulties he was going to be facing. Francois Pienaar was faced with manage this difficult team that was ok with losing and not being connected to the rest of the South Africans. Pienaar followed in Mandela’s footsteps and introduce the team to new things little by little, such as learning the national anthem, bring them to the prison to see what Mandela and others went through.
Invictus in a nutshell is about the issue of diversity in South Africa and how a pride for their national team can unite a country. Mandela was facing the issue of diversity his whole life and even spent a period of his life behind bars to fight for it. From his first day in office as the president he had to face the issue of diversity by having a majority of his office workers being white and not knowing if they where going to stay, but thankfully for his enhanced commination skills he persuaded them to stay. Another character that was forced with great issue of diversity was Chester being the only black player on the Springboks had to be tough on him and his team mates fro example when they did the clinics all the kids flocked to Chester and ignored his teammates. Francois Pienaar was faced with issues of diversity as well like when he tried to teach the players the national anthem by the were very closed at first due to the complexity of the different languages of the black South Africans.
In conclusion Invictus was great movie showcasing the leadership of Nelson Mandela and Francois Pienaar both in very different situations but faced with some of the same issues. Mandela was faced with bring the nation together and Pienaar was faced with bring the Springboks together that was like a little nation in its own. The rugby team was like a little nation due to different races, conflicting ideas, and stubbornness to change their ways. Every team is like that and to manage that you have to be a leader in recreational settings to bring a team together and be successful. This movie taught me a couple of life lesson that I will inhibit to my everyday life and pass on to other such ass make strategic moves, really think before making any moves. 1 smart decision is better than 2 dumb reactions.
Effective Leadership and Different Ways of Leading
A simple definition is that leadership is the art of motivating a group of people to act towards achieving a common goal. This definition, I think, captures the leadership essentials of inspiration and preparation. Effective leadership is based upon ideas, but won’t happen unless those ideas can be communicated to others in a way that engages them. Put even more simply, the leader is the inspiration and director of the action. He is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and leadership skills that makes others want to follow his direction.
In business, leadership is welded to performance. Those who are viewed as effective leaders are those who increase their company’s bottom lines.
To further confuse the definition of leadership, we tend to use the terms “leadership” and “management” interchangeably, referring to a company’s management structure as its leadership, or to individuals who are actually managers as the “leaders” of various management teams. I am not saying that this is a bad thing; just pointing out that leadership involves more.
To be effective, a leader certainly has to manage the resources at his/her disposal. But leadership also involves communicating, inspiring and supervising. Is a leader born or made? While there are people who seem to be naturally endowed with more leadership abilities than others, I believe that people can learn to become leaders by improving particular skills. “Leadership is a winning combination of personal traits and the ability to think and act as a leader, a person who directs the activities of others for the good of all. Anyone can be a leader…”
Leading Leaders’ primary focus is to create dramatically improved performance and life satisfaction for people, by helping them understand who they are first and then where they are gifted. Then turning those abilities into
their strongest contribution to the world.
what does a great follower need?
1. They must be clear. They understand their role. You can’t be a good follower unless you have clearly identified the leader. While you may be a leader in your own realm, everyone has a boss including you. Great followers not only accept this fact but embrace it.
2. They must be obedient. While obedience may be a politically incorrect concept, it is essential for organizational effectiveness. No one should be allowed to give orders who can’t obey orders. This is how great leaders model to their own followers the standards of acceptable behaviour.
3. They must be servants. This is crucial. Great followers are observant. They notice what needs to be done to help the leader accomplish his or her goals. Then they do it joyfully, without grumbling or complaining.
4. They must be humble. Great followers don’t make it about them. They are humble. They shine the light on the leader. They make their own boss look good especially in front of his or her boss.
5. They must be loyal. Great followers never speak ill of their boss in public. This doesn’t mean they can’t disagree or even criticize. It just means that they don’t do it in public. Great followers understand that public loyalty leads to private influence.
A team leader is someone who provides guidance, instruction, direction and leadership to a group of other individuals for the purpose of achieving a key result or group of aligned results. The team lead reports to a project manager. The team leader monitors the quantitative and qualitative result that is to be achieved. The leader works with the team membership. The purpose of a leader is to make sure there is leadership … to ensure that all four dimensions of leadership are the four dimensions being: (1) a shared, motivating team purpose or vision or goal (2) action, progress and results (3) collective unity or team spirit (4) attention to individuals.
The team membership may not directly report or answer to the team leader, (who is very often a senior member of the organization but may or may not be a manager) but would be expected to provide support to the team leader and other team members in achieving the team’s goals. A good team leader listens constructively to the membership and to the customer(s) of the results that the team is charged with delivering. The responsibilities of a team leader vary greatly between organizations, but usually include some responsibility for team building and ensuring teamwork. The term is used to emphasize the cooperative nature of a team, in contrast to a typical command structure, where the head of a team would be its “commander”.
Nelson Mandela, South Africa’s first black president and anti-apartheid icon, has died at the age of 95. There is much to learn from the bold life of Mandela, who taught his country and its people to “walk tall” — as his fellow anti-apartheid campaigner, Archbishop Desmond Tutu put it — despite being imprisoned for 27 years. He was a true leader, in many ways was Nelson Mandela a entrepreneur. Their five key lessons we could learn from Nelsom Madela: For instanse : Believe in yourself .
Even when other leaders called Nelson Mandela a sinner and accused him of treason, he kept fighting for peace and equality. In his trial in 1964, Nelson Mandela said: “I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination.” On how Nelson Madela kept his resolve, he said at Robben Island, Cape Town, on February 11, 1994: “I had no specific belief except that our cause was just, was very strong and it was winning more and more support.”
Speak the truth:
Nelson Mandela always insisted on speaking the truth, even if it would ruffle the feathers of his own supporters. During the bloody fights between ANC supporters and the predominantly Zulu Inkatha movement, he refused to shift the blame to the opposition alone: “There are members of the ANC who are killing our people… We must face the truth. Our people are just as involved as other organisations that are committing violence… We cannot climb to freedom on the corpses of innocent people.” Later, during Nelson Madela’s campaign against AIDS, which had killed his son, he called it “the curse of Africa” even though he knew that would draw anger.
Lead by example:
Mandela’s sense of his own dignity was conspicuous. That was a trait evident all through his years. He said:“I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die,” Nelson Madela had said during his trial. He walked the talk.
Nelson Mandela was a strong believer in accountability in both the private and public sector. In particular, leaders should be held accountable. Nelson Mandela said: “If you want to take an action and you are convinced that this is a correct action, you do so and confront that situation.” HR professionals should be much stronger in striving towards accepting accountability for their work, and not blame line managers and other stakeholders when things go wrong.
In a country still plagued by fraud and corruption, Nelson Mandela’s example reminds us of the importance of integrity. He valued integrity throughout his life. Referring to corruption, he labelled South Africa as a “sick society.” HR professionals should be people of integrity and build ethical organisation cultures to create more ethical organisations and ultimately an ethical society.
2.1.1 Roles And Qualities
Leadership means “the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members.” Management comprises directing and controlling a group of one or more people or entities for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing that group towards accomplishing a goal. Personality Styles
Are often called brilliant and mercurial, with great charisma. Yet, they are also often seen as loners and private people. They are comfortable taking risks, sometimes seemingly wild and crazy risks. Almost all leaders have high levels of imagination Tend to be rational, under control problem solvers. They often focus on goals, structures, personnel, and availability of resources. Managers’ personalities lean toward persistence, strong will, analysis, and intelligence.
Stress in Winnie Mandela’s Life
After viewing the life of Winnie Mandela I have noticed five themes of multiculturalism. The first theme I noticed was identity. Winnie had a very strict upbringing by a father who was disappointed she was not born a boy. She tried to prove to him her entire child hood that she was worthy and capable of making him proud. She became one of the best stick fighters around, despite the fact that she was female in order to gain acceptance of him.
The second was culture, she gave up the chance to study in America in order to remain in South Africa where she felt more needed. She wanted to stick by her husband through his imprisonment in order to keep fighting for the freedom of their culture. Winnie raised two children while her husband was imprisoned and still lead the country through motivational speeches and helping to aid the sick. Third was diversity, she faced continuous harassment by the security police, banishment to a small free town, betrayal by friends and allies, and more than a year in solitary confinement.
Although times were hard Winnie tried to keep her sanity while in solitary by feeding and talking to ants as if they were people. When alone in solitary she exemplified the only way of diversity she knew how to by sharing pieces of bread with the ants. Fourth, after her release, she continues her husband’s activism and after his release from prison, suffers divorce due to her infidelity and political pressures.
Madela questioned her about sleeping with another man and Winnie was appaled by his questioning. After being a steady wife for over 20 years of imprisonment she was in disbelief. Finally, she faced accusations of violence and murder and in the end, must own up to her actions in court, while many still remain loyal to her because of her fight against apartheid. Mandela remarried but Winnie never did. It is my belief that Winnie is suffering from deep depression. Towards the end of the film Winnie was drinking heavily, crying a lot, and seemed to feel worthless. She was being blamed for murder and most of her followers had turned against her because she was being accused of murder, which is something they did not condone. She was showing signs of irritability, angry outburst, and anxiety. In order to alleviate Winnie’s problems I would first establish a trusting relationship between us so that she would feel comfortable with me. Next, I would ask her about her childhood up until present day to figure out what type of cultural background she has. Then I would have her list all of the things positive and negative in her life to help her see that there is still a reason for happiness. Next, I would give her suggestions to help her overcome depression herself step by step in order for her to see that the stage she is in is only temporary.
The name of the client I would like to provide treatment for is Winnie Mandela. Winnie Madikizela was born on September 26, 1936, in Bizana, a rural village in the Transkei district of South Africa. Winnie moved to Johannesburg in 1953 to study at the Jan Hofmeyr School of Social Work. South Africa was under the system known as apartheid, where citizens of African descent were subjected to a system in which European descendants enjoyed much higher levels of wealth, health and social freedom. Winnie completed her studies and, though receiving a scholarship to study in America, decided instead to work as the first black medical social worker at Baragwanath Hospital in Johannesburg. She learned her field work of the deplorable state that many of her patients lived in. In the mid 1950s, Winnie met attorney Nelson Mandela, who, at the time, was leader of the African National Congress, an organization with the goal of ending South Africa’s apartheid system of racial segregation. The two married in June 1958, despite concerns from Winnie’s father over the couple’s age difference and Mandela’s political involvements. After the wedding, Winnie moved into Mandela’s home in Soweto.
Arrested for his activities and targeted by the government during his early days of marriage. He was eventually sentenced in 1964 to life imprisonment, leaving Winnie Mandela to raise their two small daughters. Monitored by the government, Winnie Mandela was arrested under the Suppression of Terrorism Act and spent more than a year in solitary confinement, where she was tortured. Upon her release, she continued her activism and was jailed several more times. Then hundreds of students were killed, she was forced by the government to relocate and placed under house arrest. She continued to speak out on black South African economic might and its ability to overturn the system. Winnie was accused of promoting deadly violence when a young boy from her group was murdered by the team she had to protect her. Later, after her husband was released from prison he divorced her and remarried. Winnie never remarried but was later elected president of the women’s league. Winnie was dealing with high levels or stress throughout her life. Trying to gain acceptance from her father at a young age, police raiding her house, her husband being imprisoned for twenty-seven years, raising two children on her own, being moitored by the government, solitary for over a year, continuing activism, and being accused of murder.
In order for her to alleviated some of the stress I recommend that she identifies the true sources of stress, look closely at her habits, attitude, and excuses by making a stress journal. A stress journal can identify the regular stressors in life and the way you deal with them. Each time she feels stressed, I would like for her to keep track of it in the journal. As she keeps a daily log, she will begin to see patterns and common themes. I would like for her to write down: What caused the stress, how she felt, both physically and emotionally, how she acted in response, and what she did to make herself feel better. Then, I would give tips about the four A’s of how to avoid the stressor, adapt to the stressor, accept the stressor, and moving forward after the stressor. Healthy ways to recharge from stress would be to go for a walk, call a good friend, spend time with nature, take a long bath, listen to music, or getting a massage.
Nelson Mandela a Most Admired Hero
Nelson Mandela is one of the best examples of heroes in contemporary times. He devoted his life to end the apartheid in South Africa. His struggle and devotion to this cause was so important that we could say that the international movement of solidarity with the struggle for freedom in South Africa was arguably the biggest social movement the world has seen. Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born on the 18th of July 1918 is a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative, multiracial election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalized racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation.
A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family, Mandela attended Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied law. Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the African National Congress and becoming a founding member of its Youth League.
After the Afrikaner nationalists of the National Party came to power in 1948 and began implementing the policy of apartheid, he rose to prominence in the ANC’s 1952Defiance Campaign, was elected President of the Transvaal ANC Branch and oversaw the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961 but was found not guilty.
Read more: The person I admire essay example
Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the South African Communist Party he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961, leading a bombing campaign against government targets. In 1962 he was arrested, convicted of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial. On 11 February 1990, Nelson Mandela is released from Victor Verster Prison after 27 years spent in jail. Four years later, Mandela is elected the first black President of South Africa. His presidency faces enormous challenges in the post-Apartheid era, including rampantnpoverty and crime. Mandela is particularly concerned about racial divisions between black and white South Africans, which could lead to violence.
The ill will which both groups hold towards each other is seen even in his own security detail where relations between the established white officers, who had guarded Mandela’s predecessors, and the black ANC additions to the security detail, are frosty and marked by mutual distrust. While attending a game of the Springboks, the country’s rugby union team, Mandela recognizes that the blacks in the stadium cheer against their “home” squad, as the mostly-white Springboks represent prejudice and apartheid in their minds. He remarks that he did the same while imprisoned on Robben Island.
Knowing that South Africa is set to host the 1995 Rugby World Cup in one year’s time, Mandela persuades a meeting of the newly black-dominated South African Sports Committee to support the Springboks. He then meets with the captain of the Springboks rugby team, François Pienaar, and implies that a Springboks victory in the World Cup will unite and inspire the nation. Mandela also shares with François a British poem, “Invictus, which had inspired him during his time in prison. François and his teammates train. Many South Africans, both black and white, doubt that rugby will unite a nation torn apart by some 50 years of racial tensions. For many blacks, especially the radicals, the Springboks symbolize white supremacy.
Both Mandela and Pienaar, however, stand firmly behind their theory that the game can successfully unite the South African country. Things begin to change as the players interact with the fans and begin a friendship with them. During the opening games, support for the Springboks begins to grow among the black population. By the second game, the whole country comes together to support the Springboks and Mandela’s efforts. Mandela’s security team also grows closer as the various officers come to respect their comrades’ professionalism and dedication. The Springboks surpass all expectations and qualify for the final against The All Blacks—South Africa’s arch-rivals. New Zealand and South Africa were universally regarded as the two greatest rugby nations, with the Springboks being the only side to have a winning record against the All Blacks up to this point.
The first test series between the two countries in 1921 was the beginning of an intense rivalry, with emotions running high whenever the two nations met on the rugby field. Before the game, the Springbok team visits Robben Island, where Mandela spent the first 18 of 27 years in jail. François Pienaar mentions his amazement that Mandela “could spend thirty years in a tiny cell, and come out ready to forgive the people who put him there”. Supported by a large home crowd of both races, Pienaar motivates his team. Mandela’s security detail receives a scare when, just before the match, a South African Airways Boeing 747 jetliner flies in low over the stadium. It is not an assassination attempt though, but a demonstration of patriotism, with the message “Good Luck, Bokke” — the Springboks’ Afrikaans nickname — painted on the undersides of the plane’s wings.
The Springboks win the match with a score of 15–12. Mandela and Pienaar meet on the field together to celebrate the improbable and unexpected victory. Mandela’s car then drives away in the traffic-jammed streets leaving the stadium. As Mandela watches the South Africans celebrating together from the car, his voice is heard reciting “Invictus”. Mandela has been a controversial figure for much of his life. Right-wing critics denounced him as a terrorist and communist sympathizer. He nevertheless gained international acclaim for his anti-colonial and anti-apartheid stance, having received more than 250 honors, including the 1993Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Soviet Order of Lenin. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata (“Father”); he is often described as “the father of the nation”.
Nelson Mandela’s Leadership Style
The urge to be an effective leader demands you to become a good manager. When describing the ideal characteristics of a good leader, there are essential skills that a good manger should portray. In this case, it is considered that a good manger should be equipped with human, technical and conceptual skills. These skills are vital in the delivery of organizational services. In addition, such skills will be used to determine the capacity of a manager in the bid to measure one’s effective leadership.
Human skills involve the capability to handle issues that relate to humanity and members of the society. Technical skills are the tailored skills to deliver some efforts based on the available technical facilities. Lastly, conceptual skills cover multiple issues that an organization desires to achieve in the business ventured. Following the integration of these skills in varied dimensions, it is possible to establish the effectiveness in leadership.
As such, it is considered that good managers are effective leaders.
Although the term leadership and management are interchangeably used when referring to people spearheading organizations or a group of people, they distinctly imply different forms of overseeing people. Leadership involves the incorporation of creativity and innovation in leading people to partake in something that can be believed to be useful for all lives. On the other hand, management involves the understanding of an organizational vision and mission, which allow one guide it as per the formulated plans. Since these two concepts are vital for any organization, one should be a good manager to be an effective leader. This demands the understanding of what makes one a good manger to achieve the attributes of an effective leader. In this essay, I will discuss one of the great leader Mr. Nelson Mandela. His direction and leadership style has given freedom to South African people.
Effective Leader – Nelson Mandela
In the twenty first century, leaders are required to build a greater impression in which people believe in strategy, trust in management decisions, and trust in their work. Once people believe in management choice, there will be enthusiasm inside an organization. Such an environment helps the organization growing or flourish. A doing well leaders create a surroundings in cooperation inside and outside the organization. (Subir chowdbhury management, 21c financial times prentice hall (2000). The world hopeful in political leaders but unfortunately, a few of live up to the leadership main beliefs and values. In fact, a lot of political leaders seem to severely be deficient in numerous of the majority necessary leadership qualities. This assay will be analyzing on one of African president ever recognized as dedicated leader; who dedicated his entire life fighting for freedom of his nation.
Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei in a small rural community in the easterner cape of South Africa. On 18th July 1918 and named Nelson by one of his teachers, Mandela led the struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa against racial discrimination. As well-known as a democratic leader he was incarcerated for 27 years. Has been awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1993 and 1994 Nelson Mandela been voted as South Africa first black president. (BBC news-Mandela’s life and times2008) The essay will seem at his behavior, characteristics as leader, and the style of his leadership at last relate his leadership with particular theory of leadership that is transformational leadership model.
Leadership is a function of personal and professional qualities (retrospection), the conception of a vision, structure and satisfying a sense of collective purpose, and make sure carrying out, with strategy and culture as two situational or contextual factors (cannon,2004; gil,2006)
Characteristics traits or personality
Mr. Nelson Mandela Charismatic personality he’s self-determined, sense of humor, integrity, strong minded, intelligence, empathy, self-nelson Mandela charisma encouraged people by changing their goals, values, need beliefs and objective he bring about this change by attempt to south Africa people self-idea specifically make the people feel valued and personal identity the lack of resentment over cruel treatment received. Nelson Mandela spiritual strengths beliefs which show the integrity and willingness never to give up (BBC news – Mandela’s life and times 2008)
As admired leader
Mr. Nelson Mandela as peace maker struggle to reinstate the apartheid rule of South Africa with multi-racial democracy, During the period of his incarceration sacrificed his family were he was absent in nurture of his children or in any feature of everyday life he has been shared with the world for his struggle for a nation not only for an individual or for own individual family. Mr. Nelson Mandela believed that to be a freedom fighter one must suppress many of personal feelings that make one feel separated individual rather than part for the liberation of millions of people, not glory for one individual. (Long walk for freedom chapter 11)
Not all freedom fighter live to see their struggle bring about the change they are fighter for in the life time’s sometimes they set the stage for the next generation to realize the fruits of their labor, social change happening when individual make change a choice to fight for justice and against oppression. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s &ump; teachers’ guide p11)
Nelson Mandela growing up with tribal traditional costumes’ Mr Mandela erudite that listening to others ideas is most important than talk or make own decision without consulting others. Mandela’s ideas about resolving disagreement grew as developed common sense of individuality and vision for leading people. Has combined the tactic and procedure observed from tribal chiefs, formal education and experiences to the ways of ruling parties. Mr. Mandela observed the ways of oppressors and well-known that they did little to dishearten, and in fact give confidence division along with the different tribes or groups of black and Asian South Africans. This taught that leaders might use their power to bring people together or slash apart. (Frontline the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s &ump; teachers’ guide p18.)
Nelson Mandela characterized by nature a peaceful and peace-loving man. But over the conduit of life’s exertion, has been forced to make hard choices in order to realize his final objective of a democratic South Africa. While the ANC’s preliminary policy was one of non-violence, over time felt forced to reconsider its effectiveness and accepted violent behavior as a strategy for achieving goal for a South Africa, once returned to original guiding principle of non-violence has transformed from the period of apartheid government to a democratic rule Nelson Mandela as eventually the beneficiary, along with F.W. Deklerk, in 1993 Nobel Peace Prize. The subsequent year has been nominated as first black president of democratic South Africa. (Frontline; the long walk of Nelson Mandela: viewer’s &ump; teachers’ guide p17)
Style of his leadership
Under the democratic leadership style Where the focuses of leader is more with a group as an entire and better dealings within the group and leadership function are in collective with the part of team. The group member has a greater say in decision making, determination of police implementation of scheme and dealings (Laurie J. Mullins 2005). Democratic leadership as a style whereby the leader persuade an open trusting and follower oriented relationship. Leaders who adopted encouraged followers to establish their own police provided them with a perspective by explaining in advance the procedures for accomplishing the goals and granted the followers independence to commence their own tasks and congratulating them in an objective manner. According to bass (1990) leaders adopting this leadership style were described as caring, considerate, and easy to compromise and they also had a sense of responsibility and attachment to their followers.
Many writers see transformational leadership as the similar thing as charismatic, creative thinker or inspirational leadership for instance, kreitner et al. Refers to a leadership as a transforming workers to pursue organisational goals over personality interest, Charismatic leaders followers by creating modification in their goal, values, needs beliefs and aspirations. Such as a new theory of leadership contain greater than recent years evolved as central to understanding leadership with emphasis on transformational leadership where leader stimulates group to change their motives, beliefs and values and capabilities so to the group own attention and individual goal turn into congruent with organization (Bas 1985).
An important characteristic of this leadership is charisma; and certainly conger and kanungo (1987) include developed leadership theory that particularly focuses on measurement. In bass (1990) transformational leadership as a behavioral procedure of being gain knowledge of management, it’s leadership practice with the purpose of methodical consisting of purposeful and prepared investigate for possible systematic examination and the aptitude to move about resources from areas of slighter to better production, (Bass 1990, P,53-4) the leader attain this simulation in by creating an consciousness of the task of organization and develops group to higher level of ability and potential “ (Mandel and Pherwani 2003, P, 390) furthermore transformational leaders believed to encompass the aptitude to motivate, inspire, and hold up creativity in group.
This become visible to subsist achieved throughout transformational leader illustrate evidence of a high degree of individualized thoughtfulness which “the degree to which leader attends to the group observe and listens to the leaders concern by acting as a counsellor (judge and Piccolo, 2004 P. 755) Transformational leadership theory hold further by management author in the 1980 as method of efficiently carry in relation to organizational change (Avolio et al 1991; Bennis and Nanus, 1985; Tichy and Devanna; 1986 Tichy and Ulrich 1984) these study harassed that transformational leader lend a hand to realign the value and norms (Avolio et al; 1991, P.9) of an organization endorse change. These value and norms are mainly precious while an organization comes across harsh disaster in motivating group in pursuing creative problem solving (Avolio et al; 1991).
Organizational changes achieved throughout transformational leaders creating awareness of the goal and task of the organization, according to Mandel and Phewani (2003) this awareness allow group to appear further than own interest through afterwards benefits the group and eventually the organizational. According to whitehead, for instance the most significant attribute that a high-quality leader inspiring people by create an environment where it’s acceptable for people to make mistakes and gain knowledge of them, rather than what happened in the ancient times which to hold responsibility and punish them. Leading from this position the acquisition of a high level of commitment from their people than mere compliance. Adair argues with the purpose of truthfully inspirational leader should be aware of the spirit surrounded by all people encompass the possible for greatness; inspirational leader connects through the lead, appreciates the potential of others and during trust determination release the powers in others.
Adair refers to the inspired instant acknowledgment and attack of a concise window of opportunity that can take action as an influential means to inspire mutually the leader and the led. (Laurie J. Mullins 2005) Beginning visioning capabilities is an additional leadership skill is normally linked with efficiency. This ability consists of a leader being able to build up a strategic vision (Lombardo and McCauley. 1985 Kouzes and Posner. 1993). Bennis and Thomas conclude that individual achievement is partly connected to a leader’s ability to “come out others in shared sense” and that effective leaders are able to “mobilize workers” in a “distinct and convincing voice” (Bennis and Thomas, 2002 P 39). In addition to visioning skills Kotter (1996) recognized align and communicating way, motivating and inspiring workforce and producing useful change as significant leadership skills to be acquired. clearly goal achievement is moreover important (Boyatzis, 1982) on the other hand performance needs to be redirected toward strategic skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988) directed at implementing a vision (Hitt, 1988), rather than excessively focusing on technical skills (Lombardo and McCauley, 1988)
According to Burns (2002) leaders must keep people focused on core values and mission and encourage continuous transformation of the organization as a means of pursuing its core mission. Fundamental to system-control thinking is an idea of the chase of clear organizational goals designer by the manager or leader who then motivates others to act in ways which will achieve these goals. It is suggested that this difficult for a number of reasons. Such ways of thinking about leadership based upon a unitary view of organization and are thus motivated to act in ways that will ensure the understanding of such goals. Both transformational and charismatic leadership theories can be seen to uphold unitary assumptions. Essential to Bass’s theory the view of subordinates transcending self-happiness for the goals of the organization, with Bas and Avolio (1994, p 3) for instance suggesting that “the (transformational) leader creates clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet up and likewise Conger and Kanango (1987).
Although Bass and Avolio (1994) acknowledge that followers hold a various set of views, desires and aspirations, they suggest that through the use of inspirational motivation the leader talented to support diverse followers around a vision. Thus there remains a belief that high consensus can be achieved and thus conflict, negotiation and politics that are predictable in organizations tend to be marginalized remarkably, Barker (1997) remind of Burns’s (1978) definition of leadership which emphasizes leadership as a practice which occurs within a context of competition and conflict. Interesting Bass’s theory of transformational leadership has built upon Burns’s work and thus far downplay important dimension. The following comment from a manager study highlights the realism of conflicting organizational goals. Managers in revision moreover often described the challenges in working with others who assumed very different views and the requirement of politic king to build support for facts: This would seem to advise a slightly different reality to ideas of consensus, cohesion and willing self-sacrifice for the greater high-quality.
Moderately suggests an added complex, untidy realism where conflicts of interest succeed and as such the manager should occasionally behave in uncomfortable ways to persuade others of individual viewpoints. It may be argued that assumptions of a unitary organization might simplify the reality that found organization are somehow set and once achieved the work of the leader done. Again this seen to simplify the case. (Conger and Kanungo, 1987 p.46).reliable with systems-control thinking theories of transformational and charismatic leadership present an individualistic conception of leadership, since the forces on the leader as special person. Indeed there center on a talented individual apparently possession of almost phenomenal, magical powers that may perhaps seen to hypnotize group to act in conduct wanted by the leader. Words such as extraordinary unconventional and heroic characterize a description of leader behaviors.
Bass (1985) p.47,48) for instance, highlights the extraordinariness of transformational, charismatic leader suggesting that the unusual vision of charismatic leaders that makes it possible for them to observe around corners stems from greater freedom from internal conflict while the normal manager is a continuing victim of their self-doubts and personal traumas . Alimo-Metcalfe et al (2002) argued that new theory of leadership create dangerous myths since they create a view of leadership unapproachable to the majority usual mortals. Further, the thought that a leader should in several method gifted shows a weakening to accepted wisdom of leadership as an instinctive ability and as such suggests slight completed through way of teaching leadership indeed, in own employment found several managers who apparent leadership as an inspirational gift and therefore attempts to teach leadership were seen as limited.
A leadership in an attempt study explore the style used in large scale to find out the outcome styles in terms of extra effort effectiveness and satisfaction among employees A transformational leader move up levels of understanding and consciousness about the meaning of value of necessary result s and habits of attainment encourage offering up personality interest for the sake of the group or organization. Leadership related directly to organization task and objectives. Transformational leadership develop inspired way surroundings and creating a mutual vision that is clear and hopeful to employees. Leaders strength necessitates make over corporate strategic objectives into an individually concerned vision to motivate and convince reluctant workers of its value. The glowing communicated vision and ambition vital constituent of expecting new behaviors and new instructions for an organization and its employees.
Bell, Myrtle P. (2001). Diversity in organizations.
Koonce, Richard. (2001). Redefining diversity. It’s not just the right thing to do; it also makes good business sense. Kreitner, Robert, and Cassidy Carlene M. (2011). Management. Managing Diversity. Liopis, Glen. (2011). Diversity Management is the Key to growth: Make it Authentic. Retrieved from
Organizational Behavior Invictus
Invictus is a film based on Nelson Mandela’s life during the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa. The film tells the inspiring true story of how Nelson Mandela joined forces with the captain of South Africa’s rugby team to help unite their country. Morgan Freeman holding as a South African leader Nelson Mandela, whose recently been released from nearly 30 years of captivity in a tiny cell.
He was been elected and become his country president. He believes one way to achieve a reunite country and racial reconciliation is through the success of the national Springboks rugby team, which is captain by Francois Pienaar.
South Africa is hosting the 1995 World Cup Rugby Event and the Springboks team automatically qualifies for that.
With help from Francois Pienaar, Mandela believes he can rally the entire country behind the team, especially if it does well in the tournament. This story portrays how this great leader manages and use his unexpected weapon to achieve his goals.
2.Issue and problem revealed in the movie.
i – Sport is universal for all races, perspective are able to change and healing is able to take place; Rugby was to the white South African as a source of both pride and humiliation. The green and gold strip jersey of the national team which is “The Springboks” was honored by fan. As newly elected leader, Nelson Mandela responsibilities to tackle the pain and dispute that had been caused and reconcile the nation. In a widely discouraged political moved, Mandela focused on gaining support for the very team that represented Apartheid.
It was Mandela that recognized the power of sport as a medium for political and social change as well become symbol of hope and reconciliation. In this movie it can realize that although the white and black people used sports as a tool through which to build community and have fun, the racial and social boundaries of Apartheid prevent them from integrating.
Nationalism is usually formed around literature and film, but it can also be formed around victories and loses. A sport isn’t just something men compete in to show off their muscles or how much talent they have. It’s a powerful tool that brings people together whether their realize it or not. Sports bring communities together. It is not just an individual watching and cheering a team on but a nation.
In this movie, Nelson Mandela sees the opportunity to turn the South African rugby team into so much more than a show of manliness and he turns them into a symbol of inspiration for a country and changes the entire meaning of the sport. He reunites his country and give them the hope they need in order to forgive past wrongdoing and come together as a nation through rugby. In this movie, President Mandela and rugby team captain Francois Pienaar work together to unite South Africa and all its races together through the sport of rugby. A sports game give people a common cause.
It gives them something to talk about, cheer and celebrate. They are cheering for one national team that represent everybody and every race. Through the victories and losses of the team, people unite. They have something to relate to that familiar to both parties and not just one race. They forgot what color everybody is and just focus on the team that represents their nation. This kind of solidarity can only be brought out by sports. Mandela capitalizes on this and uses the World Cup to bring about nationalism to a country on the brink of civil war. By the end of the movie, there are two different rugby teams.
One team represent a disconnected racist South Africa and the other represents a united country celebrating not just personal victory but a national as well. There is a scene where Mandela ask Francois about how do they will inspire the nation and everyone around them. The answer is leading by example. If Mandela cannot forgive his white prison guards, how he can expect his country to forgive and reconcile each other.
The same goes with the rugby team. The team is only able to connect and withstand when they go into the slums and meet with a group of black children and teach them how to play rugby. By personally teaching the children and showing them that the sport is universal for all races, perspective are able to change and healing is able to take place. ii – People have a life-long need for forgiveness, reconciliation and healing. Forgiveness being a way to not only change individual hearts but turn around a whole society.
In the film, Freeman as Nelson Mandella says to his head of security, “Forgiveness liberates the soul… that is why it is such a powerful weapon.” Forgiveness is not only liberates the individual soul but it can turn around the soul of a nation. It’s not a magic bullet that always and everywhere works but, it is a powerful force of the spirit that should be tried more often than it is. Forgiveness is hard work, requires a steely commitment to make reconciliation happen at the deepest and realistic levels, and filters down from a leader to the people.
“Glory and Hope” by Nelson Mandela Analysis
Nelson Mandela gave a speech at his inauguration as president of the Democratic Republic of South Africa on May 10, 1994. His speech is named “Glory and Hope”, which hints at the content of it. In “Glory and Hope”, Nelson Mandela expresses his gratitude towards those who had aided them thus far and reminds everybody of the hardships they suffered, their successes, and their goals for the future. Mandela also tries to communicate the message that cooperation had brought them hope and to their glory and hopes to continue to do so.
He conveys his appreciation and message through his word choice, tone, sentence structure, and use of rhetorical devices. Nelson Mandela’s word choice helps him convey his gratitude towards the audience and message that they must continue to work together to build and better society. He begins by addressing his audience with “Your Majesties, Your Highnesses, Distinguished Guests, Comrades and Friends”. His audience comprised kings, queens, important government officials, and so on.
However, through his word choice, Mandela is able to bring a sense of belonging and togetherness, regardless of their race, age, gender, and position. He uses words like “compatriots”, “we”, and “us”, making the audience feel and realize that they are all human beings and therefore equals in such a sense. Mandela uses tone and sentence structure to communicate his main message and express how thankful he is. His tone is appreciative, formal, hopeful, and passionate. Mandela constantly expresses his thanks to those who aided them. Near the end of the speech, he is also hopeful and passionate about their newfound freedom, equality, and democratic government. Mandela says “We are both humbled and elevated by the honour and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist South Africa, to lead our country of the valley of darkness.”
While Mandela’s tone is appreciative, hopeful, and passionate, he is also able to keep his speech formal. In addition to tone, Mandela’s sentence structure contributes to both tone and conveying his message. He uses lengthy sentences with occasional short and clipped sentences to emphasize a certain point. Mandela says “The time for the healing of wounds has come. The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come. The time to build is upon us.”
Rhetorical Analysis: Nelson Mandela’s Inagural Speech
On May 10, 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected South Africa’s first black President, in that country’s first truly democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist and as a direct result ended up spending twenty-seven years in prison. He became a symbol of freedom and equality, while the apartheid government condemned him. After his release in February, 1990, he helped lead the transition into a multi-racial democracy for South Africa. The purpose of this communication is to look at Mandela’s effectiveness in his inaugural speech, which occurred May 10th, 1994 in Pretoria, through both the written speech as well as his presentation of that speech .
Mandela uses primarily the channels of ethos (character) and pathos (emotion). Through careful examination of both Mandela’s written work (his speech) and his actual presentation of that speech, I believe that Mandela’s written speech is a very effective piece of communication and thus argument. On the other hand, the way that Mandela presents and argues it, although effective, has its flaws.
Mandela’s written speech is eloquently written, in flowing sentences with dramatic and convincing language. His writing is uses many analogies. These are effective because it brings almost a third dimension to his speech. For example, “each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld.” Here he uses not only an analogy, but also relates it intimately towards the people of South Africa. Not only here, but through his writing he relates well to the people of South Africa (his audience) well. He speaks directly to them in fact, identifying himself as one of them.
This can be seen through Mandela referring to himself as “I” and to his audience not just in the informal, “you,” to break down a barrier, but in the very personal, “we,” thus including himself, and making himself a part of. This draws him closer to his audience through making his audience feel closer to him. Everything is an Argument talks about this, in Chapter 3, Arguments Based on Character, “Speaking to readers directly, using I or you, for instance, also enables you to come closer to them when that strategy is appropriate.” Through the use of analogies and his relation to the audience Mandela does two things; one establishes his credibility with his audience by becoming one with them, and two inspires them by touching their heart.
Another rhetorical device that Mandela uses which makes his writing effective is anaphora. Defined by americanrhetoric.com, this device is, “repetition that occurs when the first word or set of words in one sentence, clause, or phrase is/are repeated at or very near the beginning of successive sentences, clauses, or phrases; repetition of the initial word(s) over successive phrases or clauses.” One example of this device being used in by Mandela in this speech is, “Let there be justice for all. Let there be peace for all. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all. Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves.” Here is another example of this device being used, “Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world.” In both examples this is effective because on top of the strong ideas and sentiment being proposed, due to the repetition, it is being almost branded into the audiences head.
I have watched Mandela present this speech several times , watching for what I believe are his strengths and weaknesses in making this a more effective argument. When Mandela speaks, there is hardly any inflection in his voice. However, simultaneously the tone of his voice does command respect from his audience. While Mandela speaks, he also uses no hand gesture, or gesture of any other form at all, nor makes any sustained eye contact at all. He holds his speech notes in his hand, and that is all, referring from notes and looking briefly at his audience, pausing and then looking back at his notes. One might say that this detracts from the effectiveness of his speech, in this reviewer’s opinion, I do not necessarily know if that is truth. I am not sure whether or not Mandela’s performance adds much to the written work, I think it is the fact that the speech is written so well that makes this speech such a top-notch argument and piece of communication; however I do not think that anything that Mandela does or does not do takes away.
While watching Mandela present his speech something that this reviewer also paid attention to was how his audience received Mandela which speaks loudly to the effectiveness. The audience seems excited to receive not only Mandela’s speech, but also Mandela the man. This means that Mandela’s argument has been persuasive; he has sold himself! Overall, I believe that Mandela’s speech is an effective argument and has written and presented an effective piece of communication. He has done this through these methods: using rhetorical devices, using pathos and ethos to get in touch with his audience, knowing his audience and thus knowing how to relate to and with them.
University of Pennsylvania – African Studies Center
< http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Inaugural_Speech_17984.html >
YouTube – Nelson Mandela’s Inaugural Speech
AmericanRhetoric: Rhetorical Devices in Sound
< http://www.americanrhetoric.com/rhetoricaldevicesinsound.htm >
Wikipedia – the free encyclopedia. Nelson Mandela
< http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela >
Lunsford, Andrea and John J. Ruszkiewicz. Everything’s An Argument. Boston: Bedford, 2007.
Nelson Mandela Inauguration Speech Analysis
All inaugural addresses use tools of rhetoric. Nelson Mandela gave an inaugural address. Therefore, Mandela’s inaugural address uses tools of rhetoric. As stated by Campbell and Jamieson, “inauguration is a right of passage, and therefore creates a need for the newly elected president to make a public address – these addresses have a synthetic core in which certain rhetorical elements … are fused into an indivisible whole” (1990). This paper will discuss the often subtle but effective tools of rhetoric used in inaugural addresses, focusing on former South African President Nelson Mandela’s, in particular.
I will argue that the creation of unity is the overriding rhetorical purpose of the inaugural address as a genre, which is synonymous with Burke’s theory of identification To begin with, I will provide some background information on the inaugural address as a rhetorical genre. Following this, I will discuss the positions of the author and audience (the rhetorical situation), and relate these positions to Aristotle’s concept of ethos and pathos; I will go on to analyze the appeals and tropes exercised by Mandela in his inaugural address; all of these rhetorical elements, I will argue, construct unity and persuade the people of South Africa to take their first steps towards reunification.
The inaugural address can be considered a rhetorical genre, as it is a recognizable kind of speech with “similar forms that share substantive, stylistic, and situational characteristics” (Tarvin, 2008). The inaugural address is ceremonial and traditional in nature, and can be characterized by Aristotelian theorists as epideictic oratory, which is oratory that takes place on special occasions; the author “celebrates the event for an audience of … fellow citizens by appealing to common values and cultural traditions” (Killingsworth, 2005). The speech symbolizes a change in government, and is the newly elected President’s first official public address. Corbett and Connors have observed that “inaugural addresses usually deal in broad, undeveloped generalizations. Principles, policies, and promises are enunciated without elaboration” (1999), while Sigelman points out that presidents “typically use the occasion to commemorate the nation’s past, to envision its future, and to try to set the tone for [following] years” (1996). Campbell and Jamieson define five key elements that distinguish the inaugural address as a genre.
The presidential inaugural: “unifies the audience by reconstituting its members as the people, who can witness and ratify the ceremony; rehearses communal values drawn from the past; sets forth the political principles that will govern the new administration; and demonstrates through enactment that the president appreciates the requirements and limitations of executive functions. Finally, each of these ends must be achieved … while urging contemplation not action, focusing on the present while incorporating past and future, and praising the institution of presidency and the values and form of the government of which it is a part (Campbell and Jamieson, 1990). Note that unification of the audience (which is synonymous with Burke’s theory of identification) constitutes the “most fundamental [element] that demarcate[s] the inaugural address as a rhetorical genre” (Sigelman, 1996), which is the overriding argument of this paper. I would also like to point out the three main positions in any piece of rhetoric, as stated by Killingsworth (2005): the position of the author (Mandela, for the purpose of this essay), the position of the audience (immediate and secondary audiences), and the position of value to which the author refers (the unity of whites and blacks).
The author’s rhetorical goal is to move the audience towards his position via a shared position of values, which results in the alignment of the three positions (author, audience, and value). Therefore, Mandela’s rhetorical goal is to move his immediate and secondary audience of both supporters and critics towards his position as the newly elected black President of South Africa by the shared goal of unification of all races within the nation. Put another way, Kenneth Burke, in his work “A Rhetoric of Motives”, describes the basic function of rhetoric as the “use of words by human agents to form attitudes or induce actions in other human agents” (1969). In order to align attitudes of author, audience, and value, or in order to form attitudes to induce action in other human agents, the first consideration in the construction of the speech must be the audience. Before I discuss audience though, I will talk about the position of Mandela – the author of the inaugural address in question.
Corbett and Connors (1999) point out that when doing a rhetorical analysis, one must always consider the special situation that faces the speaker. Nelson Mandela was elected as the first black president in South Africa on May 10th, 1994; this election was particularly significant because it was the first ever multi-racial, democratic election in the country’s history. It also signaled the end of the apartheid (from the Afrikaans word for “apartness” or “separateness”), which was both a slogan and a social and political policy of racial segregations and discrimination, enforced by the White National party from 1948 until Mandela’s election. However, racial segregation has characterized South Africa since white settlers arrived in 1652, before apartheid. Furthermore, Mandela spent 27 years as a political prisoner in South Africa for his role as a freedom fighter and leader of the African National Congress (ANC), and his significant contribution to anti-apartheid activities.
All of these factors established some doubts in Mandela, especially in the minds of white South Africans. Mandela “had to address the very legitimate needs of black South African people while preventing the flight of white South Africans and foreign capital from the nation … [and his inaugural address] needed to [rhetorically] establish the ground from which progress would grow” (Sheckels, 2001). Because of these varying circumstances, the inaugural address might be “an occasion when a powerful ethical appeal would have to be exerted if the confidence and initiatives of the people were to be aroused” (Corbett and Connors, 1999). However, while these factors established doubts in some, they also contributed to Mandela’s ethos, which is defined by Aristotle as the character or credibility of the rhetor. Aristotle claims “It is necessary not only to look at the argument, that it may be demonstrative and persuasive but also [for the speaker] to construct a view of himself as a certain kind of person” (Aristotle in Borchers, 2006). As stated in Killingsworth, “authors demonstrate their character … in every utterance” (2005).
A person who possesses “practical wisdom, virtue, and good will … is necessarily persuasive to the hearers” (Borchers, 2006). Mandela possesses considerable ethos as a result of his personal identity and regional history; his involvement with the ANC, the political party whose aim was to defend the rights and freedoms of African people, and the time he served as a political prisoner demonstrate his dedication to the construction of a democratic nation. One author notes that Mandela serves as a “representative of the African people at large” (Sheckels, 2001). The public’s knowledge of Mandela’s past allows him to establish ethos, which in turn helps him deliver a rhetorically successful inaugural address, which serves in the construction of unity between all people of South Africa. Additionally, as one author points out, ethos “may take several forms – a powerful leader like the President will often have the ethos of credibility that comes from authority” (Tuman, 2010).
While Mandela uses his past to construct ethos, he also gains ethos as South Africa’s newly elected President. Because it was the first ever democratic election, in which his party won 62% of the votes, Mandela gains authority over past South African Presidents; his call to office represents the wants and needs of all people in South Africa, while his predecessors’ did not. Mandela’s accumulated ethos contributes to the persuasive power of his inaugural address, in which he makes his first official attempt as President to establish unity through speech. Next I will discuss the position of the audience. When constructing a speech, the author must first consider who his specific audience is: “consideration of audience drives the creation of an effective persuasive message” (Tuman, 2010). When writing his inaugural speech, which is a form of oral rhetoric, Mandela had to consider both an immediate audience, as well as a secondary audience who would watch the speech through the medium of TV and listen to it on the radio.
The audience consisted not only of South Africans, but of people across the world interested and inspired by this monumental moment in history. Furthermore, Mandela had to consider both listeners who were his supporters and listeners who were his adversaries. Corbett and Connors claim that “the larger and more heterogeneous the audience is, the more difficult it is to adjust the discourse to fit the audience. In his content and his style, the President must strike some common denominator – but [one] that does not fall below the dignity that the occasion demands” (Killingsworth, 2005). One such way that Mandela adjusts his discourse to fit his audience is his choice in diction. While he does engage in the use of tropes and rhetorical appeals, he also uses fairly common language throughout. This is especially important in his situation, as many of his black listeners were denied education by the whites, and thus had limited vocabularies.
While Mandela wanted to reach out to the educated citizens and international guests, he also had to ensure that his less educated listeners were able to grasp his words and thus be affected by the emotionality of his address and persuaded to unite. When analyzing Mandela’s Inaugural address in consideration of audience, we may also note his opening line: “Your Majesties, Your Highnesses, Distinguished Guests, Comrades, and Friends.” Here he acknowledges both the “distinguished international guests,” as well as the people of South Africa: “Comrades and Friends.” Recognizing members of the international and internal audience is a tradition of inaugural addresses with rhetorical value. Kennedy, for example, followed this tradition when he began his inaugural address: “Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, Reverend Clergy, Fellow Citizens,” as did Roosevelt when he began: “Mr. Chief Justice, Mr. Vice President, My Friends” (Wolfarth, 1961).
Additionally, we may note that it is traditional for inaugural addresses to “abound with unity appeals” (Wolfarth, 1961), which unite the president to the citizens of the country for which he reigns. President Jefferson, for example, addressed “Friends and Fellow-Citizens” in his opening line; Pierce opened with “My countrymen;” while Lincoln saluted his “Fellow-Citizens of the United States” in the first lines of his second inaugural address (Wolfarth, 1961). An address containing official salutations as well as unity appeals causes all audiences to identify with the President. We may also note additional unity appeals throughout Mandela’s inaugural address. There is a pervasive use of personal pronouns, such as “we,” “us,” and “our,” along with “symbolically potent terms that embody a sense of collectivity” (Sigelman, 1996), such as “South Africa/Africans” “homeland,” “people,” and “country,” all of which connote community and contribute to the construction of unity. Mandela begins 15 out of 30 sections (as designated in the index) with “we” or “our,” and they constitute 59 of the 893 words in the address (6.6%).
The repetition of the word “we” at the beginning of subsequent sentences is a rhetorical trope called ‘anaphora;’ by using this rhetorical technique, Mandela subtly emphasizes the importance of unity As one author explains, the strategic use of personal pronouns is “one fairly subtle means of transmitting a feeling of unity” (Sigelman, 1996). Appeals to unity follow in Burke’s theory of identification as a means of persuasion or cooperation. By addressing “Comrades and Friends” and using the words “we” and “us” throughout the speech, Mandela is uniting the audience with himself, as well as each other – a “powerful, yet subtle, type of identification … The word ‘we’ reinforces the idea that all of the [listening] community is united in its efforts to accomplish [certain] goals” (Borchers, 2006). The rhetorician who appeals to an audience to the point where identification takes place has accomplished the purpose of his rhetoric (Burke, 1969). Mandela’s use of personal pronouns and terms that embody collectivity construct unity, which is the overriding purpose of both his inaugural address, as well as his Presidency in general.
Mandela’s inaugural address also employs pathos, which is an appeal to the emotions of one’s audience that serves as a persuasive power. Aristotle argued that a speaker must understand the emotions of one’s audience in order to be persuasive (Borchers, 2006); that is, he must understand his audience’s state of mind, against whom their emotions are directed, and for what sorts of reasons people feel the way they do, in order to connect emotionally with them. Mandela’s inauguration was an emotional day for the people of South Africa and the world, because it represented a shift towards democracy, equality, and freedom for all people. One author notes that “Mandela’s first presidential address before the newly constituted South African Parliament lifted South Africa from the realm of imaginary democracy into a state of actual democratic practice and was a self-referential act of bringing opposing parties together.
The [inauguration] speech was the first example of reconstruction and development after apartheid … in words – and words alone – [Mandela’s] speech reconstitute[d] the nation” (Salazar, 2002). We can see Mandela’s use of pathos throughout his inauguration speech. For example, he refers to the past as an “extraordinary human disaster” (3); he enlists his fellow South Africans to “produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity’s belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all” (4); he discusses “the depth of the pain we all carried in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in a terrible conflict … saw it spurned, outlawed and isolated by the peoples of the world” (9); and he refers to his win as “a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity” (11) and his opponents as “blood-thirsty forces which still refuse to see the light” (14).
Mandela then makes an emotional pledge: “we pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination … we shall build a society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts” (16-18). He then dedicates “this day to all the heroes and heroines … who sacrificed … and surrendered their lives so that we could be free” (20). The rhetorical use of pathos is thick throughout Mandela’s inaugural address. Mandela’s appeals to unity also contribute to the pathos of the speech by inspiring the listeners to join together as one, rather than opposing entities. Mandela concludes with a promise: “never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression … and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world./ Let freedom reign” (28-29). It is also important to note Mandela’s use of what rhetorical scholars have called ‘ideographs,’ which are defined as “high-level abstraction[s] that encapsulate or summarize the definitive principles or ideals of a political culture” (Parry-Giles & Hogan, 2010).
I would like to add that the use of ideographs employs Aristotle’s concept of pathos, as the words are often emotionally laden. Examples of ideographs used in Mandela’s inaugural address include: “liberty” (2); “nobility” (4); “justice” (4, 11, 26); “peace” (11, 26); “human dignity” (11, 18); “freedom” (17, 21, 29); and “hope” (1, 18). Freedom is the most significant ideograph in the speech, as Mandela was a ‘freedom-fighter’ and was ‘freed’ from prison in 1990, which was a major step towards ‘freedom’ for all South Africans. Ideographs, claim rhetorical scholars, “have the potential to unify diverse audiences around vaguely shared sets of meaning” (Parry-Giles & Hogan, 2010). Yet again we are presented with appeals to unity in Mandela’s inaugural address. As discussed, Mandela’s speech provides evidence that he understands his audience’s state of mind (a mixture of apprehension and optimism), against whom their emotions are directed (Mandela himself, as well as the apartheid), and for what sorts of reasons people feel the way they do (change, fear, history, etc.).
Thus, he was able to connect emotionally with his audience, which is Aristotle’s understanding of Pathos. I will continue my analysis of Mandela’s speech with consideration of appeals he makes to place and race. Killingsworth points out that “appeals to race … often work together with appeals to place” (2005). In Mandela’s inauguration speech he says: “Each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld. /Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal. The national mood changes as the seasons change. /We are moved by a sense of joy and exhilaration when grass turns green and the flowers bloom. /That spiritual and physical oneness we all share with this common homeland ….” (6-9). This claim on the land can be thought of as an identification of race with place, or in terms of Kenneth Burke’s dramatism, a ratio between agent and scene, who and where (Killingsworth, 2005). When white settlers arrived in South Africa in the 1600s, they began displacing indigenous black inhabitants from their homeland, pushing them onto “less desirable terrain where water was comparatively scarce, grazing poor and agricultural conditions harsh” (Horrell, 1973).
Apartheid made the separation of blacks with their homeland even more acute with the implementation of designated group areas, in which blacks were relocated to slums and townships, separate from whites. Hook, in Killingsworth, claims that “collective black self-recovery can only take place when we begin to renew our relationship to the earth, when we remember the way of our ancestors” (2005). Mandela’s appeals to race and place in his inaugural address advocate collective self-recovery, and, as a byproduct, unity. Burke notes that “rhetors who feature the scene see the world as relatively permanent … [and] rhetors who features the agent see people as rational and capable of making choices” (Borchers, 153). By featuring both scene and agent, it is evident that Mandela sees the physical geography of South Africa as unchanging, and also sees that the people who inhabit South Africa have the power to choose to unite on that shared territory.
Unity is the underlying theme of Mandela’s inaugural address as well as his presidency: the unity of white and black people; the dissolution of apartheid and its associated segregation; the reunification of native South Africans with their homeland; and the unification of South Africa with the rest of the free democratic world. “When [Mandela] took up the reins of power in 1994, the world was holding its breath, expecting the racial tensions splitting the country to explode into a blood bath. Instead, the world witnessed a miracle. Mandela’s achievement is colossal” (Davis, 1997). Mandela’s inaugural address served as an instrument of reunification and produced an atmosphere of stability from which the new system of government could go forward.
Your Majesties, Your Highnesses, Distinguished Guests, Comrades and Friends:
Today, all of us do, by our presence here, and by our celebrations in other parts of our country and the world, confer glory and hope to newborn liberty. Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long, must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud. Our daily deeds as ordinary South Africans must produce an actual South African reality that will reinforce humanity’s belief in justice, strengthen its confidence in the nobility of the human soul and sustain all our hopes for a glorious life for all. All this we owe both to ourselves and to the peoples of the world who are so well represented here today. To my compatriots, I have no hesitation in saying that each one of us is as intimately attached to the soil of this beautiful country as are the famous jacaranda trees of Pretoria and the mimosa trees of the bushveld. Each time one of us touches the soil of this land, we feel a sense of personal renewal.
The national mood changes as the seasons change. We are moved by a sense of joy and exhilaration when the grass turns green and the flowers bloom. That spiritual and physical oneness we all share with this common homeland explains the depth of the pain we all carried in our hearts as we saw our country tear itself apart in a terrible conflict, and as we saw it spurned, outlawed and isolated by the peoples of the world, precisely because it has become the universal base of the pernicious ideology and practice of racism and racial oppression. We, the people of South Africa, feel fulfilled that humanity has taken us back into its bosom, that we, who were outlaws not so long ago, have today been given the rare privilege to be host to the nations of the world on our own soil. We thank all our distinguished international guests for having come to take possession with the people of our country of what is, after all, a common victory for justice, for peace, for human dignity.
We trust that you will continue to stand by us as we tackle the challenges of building peace, prosperity, non-sexism, non-racialism and democracy. We deeply appreciate the role that the masses of our people and their political mass democratic, religious, women, youth, business, traditional and other leaders have played to bring about this conclusion. Not least among them is my Second Deputy President, the Honorable F.W. de Klerk. We would also like to pay tribute to our security forces, in all their ranks, for the distinguished role they have played in securing our first democratic elections and the transition democracy, from blood-thirsty forces which still refuse to see the light. The time for the healing of the wounds has The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has The time to build is upon us.
We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discrimination. We succeeded to take our last steps to freedom in conditions of relative peace. We commit ourselves to the construction of a complete, just and lasting peace. We have triumphed in the effort to implant hope in the breasts of the millions of our people. We enter into a covenant that we shall build the society in which all South Africans, both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity–a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world.
As a token of its commitment to the renewal of our country, the new Interim Government of National Unity will, as a matter of urgency, address the issue of amnesty for various categories of our people who are currently serving terms of imprisonment. We dedicate this day to all the heroes and heroines in this country and the rest of the world who sacrificed in many ways and surrendered their lives so that we could be free. Their dreams have become reality. Freedom is their reward.
We are both humbled and elevated by the honor and privilege that you, the people of South Africa, have bestowed on us, as the first President of a united, democratic, non-racial and non-sexist South Africa, to lead our country out of the valley of darkness. We understand it still that there is no easy road to freedom. We know it well that none of us acting alone can achieve success. We must therefore act together as a united people, for national reconciliation, for nation building, for the birth of a new world. Let there be justice for all.
Let there be peace for all.
Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all.
Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed
to fulfill themselves. Never, never and never again shall it be that this beautiful land will again experience the oppression of one by another and suffer the indignity of being the skunk of the world.
Let freedom reign.
The sun shall never set on so glorious a human achievement! God bless Africa!
Borchers, T. (2006). Rhetorical theory: An introduction. Waveland Press Inc.: Illinois Burke, K. 1969. A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley: University of California Press. Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbo1ic action: Essays on life, literature, and method. Berkeley: University of California Press. Campbell, K.K. & Jamieson, K.H. (1990). Deeds done in words: Presidential rhetoric and the genres of governance. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Corbett, E.P.J. & Connors, R.J. (1999) Classical rhetoric for the modern student. Oxford University Press: New York. Davis, G. (1997, July 18). No ordinary magic. Electronic Mail & Guardian [On-line]. Available: http://www.mg.co.za/mg/news/97jul2/18JUL-mandels.html . Horrel, M. (1973). The African homelands of South Africa. USA: University of Michigan. Ali-Dinar, A.B. (1994). Inaugural speech, Pretoria [Mandela]. University of Pennsylvania: African studies center. Retrieved from http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/Inaugural_Speech_17984.html Killingsworth, M.J. (2005). Appeals in modern rhetoric: An ordinary-language approach. Southern Illinois University Press. Parry-Giles, S.J. & Hogan, J.M. (2010). The handbook of rhetoric and public address. United Kingdome: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Salazar, P.J. (2002). An African Athens: Rhetoric and the shaping of democracy. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. Sheckels, T.F. (2001). The rhetoric of Nelson Mandela: A qualified success. Howard Journal of Communications, Vol 12-2. Sigelman, L. (Jan-Mar 1996). Presidential inaugurals: The modernization of a genre. Political Communication. Vol 13-1. South Africa’s political parties. SouthAfrica.info. Retrieved from http://www.southafrica.info/about/democracy/polparties.htm Tarvin, D. (2008). Vincent Fox’s inaugural address: A comparative analysis between the generic characteristics of the United States and Mexico. Retrieved from http://lsu.academia.edu/DavidTarvin/Papers/687161/Vicente_Foxs_Inaugural_Addr
ess_A_Comparative_Analysis_Between_the_Generic_Characteristics_of_the_United_States_and_Mexico Tuman, J.S. (2010). Communicating terror: The rhetorical dimensions of terrorism. San Francisco: Sage Publications. Wolfarth, D.L. (April 1961). John F. Kennedy in the tradition of inaugural speeches. Quarterly journal of speech, Vol. 47-2. Additional Works Referenced
Foss, S.K. (2004). Rhetorical criticism: Exploration & practice. Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc. Hart, R.P. & Daughton, S. (2005). Modern rhetorical criticism: Third edition. USA: Pearson Education, Inc. Kuypers, J.A. (2005). The art of rhetorical criticism. USA: Pearson Education Inc. Lacy, M.G. & Ono, K.A. (2011). Critical rhetorics of race. New York: New York University Press
The 1987 Movie Cry Freedom
The 1987 movie Cry Freedom is a film by acclaimed director Richard Attenborough whose most recent project then was the 1982 award-winning film, Gandhi. The general theme of the film is South Africa’s policy of apartheid and the plot centers on the life of one of South Africa’s prominent activists, Stephen Biko (played by Denzel Washington), the leader of the South African Black Conciousness Movement. Biko was the contemporary of Nelson Mandela who was also an activist being the leader of the African National Congress (ANC) and was imprisoned at the time.
The film covers the conditions black Africans had to live under apartheid and how Biko led the movement to oppose it, which made him the target for persecution by the authorities and eventually leading to his arrest and death while in police custody in 1977. The story for the film is based on two books written by Donald Woods who was a close friend of Biko, titled Biko and Asking for Trouble.
Woods is a white South African of English descent which is different from the other half who were descendants of the early Dutch settlers called Boers, and later Afrikaaners.
The latter was the one that became very influential in the politics of South Africa and were instrumental in the implementation of apartheid. The whites of English descent, called “rooineks” by the Afrikaaners were regarded to be more liberal compared to them when it came to relationships with blacks. When South Africa was granted its independence from Britain, the conservative South African National Party came to power and one of its first acts was to implement the policy of apartheid in 1948 although this had been the norm since South Africa was still a British colony.
Even Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi, who had lived and worked in South Africa for nearly 20 years, experienced the cruelty of apartheid which prompted him to begin his passive resistance movement, beginning in South Africa before taking it to India where it would gain ground. Apartheid was a policy that was akin to the policy of segregation in the United States prior to the civil rights movement of the 1960’s. In comparison, both policies emphasize separation of races, having their own facilities and institutions.
There would be separate housing for blacks and whites as well as schools and commercial establishments that cater exclusively for their respective races. The difference was that segregation emphasized “separate but equal” which was an attempt to make the marginalization of blacks legal in the United States without violating the Constitution since the blacks had already been emancipated from slavery in 1863. Segregation was an attempt by whites who still could not see blacks as their peers as a means to put them in their place by keeping them separate from their communities.
Apartheid takes segregation a notch higher by not only separating the blacks, but totally denying them opportunities to better their lives as a way of keeping them inferior. The best schools and jobs were exclusively for whites only while blacks were limited to taking menial jobs or if ever any of them would get a white-collar job, they would be limited to clerical work with no chance of moving up the career ladder. The rationale behind this was the whites in South Africa, both English and Afrikaaner, were the minority in terms of population as compared to the blacks.
The whites feared being dominanted by the people whom they used to dominate during the colonial period and sought to continue the status quo by implementing apartheid. Under apartheid, blacks were confined to living in slums or townships. They were required to carry a “passport” at all times whenever they travel outside their township. As stated before, they were denied the opportunities that would have enabled them to improve their lives they have their own schools but the quality was not at par with those of the whites. The same was also true with jobs and careers.
Anyone who would dare oppose the system would be subject to persecution. Black townships would often protest and the response would be forceful with the police using tear gas and batons to subdue them. The authorities felt that force was the only language the blacks understood and felt it was necessary to use such repressive measures notwithstanding the criticism and condemnation they were getting from the rest of the world. In the case of Stephen Biko, he was “banned. ” He was forbidden to be in the same room with more than one other person outside his immediate family, forbidden to write anything for public or private consumption.
Furthermore, he was not allowed to leave his defined banning area, and was confined to his township. Since he was considered “subversive,” he was constantly monitored by the authorities and somehow, Biko was able to outwit the authorities sometimes like on one scene, the authorities were searching for subversive documents Biko may have had in his possession but were unsuccessful in finding it after he hid them in his baby’s diaper (Attenborough, 1987). It was in the midst of this situation that Biko met and befriended Woods (played by Kevin Kline).
Woods was then the editor of the Daily Dispatch newspaper in Pretoria. At first, he was critical of Biko’s views and actions in his newspaper but is prevailed upon to meet with him personally. Biko invited Woods to visit a black township to see the impoverished conditions and to witness the effect of apartheid on “his” (Biko) people. After seeing first-hand the cruelty of apartheid, Woods begins to sympathize with Biko’s desire for a South Africa where blacks would be equals to the whites. This was why Biko refused to be silent despite the ban imposed upon him.
He could not afford and did not like to sit still and let the situation go on. Like Mandela, although both of them were opposites in the movement in terms of ideology, something had to be done and somebody had to stand up and make a statement and with little regard for his safety and the consequences, he dared to stand up to the government. It was at this point that the two men became very close friends. Biko was arrested on August 1977 at a checkpoint in violation of Terrorism Act 83 and was promptly brought to a police station where he was interrogated vigorously by the police.
As they were transporting him to Pretoria, he died upon arrival and his death was written off by the police as suicide, the result of a hunger strike he went through. The moment, he heard of Biko’s death, Woods took it upon himself to expose the truth behind his death. Woods did not buy into the suicide story being released by the authorities. He met the South African Minister of Justice James Kruger. It turned out later on that he was not getting anywhere as the authorities were being uncooperative and his efforts to expose the truth made him the target of persecution by the government as well.
Woods was also banned in the similar manner as Biko and he and his family were harassed by the police. After the police go too far and his daughter was harmed, Woods and his family fled South Africa by first hiking to Lesotho, disguised as a priest. From there he flew to Botswana for the next leg of his trek to freedom and finally arriving in England, where he lived until 1994 (Attenborough, 1987). When apartheid was finally abolished, he returned to South Africa where he spent the remaining years of his life until 2001 when he passed away.
When the movie was made, this was still at the time when apartheid was still in force in South Africa. The film was practically banned in the country and even during the making of the movie, it had to be shot in another counrty. Another thing worth noting about the movie was that Biko worked with the ANC though he did not see eye to eye with Mandela and other leaders. This was rather ironic in the sense that after his death, he became a martyr and a rallying point of the ANC who used his name and image to further their cause in opposing apartheid.
Where he was a non-entity in South Africa during the apartheid years, he was given posthumous recognition as one of South Africa’s heroes. In comparison to other films related to South Africa, Cry Freedom is closer in plot to an earlier film titled Come Back, Africa which was released in 1960. The film also depicted apartheid during that period and because the government was so repressive, the film was clandestinely shot and made use of non-professional actors. In one scene of this movie, a black township was wiped out to make way for a white subdivision, further underscoring the inequality and injustice of the apartheid regime.
Another movie set in South Africa, The Gods Must Be Crazy, made in 1980, was more humorous. There is hardly any serious political undertones in this movie as it focuses more on a bushman’s journey to a world that is completely alien to him. This movie tends to show the difference between the “primitive” world where Xi (played by Nixau) belongs to which is characterized by simplicity to the world of the whites that is fraught with many complexities brought about by modern technology which appeared to make life more difficult than easier.
In conclusion, Cry Freedom is a very enlightening film which should reveal to people the evils other people would inflict on others. On the other hand, it also shows how people like Steve Biko refused to accept the status quo as it was and strove to make a difference though in his case, he did not live to see it but would be happy nonetheless to see his country free again. Reference List