Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela as a Leader

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Main Facts about Mandela

In the 20th century many countries in Asian and Africa were conquered and colonized by the western nations like Dutch, British, Portuguese, Spaniards and French. South Africa was under the Dutch rule before the minority British took over the government. The white minority exploited the native Africans and got them to do all menial work on their agricultural farms and industrial projects. The natives were treated as inferior to the whites. They were segregated. This racial discrimination was termed apartheid.

The young educated African realizing the gravity of the situation organized themselves to oppose all repressive laws and for their fundamental and human rights. Nelson Mandela was a guiding star of this movement. He was a living embodiment of the ideal and aspiration of the black people. He became a legendary figure in Africa and abroad. Mandela was a man of action, master in underground activities. He cleverly evaded the state police, which earned him the name”Black Pimpernel’. He brought the works, peasant, women and youth in toone united movement to fight for the oppressed and exploited natives. He encouraged his people to continue fighting until they Strive freedom and never giving up until they achieved their goal. On the other hand, as a significant leader, he elevated consciousness of his followers by appealing to their higher ideals and values.

He was sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of treason and sabotage. He served 27 years of his precious life in jail. The white minority government realizing that the black protest movement could no longer be quelled through force lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela from prisons. Mandela shared the Nobel Peace Prize with K W De Klerk for successful negotiations for end the evil of apartheid. He was inaugurated the first black president of South Africa on 10 May 1994.

In this exercise it is discuss about the Leadership qualities of the Nelson Mandela and how he applied the same until South Africa achieved the Freedom from the evil of apartheid and end of his Career.

Leadership Analysis

“It is better to lead from behind and to put others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when nice things occur. You take the front line when there is danger. Then people will appreciate your leadership”. Nelson Mandel

Outline of the Leader

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, a leader of the South Africa Anti-Apartheid movement was born in a village near Umatata in the Transkei on the 18 July 1918. His father, Henry was the chief of the Tembu tribe and had four wives. Chief Henry died when Nelson Mandela was only twelve years old.

He went to aschool of a local missionary. Because of holding anti-government and anti-stateviews at a very young age, Mandela could not remain in the school for very long. He was rusticated and removed from the school. He went to Johannesburg and managed to get a job as a gold mine policeman. While doing the job he followed a correspondence course at University of South Africa and obtained the Degree of Bachelor of Arts. Nelson after studying for his LLB at Witwatersrand University graduated in Law and qualified as a Solicitor.

His political interest and views of resistance were aroused while he listened to elders ofhis tribe in the village. The tribal leaders would relate stories of the pastas to how they used to fight heroic wars in defence of their country, as well as the acts of valour performed by the leaders and soldiers during those epic days. The qualities of leadership and desire of freedom within him aroused the spirit of resistance. He hoped and vowed that he would sacrifice the pleasureof life but he would not lose the opportunity of serving his people by restoring to them the freedom, which they had during the pre-colonial days. In spite of such liberal views, he was not free from the tribal customs. He was circumcised at the age of 16 on the bank of his tribal home. Paramount chief of the Tembuland, who looked after him after the death of his father, married him to fat and dignified girl from a royal family.

During his stay at Johannesburg and at the university, that he felt the agony of racial discrimination and colour bar. He saw men of his colour fighting for equal rights and rights and freedom of movement. At the age of 25, he joined the African National Congress in 1944. When the congress Youth League was formed and the concept of African Nationalism was under transformation, gave Nelson an undeterred opportunity to show his inherent leadership and dedication to the cause for which the ANC was formed. He was one of the accused in the massivetreason trial at the end of 1950s and following the 1960, banning of the ANC, he went underground.

It was during this time that he together with other leaders of the ANC constituted a new specialised from of liberation movement, “Umkhonoto We Sizwe” (spear of the nation), as an armed nucleus with Mandela as its Commander-In-Chief.

The group attempted to drive home the seriousness of their intentions to achieve equalrights for all races in South Africa by attacking government buildings, evading injury to people and for his part in the defiance campaign; Mandela was convicted under the suppression of communism Act and given a suspended prison sentence. Shortly after the campaign ended, he was also prohibited from attending gatherings and confined to Johannesburg for six months.

During the whole of him fifties, Mandela was the victim of various forms of repression. Hewas banned, arrested and imprisoned. After the Sharpeville massacre in 1960, the ANC was outlawed, and Mandela put on trial and detained. The treason trial collapsed in 1961 as South Africa was being steered towards the adaptation of the republic constitution. Mandrel’s activities at the time forced him to hide from South African authorities. In 1962 Mandela left the country illegally andtravelled to several countries. During this trip Mandela, anticipating from south, began to arrange guerrilla training for members of “Umkhonto We Sizwe.” When he return home, the police were tipped off about his hiding place and Mandela was arrested, convicted of incitement to riot and leaving the country without a passport. He was sentenced to five years in Jail.

While inprison doing hard labour he was tried again for his involvement in “Umkhonto We Sizwe”. Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment. In the winter of 1964, Nelson Mandela started his prison years in the notorious Robben Island prison.He spent 18 years out of his 27 prison years in Robben Island. Mandela served just over twenty seven years as a political Prisoner as rest of the world demanded his release. While Mandela was in prison growing anti-apartheid forcesin South Africa argued that he should be freed. Mandela flatly rejected offersmade by his jailers’ remission of sentence and again he rejected an offer ofrelease on condition that he renounces violence.

In July 1989 PW Botha, former president of South Africa met Mandela in prison and in December the same year Botha’s successor, FW de Klerk held an important meeting with Mandela in prison. The very next year Mandela was released and the ban on ANC lifted. He was inaugurated as the first democratically elected State President of South Africa on 10 May 94. He was the country’s first black president. The country’s National Assembly elected him. The assembly had been chosen in South Africa’s first free election in which the blacks were allowed to vote. Blacks won a majority of the Assembly seats. These development marked the beginnings of a new era in South African politics, thus blacks gained control of the government after a long period of white domination.

Leadership Style

There are many leadership styles existing in the modern world. Autocratic, Democratic, Transformational, Facilitative, Transactional, Coaching, Charismatic, Visionary, Laissez-Faire, Cross-Cultural, Strategic Leadership and Team Leadership are some of the common leadership styles highlighted by the business communities in the world. Having perused the life of Mandela it is observed that the the great South African president, applied several types of leadership styles throughout his career with a vision and inspired the others to follow his direction inorder to achieve the goals.

Visionary Leader. Nelson Mandela had avision where he saw an Africa with apartheid being removed and man are being free and equalized. It was this vision that pushed him to do what he should do and it influenced him to trust that regardless he has trust through the theperiod of 27 years in the jail. He never surrendered despite the fact that hewas detained for twenty-seven years previously being chosen to be the presidentof South Africa. Furthermore, he developed and outfitted his country to battle for their rights and in particular their opportunity. He encouraged them to battle against the politically sanctioned racial segregation and also persuading them that they could take care of the mistreatment.

Charismatic Leader. Nelson Mandela honed such style of administration which was affirmed to be extremely effective.While guiding his followers, Nelson Mandela held strong emotional reactions towards them. It was the style which held the trust amongst Mandela and his ANC followers, when Mandela was detained for as long as twenty seven years. In fact, this strong emotional reaction gave them a strong belief that they should continue to fight for apartheid and pledge willing obedience to him.

Transformational Leader. As the Volunteer in Chief of the ANC, Mandela travelled around the country and wastrying to raise people’s awareness and organizing battles against regulation. He encouraged his people to continue fighting until they obtained freedom and never giving up until they achieved their goal. Further, as a significant leader, he elevated consciousness of his followers by appealing to their higher ideals and values. In fact, he also encouraged many to educate themselves because adopting education is the key to success.

Democratic Leader. The primary feature of the democratic style of leadership is the encouragementof the participation of all group members become active stake-holders through the harnessing of their individual talents. Nelson Mandela finally employed a democratic style of leadership, allowing him to facilitate a good communication between South Africa’s many and varied social groups and influence an improvement in his nation’s political situation.

Analyses and Comparisons Between Leadership Styles and Leader Competence Areas

While campaigning for equality, he was ultimately sent to prison where he would spend the next 27 years of his life. He was confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing and was forced to do hard labour. As a political prisoner, he received smaller rations and fewer privileges than other inmates. Further, he had chance to see his wife and two young daughters twice a year. Under this condition also Mandela stayed strong throughout the 27 years.

Nelson Mandela’s speechmaking assumed a keypart in his campaign. He delivered many powerful and significant speeches during his whole carrer. He was an incredible speaker who was familiar and could clear himself well. His addresses were assembled with wonderful words and sentences. In March 1990, two months after his discharge from jail, he delivered a speech to 72,000 personnel at Wembley Stadium in London to obtain supportagainst the politically-sanctioned racial segregation. In a simple but powerful statement he told the crowd “Thank you that you choose to care”.

Mandela was a man who could forgive his enemy. Heeven pardoned those that detained him for a long time. Mandela had a willingness to reach out and connect with people who hated and feared him. Heeven had meals with the man who attempted to kill him. Percy Yutar was thestate prosecutor at the 1964 treachery trial at which Mandela was charged and condemned to hard work 27 years. He demanded the death penalty for Mandela. In 1995, Mandela invited him to dinner where they enjoyed a meal. Mandela said that Yutar had only been doing his job and when asked why he was so willing to forgive, he answered “Hating clouds the mind”.

Nelson Mandela had a sense of humility and always focused on the benefit of others. During the 1995 Rugby World Cup heldat South Africa, he encouraged black South Africans to support the previously hated national rugby team which had been subjected to various problems. The country won the tournament with the support and blessing of the whole nation by making a major step in the reconciliation process of white and black South Africans. Further, during his last years, Nelson Mandela became one of the world’s most important andeffective campaigners against HIV/Aids, bringing more attention to the issueand trying to end its humiliation. Several programmes were conducted under the patronage of him. It turned into the most imperative work of hiscareer and he boosted the campaign, by giving his Robben Island jail number, 46664, to highlight this issue and obtain the finances through gigantic global shows.

Personal Characteristic

Mandela had come from a long line of leaders. Born into a royal family in 1918, his grandfather had been a king of the Thembu people. He led the South Africa from apartheid to democracy, was a humble, eloquent and inspirational figure who advocated peace, democracy and human rights. Mandela will be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty. He showed his fellow countrymen that it was possible, perhaps even imperative to forgive one’s enemies.

Mandela was such a powerful leader during the campaign against apartheid that the white minority government considered him a threat to the state, even from prison. He inspired people around the world to support the anti-apartheid movement. ‘Free Mandela’ was frequently yelled in protests which that were organized by people whole over the world whonever met him. He never gave up in the fight against his country’s oppressive regime and he did what he told. In 1994 he elected as the first black president of the country as the results of his sacrifice . Mandela led his followers by example whilst inspiring South Africa’s political and racial enemies to work together to build a democracy.

Great Leaders are straight forward, open and transparent. They share their interests and come up with no reasons forsupporting the causes they have faith in. Mandela was in actuality so straightforward, his words and act. Mandela had an awesome consciousness of his method for being, his understanding, quiet certainty, pardoning, and humor all expanded his follower ship picking up help in accomplishing his objectives and having a beneficial outcome.

Leaders’ Performance vs Followers’ Satisfaction

Nelson Mandela had a vision where he saw an Africa with apartheid being eliminated and man are being free and equalized. He never gave up fight even though he was imprisoned for twenty seven years. This strong emotional reaction gave Followers a strong belief that they should continue to fight against apartheid and pledge willing obedience to him. As result of this people around the world support the anti-apartheid movement. As the results of this Mandela led by example, inspiring South Africa’s political and racial rivals to work together to build a democracy as the first black president of the nation.

In 1993 Nelson Mandela shared Nobel Peace Prize with FW de Klerk, for successful negotiations to end the evil of apartheid in South Africa as results of the satisfaction of his dedication and sacrifice by the world. Mandela was the recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award forInternational understanding (1979), Bharat Rattan in 1990 and the world Methodist Peace Award in 2000 as well as in the same year he was presented with the prestigious Gandhi Peace Award.

Advantages in Today’s Environment

Studies regarding the life of the Nelson Mandela have enable people to realize what theleadership is about. The main thing that we can learn from the Mandel’s life is that leaders are generally not born but their skills and capabilities are developed with time. The only thing which require is charisma to be a better leader. In general, Nelson Mandela can be characterized as an excellent leader, with good judgments and listening skills, sensitive and open minded. He was an intelligent leader who adopted a good strategic plan and clever manoeuvre in order to defeat your enemies withouthumiliating them. Motivating and Moral Building of followers, creating confidence, Coordination, Goal setting andrepresentation are the main things which we can acquired from the Mandela’slife which are considered as advantages in the today’s environment.

Lessons Learned and Recommendation

“The greatest glory in living lies in never falling, but in rising every time we fall.” Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela is one of the greatest freedom fighter of the world. He is considered as a demi-god for the oppressed natives of South Africa. He dedicated his entire life for the fight against the apartheid and freedom of the blacks. Further, he trained himself in guerrilla warfare and started an armed wing of ANC. Mandela will be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty. He showed his fellow countrymen that it was possible to forgive their enemies. He showed people around the world to support theanti-apartheid movement by using the Gandhian style and he was referred to as “Living Gandhi”.

He never gave up in the fight until he achieved the Goal. Mandela had a great awareness of his way of being, his patience, calm confidence, forgiveness, and humour all helped to increase his followership by helping to gain support in achieving his goals and making apositive impact. He hated none and stretches his hands to his opponents to join him in rebuilding a new and independent South Africa.

The life and the work of Nelson Mandela should be a fine inspiration and an example for the political leaders as well as for the Military Leaders. The social community services carried out by himshows his positive attitude and empathy towards the nation and same had setexamples to the younger generations. The most important lesson to be learnt from his character is various of leadership styles he possessed The Life of the Mandela deeply explained that the impossible is nothing, we are responsible to change our life, Power of Education, Importance of the Positive thinking, Live on Purpose and never give up the Life until we achieved to the Destination.

Conclusion

He is a leader who sacrificed most of the time from his life for the country,nation and the world community. The South African Former president Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) conveyed a conclusion to apartheid and had been a global advocate for human rights. A Member from the African National Congress party starting in the 1940s, he was a pioneer of both peaceful protests and armed resistance against the white minority’s harsh administrationin a racially divided South Africa. His activities landed him in jail for almost three decades and made him the face of the antiapartheid movement both within his country and internationally. Discharged in 1990, he took part in the destruction of politically-sanctioned racial segregation and in 1994 turned into the First dark leader of South Africa. Subsequent to resigning from Political issues in 1999, he remained a committed champion for peace and social equity in his own particular country and around the globe until he died in 2013 at 95 years old.

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Nelson Mandela and His Leadership Qualities

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Aim

The aim of this paper is to analyze the leadership qualities of Nelson Mandela and with regard to their applicability in the present context.

Introduction

‘Real leaders must be ready to sacrifice all for the freedom of their people’

Nelson Mandela

In the 20th century, many countries in Asian and Africa were conquered and colonized by western nations like Dutch, British, Portuguese, Spaniards, and French. South Africa was under Dutch rule before the minority British took over the government. The white minority exploited the native Africans and got them to do all menial work on their agricultural farms and industrial projects. The natives were treated as inferior to the whites. They were segregated. This racial discrimination was termed apartheid.

The young educated African realizing the gravity of the situation organized themselves to oppose all repressive laws and for their fundamental and human rights. Nelson Mandela was a guiding star of this movement. He was a living embodiment of the ideal and aspiration of the black people. He became a legendary figure in Africa and abroad. Mandela was a man of action, master in underground activities. He cleverly evaded the state police, which earned him the name Black Pimpernel. He brought the works, peasant, women, and youth into one united movement to fight for the oppressed and exploited natives. He encouraged his people to continue fighting until they Strive freedom and never giving up until they achieved their goal. On the other hand, as a significant leader, he elevated the consciousness of his followers by appealing to their higher ideals and values.

He was sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of treason and sabotage. He served 27 years of his precious life in jail. The white minority government realizing that the black protest movement could no longer be quelled through force lifted the ban on the ANC and released Mandela from prisons. Mandela shared the Nobel Peace Prize with K W De Klerk for successful negotiations to end the evil of apartheid. He was inaugurated the first black president of South Africa on 10 May 1994.

In this essay, the Leadership qualities of Nelson Mandela and how he applied the same until South Africa achieved the Freedom from the evil of apartheid and the end of his career are discussed.

Leadership Analysis

“”It is better to lead from behind and to put others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when nice things occur. You take the front line when there is danger. Then people will appreciate your leadership”” (Nelson Mandela)

Outline of the Leader

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela by name Madiba, a leader of the South Africa Anti-Apartheid movement was born in a village near Umtata in the Transkei on the 18 July 1918. His father, Chief Henry died when Nelson Mandela was only twelve years old.

He went to a school of a local missionary. Because of holding anti-government and anti-state views at a very young age, Mandela could not remain in the school for very long. He was rusticated and removed from the school. He went to Johannesburg and managed to get a job as a gold mine policeman. While doing the job he followed a correspondence course at the University of South Africa and obtained the Degree of Bachelor of Arts. Nelson after studying for his LLB at Witwatersrand University graduated in Law and qualified as a Solicitor.

His political interest and views of resistance were aroused while he listened to the elders of his tribe in the village. The tribal leaders would relate stories of the past as to how they used to fight heroic wars in defense of their country, as well as the acts of valor performed by the leaders and soldiers during those epic days. The qualities of leadership and desire for freedom within him aroused the spirit of resistance. He hoped and vowed that he would sacrifice the pleasure of life but he would not lose the opportunity of serving his people by restoring to them the freedom, which they had during the pre-colonial days. In spite of such liberal views, he was not free from the tribal customs. He was circumcised at the age of 16 on the bank of his tribal home. Paramount chief of the Tembuland, who looked after him after the death of his father, married him to a fat and dignified girl from a royal family.

During his stay at Johannesburg and at the university, that he felt the agony of racial discrimination and color bar. He saw men of his color fighting for equal rights and rights and freedom of movement. At the age of 25, he joined the African National Congress in 1944. When the congress Youth League was formed and the concept of African Nationalism was under transformation, gave Nelson an undeterred opportunity to show his inherent leadership and dedication to the cause for which the ANC was formed. He was one of the accused in the massive treason trial at the end of the 1950s and following 1960, banning of the ANC, he went underground.

It was during this time that he together with other leaders of the ANC constituted a new specialized form of the liberation movement, “”Umkhonoto We Sizwe”” (Spear of the nation), as an armed nucleus with Mandela as its Commander-In-Chief.

The group attempted to drive home the seriousness of their intentions to achieve equal rights for all races in South Africa by attacking government buildings, evading injury to people, and for his part in the defiance campaign; Mandela was convicted under the suppression of communism Act and given a suspended prison sentence. Shortly after the campaign ended, he was also prohibited from attending gatherings and confined to Johannesburg for six months.

During the whole of him fifties, Mandela was the victim of various forms of repression. He was banned, arrested, and imprisoned. After the Sharpeville massacre in 1960, the ANC was outlawed, and Mandela put on trial and detained. The treason trial collapsed in 1961 as South Africa was being steered towards the adaptation of the republic constitution. Mandrel’s activities at the time forced him to hide from South African authorities. In 1962 Mandela left the country illegally and traveled to several countries. During this trip, Mandela, anticipating from the south, began to arrange guerrilla training for members of “”Umkhonto We Sizwe”” When he returned home, the police were tipped off about his hiding place and Mandela was arrested, convicted of incitement to riot and leaving the country without a passport. He was sentenced to five years in Jail.

While in prison doing hard labor he has tried again for his involvement in “”Umkhonto We Sizwe””. Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment. In the winter of 1964, Nelson Mandela started his prison years in the notorious Robben Island prison. He spent 18 years out of his 27 prison years in Robben Island. Mandela served just over twenty-seven years as a political prisoner as the rest of the world demanded his release. While Mandela was in prison growing anti-apartheid forces in South Africa argued that he should be freed. Mandela flatly rejected offers made by his jailers’ remission of sentence and again he rejected an offer of release on condition that he renounces violence.

In July 1989 PW Botha, former president of South Africa met Mandela in prison, and in December the same year Botha’s successor, FW de Klerk held an important meeting with Mandela in prison. The very next year Mandela was released and the ban on ANC lifted. He was inaugurated as the first democratically elected State President of South Africa on 10 May 94. He was the country’s first black president. The country’s National Assembly elected him. The assembly had been chosen in South Africa’s first free election in which the blacks were allowed to vote. Blacks won a majority of the Assembly seats. This development marked the beginnings of a new era in South African politics, thus blacks gained control of the government after a long period of white domination.

Mandela as a President

On 27 April 1994, Nelson Mandela won the first democratic elections which were held at South Africa by obtaining .62.65 % of the vote. At the age of 77, Nelson Mandela elected as the first dark president of the country on 10 May 94. During the time of his presidency, Mandela also worked to safeguard South Africa’s economy from downfall. During the first period of his presidency, he had to overcome the apartheid: poverty, inequalities, unequal access to social services, and uplifting of infrastructure facilities.

The RDP was a South African socio-economic policy, which was introduced by the ANC government of Mandela. It was to address the huge socio-economic problems brought about by Apartheid. Through the RDP, the South African government supported the creation of jobs, housing, and basic health care.

As part of his mission for peace, nation-building, and reconciliation, Mandela used the nation’s interest in sports as a significant point to uphold settlement between whites and blacks. During the 1995 Rugby World Cup held at South Africa, he encouraged black South Africans to support the previously hated national rugby team which had been subjected to various problems. It was also the first World Cup in which South Africa was allowed to participate.

Mandela signed into law a new constitution for the nation by launching a strong central government based on majority rule and guaranteeing both the rights of minorities and the freedom of expression. the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa was approved by the Constitutional Court (CC) on 4 December 96. The Constitution was founded on the values of Human self-respect, the success of equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms, Non-racialism and non-sexism and Sovereignty of the constitution and the rule of law.

Further, he introduced the Growth, Employment, and Redistribution macroeconomic policy in 96 with the aim of the rapid liberalization of the South African economy. It was included the relaxation of exchange controls, privatization of state assets, trade liberalization, etc. It gave a massive impact on the economy of the country.

In 1999, Mandela retired from active politics. He was called on to help as an independent body for peace agreements in Burundi in central Africa. In South Africa, Mandela followed money-raising drives for the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund. Through this fund, he was able to uplift the education of the children by reservation and constructing schools and Classrooms. Such facilities have become known as the products of ‘Madiba magic””.

Leadership Style

There are many leadership styles existing in the modern world. Autocratic, Democratic, Transformational, Facilitative, Transactional, Coaching, Charismatic, Visionary, Laissez-Faire, Cross-Cultural, Strategic Leadership, and Team Leadership are some of the common leadership styles highlighted by the business

communities in the world. Having perused the life of Mandela it is observed that the great South African president, applied several types of leadership styles throughout his career with a vision and inspired the others to follow his direction in order to achieve the goals.

Visionary Leader

Nelson Mandela had a vision where he saw an Africa with apartheid being removed and man are being free and equalized. It was this vision that pushed him to do what he should do and it influenced him to trust that regardless he has trust through the period of 27 years in jail. He never surrendered despite the fact that he was detained for twenty-seven years previously being chosen to be the president of South Africa. Furthermore, he developed and outfitted his country to battle for their rights and in particular their opportunity. He encouraged them to battle against the politically sanctioned racial segregation and also persuading them that they could take care of the mistreatment.

Charismatic Leader

Nelson Mandela honed such a style of administration which was affirmed to be extremely effective. While guiding his followers, Nelson Mandela held strong emotional reactions to them. It was the style that held the trust amongst Mandela and his ANC followers when Mandela was detained for as long as twenty-seven years. In fact, this strong emotional reaction gave them a strong belief that they should continue to fight for apartheid and pledge willing obedience to him.

Transformational Leader

As the Volunteer in Chief of the ANC, Mandela traveled around the country and was trying to raise people’s awareness and organizing battles against regulation. He encouraged his people to continue fighting until they obtained freedom and never giving up until they achieved their goal. Further, as a significant leader, he elevated

the consciousness of his followers by appealing to their higher ideals and values. In fact, he also encouraged many to educate themselves because adopting education is the key to success.

Democratic Leader

The primary feature of the democratic style of leadership is the encouragement of the participation of all group members to become active stake-holders through the

harnessing of their individual talents. Nelson Mandela finally employed a democratic style of leadership, allowing him to facilitate good communication between South Africa’s many and varied social groups and influence an improvement in his nation’s political situation.

Analyses and Comparisons Between Leadership Styles

Leader Competence Areas

While campaigning for equality, he was ultimately sent to prison where he would spend the next 27 years of his life. He was confined to a small cell without a bed or plumbing and was forced to do hard labor. As a political prisoner, he received smaller rations and fewer privileges than other inmates. Further, he had a chance to see his wife and two young daughters twice a year. Under this condition also Mandela stayed strong throughout the 27 years.

Nelson Mandela’s speechmaking assumed a key part in his campaign. He delivered many powerful and significant speeches during his whole career. He was an incredible speaker who was familiar and could clear himself well. His addresses were assembled with wonderful words and sentences. In March 1990, two months after his discharge from jail, he delivered a speech to 72,000 personnel at Wembley Stadium in London to obtain support against the politically-sanctioned racial segregation. In a simple but powerful statement, he told the crowd “”Thank you that you choose to care””.

Mandela was a man who could forgive his enemy. He even pardoned those that detained him for a long time. Mandela had a willingness to reach out and connect with people who hated and feared him. He even had meals with the man who attempted to kill him. Percy Yutar was the state prosecutor at the 1964 treachery trial at which Mandela was charged and condemned to hard work 27 years. He demanded the death penalty for Mandela. In 1995, Mandela invited him to dinner where they enjoyed a meal. Mandela said that Yutar had only been doing his job and when asked why he was so willing to forgive, he answered “”Hating clouds the mind””.

Nelson Mandela had a sense of humility and always focused on the benefit of others. During the 1995 Rugby World Cup held at South Africa, he encouraged black South Africans to support the previously hated national rugby team which had been subjected to various problems. The country won the tournament with the support and blessing of the whole nation by making a major step in the reconciliation process of white and black South Africans. Further, during his last years, Nelson Mandela became one of the world’s most important and effective campaigners against HIV/Aids, bringing more attention to the issue and trying to end its humiliation. Several programs were conducted under the patronage of him. It turned into the most imperative work of his career and he boosted the campaign, by giving his Robben Island jail number, 46664, to highlight this issue and obtain the finances through gigantic global shows.

Personal Characteristics

Mandela had come from a long line of leaders. Born into a royal family in 1918, his grandfather had been a king of the Thembu people. He led South Africa from apartheid to democracy, was a humble, eloquent and inspirational figure who advocated peace, democracy, and human rights. Mandela will be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty. He showed his fellow countrymen that it was possible, perhaps even imperative to forgive one’s enemies.

Mandela was such a powerful leader during the campaign against apartheid that the white minority government considered him a threat to the state, even from prison. He inspired people around the world to support the anti-apartheid movement. ‘Free Mandela’ was frequently yelled in protests that were organized by people whole over the world who never met him. He never gave up in the fight against his country’s oppressive regime and he did what he told. in 1994 he elected as the first black president of the country as the result of his sacrifice. Mandela led his followers by example whilst inspiring South Africa’s political and racial enemies to work together to build a democracy.

Great Leaders are straight forward, open, and transparent. They share their interests and come up with no reasons for supporting the causes they have faith in. Mandela was in actuality so straightforward, his words and actions. Mandela had an awesome consciousness of his method for being, his understanding, quiet certainty, pardoning, and humor all expanded his followership picking up help in accomplishing his objectives and having a beneficial outcome.

Leaders’ Performance vs. Followers’ Satisfaction

Nelson Mandela had a vision where he saw an Africa with apartheid being eliminated and men are being free and equalized. He never gave up the fight even though he was imprisoned for twenty-seven years. This strong emotional reaction gave Followers a strong belief that they should continue to fight against apartheid and pledge willing obedience to him. As a result of this people around the world support the anti-apartheid movement. As the results of this Mandela led by example, inspiring South Africa’s political and racial rivals to work together to build a democracy as the first black president of the nation.

In 1993 Nelson Mandela shared Nobel Peace Prize with FW de Klerk, for successful negotiations to end the evil of apartheid in South Africa as a result of the satisfaction of his dedication and sacrifice by the world. Mandela was the recipient of the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International understanding (1979), Bharat Rattan in 1990, and the World Methodist Peace Award in 2000 as well as in the same year he was presented with the prestigious Gandhi Peace Award.

Advantages in Today’s Environment

Studies regarding the life of Nelson Mandela have enabled people to realize what leadership is about. The main thing that we can learn from Mandel’s life is that leaders are generally not born but their skills and capabilities are developed with time. The only thing which requires is charisma to be a better leader. In general, Nelson Mandela can be characterized as an excellent leader, with good judgments and listening skills, sensitive and open-minded. He was an intelligent leader who adopted a good strategic plan and clever maneuver in order to defeat your enemies without humiliating them. Motivating and Moral Building of followers, creating

confidence, Coordination, Goal setting, and representation are the main things that we can acquire from Mandela’s life which are considered as advantages in today’s environment.

Lessons Learned and Recommendation

“”The greatest glory in living lies in never falling, but in rising every time we fall”.”

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela is one of the greatest freedom fighters of the world. He is considered a demi-god for the oppressed natives of South Africa. He dedicated his entire life to the fight against the apartheid and freedom of the blacks. Further, he trained himself in guerrilla warfare and started an armed wing of ANC. Mandela will be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty. He showed his fellow countrymen that it was possible to forgive their enemies. He showed people around the world to support the anti-apartheid movement by using the Gandhian style and he was referred to as “”Living Gandhi””.

He never gave up in the fight until he achieved the Goal. Mandela had a great awareness of his way of being, his patience, calm confidence, forgiveness, and humour all helped to increase his followership by helping to gain support in achieving his goals and making a positive impact. He hated none and stretches his hands to his opponents to join him in rebuilding a new and independent South Africa.

The life and the work of Nelson Mandela should be a fine inspiration and an example for the political leaders as well as for the Military Leaders. The social community services carried out by him show his positive attitude and empathy towards the nation and the same had set examples to the younger generations. The most important lesson to be learned from his character is the various leadership styles he possessed. The Life of the Mandela deeply explained that the impossible is nothing, we are responsible to change our life, Power of Education, Importance of the Positive thinking, Live on Purpose and never give up the Life until we achieved to the Destination.

Conclusion

The South African former president Nelson Mandela, byname Madiba conveyed a conclusion to apartheid and had been a global advocate for human rights. A Member from the African National Congress party starting in the 1940s, he was a pioneer of both peaceful protests and armed resistance against the white minority’s harsh administration in a racially divided South Africa. His activities landed him in jail for almost three decades and made him the face of the antiapartheid movement both within his country and internationally. He never gave up the fight even though he was imprisoned for twenty-seven years.

Discharged in 1990, he took part in the destruction of politically-sanctioned racial segregation and in 1994 turned into the First dark leader of South Africa. Mandela will be remembered as a man who went beyond the call of duty. He applied several types of leadership styles throughout his career with a vision and inspired the others to follow his direction in order to achieve the goals.

Subsequent to resigning from Political issues in 1999, he remained a committed champion for peace and social equity in his own particular country and around the globe until he died in 2013 at 95 years old.

References

  1. https://www.history.com/topics/nelson-mandela
  2. https://blackthen.com/june-12-1964-nelson-mandela-sentenced-life-imprisonment/
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela
  4. https://educheer.com/nelson-mandela-life/
  5. https://www.history.com/topics/nelson-mandela
  6. http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/on-this-day/June/Nelson-Mandela-Sentenced-to-Life-in-Prison.html
  7. https://en.paperblog.com/nelson-mandela-sentenced-to-life-imprisonment-48-years-later-256758/
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Nelson Mandela’s Life and Struggle for Black People’s Rights

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Nelson Mandela’s life is full of hardship and suffering, but those who persist and never give up are the ones who accomplish their task. One such person was Nelson Mandela who was born on July 18, 1918, in Mvezo, South Africa.

Mandela was the first black president of South Africa. He also fought tirelessly against apartheid, a policy, or a system of segregation or discrimination on different races in South Africa. In South Africa, there was no sort of change for black equality so Mandela decided to take action against it. “For his anti-apartheid actions which were against the law, Mandela was sentenced to twenty years behind bars”(“Nelson Mandela”, Gale). Mandela passed away in 2013 at the age of ninety-five due to health problems. Mandela is one of the most important human activists because he fought for the rights of colored people and helped the less fortunate.

Nelson Mandela is one of the most significant men ever because he fought for black rights. Nelson Mandela started becoming interested in politics at a young age and had always wanted to end Black discrimination in South Africa, so he “became actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement, joining the African National Congress in 1942″(“Nelson Mandela”, Biography). The goal of Mandela during the anti-apartheid movement was to give millions of colored people the chance to fight for their equality and freedom from strict and unfair rules. Mandela felt that it was unfair that many Africans were getting treated unfairly, so he wanted to take action to change it.

For twenty years, Nelson Mandela directed peaceful, non-violent protest against the South African government and its racist policies. By fighting against the government, Nelson Mandela was charged and arrested and “spent 27 years in prison, from November 1962 until February 1990″(“Nelson Mandela”, Biography).

Mandela knew that one of the risks of fighting for the freedom of African Americans was being sentenced to long a term in prison. But his will to fight for black rights was far more important. Even when Mandela was in jail, he used his position to further fight for the cause he believed in: “In February 1985 South African president P. W. Botha offered to free Mandela but Mandela refused, saying that the government must first dismantle apartheid” (“10 Major Accomplishment”). When Mandela told the President of South Africa to end apartheid, this put lots of pressure on the president and so for a couple of years the government and Nelson Mandela had talks, but no deal was made. It was not until 1990 when P.W. Botha was died of a stroke and was replaced by President de Klerk. Thus, Mandela was released five years later.

After Mandela was released, he embarked on an international tour to encourage foreign countries to not reduce their pressure on the South African government for constitutional improvement. In a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993 between Mandela and President de Klerk, the apartheid was dismantled and brought to an end.

In addition to helping fight for equal rights, Nelson Mandela gave many people in need opportunities to the right of education, a sense of well being, and enjoyment of life. As president of South Africa from 1994-1999, Mandela established many rules that benefited colored people. For instance, one of them was that “he introduced numerous social and economic programs designed to improve the living standards of South Africa’s black population” (“Nelson Mandela”, History).

One of the problems that many Africans had in South Africa was the lack of ability to live a pleasurable and comfortable life. Mandela introduced The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), which invested in human rights under apartheid and introduced better housing, education, and economic development which was designed to improve the lives of the country’s Black community. However, Mandela decided not to run for the second term of presidency, thus retired from politics.

However, Mandela was still a busy man because “he and wife Graca Machel co-founded The Elders, a group of world leaders aiming to work both publicly and privately to find solutions to some of the world’s toughest issues” (Nelson Mandela”, Biography). After Nelson Mandela found the organization The Elders, he spread it all around the world from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The impact the Elders had included promoting peace and equality for women, putting an end to atrocities, supporting initiatives to address humanitarian crises and avocation for democracy.

One of Mandela’s passions was education. After Mandela decided to run for president, “he put most of his energy into children and education” (Pandor). One of the many problems South Africa had was the lack of proper education like schools. Mandela wanted to change that by adding more schools in rural and poor places. Nelson Mandela did not just build schools to give people education, but he felt that there was a meaning to education. Mandela saw equality of opportunity through education as a key to emancipation and that education should never be taken for granted.

Nelson Mandela devoted his life to fighting for equal rights for Black Africans and helped the people who in need. Nelson Mandela ended public discrimination of Blacks in South Africa by his strong commitment to fighting for the freedoms of Africans and he opened many opportunities for the people who were less fortunate. Nelson Mandela was the definition of hard work. He fought time and time to help others the best he could. Not only did Mandela fight for equal rights, but he influenced many races, genders, and colors to come together to be united.

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Nelson Mandela “Freedom in Africa” Research Paper

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Introduction

It can be difficult to understand the meaning of oppression if at all one has never experienced the struggles coupled with oppressions hence, the desire to liberate from shackles of oppression. However, it is not easy to find the way out of oppression, especially when the oppressors seem to gain much from their egoistic acts. This has been the story in Africa, the story of oppression from the colonial masters. Yes, indeed it is the story of oppression between white settlers and Africans, fighting for resources and power. Nevertheless, in order to gain freedom, individuals or groups of people must have strong determination.

On matters of freedom, there are two warring groups fighting to gain something or protect their legacy. Each group has its own demands, of course by realization. Thus, since the disparities between the groups are many, the subjugated group will find it hard to fight for freedom. Nevertheless, if the group remain adamant and plan well, the situation will one day rectify where, the once mighty and feared will turn powerless. (Melber, 2006, 261-278).

At some point, the struggle for freedom can include mass killings, detention, rape and racial discriminations. Nevertheless, the two parties receive equal blame for their respective participation for either oppression or freedom. For example, the struggle for freedom in South Africa is one of the best examples of freedom in Africa so far. This incredible enlightenment came from Nelson Mandela who for his quest for African freedom did not lose self-determination to press on until finally declared, first past the post.

In the quest of freedom for Africa, Nelson Mandela has been a reference figure to many people who are still fighting for freedom especially in Africa. His enduring in addition, tireless devotion, became an ingredient of downtrodden semantics of the oppressors. South Africans were to fight their enemies and tormenters in order to achieve freedom.

On the other hand, the South African apartheid had claimed more from them hence, calming and breaking its foundations was a vision to achieve. Nevertheless, Nelson Mandela is one key inspirational figure in social and political sceneries. This man tirelessly fought for oppression and racial discrimination of South Africans. His participations on the antiapartheid rule in South Africa have won him a Nobel Peace Prize, leave alone being the President of South Africa.

The country that was once marked by oppressive tactics is now a figure of freedom in Africa. He led the country to reject colonial rule and one race government, into a rule of the majority and multiracial regime. Tirelessly, Nelson Mandela fought for the respect of human rights and equality whether white or black. (Mandela, 1990, pp. 2-48).

Though Nelson Mandela’s journey was marked with setbacks, epic struggles and strange happenings, the spirit and desire to achieve his visions renewed his hope and determinations, leading to his historical triumphant tribulation. Interestingly, Nelson Mandela grew up in an environment full traditions, cultural worships and social African elegancies.

However, as he grew up, it came to his realization that, apartheid rule was dominant, representing the most cantankerous and successive system of oppression and discriminations. South Africans had struggled in vain to reject this system. They feared death as anybody who was going contrary to this system, faced dire consequences including death.

Thus, South Africans, like any Africans during the period of colonialism, had to fight on notwithstanding of threats, in order to end oppression. The deaths had to cease no matter how long it took, so that Africans create their own administration full of African values, freedoms and tranquility.

Apartheid and Oppression

Like White people, Africans also needed an environment free of oppression and racial discriminations. Indeed, Nelson Mandela is the founder of freedom in Africa. Over the decades, Africans have been struggling to achieve justice and freedom in all speckles of life. This is the reason why, heroic, self-determined brave men and women who do not fear death through hanging or Police brutality voyaged to hasten and achieve liberation. The pillaging periods of social and national enslavements educated Africans that, they had to fight in order to achieve liberation, and that freedom is necessary for smooth survival and prosperity.

However, people can only win the war through visions and formation of peace units. For example, driven by hunger of justice, the South Africans decided to mould machinery called, African National Congress (ANC), which will act as a spear towards freedom. Among its top leaders, was Nelson Mandela who together with other eminent leaders, decided to lead a generational front of achieving freedom.

The group would stage protest marches as a way of uniting all those who wanted freedom. The white people oppressed South Africans in an unprecedented scale. For example, in order to rule well, Nelson Mandela realized that, the regime had divided the country along racial and ethnic lines, in what many termed, divide and rule system. A particular grouping represented each race or ethnic group. There groups included, the Colored People’s Congress, Communist Part, people from Dutch descendant fell under Afrikaners, South African Congress, and the African National Congress (ANC).

However, these groups thrived under the monarchial White National Party and it actually dictated what these parties did. In addition to social and ethnic segregations, the regime allocated about 87 percent of South African land to white settlers, leaving eight million South Africans to share the remaining 13 percent. In 1912, Mandela joined ANC with a view to quest for freedom. (Richardson, 1978, 185-219).

This party led protests and led mischief to the ‘notorious state laws’ which the regime abrogated to a level of deity. In fact, the regime had even enacted an oppression policy with a mission to achieve their demands. Nevertheless, the South Africans under the umbrella of ANC, decided to brawl on clandestinely, up to the time when they could achieve freedom. The ANC had to defend its members from the oppressive apartheid administration.

For example, in order to reach out their conquest of freedom, AFC decided to embark in reactionary violence, silent mass mobilizations to gather numbers, and seeking international attention. Later, Nelson Mandela and the larger AFC leadership unveiled the Nation’s Spear, which used as a motto towards liberation. Moreover, the party decided to incorporate African states. Amid danger and consequences Mandela faced, he vowed to defend his people. (Decalo, 1992, pp. 7-35).

Unluckily, the apartheid regime arrested Nelson Mandela together with his lieutenants and sentenced them, five years in jail. Up to this far, the apartheid regime though that, it had completely shunned Africans from championing their freedom. All the same, later on, this idea came out to be acme of false tranquility, which only lasted in the twinkling of an eye.

At Robben Island where apartheid jailed Mandela and fellow ANC leaders, the leaders were busy developing another plan of action. Although the court found Mandela, the main suspect of leading the quest, contrary to apartheid laws and sentenced him for a longer period, the war on democracy still smelled from far.

In the Rivonia Trial Chambers, apartheid characterized oppression and white supremacy as opposed to black South Africans. The war had just begun; the war between white invincibility and freedom in Africa. In jail, Mandela and his fellow detainees continued to write to other interested civilians and international community, pestering them to force apartheid to release the detainees. (Gready, 1993, pp.489-523).

Demonstrations, Detention and Mass Killings

It has never easy for most African counties to achieve freedom, even today; many countries are still languishing in domestic and international oppressions. Though physical white regimes are no more in Africa, the issues of neo-colonialism still hold many African counties ransom to oppression. Mandela and his fellow ANC leaders were fighting to end white man dependency, which is itself oppression. Freedom in Africa meant that, Africans would wholesomely rely on themselves, economically, socially and politically. Perhaps this is the reason why, apartheid continued to abuse the jailers to stop them from heightening their political insinuations.

Interestingly, even some jailed illiterate people, graduated from dungeon cells, ready to defend their rights and freedoms. The student uprising in 1976 climaxed the whole war of freedom in Africa. However, the apartheid tortured civilians and apparently, the voice of the people harkened further and further; no machinery would stop civilian upsurge. Not even, army attacks, repression, sanctions and international seclusion, could stop the militant South Africans whose destination was freedom.

On learning how unstoppable civilian had become, apartheid decided to employ dialogue with Mandela. However, Mandela was not ready to accept the demands of apartheid. Instead, he vowed to oust the adversary of African freedom. The white men oppressed Africans on grounds of protecting their bigotry, cultural ambiguities and privileges. (Meredith, 1998, pp. 261-273).

The apartheid did not allow Africans to vote nor did they have civic rights. Additionally, the white people regime had deprived them land. On the other hand, if an African passed near a white man, he had to take off his hat besides, not stepping where the white man walked. In order to win this war, Africans had to stop regarding themselves along ethnic lines and form a single unit with similar ambitions.

Since the exploitations from apartheid seemed many, the Africans could not bear them any longer. The regime had taken everything helpful in the eyes of an African. Even land, which Africans consider a precious commodity, became rare because; the white settlers occupied the most productive areas leaving unfertile sections to the populous Africans. Poverty administered their lives coupled with inhuman mistreatment from apartheid regime.

Freedom in Africa

The hard-won freedom is today the paramount thing in freedom for all African states. For example, many countries in Africa conduct elections to choose their leaders. Africans were fighting to have the right to choose their leaders. In Ghana for example, the county went into an election inviting international observers to oversee the whole exercise whether it respond to the rule of majority. Indeed, the outcome of the exercise indicated how Africans have achieved the freedom to choose their leaders not warranted during colonial periods. In many African states, action dominates key institutions due to the realization of rights and freedoms.

South Africa being a symbol of freedom in Africa had their laws changed by Congress to represent the ill of the people. During the period in which Mandela spent years in prison, Africa was liberating itself from the shackles of colonialism. Instead of the perceived trivialities within Africans, mutual interdependence took place hence; Africans became more united. Mandela, 1990, pp. 76-106).

Nelson Mandela started championing African freedom when he was a young pugilist in 1940’s. Ancient African practices like tribalism, ethnicity and pluralism continued to eat the society slowly. The emergence of the apartheid as the powerful regime in South Africa heightened African differences.

However, Africans had to defeat their adversary not as a divided group, but a single entity. Mandela never believed in ethnicity and pluralism to be the drivers of revolution and African democracy hence; freedom in Africa. As a substitute, Mandela believed in equality of people whether Black, White or Negro. Perhaps this is the reason why he fought tirelessly to work with all South Africans irrespective of their ethnic or tribal backgrounds in the African congress structure (ANC).

The idea of national liberty exhibited by many African states is a clear indication of freedom in Africa and tribute belongs to Nelson Mandela for this beneficial ideology. Even after becoming President, many people around the world expected him to revenge but instead, Mandela continued to press for equality among every person living in South Africa whether Black, White, Jew, Indian or native. it is this particular sensibility that has made Mandela an international figure respected all over the world. (Meredith, 1998, pp. 8-37).

Nelson Mandela championed the freedom of Africans to get sound education. The colonial powers prohibited Africans from attending schools in order to receive education. Moreover, colonial masters denied Africans, the accessibility to information and learning fearing for further opposition of their prejudices and privileges. However, Mandela might have received part of his education during the 27 years he spent in jail. Today, many Africans albeit poverty, attend schools to get education and access information.

Additionally, some African governments offer free basic education to its civilians to create awareness within social, economic and political ladders. For years now, education has been a key figure in uniting Africans who fall in ethnic and racial divides. Nevertheless, the learning of one common language like English has made communication among Africans smooth hence, social development.

Conclusion

Today, African counties experience freedoms ranging from civil to political human rights. Democracy that was once a culture of western counties, currently exhibit in many African countries. Although some sub-Saharan counties experience internecine conflicts over resources, dictatorship and stolen elections, democratization is still taking roots in Africa. Nelson Mandela championed freedoms in Africa because, Africans can understand their own problems hence, solve them amicably without relying on western counties.

South Africans fought to obviate oppression hence and instead achieve freedom for all. Nevertheless, African counties need to personify their leadership modalities to avoid domestic feuds like the one experienced in Nigeria and Kenya in the recent times. The road to freedom is not an easy one just like many Africans thought. Just on the way, there are many obstacles like segregation, murder, police extra judicial killings, greed for power and racial segregation. However, with determination, Africans achieved freedom they enjoy today.

Reference List

Decalo, S. (1992). The Process, Prospects and Constraints of Democratization in Africa. Journal of African Affairs, 91(362), 7–35.

Gready, P. (1993). Autobiography and the ‘power of writing’: political prison writing in the apartheid era. Journal of Southern African Studies, 19(3), 489-523.

Mandela, N. (1990). No easy walk to freedom. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers.

Melber, H. (2006). Where There’s No Fight for It There’s no Freedom. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 24(2), 261-278.

Meredith, M. (1998). Nelson Mandela. A Biography. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Richardson, H. (1978). Self-determination, International Law and the South African Bantustan Policy. Journal of Transnational Law, 17, 185-219.

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Nelson Mandela’s Use of Power Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

The dark struggle in South Africa saw many black people suffer at the hands of the immigrants—white settlers. In order to combat the situation and forge the path to freedom, majority of native South Africans came together to form an organization known as the African National Congress (ANC). ANC became the vehicle of promoting the interests of black South Africans who felt that the white populations had leaped more than what they sowed.

Additionally, the architects of ANC thought that this was the weapon to combat apartheid and bring civility in the new administration of South Africa. In 1944, Nelson Mandela joined ANC and started participating in its activities. He endured many torrid moments including being imprisoned for almost 27 years. However, in 1994, Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. This article discusses Nelson Mandela’s use of power.

During all his struggles, Nelson Mandela understood very well the needs and desires of the people. He believed in the ideology that all men are equal and should not be discriminated against any form. This was the main reason why he always refused to abandon his political beliefs for political freedom.

Not even prison would stop Nelson Mandela from achieving his ambitions. Today, Nelson Mandela is known across the globe for his struggle, and what he did during the apartheid era in South Africa. The man who spent his entire life fighting for the rights of his people became the symbol of struggle not only to black South Africans, but also the entire world. The use of his power is also another thing that has caught the attention of the world (Guiloineau, 2002, pp. 10-26).

Nelson Mandela was the unifying factor in the post-apartheid era pitting black South Africans and the white populations. Although many white populations feared that Nelson Mandela would retaliate against them, he chose otherwise.

He promised to uphold the constitution—something he did. Nelson Mandela did not use his power to benefit himself; instead, he devoted his presidency in serving the republic of South Africa and its citizens. Apartheid became a thing of the past even, as the black South Africans became free in their own country. It is true that Nelson Mandela suffered so much in the hands of the white minority rule, but after becoming president, transformative power, reconciliation, and tolerance became the pillars of his administration.

He was a man who understood what power means, and he always devoted his time to ensure peaceful coexistence among all South Africans. He taught the world the meaning of humanity, by besieging people to live and see each other as equals. In fact, Nelson Mandela used his power to show the world how justice and tolerance overpowers even the greatest of cruelties.

He used his power to combat racism and other racial related vices that had taken roots in South Africa. Mandela knew very well that by eliminating such vices, people will live harmoniously thereafter. Indeed, this was a show of humility, resilience and tolerance. Mandela led sustained movements in order to promote and protect the rights of all South Africans. Consequently, many South Africans felt secure in an equal society. He took various strides to eliminate discrimination and set the path of justice and equality.

Through his presidency, discrimination of the base of ethnicity, race and even sexual orientation, all became a thing of the past. He used his power to promote education for all, cultural exchanges, ambient public service, and many more fundamental freedoms. Just like Nelson Mandela, many of the current world leaders can lead sustained efforts to promote cohesion; tolerance, equality, and justice for all just like what Mandela did (Mandela, 1996, pp. 23-47).

References

Guiloineau, J., Rowe, J. (2002). Nelson Mandela: the early life of Rolihlahla Mandiba. Berkeley, California. North Atlantic Books.

Mandela, N. (1996). The Illustrated Long Walk to Freedom. Paul Duncan (abridgement and picture editing). Boston: Little Brown and Company.

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Role Model: Nelson Mandela Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Nelson Mandela was born in 1918 at Qunu. Mandela is widely known for his charismatic leadership skills. His political career ambitions started while at university when he realized the unjust nature in which the African society was. The blacks were denied the due chances both economically and politically. This disappointed Nelson Mandela which triggered his ambitions to join politics to fight for his people.

Discussion

Thesis Statement

Throughout his leadership period, Nelson Mandela demonstrated excellent leadership skills which went beyond the political role. He committed his whole life fighting for the rights of the South Africans who suffered from discrimination. As a political activist, Nelson Mandela fought for his people which led him to be a political prisoner. Nelson Mandela struggled until he became the first black president of South Africa. These achievements by Nelson Mandela make him qualify to be one of the greatest men who have ever lived in history.

Fight against Apartheid (Discrimination)

Mandela’s early days in politics coincided with very high levels of apartheid in South Africa. Mandela was very disappointed by the system since it was characterized by high levels of discrimination (Glad & Blanton, 1997). Apartheid was the main vice in South Africa which incited Mandela to engage in endless struggles.

Mandela has been imprisoned for about thirty years for opposing apartheid system in South Africa (Ryan, 2011). During the apartheid system, the whites oppressed the blacks through their discriminative policies. In 1944, Nelson Mandela became an active leader of the American National Congress (ANC). This was just his first move to fight for the people’s freedom.

South Africa’s apartheid system was one of the worst racism and discrimination scenarios that have ever taken place in the world. However, Mandela managed to oppose the system courageously and persistently despite of the threats by the white leaders (Lieberfeld, 2003).

Therefore, Mandela has shown excellent and selfless leadership which cannot be found in many leaders. Most leaders are driven by their own benefits but Mandela was determined to undergo any torture for the sake of his people. Through the African National Congress party, Mandela was determined to undergo any form of suffering for the sake of the South Africans blacks who were facing a lot of suffering at the hand of apartheid.

Political Activist (African National Congress)

In most cases, many political parties in Africa which fought for the rights of the blacks were characterized by violent activities. Therefore, it was expected that Mandela’s political party (ANC) would be even more violent bearing in the mind the extent to which apartheid had reached in South Africa. However, Mandela’s movement was characterized by non-violent protests. However, the younger nationalists became discouraged because of lack of progress in the initial stages (Ryan, 2011).

Together with his colleagues, Mandela believed that incorporating violence in their activities would trigger police’s brutality and this would bring suffering to South African blacks (Glad & Blanton, 1997). In case they engaged in violent activities, they new that the white leaders would take that opportunity to finish their people.

This was the main reason why they refrained from engaging themselves in violent demonstrations. According to Lieberfeld (2003), Mandela demonstrated peace in every step he made. His struggle against apartheid in earlier days was characterized by peace.

Mandela was one of those kinds of leaders who never gave up. He was rarely intimidated by any resistance to make his moves. He persistently moved forward. For instance, later on after joining ANC, Mandela decided to join the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) (Ryan, 2011). This is because ANC was making very little progress during that time. Due to his thirst to save his people from the chains of apartheid, Mandela joined this party as it was more vibrant than ANC. This group was composed of the members of ANC who were more militant.

In 1949, ANCYL organized strikes and boycotts across the country (Ryan, 2011). These actions were directed to force for changes in policies which oppressed the Africans in South Africa. In 1951, Nelson Mandela was elected as the head of this political party in the country. Soon after being elected the leader of this group, Mandela initiated a Defiance campaign which was aimed at triggering a massive resistance towards discriminative policies. This was his next move after their initial moves yielded little results.

Due to his perpetual resistance to the prevailing system and organizing of boycotts and strikes, Mandela was arrested in 1952 (Ryan, 2011). However, Mandela won that time as his sentence was suspended some time later.

However, he was neither allowed to attend any public gathering nor attend ANC meetings. These restrictions were aimed at minimizing his interactions with the public to avoid further incitation. However, Mandela’s journey did not stop hear as many would have thought. This encounter just boosted her determination to pursue his goals.

To defend the people who were persecuted in the apartheid system, Mandela opened a law which defended the convicts. Later, Mandela and some other leaders were charged of treason. This case was later dropped. However, most of Mandela’s time was wasted as he was sometimes forced to make many appearances before the court. Despite of these commitments, Mandela still continued to fight four the equality in South Africa.

Underground Movement

On realizing that non-violent resistance was not yielding any positive results, Mandela decided to adopt violence in his fight against apartheid. For instance, sixty nine people were killed while resisting for anti apartheid rule which restricted the movement of the blacks in South Africa.

This incident made Mandela to change his strategy of non-violent resistance to more harsh reaction. This is because the rate of discrimination was rising even after their efforts instead of falling. In connection to this, ANC commenced adopting armed resistance (Ryan, 2011).

After the banning of their party, Mandela with the support of other leaders formed an underground group. Through this group, Mandela and his colleagues targeted any official symbol of Apartheid and the government in their targets through sabotage. On seeing the extent to which apartheid had reached in South Africa, Nelson Mandela decided to travel across the African countries and Europe to seek support as well as learning the tactics of guerilla warfare (Ryan, 2011).

Therefore, Mandela realized the importance of the support from other countries in his struggle against apartheid (Glad & Blanton, 1997). Unfortunately, Mandela was arrested soon after going back to his country after completing his mission. He was charged for his involvements with the underground group and for moving out side the country without a legal prescription. This cost, Mandela five years in prison.

Despite of these sufferings which Mandela underwent during his struggle against discrimination towards the black South Africans, his stand was never shaken. During his trial, Mandela confirmed not to be intimidated by anything from his fight against apartheid (Ryan, 2011). He also explained the main aims of the newly formed group Umkhonto we Sizwe. Mandela together with his group narrowly escaped execution during these trials (Ryan, 2011). However, they were given a life imprisonment.

In 1964, Mandela was sent to Robben Island where he was supposed to spend the rest of his life according to the judgment. Later, he was kept confined alone in fear that he will intimidate his colleagues. All this suffering never shook Mandela’s ambitions. His people went to the extent of referring to him as a silent suffering martyr (Ryan, 2011).

Road to Freedom and Accomplishments

Later in 1984, negotiations for Mandela’s release started on condition that he will allow reallocation of South African blacks to specific places. However, Mandela rejected all these offers. This displays a strong character of determined and selfless leader who was ready to sacrifice himself for the sake of his people. This clearly shows that Mandela was not after any material gain in his struggle for equality.

Under the pressure of the international community and the black South Africans, the head of the National Party F.W. de Klerk softened his stand (Ryan, 2011). Restrictions on ANC were lifted and most laws which were discriminative were dissolved. After continued pressure, Mandela was released in 1990.

Soon after being released, Mandela continued with his fight for freedom. He was engaged in negotiations with de Klerk form ma democratic government. In 1993, Mandela was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize (Ryan, 2011). This was just three years after being released.

Through Mandela’s efforts, South African got the first chance to vote freely without impediments which mostly favored the whites. Mandela was finally elected the president of South Africa in 1994 under the ANC party. On becoming, the president of South Africa, Mandela came up with strategies to unite people and also released those imprisoned during the apartheid system through amnesty (Ryan, 2011).

From there, Mandela has received various awards for his good work to the community. For instance, he received Presidential Medal of Freedom from the former United States president Bush. Mandela was also determined in the fight against AIDs as well as care for the AIDs victims.

Summary and Conclusion

From this discussion, it can clearly be seen that Mandela is really a leader to be emulated. Throughout his leadership, he has demonstrated courage, humility, patience, perseverance, and determination, a combination of character traits which is very rare in many leaders. He persistently fought against discrimination in South Africa despite of the difficulties he faced. Mandela faced police brutality and imprisonment for about thirty years but was never discouraged from pursuing his goals.

This discussion has also indicated that Mandela opted for violence after the peaceful demonstrations proved futile. This indicates that he was a humble reader who looked beyond the leadership boundaries. He considered every move he made taking into consideration the end results. Although he had the power to use violence from beginning of his struggle, he avoided that.

Mandela’s leadership teaches us that one should never be discouraged from pursuing his or her goals despite of the conditions through which they pass. We should also not lose hope for whichever time period this may take. Mandela spent many years in jail but he never buried his hope.

Reference List

Glad, B. & Blanton, R. (1997). F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela: a study in cooperative transformational leadership. Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997.

Lieberfeld, D. (2003). ‘Nelson Mandela: Partisan and Peacemaker.’ Negotiation Journal. Volume 19, Number 3, 229-250, DOI: 10.1023/A:1024629628402

Ryan, J. (2011). Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela (Great Neck Publishing), 1. Web.

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Heroes – Nelson Mandela Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Mandela was born on July 18, 1918 and died on December 5, 2013 following a recurring lung infection. The renowned world figure finally succumbed to his illness at the age of 95 years, marking the end of a long illustrious political life. Apart from his praiseworthy political life, Mandela was also known for his unwavering desire to fight for human freedom not only in his home country, but in the entire world.

During his active years, Mandela was a truly great leader who always dedicated his life for the service of humanity (Kalungu-Banda, 2006). In fact, his leadership qualities would transcend the borders of culture, race, and language among other social factors. There is no doubt that Mandela’s bold and exemplary achievements in life really changed the world, thus making him a real hero of many people.

From the days he was constantly involved in the struggle against apartheid through the many years he served in prison, Mandela has succeeded to change the world in many ways. For example, he was not ready to let anything stand between him and his strong will to fight for the freedom of his people.

Mandela was a great man who never gave up on seemingly impossible ideals, and for that reason, nothing would make him change his principles (Bolman & Deal, 2006). His dedication and commitment was beyond personal interests, and this can be observed in his outright rejection of Botha’s decision to offer him conditional amnesty in 1985.

The amnesty was offering Mandela freedom from prison, but on the condition that he should stop being resistive of the law. Mandela simply felt that, by accepting the offer he would be betraying his enduring principles and what he had been fighting for over the years. Instead, Mandela chose to remain behind the bars for the rest of his life and by putting his feet down in defense of his people’s rights, his long struggle would finally grant South Africans their freedom.

Mandela was also known for his exemplary acts of humility, the one aspect which enabled him to achieve most of his goals in life. His whole life was based on real selfless dedication of service to humanity. Throughout his entire resistance on the evils of apartheid, Mandela used negotiation as an alternative to armed and violent resistance.

Even though this approach had slowed down the process of granting South Africans their rights, it was the most ideal approach for Mandela in his quest for freedom for all people. Mandela’s unique collaborative instincts helped him to conquer many obstacles in his long journey to freedom. In fact, this great son of Africa knew how to give others his full attention and leverage their insights before giving his opinion (McDonough & Zeldis, 2002).

Mandela’s humility was also manifested through his willingness to forgive those who had wronged him and his desire to come into reconciliation with those he had clashed with. More importantly, even though Mandela liked giving credit to others, he has always refused to take credit for his own achievements. No doubt, this is one of the highest degrees of humility that can be expected from a human being.

Mandela was the first and probably the last moral authority that Africa would ever have. In fact, modern global leadership lacks the moral authority he displayed in numerous occasions as a leader.

What may be the peak of Mandela’s moral authority was seen in 1994, when he refused to stand for another term as the first black president of South Africa even when it was clear that the people were willing to re-elect him (Goldsmith, Lyons & McArthur, 2012). This was a very remarkable gesture that would hardly be expected to come from a continent such as Africa where leaders are known for their tendency to apply every possible tactic to remain in power.

This was a clear indication that Mandela’s long struggle was not based on the greed for power, but simply on his selfless desire to ensure that freedom was restored to the people of South Africa. Mandela (2003) claimed that, “South African has finally achieved its political emancipation and that never again shall oppression be experienced in the land”.

As it is shown in this paper, there is no doubt that Mandela has helped to change the world through his illustrious leadership style. His selfless commitment and dedication to fight for the freedom of his country has continued to serve as a great inspiration for many people across the world (Lodge, 2003).

For these reasons, the countless facts about Mandela’s private and public life offer great lessons to modern leaders, thus helping to transform the world into a better place. In fact, it is for these reasons why I will always see Mandela as my hero in life.

References

Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (2006). Battles and beliefs rethinking the roles of today’s leaders. Leadership in action, 26(4), 3-7.

Goldsmith, M., Lyons, L., & McArthur, S. (2012). Coaching for Leadership: Writings on Leadership from the World’s Greatest Coaches. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Kalungu-Banda, M. (2006). Leading Like Madiba: Leadership Lessons from Nelson Mandela. Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd.

Lodge, T. (2003). Politics in South Africa: From Mandela to Mbeki. Cape Town, South Africa: New Africa Books.

Mandela, N. (2003). Nelson Mandela: from freedom to the future: tributes and speeches. Cape Town, SA: Jonathan Ball Publishers.

McDonough, Y., & Zeldis, M. (2002). Peaceful Protest: The Life of Nelson Mandela. Bloomsbury USA: Walker and Company.

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Global Leadership – Mandela: a Biography Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Nelson Mandela remains to be a role model to many, because of his courage and endurance during his struggle against racism. Through his unwavering courage and good leadership, he was able to terminate apartheid that was very rampant in South Africa and create a country where people are treated equally without segregation on the basis of one’s color.

Many scholars have written a lot about this African hero. One such person is Martin Meredith, who has also written about other African leaders like Robert Mugabe. His biography about Mandela is one of the most recent and exemplary works to be produced about this leader. Meredith follows up and writes down the most significant events in Mandela’s life. He tries to do this as accurately as possible. His work has attracted a lot of praise as well as criticism from different quarters.

The book “Mandela: A Biography”


This is one of the well written books which talk about the life and struggles of the African leaders. In the book, Meredith chooses to focus on Nelson Mandela, one of most famous African leaders. He narrates in details the events of his life from childhood to the period he enters into politics, in a bid to free his country from the vice of apartheid and the consequences of this choice he makes in life. Achieving his dream does not come as easily as he probably thought during the initial stages of this struggle. It costs him a lot in life.

For example, he is separated from his family for a long duration of time while in prison. The suffering that his family goes through is depicted by his young son, Thembi, who asks, ‘where does daddy live?’ This happened around 1950 when Thembi was five years and he only saw his father occasionally.

Mandela is not afraid to lose his private life and sacrifices much of it for the sake of seeing his country freed from apartheid and other vices that were oppressing the citizens of South Africa. He shows a lot of courage even while in prison as stated by Meredith (p 288). Mandela together with other prisoners never did anything to show signs of weaknesses. This is an example the strengths of this leader.

One of the weaknesses that the author points out is his blind belief in his wife, Winnie’s, innocence despite it being clear that she was involved in criminal activities (Meredith p 442). He firmly affirms his belief despite being absent during her trial.

Having heard a lot about this African hero, the book serves as an eye opener to me concerning the many things I never knew about Mandela. It is amazing to learn the perseverance that he shows through all the struggles and more surprising is the fact that he is not bitter with his political enemies, even after he is out of prison. He exhibits a forgiving heart, unlike many people who go through such experiences.

I would recommend this book to anyone who desires to understand Mandela better because; it is the events in his life that have shaped him to be who he is. The book is also resourceful to anyone who would like to understand the modern day South Africa. Lastly, the book offers a lot of insights and valuable lessons in life when one is going through the various stages in life.

A summary of the main developments and themes in the book

In the book “Mandela: A Biography”, the author, Meredith, narrates the story of Mandela together with that of the nation of South Africa. The stories range from the history of an ethnic group called ‘Xhosa’ and their way of life during the 19th century and the emergence of the concept of nationalism in Africa.

The various stages of development of major towns such as Johannesburg together with the impacts that the communist party had on the people, are also part of Meredith’s great work. According to Meredith, it is hard to separate the story of the country South Africa with that of the leader Nelson Mandela.

This is because their stories are closely interwoven. He explains in details Mandela’s life from when he started his carrier as a barrister to the period when he ventured into anti apartheid campaigns. As a result, his life changed drastically when he was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Despite this tragic turn of events, Meredith notes that his work did not stop. The campaigns he had started on continued to be done by his supporters, through a movement called the ‘Free Mandela Movement’. His wife, Winnie Mandela, was also an active participant in these campaigns.

Mandela’s life is full of incidents worth noting. His participation in the African resistance Movement and the subsequent trials are just some of the many incidents that characterize his life. Mandela was also an active participant in protests against the apartheid regime and the breach of human rights that this system led to.

During his struggle against the injustice upon the people because of apartheid, another problem emerged. This was the problem of a black middle class, which was not there before. This worsened the problem of class discrimination, whereby the poor remained poorer and did not benefit much from this struggle for emancipation. This biography is very rich in information that Meredith has researched in depth and also his personal view of this leader.

Meredith’s book is the only full-scale biography about Mandela, which explains the hardships that this leader has gone through. Traumatic events including his imprisonment in the Robben Island and the transfer from the Island to Pollsmoor in 1982 are all captured in the book. However, what emerges clearly is the courage that Mandela faces all these struggles with.

Meredith takes his time to write an in depth analysis of Mandela’s life from his childhood to the time he is engaged in political struggles. In the process, he reveals Mandela’s strengths and weaknesses because he details not only his works but also his personality. His love life, his past mistakes and how they haunt him during and after he leaves office are all described in details.

These incidents also help to keep the book interesting and bring out the amazing journey undertaken by this African icon in his life and the ways in which he failed and also succeeded. His vehement affirmation against Winnie’s involvement in any criminal acts brings out one of his weaknesses.

This is because he is quoted to have said, ‘my faith in her has been fully vindicated’ (Meredith, p442). Despite being absent from the court proceedings during her trial, he firmly asserts that his wife, Winnie, was not aware of the presence of a stranger at the back of their house.

Lessons from the book

Reading this biography was an enjoyable experience to me, specifically because of Meredith’s unprejudiced opinion about Mandela’s life. He is not afraid to point out his shortcomings both in his leadership and his role in the family. This is unlike many writers, who portray renowned leaders in a superficial way. The leaders are often portrayed as super humans, who lack any weaknesses and who do everything in a perfect manner. This presentation of such leaders is often misleading and lacks credibility.

This biography, however, steers clear from such presentation, which brings more credibility to his biography. Learning about his shortcomings does not however, change my view of this Mandela as being a great leader and an activist who is very courageous.

This book is a must read for anybody who is interested in understanding the modern South Africa. The book explores Mandela’s life from the time he held a strong belief that Africans were the ones supposed to lead his country alone without interference from those from another race. He viewed the other races with a lot of suspicion and lack of trust and responded violently to any attempts by them to gain control over the blacks.

This, however, does not remain so forever because, after his release from prison, Mandela becomes the leader of all races and is comfortable with the races co-existing harmoniously. He does not harbor feelings of revenge and calls for a united South Africa. This depicts a humble man, with a forgiving heart and ready to lead his country by example. It is no wonder that he has become a role model to many people not only in his country but also globally.

Meredith also notes that, Mandela had a unique way of relating with people. He is a man who is more comfortable when around strangers than when he is with the people one would consider as his friends.

How the book validates the concept of culture and leadership

Dealing with issues of culture in leadership is often a tiresome and a hard task, according to Connerley and Pedersen (p 2). Consequently, most of the leaders choose to pay no attention to culture in a bid to avoid dealing with the enormous burden that comes with it when one tries to handle it as a leader.

However, Connerley and Pedersen (p 2) suggest that this should not be so because ‘…leaders need to acknowledge their own cultural baggage as they understand the importance of gaining awareness of culture’ (Connerley and Pedersen, P 2). Overlooking culture is further compared to a person driving a car but along the way, they decide to remove their hands from the steering wheel and expect to get them to their intended destination.

Connerley and Pedersen (p 2) say that such a person should not expect to reach where they were going because the vehicle is going to move to a direction that the driver did not intend. Integration of culture in leadership is therefore an important aspect.

Multiculturalism should be embraced by every leader if they intend to achieve cohesion of the people in the society they are leading. Nelson Mandela is an example if a leader who believed in multiculturalism during his tenure as the president of South Africa. He ensured that every citizen was treated fairly and enjoyed their rights as citizens of South Africa.

Another aspect in relation to Nelson Mandela and his leadership that validates the concept of culture and leadership is pointed out by Meredith (409). He states that Mandela goes through hardships in an attempt to free his people from any form of injustices meted on them during the era of apartheid.

Due to this, Mandela is seen as a leader who is fighting for multiculturalism and is against separation. Separation is defined by Connerley and Pedersen (P 4) as ‘rejecting all cultural values except your own’ (Connerley and Pedersen, P 4). He is not ready to give up until he sees his country become a place where all the races are able to live together in peace and without any form of oppression or discrimination on the basis of ones color.

Meredith (409) further notes that as a result of Mandela’s whole hearted involvement in fighting for what he believes in, the family suffers and is expose to lack of security that the father in the family offers.

His ability to forget what lay behind and move on with life after serving his jail term and taking the presidential seat is also incredible. Speaking of his sunset years after retiring, Mandela is quoted to have said, ‘it becomes important, the older you get, to return to places where you have wonderful recollections’ (Meredith, p 1).

Conclusion

Nelson Mandela is an example of a selfless leader who put the interest of others before his own. His struggle to achieve what he believes in is an example of how nothing is impossible if one holds on to their dreams. Meredith has effectively captured the events that have contributed in shaping the life of this hero, without leaving out his weaknesses.

Works Cited

Connerley, Mary and Pedersen, Paul. Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: developing awareness. London: Sage Publications Limited, 1992.

Meredith, Martin. Mandela: A Biography. New York: PublicAffairs, 2010.

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Leadership Styles: Nelson Mandela and Margaret Thatcher Essay

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Currently, our societies are in need of visionary and inspiring leaders. For the world to overcome its current challenges such as economic chaos, terrorism, and social injustices, the world leaders should motivate people through actions rather than words.

This implies that the world leaders should not only strive to meet the needs of their people, but also strive to be beacons of hope in their societies by enhancing justice, fairness, caring for the less fortunate and allowing love to flourish within our societies.

The need for transformational leadership in our governments and institutions is evident from the current leadership wrangles. In our business organizations, increases in staff turnover cases imply that our institutions are in need of transformational leaders.

In history, Nelson Mandela is viewed as a transformational leader. Unlike other historical leaders, when Mandela was the President of South Africa he treated all genders, races, tribes, and ages equally.

When he was the president, he managed to unite his country, which was once considered the most polarized country in the world during the apartheid. On the other hand, Margaret Thatcher is considered one of the best female leaders who portrayed transactional leadership skills in Britain’s history.

Nelson Mandela

Before South Africa attained its independence, Mandela was one of the black South Africans who were championing for the country’s independence from the British colonials. His transformational leadership style was evident way back when he was the leader of a freedom movement fighting to end apartheid in South Africa (Lodge 2006, p. 3).

Notably, as a leader of a freedom movement Mandela aimed at championing for an equal society where people could be treated fairly regardless of their race, colour, religion, or nationality. During the apartheid, the white South Africans were undermining the black and the coloured South Africans in every sector.

To put an end to these injustices, Mandela and his fellow friends risked their lives for the benefit of all by campaigning for equality in their societies. For several years, Mandela managed to escape traps from British authorities who were determined to arrest him for his actions.

When Mandela was finally captured and imprisoned by the British soldiers, he never stopped campaigning for justice in the South African society. His transformational leadership was tested during one of his trials.

During this trial, Mandela never denied the charges he was accused of despite knowing that if he was going to be found guilty he was going to be sentenced to death. These acts prove that he was committed to ending injustices in South African society no matter the cost.

When Mandela was finally released from prison, he became the president of South Africa in the year 1994. After becoming the president, several white government officials who had worked for the previous regime were expecting to be replaced from their offices. To their surprise, Mandela never replaced them.

Instead, Mandela worked with these officials amicably regardless of their past political positions. Even though the whites had mistreated the blacks and the coloured by offering them limited opportunities during the apartheid, Mandela’s administration choose to treat every South African equally regardless of their past.

By these acts, his leadership inspired several South Africans on the need to have a just society where everyone could be treated equally.

Similarly, during his presidency Mandela was able to inspire several South African athletes and footballers. For instance, when a South African boxer by the name Matlala defeated an American Boxer he found time to visit the boxer in his home and congratulated him. After the visit, the boxer was inspired and determined to win every match in honour of Mandela.

During one of the international matches where South Africa was preparing to play against an international team, Mandela walked into the changing room wearing a jersey similar to one of the footballers named Mark. In the dressing room, Mandela exchanged his jersey with the player.

During and after the match, the player was impressed knowing that his fascinating skills had caught the attention of Mandela. Through these acts, Mandela proved to be a transformational leader.

Margaret Thatcher

Before her resignation, Margaret Thatcher leadership style offered numerous people with valuable lessons in power and management (Thatcher & Dale 2010, p. 4). During her leadership, Thatcher proved that indeed she was a transactional leader.

Just like Britain’s greatest industrial leaders such as Collins Marshall and John Harvey Jones, Thatcher brought radical economical changes in Britain through her effective managerial skills (Eagly & Carli 2007, p. 67). It is alleged that when she was in power all Thatcher ever wanted was to restore British former power in the world dominance.

In general, through her leadership Thatcher managed to tackle economic stagnation issues, unemployment, and inflation issues. She managed to achieve these by transforming business institutions towards greater competitiveness, production, and technological advancement.

As a transactional leader, Thatcher was not after changing Britain’s future but rather keeping it the way it were. Since her early political career in the early 1950s, Thatcher had always been a conservative politician. As a conservative, she opposed several laws that she deemed as contradicting the society values.

For instance, in the year 1964 she represented her conservative party in urging the government to allow the tenants to purchase the council houses. Her conservatism became notable when she supported the Leo Abse’s Bill. This bill was meant to criminalize homosexuality within British territories.

Similarly, during the year 1966 she represented her party in opposing the labour laws that were meant to control prices and incomes. According to her arguments, these laws were going to destroy the country’s economy. Likewise, during the year 1966 she opposed the government’s high-tax plans.

Thatcher argued that lower taxes were the only incentives that could be offered to workers for them to work hard. As such, she believed that high-tax plans were communistic ideas rather than socialistic ideas.

When she became the prime minister in the year 1979, her transactional leadership skills became eminent. She was a strict supervisor and stressed on the significance of group performance. Notably, she became determined to reduce the power vested upon the trade unions.

She believed that trade unions posed great risks to a country’s democracy and economy. To reduce their power, Thatcher introduced a legislation, which was meant to regulate the trade unions. Out of these initiatives, several industrial strikes were witnessed across Britain.

Her strictness on performance was witnessed when she closed down more than 20 state-owned mines owing to their poor performance. Owing to this, several mineworkers lost their jobs leading to national strikes.

During the strikes, Thatcher refused to be undermined by the trade union leaders. In the year 1982, she declared that strikes were prohibited in Britain. Later on, Thatcher resigned as a prime minister when her policies and transactional leadership skills became obsolete.

Through her leadership styles, Thatcher was able to motivate several women leaders. Before her premiership, women were considered ineffective for such post.

However, when she ascended to power several women became convinced that they could achieve the same status in the community just like their male counterparts. In history, Thatcher will always be remembered for her exceptional leadership skills, which enabled her to conquer and rule the male dominated field (Billing 2011, p. 15).

Conclusion

Based on the above analysis, it is evident that transformational leadership style is an ideal leadership trait as compared to transactional leadership style. Mandela managed to inspire and uplift the livelihoods of several individuals in South Africa and the world at large through his transformational leadership style. As opposed to Thatcher, Mandela made peace with his enemies regardless of the political past.

This was evident from the way he treated the white South Africans before and after he ascended to power in the year 1994. On the other hand, Thatcher made several enemies through her transactional leadership style. For instance, throughout her tenure as Britain’s prime minister she always differed with the labour unions.

Equally, as a prime minister she closed down several state-owned mines which were performing poorly. Through this move, several individuals lost their jobs adding to the number of her enemies. As evident from the two leaders, transformational leadership styles are admirable rather than transactional leadership styles because they allow executives to keep in touch with their followers (Rosener 1990, p. 124).

References

Billing, Y 2011, ‘Are Women in Management Victims of the Phantom of the Male Norm?’, Gender, Work and Organization, vol. 18 no. 3, pp. 1-20.

Eagly, A., & Carli, L 2007, ‘Women and the labyrinth of leadership’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 85 no.9, pp. 63-71.

Lodge, T 2006. Mandela: a critical life, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Rosener, J 1990, ‘The command-and-control leadership style associated with men is not the only way to succeed’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 12 no.2, pp. 119 125.

Thatcher, M., & Dale, I 2010, Margaret Thatcher in her own words, Biteback, London.

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Achievements of Nelson Mandela Research Paper

September 29, 2020 by Essay Writer

Abstract

World leaders have hailed Nelson Mandela as “the greatest and most courageous leader of our generation”. In a life of personal surrender, Mandela dedicated himself to the resistance against apartheid in South Africa, a period that ended with the country’s first multi-racial elections on 27 April 1994.

During these elections, the Africa National Congress won with a landslide and, as the leader of the party, Nelson Mandela was installed as South Africa’s first Black President on 10 May 1994. He proceeded to form a Government of National Unity, before retiring after only one term of office in 1999.

Having fought so hard to secure the country’s freedom, many people expected him to cling to power like other African leaders but his decision to step down baffled both friend and foe alike. Well past 90 years now, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela continues to stand as an inspiration to people throughout South Africa, the African continent, and the world.

World leaders have hailed Nelson Mandela as “the greatest and most courageous leader of our generation” (BBC News). In a life of personal surrender, Mandela dedicated himself to the resistance against apartheid in South Africa, a period that ended with the country’s first multi-racial elections on 27 April 1994.

During these elections, the Africa National Congress won with a landslide and, as the leader of the party, Nelson Mandela was installed as South Africa’s first Black President on 10 May 1994. He proceeded to form a Government of National Unity, before retiring after only one term of office in 1999. Having fought so hard to secure the country’s freedom, many people expected him to cling to power like other African leaders but his decision to step down baffled both friend and foe alike (Joffe 272).

Indeed, Nelson Mandela is believed to have honed his leadership skills from a very tender age. While at the age of only 10 years, Mandela was appointed the chief counselor to the acting paramount chief of Thembuland, David Dalindyepo. The position, which was passed down to Mandela after the death of his father who had initially held the position, saw him being groomed as a future leader. In fact, political analysts believe that it was this grooming that led Mandela to become a great political leader in his later years (Mandela 4).

After the completion of his secondary education at Wesleyan High School, Mandela joined Fort Hare University College to pursue a Bachelor of Arts degree. After attaining his BA, he enrolled for a masters program in law. It was during his law years that the youthful Mandela made his initial forays into politics, joining the little known African National Congress. Upon joining the party, Mandela’s leadership skills were immediately recognized and he was elected as one of the party leaders.

Under the leadership of Anton Lambede, Mandela helped in transforming the ANC into a movement with a more radical agenda rooted in the principles of self-determination. Indeed, it was this self-determination principle adopted by Mandela and the entire ANC leadership that finally saw South Africa gain independence in 1994 (Guiloineau & Rowe 13).

During the 1950’s, Mandela opened the first South Africa’s black law-firm in Johannesburg thus earning himself the respect of the international community. In June 1964, Mandela along seven others was handed a life sentence for treason and was consequently imprisoned in the notorious Robben Island Prison.

Mandela was to remain on this island for 18 long years but the incarceration did not dampen his spirit or influence within South Africa. During his incarceration, Mandela rejected countless offers of freedom in return for acknowledging political compromises that would dismantle the apartheid system (Waldmeir 33).

In 1991, Mandela was released from prison and he immediately embarked on his earlier quest for a free South Africa. Two years later, the international community recognized his efforts by awarding him the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to free his country from colonial rule.

Three years after being released from detention, Mandela was elected as the first black South African president inheriting a country that had been polarized by many years of oppressive rule. Within the five years that he was in power, President Mandela oversaw the transition from minority rule thus gaining international admiration for his pursuit of national healing and reconciliation (Waldmeir 35).

Even after his retirement, Mandela has been on the forefront in trying to bring world leaders together to seek solutions to conflicts around the globe. Well past 90 years now, Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela continues to stand as an inspiration to people throughout South Africa, the African continent, and the world.

Works Cited

BBC News. Mandela’s Life and Times, January 28, 2011. Web.

Guiloineau, Jean, & Rowe, Joseph. Nelson Mandela: The Early Life of Rolihlahla Madiba. London: North Atlantic Books, 2002. 13. Print.

Joffe, Joel. The State vs. Nelson Mandela. New York: One World Publications, 2007. 272-273. Print.

Mandela, Nelson. Long Walk to Freedom. Johannesburg: Little, Brown and Company, 1994. 4-5. Print.

Waldmeir, Patti. Anatomy of a Miracle: The End of Apartheid and the Birth of a New South Africa. London: Viking, 1997. 33-36. Print

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