Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey, One of the Early Pioneers of the Worldwide Civil Rights Movement

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

In the circumstances of most people, there comes a point when they must stand up to their government to bring about reform. Only after individuals take the appropriate measures for it to take place will progress be achieved. It has come to shed a light on a man that has been dubbed as one of the early pioneers of the Worldwide Civil Rights Movement: Marcus Mosiah Garvey. He has not only prevailed over circumstances as well as discrimination in order to establish a career of achievement but has also laid the foundation for many more leaders to rise and defend their community.

Bright-eyed and curious minded, Marcus Garvey was born on August 17, 1887, in the island of Jamaica. He was the child of a family far better of than any other Jamaican of his time. As a young boy, his first taste of racism came when a seemingly friend of Garvey’s, who was white, berated him and commanded for him to never speak to him again. Many people, including myself, may have faced a circumstance where someone you trust reveals their true colors. For Garvey, it was this exchange that opened his young eyes to the injustice. Although his family was intellectuals, there was no work available for them that suited their skill set all because of their skin color. The whole family, including the children, had to become laborers to support their family. Garvey had a passionate interest in books and therefore, ironically enough, dropped out of school to become a printer’s apprentice at the age of 14. Later in life he migrated to America where he faced more discrimination.

Nevertheless, Garvey had more foreign aspirations, including the creation of black-owned companies and shipping lines around the world. He also called for the termination of Africa’s white colonial rule. Marcus Garvey championed economic independence, and in the end he called among black nationalism. He insisted that all blacks should return to their true native land of Africa. He established his Association for Universal Negro Improvement (UNIA) in 1914. UNIA, like the views of Booker T. Washington, whom Garvey admired, stressed racial pride and self-improvement. UNIA’s membership peeked in 1914 at approximately 2,000,000 people.

Marcus Garvey influenced many people and spoke of the innermost desires of many individuals. He led the largest black movement in all of history, even though he had to face several challenges to establish the transformation he envisioned successfully. He took a group of people who believed they had little place in society and put them together to give them confidence in their race. He is a perfect example of someone who has triumphed against social injustice.

Even though his heart stopped beating in 1940, his beliefs lived on to pave the foundation of many uprisings in the following decades. Additionally, he has formed the pathway for many other leaders to rise up for the black community. At a time when lynchings were still taking place, Garvey was a reformer who converted speeches into a black civil rights mass movement. Through the rise of independent states across Africa and the advent of the Civil rights movement in the United States, interest in Garvey’s philosophy would also be renewed in the 1960s. His black self-determination ideology had an impact on black leaders from Nelson Mandela to Jomo Kenyatta to Malcolm X. Marcus Garvey was named by Martin Luther King as the first man “to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny.”

To conclude, Marcus Garvey became a pillar of hope to his followers. Together with many others, it is with his influence that the black community, including myself, grew up under good laws under a free government that still is morphing itself for accommodation. The freedom that my ancestors didn’t get to experience, I was blessed to have, the equal opportunity my ancestors fought for, I was granted to have; the integration of ideas and opinions from different backgrounds and cultures that they dreamed for, I am living it right now. I pledge to understand this sweet pleasure of engaging in the golden light of equality and diversity for this purpose. With optimistic aspirations, I envision myself as a beacon of hope just like Garvey for those who have no expression, for those who have accepted themselves to be a dust in the wind. Although I am in programs that give a head-start to my leadership development, I won’t take for granted the opportunities Marcus Garvey and many others laid for me.

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Marcus Garvey: an Influential Figure in the Civil Rights Movement

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

In the circumstances of most people, there comes a point when they must stand up to their government to bring about reform. Only after individuals take the appropriate measures for it to take place will progress be achieved. It has come to shed a light on a man that has been dubbed as one of the early pioneers of the Worldwide Civil Rights Movement: Marcus Mosiah Garvey. He has not only prevailed over circumstances as well as discrimination in order to establish a career of achievement but has also laid the foundation for many more leaders to rise and defend their community.

Bright-eyed and curious minded, Marcus Garvey was born on August 17, 1887, in the island of Jamaica. He was the child of a family far better of than any other Jamaican of his time. As a young boy, his first taste of racism came when a seemingly friend of Garvey’s, who was white, berated him and commanded for him to never speak to him again. Many people, including myself, may have faced a circumstance where someone you trust reveals their true colors. For Garvey, it was this exchange that opened his young eyes to the injustice. Although his family was intellectuals, there was no work available for them that suited their skill set all because of their skin color. The whole family, including the children, had to become laborers to support their family. Garvey had a passionate interest in books and therefore, ironically enough, dropped out of school to become a printer’s apprentice at the age of 14. Later in life he migrated to America where he faced more discrimination.

Nevertheless, Garvey had more foreign aspirations, including the creation of black-owned companies and shipping lines around the world. He also called for the termination of Africa’s white colonial rule. Marcus Garvey championed economic independence, and in the end he called among black nationalism. He insisted that all blacks should return to their true native land of Africa. He established his Association for Universal Negro Improvement (UNIA) in 1914. UNIA, like the views of Booker T. Washington, whom Garvey admired, stressed racial pride and self-improvement. UNIA’s membership peeked in 1914 at approximately 2,000,000 people.

Marcus Garvey influenced many people and spoke of the innermost desires of many individuals. He led the largest black movement in all of history, even though he had to face several challenges to establish the transformation he envisioned successfully. He took a group of people who believed they had little place in society and put them together to give them confidence in their race. He is a perfect example of someone who has triumphed against social injustice.

Even though his heart stopped beating in 1940, his beliefs lived on to pave the foundation of many uprisings in the following decades. Additionally, he has formed the pathway for many other leaders to rise up for the black community. At a time when lynchings were still taking place, Garvey was a reformer who converted speeches into a black civil rights mass movement. Through the rise of independent states across Africa and the advent of the Civil rights movement in the United States, interest in Garvey’s philosophy would also be renewed in the 1960s. His black self-determination ideology had an impact on black leaders from Nelson Mandela to Jomo Kenyatta to Malcolm X. Marcus Garvey was named by Martin Luther King as the first man “to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny.”

To conclude, Marcus Garvey became a pillar of hope to his followers. Together with many others, it is with his influence that the black community, including myself, grew up under good laws under a free government that still is morphing itself for accommodation. The freedom that my ancestors didn’t get to experience, I was blessed to have, the equal opportunity my ancestors fought for, I was granted to have; the integration of ideas and opinions from different backgrounds and cultures that they dreamed for, I am living it right now. I pledge to understand this sweet pleasure of engaging in the golden light of equality and diversity for this purpose. With optimistic aspirations, I envision myself as a beacon of hope just like Garvey for those who have no expression, for those who have accepted themselves to be a dust in the wind. Although I am in programs that give a head-start to my leadership development, I won’t take for granted the opportunities Marcus Garvey and many others laid for me.

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The Impact of the Garvey Movement on African Americans During the 1920s

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Every generation is granted its share of leaders; those empowered to empower others and motivated to establish a better world for generations to come. Marcus Garvey was one of those people. He was an activist, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator of unity amongst black people. When he spoke, people listened and although his practices and behaviors were controversial, his desire to create a better, independent society for black people is what fueled his movement and brought him notoriety. Garvey’s advanced and often rebellious philosophies, inspired the world’s first black nationalist movement and gave black people a sense of pride they had never had before.

Early Life

Marcus Garvey Jr. was born on August 17, 1887 in Saint Ann’s Bay Jamaica. He was the last of 11 children born to Marcus Garvey Sr. and Sarah Jane Richards, both whom had great influence on his life and perspectives. His father was a stonemason, and his firm, aggressive and bold disposition taught Garvey he could only rely on himself for survival. His mother Sarah, raised crops and cared for a white family. Garvey’s mother had tremendous influence and great hopes for him. Her nurturing spirit and love help create Garvey’s extraordinary self confidence. Garvey imagined himself becoming the first gentleman in the world and delivering speeches to crowds of millions. He would spend hours reading, but was forced to stop school at the age of 14, under the colonial education system. When his white neighbor was told never to speak to him because he was a “nigga”, Garvey became aware of what being black really meant. He felt shut out and excluded, and the rest of his life was an attempt to prove he was just as good as anyone else.

The Rise and Fall of UNIA

At 14, Garvey became a printer’s apprentice where he would learn the power of printed word. In 1910, he began traveling through Central America, supporting himself as a journalist and a laborer. In 1912, he returned to Jamaica and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) with the goals of creating an independent black nation modeled after Booker T. Washington’s industrial training school, Tuskegee Institute. The organization had problems from the beginning. Garvey was bad at managing money and made enemies with his dictator style of leadership.

In 1916, after UNIA failed in Jamaica, Garvey left to start a new life in America. He set up branches of UNIA within predominantly black communities. Garvey spread the gospel of black pride and having high self esteem. He gave black people hope and told them that their history did not begin with slavery. He told black people to unite and believe in their roots and Africa’s rich history. He made black people feel beautiful and changed the way they viewed themselves in society. Garvey genius was to transform men in uniform to “always think of yourself a perfect being and be satisfied with yourself”. At its peak UNIA, had something for everyone including children and gained a following of two million people.

UNIA was built to demonstrate black success. In the Summer of 1918, Garvey set out to start a black enterprise. He founded Liberty Hall, where he stared Negro World Newspaper. He also established laundromats, grocery stores, restaurants, and a printing press to convert black wealth into business that would benefit black people. In 1919, Garvey created the Black Star Line as a monument to black commerce. Garvey felt black people needed their own shipping line just as other cultures had their own. The Black Start Line represent the ability of black people to have their own economy, but it was just that, a model, a figure of imagination, a ship at sail with no clear destination. At its peak, the UNIA employed nearly one-thousand people in Harlem, but as it did in Jamaica, UNIA and Garvey’s other business endeavors would quickly spiral downward.

Garvey’s Lack of Leadership UNIA businesses failed mostly due to Garvey’s poor leadership skills. He would hire managers with little to no experience simply based on their loyalty to him and would use money from one business to finance others. Garvey didn’t take well to people who didn’t play by his rules and would physically assault people who didn’t comply. He had extreme confidence in areas he had no experience and took no advice. His rising radical influence made him a target and a threat to the federal government. Garvey’s newspaper carried news of rebellion across the world, and with UNIAs 500 divisions in 22 countries, the movement could not be stopped. Garvey bragged about creating a separate black justice system and appointed black people to roles with grandeur titles. Black critics saw Garvey as a lunatic and his movement as a grand distraction as it clashed with the ideology of notable leaders of the time. W.E.B Dubois, head of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, called him, the most dangerous to black people. Garvey believed blacks could run a successful self sustaining economy in Africa, where as leaders like Dubois wanted to establish black wealth within white America. Garvey’s dealings with questionable organizations like the KKK to fund his enterprises, caused black people to completely denounce him, ultimately pushing the federal government to pursue a case against him. President Larry Hoover would spend years hiring secret agents to infiltrate Garvey’s organization in order to find evidence of corruption and fraud.

In 1920, on the verge of bankruptcy, Garvey mailed a brochure advertising a ship that appeared to be owned by the Black Star Line, but in fact wasn’t. In 1922, he was indicted for federal mail fraud and served 2 years of a 5 year sentence before being deported back to Jamaica as an undesirable alien. Garvey was never able to revive the movement abroad, and died sick and alone, never actually stepping foot into Africa.

Life Legacy

Marcus Garvey’s movement laid a blueprint for black enterprise and negro liberty. Because of his lack of leadership, education, and support, the world would never get the chance to see the success of UNIA and an independent black economy, but his influence remains. Garvey helped black people to realize their power and that they are enough simply because they exist. His message of pride and dignity inspired many leaders that would go on to start the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 60s. Garvey was an activist, a forerunner, a true hero.

Bibliography

  • Marcus Garvey Biography. Biography.com website https://www.biography.com/activist/marcus-garvey
  • Marcus Garvey, Full Documentary Youtube video, 1:20, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7g_RfSh7Uqg
  • Marcus Garvey, Jamaican Black Nationalist Leader. Encyclopedia Brittannica. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Marcus-Garvey
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Racism, Colonialism, Gender Roles and Education in the Life of Marcus Garvey

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Junior was an exceptional writer, advocate for black rights and political activist during his time on earth. Most of his noteworthy actions were captured by that of Rupert Lewis, a retired professor and former teacher of political thought at the University of the West Indies. Professor Lewis being one of the leading scholars on the life and work of Marcus Garvey with more than fifty years of dedicated material on both him and his various movements, documented his journey through the University of the West Indies Press 2018 biography entitled Marcus Garvey, a book that carries readers through the highs and lows of the journey one man faced in order to deliver equality, justice and a sense of self-empowerment for black people around the world. From his birth to lower income class parents, to the spark that developed in Garvey from his brief exposure to journalism to the creation of a massive world-wide movement the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL), this biography explores the themes of racism, colonialism, gender roles as well as education which all assisted in shaping the life of Marcus Garvey.

Racism was encountered throughout every step of Garvey’s life. Due to the history of the Caribbean with race being the centrefold of all actions and motives, blacks still had an issue identifying their place in the world as people rather than property. For Garvey, being shunned from his white playmate as child did not take a toll on him as his self confidence and education through his love for reading books like his father superseded his emotional reaction to senseless things such as racism, and as such developed one of the pillars of his life mission of seeking the social and political equality of all black people in comparison to their white counterparts. Perhaps one of the most difficult terms to come to be, was the fact that Marcus Garvey was being racially profiled by his own people. Due to the impact of early colonisation most Jamaicans during that time period aimed to be associated with white culture and therefore most of them identified with the British stamp that they were given. When Garvey attempted to establish the UNIA in 1914 the criticism met by his own countrymen was enough to discourage anyone. Garvey quoted “I never knew there was so much colour prejudice in Jamaica my native home until I started the work of the Universal Negro Improvement…”. The idea that people were willing to define their identity based on the ruling monarch of their country was baffling especially given the brutal treatment persons of colour faced as well as not being able to own land nor even exercise their right to vote. Vocal Jamaican writers such as Raphael Morgan published articles in local newspaper feeling that Garvey’s comments on his homeland were bound to damage the people and the country’s economy (Daily Gleaner 1916 Oct 4). In order to correct this backward mentality, Garvey sought it enlist the help of Robert Russa Morton who according to Garvey was to assist in waking up the sleeping native Jamaicans and awaken them to their possibilities (Lewis 12).

Racism from people of his own colour was not only local but was met overseas as well. Founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP), Du Bois only crossed paths with Garvey due to the Death of Booker T Washington, who was contacted by Garvey before his death in an attempt to bring the UNIA to the states. W.E.B. Du Bois was the most vocal and forward person on the Garvey hate train and although the two were similar in the missions to liberate black people, the two differ. Garvey was dark-skinned and wished to move all black people to Africa, while Du Bois who was of lighter complexion held a strong belief that for black people to advance, the integration of blacks with whites was keen in the race’s upward progression. It is assumed that the colour of Garvey’s skin played a role in the hatred he received from Du Bois who described Garvey as a little fat black man; ugly, but with intelligent eyes and a big head. Du Bois use of Garvey’s skin colour in order to emphasise the insults made towards him can be seen as a form colour prejudice, however, Du Bois is not the only one guilty of such. Garvey’s main issue with Du Bois was not only because of his initial disdain for him, but it was also for his stance that the only way the black race could elevate itself was by race-mixing. This brings about the question was Marcus Garvey a racist? Garvey shared a similar quality with as Ku Klux Klans President Warren G. Harding who in 1921 stated that “racial amalgamation there cannot be” (Kendi). Garvey believed in keeping the purity of black line which did not involve mixing it with the white blood. This perspective held by that of Garvey can be attributed to the fact that he grew up under seeing the deprivation of his people by the whites and recognizing that regardless of the how much advancements the black man made in society, the white and would forever use race to decipher the standard of living.

Colonialism, second to theme of racism was one of the strongest themes of the biography and played a major role throughout Garvey’s life. Colonialism is defined as a practice of domination which involves the subjugation of one people to another (Stanford) and was the basis on which the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) was established. Growing up in Jamaica Garvey had become aware of the loyalty to which Jamaicans served the Queen, but it wasn’t until the world was on its cusp of its first war did the strength and severity of this loyalty dawn on him. Black Jamaicans as Rupert explains were a product of British commercial military and missionary incursions into Africa. These series of incursions resulted in the long reign of Slavery that trained the members of the Caribbean community to shed their African identity through the means of violence and Bible scriptures and replace it with that of the colonial britishness that created a spectrum of aspiring black men alike – to be white. Having furthered his studies in England at Birkbeck college primarily focusing on African studies, Garvey had easily separated himself from the post-colonial Caribbean identity as he was able to witness the first-hand treatment of negros around the world. This allowed him to identify the difference between the valuing versus the exploitation of a race, which despite their loyalty to their monarchies through continuous service in both military and other areas, black people were continuously disregarded as relevant human beings of society. Garvey’s belief in the advancement of black people and that there were ways to achieve such advancement through the usage of developed platforms to bring across these messages assisted in the fuelling of his race agenda despite the successful mission of colonialism that overpowered Jamaican and other members of the Caribbean.

The roles each gender played within society was also a constant theme in the biography with the first occurrence being seen with Garvey’s own parents. Gender roles are typically based on the different expectations that individuals, groups and societies have based on their sex and the society’s values and beliefs about gender (Blackstone). Garvey’s parents Marcus Garvey Snr. and Sarah Jane Richards both had jobs appropriated to their lower class ranking and fitting to their roles in society based on their genders. His father was a well-read knowledgeable man, though a brick layer by trade and was described by Garvey’s second wife as a silent, stern and strong person who was often addressed as ‘Mr Garvey’ even by his own wife. His mother a housekeeper and a cook who attended to middle class families was quite the opposite as she was described by Garvey himself as a soft, sober and conscientious Christian, very fitting to the description of a wife from the 1800’s. Garvey’s first marriage to Amy Ashwood failed as Ms. Ashwood did not fit this description of a wife; her drinking and flirtatious behaviour was often described and not complimenting to that of Garvey’s own. His second wife Amy Jacques however suited the description as praises of her handling of finance, typing skills, organizational skills and child raising made her a more fitting suit for Garvey. These descriptions implied that like his father the post-colonial ideology of a man ran though Garvey’s veins as his stubbornness and emphasis on a woman for not her ‘wifeliness’ but the contribution she made to the advancement of her husband was of priority as Amy Jacques described in chapter five of the biography tat the value of a wife to him was like a gold coin – expendable, to get what he wanted and hard enough to withstand rough usage in the process. These roles were established as a part of the early construct of a traditional family adapted by many Caribbean families from their English colonisers that settled in the Caribbean. Although Garvey resented the colonisers, the impact of these roles was evident and allowed Garvey to have more focus on who he delegated tasks to and how he ran the operations of both the UNIA and the Black Star.

Finally, education played an integral role in Garvey’s upbringing. Though he resented his father in many ways his father could be praised for Garvey’s early interest in literature and public and worldly affairs although he was a brick layer, he was often sought after for advice within his community and was seen as a community lawyer for his wisdom and perspectives. It can even be argued that Garvey Snr’s early introduction to such literature to his son at a young age could a primary influencer to Garvey’s want to establish the UNIA. Due to this early introduction of books and political affairs, his progression through education was seamless as he was able to easily stand out in his field of journalism and public speaking due to his eloquence. His move to England to study at Birkbeck College despite him being of a darker tone opened doors for him that public speaking alone could not have done. Him being educated allowed him to connect with people of all social classes especially the wealthy upper class which proved as beneficial as he was able to push though the agenda of his various platform groups and reach masses that he could not dream of.

To conclude, Marcus Garvey was a man who used all the challenges he faced in life to mould himself into the great man that he was and contribute to the astounding legacy that he left behind. The history of the Caribbean and post-colonial ideas that existed during Garvey’s time were impacted by factors such as racism, the response of different groups to colonialism, educational opportunities and the traditional roles assigned to the genders. His ability to manoeuvre through the xenophobes that existed in the worlds outside of his country, progress through a community blinded by their overwhelming patriotism and loyalty to their colonisers, despite the unfair treatment received whilst striving for and attaining higher education along his journey further solidifies the remarkable man Garvey was due to contribution and impact of the various post-colonial issues that existed.

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Marcus Garvey Stands Out as a Historical Figure in the Fight for African-american Rights

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Marcus Garvey, a legendary hero, was born on August 17, 1887 in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica. He was the youngest child of 11 children. His family was comprised of poor peasants, who only survived because of his mother. Garvey’s mother had to supply the family with money by selling cakes and pastries. Garvey’s father worked irregularly as a ‘village lawyer’ (Edwards 5). Growing up he was influenced by his father, who was a stonemason descended from the Maroon tribes (Davis 66). Marcus grew up knowing what it was like being poor and what deprivation meant. He attended elementary school and secondary school at St. Anne’s Bay. He ended up graduating from high school at a private school called Church of England High School. After high school he could not afford college so he had to go straight to work. As such, at age fourteen, he decided to go and work for his grandfather who was a printer at St. Anne’s Bay.

While he was working for his grandfather he experienced something that affected him deeply. There was a group of white kids with whom Marcus Garvey would play. He started to like one of the white girls who was the daughter of a Methodist minister. Her parents found out that they were hanging out with a black person and they made her write a letter telling Garvey that she could not ever see him again anymore because in the parents own words, “he was a nigger”. He was furious ever since, and decided not to hang out with any more white girls while growing up. “After my first lesson in race distinction I never thought of playing with white girls any more, even if they might be next-door neighbors” (Edwards 4).

Because of his bad experience, he decided to move to Kingston, away from his neighborhood friends and start working as an apprentice for his grandfather. Later he was promoted as a supervisor responsible for the post. At age 18, he was supervising people his grandfather’s age. While he was working there a powerful earthquake shattered Kingston. Because of this many people’s wages were increasing significantly especially the Union workers. Garvey was the leader of a crowd of Union workers however it was eventually ended unsuccessfully. Most of the workers were allowed to return to their jobs but Garvey was left unemployed (Davis 66). He then found employment at the Government printing office as an editor of his first periodical-“The Watchman”. Since he was not making enough money to support himself he decided to continue his activities in the political organization known as “Our Own”. During his time working there he worked with a guy named Dr. Love who inspired him to improve Jamaica. Dr. Love spent most of his time volunteering to help improve the poor conditions of Jamaica. Some would say that Dr. Love was the inspiration that Marcus Garvey got. In 1909, Marcus left Jamaica and went to Costa Rica.

During the visit of Costa Rica, Marcus Garvey was in desperate need of money, so he started to work as a timekeeper in a banana plantation. He sadly realized that it was the black people that where doing all the slave labor even after slavery. He was so disturbed that he started to lecture to the field workers about how to live their own life without depending on the white people. Garvey quoted, “Growing up as I did my own Island, and traveling out to the outside world with open eyes, I saw that the merchant marines of all countries were in the hands of white men” (Education 2). Marcus Garvey protested to the British consul in Limon about the treatment of black labor (Edwards 5). White people were threatening his speeches. Traveling all over South America, he realized there were men in the countryside who were unemployed because of their color. He tried to organize them and help them search for employment, but he was unsuccessful.

As a result of his bad experience, Marcus Garvey felt the need to change the Caribbean. To do so, he realized that he needed to become more knowledgeable on the history of African so he moved to England to go to college. Later on he ran out of money so he found a job at a magazine company where he helped publish “Africa Time and Orient Review”. He became friends with one of his co-workers Duce Muhammad Ali, a scholar from Egypt. Duce provided him books about African history. One caught Garvey’s attention; it was Up From Slavery, by Booker T. Washington. He was fascinated by Booker T. Washington and realized that he wanted to start leading his people.

Now that Marcus Garvey was well educated, he started to change the Caribbean slowly by preaching and leading organizations. Garvey became excited and decided to go back to Jamaica in July 15, 1914. Only within five days of being in Jamaica he decided to start a group that would unite all black people-Universal Negro Improvement Association. The association motto was “One God! One Aim! One Destiny!” Marcus Garvey became the president of the organization. The purpose of this organization helped the unification of all black people, and stressed the necessity of economic and cultural development (Whitney 100). For almost two years, Garvey struggled to improve and

educate people in Jamaica by having weekly meetings. The meeting would consist of debates, music, and certain kinds of entertainments (Senoir 23).

After Garvey’s organization failed, he moved to the US so he could help lead and gain more support. Garvey ended up staying in US for 11 years doing many different lectures, fundraising and other activities. UNIA started to become very successful; it grew to become the largest Pan African Movement ever. It grew to 1,200 branches in more than forty countries. There were many different international conventions that brought thousands of people together. He also contributed to the Pan-Africanism; which was a political project calling for the unification of all Africans into a single African state. During all of this he had a newspaper called “Negro World,” which entertained many different stories, film reviews, short stories and articles of literature. This magazine helped the black community learn and appreciate their culture more (Senior 21). In 1920, the UNIA had their first huge convention in New York. The convention opened with a parade down Harlem’s Lenox Avenue. More than 25,000 people showed up for the convention and Garvey spoke about how he had a plan to build an African nation state. That idea became very popular; about a thousand people enrolled in the UNIA (Bayne 1). Because of the increase popularity branches started forming all over the world such as Cuba, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Venezuela, Ghana, Namibia, and South Africa (Bayne 2). By 1919 the Association had a membership of two million (Whitney 100).

Marcus Garvey had a mission and had an entrepreneurial drive to succeed in what he was doing (Davis 66). During his strong leadership he decided to open up a steamship company, the “Black Star Line”, which would “link the colored peoples of the world in commercial and industrial discourse”. He only allowed blacks to purchase the stocks, and Garvey raised millions of dollars selling single shares at five dollars apiece to believers in his ideas of Black pride and redemption. Some people did not like the idea because they thought that Garvey was providing the Blacks with transportation back to Africa for those who wanted to go. Garvey stated, “Having traveled extensively throughout the world and seriously studying the economically, commercially and industrial needs of our people, I found out the quickest and easiest way to reach them was by steamship communications. So immediately after I succeeded in forming the UNIA in America, I launched the idea of floating ships under the direction of Negroes” (Education 3). Garvey faced constant harassment from the federal and New York authorities. He was forced to rename the Black Star Line S.S. Federick Douglas, and it began traveling between New York and Jamaica in 1920.

During his leadership of his organizations and management of the steamship company he had many followers that supported him all the way. He also hosted a worldwide convention of the UNIA in New York. Thousands of people showed up to support Garvey and they paraded around Harlem. Garvey was issuing a problem of anticolonialism and African nationalism. He shouted,”We are the descendants of a suffering people. We are the descendants of a people determined to suffer no longer.” (Davis 67). After that day Harlem sold cigars with Marcus Garvey’s picture on the box and black communities in big cities had the UNIA anthem, “Ethiopia Thou Land of Our Fathers.” (Davis 68).

Although he was blessed with success, Garvey had many obstacles to overcome. One of the main problems he had to face were his enemies; he had to meet with the hierarchy of the Ku Klux Klan in Louisiana to discuss support of the African repatriation. During all of this he had financial problems. The Black Star Line started to have trouble because of poor management. Garvey was forced into bankruptcy. With the Black Star Line in serious financial problems, Garvey decided to start up two new businesses organizations-the African Communities League and the Negro Factories Corporation. In addition to the financial problems he was having, he also faced problems with his first marriage to Amy Ashwood whom he married in 1919. Amy was Garvey’s first wife since 1914. The marriage was not successful and in 1922 she filed for a divorce. Later that year he married his private secretary, Amy Jacques (Edwards 17).

By early 1923, Garvey had some serious problems to deal with. Garvey was tried for mail fraud and tax evasion. Eight prominent Negroes sent a letter to the Attorney general asking to disband or stop the trial. Before the trial, Garvey spoke to the hundreds of people there to support him. He gave an optimistic speech about how he was going to be free in an hour and that there was nothing to worry about. The crowd was still crying and praying for it all to be over with (Edwards 17). Garvey was found guilty under a single account that he continued to sell stock in the Black Star Line even though the company was broke. Garvey was fined $1,000 and sentenced to five years imprisonment. He was sentenced in 1927 by Calvin College, and Garvey was deported to Panama (Davis 68).

However, Garvey did not let anybody stop him from losing hope. He started another organization called “Black Navigation and Trading Company” to take place of the Black Star Line. His supporters still stuck with him all the way through. But this company ended up losing its profits. Garvey thus moved back to Jamaica where he had some spectacular theatrical UNIA conventions that older Jamaicans remember as the most amazing, memorable time.

In 1940, Marcus suffered a stroke that left him paralyzed on the right side of his body. However this was not his first illness that he had suffered. After leaving Jamaica he had two cases of severe pneumonia. He also suffered greatly from asthma. On June 10, 1940, Marcus Garvey, “the hero of many blacks” passed away from a stroke. He was only fifty-two years old but he lived his life as a hero, savoir, and a fighter (Martin 161).

Although Marcus Garvey passed away, he still had a huge impact on the Caribbean’s future. Because of Garvey’s leadership, he was announced a “National Hero” by Jamaica in 1952. Jamaican Garveyites saw the picture of the new African emperor on the front page of the Daily Gleaner and consulted their Bibles for a sign. The question was whether if what Garvey was preaching was what they saw in the Bible all along. The proof lies in Revelation 5:2,5. Several Kingston preachers started to preach about Haile Selassie-which means “Power of the Trinity”, as the living God and the main focus of African redemption. A new religion was made and the worshipers are known as Ras Tafaris, or Rastamen. There would be no Rasta if it weren’t for Marcus Garvey (Davis 72). The Rasta will always remember the proclamation that Garvey preached, “Look to Africa, where a Black King shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is near” (Whitney 103). To some of the Rastafarians, Garvey is known as a prophet. In fact, Bob Marley a famous singer who was also Rastafarian, idealized Marcus Garvey. Most of Marley’s music relates to Garvey beliefs. He used them in his philosophies in his song.

For example, “Exodus” he sings about how the blacks are free so where are they going to do with this generation (Whitney 105).

In conclusion, Marcus Garvey is considered a hero, savoir, and a prophet. He had many failures in life but in history’s perspective he has had a lot of successes. He did significantly impact not just the Caribbean people but also the Africans. He has never set foot in his own country Africa, but to Africans he is known as a prophet. Garvey was a strong leader and influenced a lot of future leaders of the world. He succeeded in several factors that helped the Africans. Garvey’s time was needed; Africa was under Europeans conquest and the Black world needed its independence. He gave his time and leadership to help explain to blacks why they need to be independent and join UNIA. He attracted many followers and started international institutions. Also, he influenced a new religion and had many goals that he achieved and still had yet to achieve, but his followers helped accomplished his goals. In 1952 the Jamaican House of Representatives recommended that Garvey’s birthday be celebrated as a public holiday and have a scholarship in his name, which passed a resolution. The scholarship has been established; as for ‘Marcus Garvey’s Day’, it is yet to come. The west end of Kingston is a park; they have the street named after him. Marcus Garvey will never be forgotten in the world. He is a man never to be forgotten. This is a powerful quote showing you how unselfish Marcus Garvey is by having a dream:

“I have a vision of the future and I see before me a picture of a redeemed Africa, with her dotted cities, with her beautiful civilization, with her millions of happy children going to and from. Why should I lose hope, why should I give up, and take a back place in this age of progress?” (Whitney 100).

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The Three Different Ideas on What African American Rights Are and How to Obtain Them

October 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Among African-American leaders in the late 1800s and early 1900s, most were keen on achieving equal citizenship for blacks as there was for whites. There were three major strategies involved. Of them were the economic strategy, the political strategy, and the idea that all African-Americans should return to their homeland of Africa. The first two strategies’ goals were based around ultimately attaining first-class citizenship for African-American Americans, while the third strategy’s goal was to leave America entirely, forgetting about gaining citizenship for the African-Americans.

The economic strategy was primarily lead by Booker T Washington. His campaign was based around having African-Americans start as inferior citizens to whites in the United States, eventually achieving equal rights for the African-Americans. Washington’s strategy started off with his Atlanta Compromise address, in which he asked that white Americans provide opportunities of employment for African-Americans and also industrial-agricultural education. If the whites agreed to this, the African-Americans were supposed to agree to not demand social equality or civil rights. The goal set by Washington was to prove that blacks were hard workers and not liars. However, WEB DuBois believed that this tactic for achieving racial equality was not going to gain much for the race other than education and work.

WEB DuBois’ political strategy was one nearly opposite to that of Booker T Washington’s. While having a different tactic, the goal for racial equality and civil rights remained the same, both trying to achieve first-class citizenship for African-Americans. DuBois demanded for three things, two of which Washington had not strived for; the right for African-Americans to vote, the allowance of a higher education for African-American youth, and civic equality. The founding of the Niagara Movement in 1905 was a big step forward for the civil rights movement for African-Americans. Unfortunately, it soon fell due to lack of financial support, but in turn caused the creation of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). The goal of this association was to remove barriers created legally to keep African-Americans from gaining civil rights. Obviously, DuBois was interested in immediate advancement as opposed to Washington’s gradualist approach.

Marcus Garvey’s approach toward racial discrimination and segregation of African-Americans was more of an evasion to the whole topic. Rallying African-Americans and encouraging them to be proud of their race, he urged them to move to Africa, their natural homeland. Before this, he had established the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association). With this organization, he moved to the United States from Jamaica to gain supporters for his idea to avoid discrimination altogether. In order to get people to Africa, he founded the Black Star Line, an organization meant to transport blacks to Africa. Clearly, this was a majorly different approach to those of Washington and DuBois.

The three leaders, Garvey, DuBois, and Washington, all wanted one thing; equality for African-Americans. Whether it was gaining civil rights via hard work, demand, or leaving the country altogether, the goal was the same; to stop discrimination. The three men had the same ideas, but they just approached them in different ways.

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