Lord of the Flies
A Look at Disturbing Events Highlighted in William Golding’s Book, Lord of the Flies
Traumatic experiences and difficult moments help to define an individual’s resilience and character. These traumatic experiences often occur during one’s adolescence and are part of one’s coming-of-age rite of passage. Whether beneficial or destructive, these significant moments alter lives irreversibly. In particular, most adolescents encounter trying times which help them to grow morally and psychologically. Usually, these pivotal moments become the focus of numerous coming-of-age novels. For instance, in Lord of the Flies by William Golding, Ralph’s experience on the deserted island irrevocably transforms his perspective of human nature. Without the presence of adults and equipped with the dizzying freedom to make his own decisions regarding good and evil, to lead a tribe of schoolboys, and to choose his group of close friends, Ralph encounters numerous unexpected challenges. By dealing with these challenges, he becomes wiser and eventually becomes to terms with “grown-up” issues.
Ralph loses his innocence and he witnesses the death of Piggy during his time on the deserted island, but he fails to fully realize the significance of these monstrous events until the conclusion of his time on the island. When the naval officers rescue Ralph and his comrades from the forest fire on the island, they jokingly inquire if casualties occurred during the boys’ “make-believe war”. At this moment, Ralph realizes the overwhelming barbarism of the boys’ conduct, and he begins to sob. Ralph weeps for the “end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy.” Following these tragic events, Ralph finally understands the human capacity for evil, which leaves him grappling with the notion that everyone possesses “darkness”- the capacity for evil within them. This revelation officially marks Ralph’s transition from adolescence to adulthood, signifying that the lessons he learned from his experiences on the island have made him wiser and broadened his perspective in the ways of the world. He realizes that even seemingly innocent, civilized British schoolboys possess dark, murderous tendencies that become evident without the presence of civilized society and explicit expectations for humane conduct.
The Lord of the Flies summarizes the boys’ transition from civilized individuals to savage barbarians in the absence of a civilized social construct. As the first leader of the island, Ralph initially represents the epitome of order and goodness. He governed with fair laws and democratic decision-making processes that included each member of the tribe. However, dark, powerful forces constantly challenge Ralph’s authority. The innately evil forces of fear, blood-lust, and violence become steadily apparent as the boys free themselves from the constraints of civilized society. Gripped with vengeance for losing the leadership position to Ralph, Jack leads an antagonistic faction that rebels against Ralph’s authority. Jack organizes his hunting-obsessed group and appeals to the boy’s need for nutritional meat. Jack enforces his power through a tyrannical violence. At first, Ralph and his scarce population of followers represent the forces of good whereas Jack and his followers distinctly represent evil. However, the distinct line between good and evil become increasingly blurred. Gradually, Ralph and Piggy become afflicted by these powerful evil forces, and in their desperate attempt to acquire food from Jack’s hunt, they participate in the macabre hunting reenactment that contributed to Simon’s death.
From the carefree boy that stood on his head whenever he felt the overwhelming excitement of the island to the weeping adolescent that felt the weight of the world on his shoulders, Ralph’s life drastically changes in William Golding’s bildungsroman, Lord of the Flies. Because of the obstacles he faces as well as his experience with imminent death, Ralph grows wiser throughout the novel. With this wisdom comes the burdensome knowledge of the human tendency toward barbarism. Ralph realizes that the beast exists; not as a creature that haunts the island, but as a sinister force that dwells inside of humans, waiting to be unleashed. Only society’s expectations can restrain the beast.
Because of his encounter with the darkness of human nature and his struggle to restrain the beast within himself, Ralph discovers the evil secrets of man’s heart. This evil irreversibly transformed Ralph’s perspective of humanity and leads him to become more conscious of his personal decisions. Furthermore, in Lord of the Flies, Golding demonstrates the ability of man’s innate darkness to rapidly taint innocence and overwhelm one’s civilized tendencies. This tumultuous coming-of-age tale focused on the dark, whirlwind moral and psychological development of the British schoolboys. However, the children’s marred innocence serves as a reminder that the awareness of man’s evil cannot and should not be forgotten.
The Savagery of Civilization as Depicted in Lord of the Flies
“Things are breaking up. I don’t understand why. We began well; we were happy”. A group of schoolboys who were dropped on an island to fend for themselves without adult supervision. A beast who crept within the forest or in depth of their soul. In The Lord of the Flies, William Golding uses the characters to represent Freud’s ID, Ego, and Superego, and these characters symbolize what occurs in civilization.
Golding uses Jack to symbolize savagery in civilization through his ID actions. For example, Jack punches piggy and breaks his glasses: ‘Jack smacked Piggy’s head. Piggy’s glasses flew off and tinkled on the rocks'(Golding 71). In Freud’s psychoanalytic criticism, he talks about the ‘Desire for instant gratification or release'(Freud Id) that stems from the ID. His actions would explain his impulses to punch Piggy and his desire to be above him. Jack is a symbol of savagery which would indicate what would happen in a civilization. The maliciousness that comes from him represents wrongful ideals of human society, such as vicious, violent murder. Golding uses Jack to express that there is corruption in society.
Ralph symbolizes authority and powers within a civilization. According to Freud, the ego is that someone who is ‘Balance between our impulses( our id) and our conscience( our superego'(Freud Ego). Ralph’s balance begins as an Id where he mocks piggy’s size and slowly developing into Freud’s three personalities. Along with his ID personality, there was also his superego. For example, when Ralph defends Piggy for when Jack punches him. ‘That was a dirty trick'(Golding 90), so Ralph stands for what he believes which is helping the needy. The event expresses what kind of character Ralph represents. A character who is not afraid to go against wrongdoing. Lastly but not the least, Ralph showing his authoritative power through his ego persona. Ralph’s authoritative mannerism is spotted when he constructs rules, building huts, resolving problems, setting up meetings, and increasing their chances of being rescued. It shows him as a dedicated leader who wants the best for his tribe. Jack advise the tribe to looks ‘after the fire…. Where the conch is, that’s a meeting. The same up here as down there'(Golding 2). Authority within in our civilization is part of everyday life from school, work, to social places. The jurisdiction is established by a superior. Golding uses Ralph to set up what authority is in part of society.
Lastly, the character that completes Freud’s three personalities is Simon, a character who is well known for his caring nurture even to his death. Golding uses Simon to express the goodness in humanity. Simon is a representation of a superego. According to Freud, that is when a ‘Moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. It dictates our belief of right and wrong”(Freud Superego). For instance, when Simon expresses the beast as ‘ What I mean is…maybe it’s only us'(Golding 89), he is trying to explain that it is not physically there, but within us. As it proves, him being conscious of what is happening with the beast. n to symbolize that there is good in humanity.
Ultimately, Golding uses Jack, Ralph, Piggy to communicate the allegory in Lord of the Flies represent Freud’s ID, Ego, and Superego to symbolize what occurs in a civilization. Jack symbolize vicious brutality, while Ralph signifies ego in society, and Simon a superego represents the virtuous of humanity. In all, these characters show the true nature of civilization.
Lord Of The Flies By William Golding: Analysis Of The Character Of Ralph
If a bunch of boys were stranded on a deserted island. In Lord of the Flies midst an unspecified war only boys survive an airplane crash on a deserted island. At first social structure is established, but as the plot develops order erodes. Golding, mainly known as a British novelist, was a teacher that won the Nobel Prize in Literature. The protagonist, Ralph, one of the older boys, has fair hair, is a courageous and handsome boy. In Golding’s novel Lord of the Flies Ralph is a round and dynamic character. “Justice” and “democracy” could be considered as the values of his moral code. Ralph is not the smartest, but inherently good. Ralph’s diverse personality shows roundness. Jack, Simon and Ralph discover the island during the exposition.
Ascending a mountain, Ralph initiates the echoing of words: “Ralph turned with shining eyes to the others. “Wacco. ” “Wizard. ” “Smashing. ” The cause of their pleasure was not obvious. ” (Golding 35) In the rising action during an assembly anarchic speech annoys Ralph, who is speaking from the chief’s seat: ““There’s too much talking out of turn,” Ralph said, “because we can’t have proper assemblies if you don’t stick to the rules. ” (Golding 128) Ralph’s roundness is created by this variety. During the exposition Golding presents him youthfully; “shining eyes” and letting funny words echo is typical for young boys. “There’s too much talking out of turn” expresses Ralph’s serious side, as he wants order. Golding’s choice for roundness is important to show Ralph as interesting and amusing, but possessing inherently good virtues. Despite the harsh situation Ralph experiences boyish joy. On the other hand, he is portrayed as a serious boy: he wants productive assemblies. Without his roundness Ralph would either appear as a carefree, playful boy or unexciting. The effect of the roundness Golding created on the reader is sympathetic. Ralph is a boy grown-ups adore: amusing, but diligent. His funny side is charming, whereas his seriousness shows that he is not useless. The evolution in Ralph’s personality indicates dynamicity. In the exposition Ralph is presented as a leader.
During an assembly Ralph speaks to the boys on the island to share his vision: “We’ve got to have special people for looking after the fire. Any day there may be a ship out there. ” (Golding 58) In the rising action Ralph loses faith in his authority. During a conversation with Piggy on the place for the assemblies this becomes clear; “You could …”, says Piggy. Ralph anticipates: “Call an assembly?” “Ralph laughed sharply as he said the word and Piggy frowned. ” Piggy reacts: “You’re still chief. ” “Ralph laughed again. ” (Golding 223) Through the evolution from a leader to a boy who lacks authority, Golding presents Ralph’s dynamicity. In the exposition Ralph stresses the need of order, whereas in the rising action “Ralph laughed sharply” as Piggy said, “you’re still chief”. Ralph realizes that his natural authority is not effective anymore. The importance of Golding’s choice for Ralph’s development is that Ralph starts to think more rationally. Leaders should think quickly, but without his authority Ralph can take time to consider options. He is not used to complicated thinking though, which makes him slower and obvious things confuse him later in the rising action, for example when he could not find the reason for the fire. The effect of Ralph’s dynamicity created by Golding on the plot is that it gives rise to the conflict. The more Ralph realizes his failure as a leader the more his authority decreases; Ralph’s new confusion and slowness render him eventually totally unable to control the boys, so the overall structure erodes. The antagonist, Jack benefits from the situation and leads the majority of the boys into savagery, which is the opposite of Ralph’s attempt to construct a social system.
The main values of Ralph’s moral code are “justice” and “democracy”. In the rising action there is an assembly during which the boys start to argue on the existence of things like ghosts and beasts. Since there is no general consent, Ralph proposes to vote: “We’ll have a vote on them; on ghosts I mean. ” (Golding 128) Just before the climax, Ralph approaches Jack’s tribe together with Piggy, Sam and Eric to talk about the theft of the fire and Piggy’s glasses. As Jack is not open for discussion Ralph gets really angry: “You could have had fire whenever you wanted. But you didn’t. You came sneaking up like a thief and stole Piggy’s glasses!” “. . . ” “You’re a beast and a swine and a bloody, bloody thief!” (Golding 258) Golding presents Ralph’s strong moral sensibility based on democracy and justice through his actions: Ralph’s urge to vote for example is based on democracy. Right before the climax, Ralph is very mad at Jack because of his unfair actions and calls him a “bloody thief”. Therefore justice must be really important to him. Golding’s choice to present Ralph as a highly moral is important because by seeing the boys evolving towards savagery Ralph learns that the inherently dark and savage nature of mankind is very hard to fight. In the nature of boys sense for democracy and justice can hardly be found, which infuriates him. The effect of Ralph’s high morality on the theme is that the theme gains shape. One of the main themes in Lord of the Flies is the importance of social construct. Ralph embodies democracy, which contrasts with the true values of the majority of the other boys. Through this contrast and the lesson Ralph learns about mankind one of the true themes of the book is shaped and expressed.
It is clear that in Golding’s Lord of the Flies the round and dynamic Ralph epitomizes “justice” and “democracy”. I would not be excited for long intellectual talks with Ralph. However, his inherently naïve, but good virtues do shape him as a trustworthy friend. Ralph’s evolution drives the plot and what he learns shapes the theme. These characteristics make him very important to the novel as the protagonist.
Lord Of The Flies By William Golding: Civilized to Savage
“What are we? Humans? Or animals? Or savages?” (Page 3). William Golding believes that human nature is inherently evil. Considering what Golding went through in World War Two, Golding has developed ideas about how cruel human nature is and how insensitive humankind can be. He expressed his ideas through characters that have easily gone from civilized to savage in the island. You’d assume that if a plane of English schoolboys shot down, they would create their own English civilization on the island, but not according to Golding.
As you read further into the book, you witness sweet, innocent little schoolboys turn into savages that have no respect to the order or rules of society. He showed how fast humans could change their morals or what they’ve been taught. They gradually evolve into catastrophic children with awful behavior that is justified by their actions. Chapter one of “Lord of the Flies” was a biblical reference to Adam and Eve that compares the Island to the Garden of Eden. When Ralph and Piggy both go swimming uncovered, they are compared to when Adam and Eve went swimming uncovered in their lifetime. It symbolizes innocence since they were both young and have not yet committed a sin or have done anything wrong. It could also symbolize baptism or purity. They were pure from all the evil that has not yet been established on the island and all the revolting things they’re about to experience. You can also tell at in the beginning they had expectations set out that obviously didn’t work out. “We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English, and the English are best at everything” (Page 42).
In the beginning, Jack didn’t kill the pig because he didn’t have the heart to do it. Afterwards, Jack and the hunters killed a pig for the first time. This, in my opinion, was the foundation of the fall of civilization on the Island. Jack prioritizes killing the pig over being rescued. When Jack and the hunters killed their first pig, they chant, “Kill the pig, Cut her throat, Spill her blood”(Page 186), which is not only an odd thing for a group of 12-year-old boys to do, but also extremely disturbing. They also role-play the pigs’ death, another repulsive thing they do. From this point, onwards, they progress into painting their faces and imitating Native Americans’ style of clothing, neglecting the civilized world they used to live in. Killing the pig eventually lead jack and the hunters to “accidentally” kill Simon, thinking he was the beast. Jack claims that Simon was the beast and that the beast can disguise itself. Everyone on the island was responsible for Simon’s death, including Ralph and Piggy who stood there not trying to stop them nor doing anything. In the civilized world, the rules of society would not give you the authority to do that.
After killing Simon, there was a tremendous growth of savagery on the Island. Then, Roger releases a rock that hits Piggy and knocks him off Castle Rock down onto the rocks below, killing him and destroying the conch, which represents the rules of society. The conch being shattered indicates that the rules of the society and civilization have officially been destroyed and the Island is left with nothing but evil. In conclusion, the boys didn’t start out so bad. At some point in the story, they were pure from all the sins they’re about to commit. “You see, freedom has a way of destroying things” (Westerfeld). The boys were on an island away from adult supervision, free from the rules of society, which lead them to destruction. In my opinion, instead of turning into savages they should have found the humanity in them in order to apply the rules of society on the Island. They should have created unity in a desperate time like this. Unity is established by changing their thoughts of fear and mistrust into confidence and trust in themselves and others to solve problems.
The Problems Preventing Solar Energy Manufacturing Adoption in India
China is the sector’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Its water, air, and soil are closely polluted. China’s speedy industrialization has lifted hundreds of thousands out of poverty. However, it has come to an environmental fee. Its boom is based on coal and the dirtiest fossil gasoline. This contributes to excessive stages of air pollution in towns together with Beijing. China’s leadership sees pollution as a danger to social stability. Citizens have protested about pollutants and poor air first-rate. The government is likewise concerned about the impact of health. It has launched programmes to smooth up its surroundings and improve its air high quality. The management recognizes the risks posed by way of whether trade and sees the economic possibilities in growing renewable energy. In 2015, China expanded its sun ability via 74%. Making it the sector’s biggest manufacturer of solar electricity.
In 2015, China invested $111bn in smooth electricity. It plans to boom this to $361bn with the aid of 2020. China is reluctant to surrender coal but it is far nicely aware of the costs. Like the USA, steps returned from tackling climate exchange there are hopes that China will fill the gap. China – China passed Germany as the sector’s biggest manufacturer of photovoltaic strength in 2015, extensively helped by the truth that the USA. Is also the sector’s largest manufacturer of solar panels? In fact, China has already handed its government’s 2020 target for solar installations, assisting to offset the USA’s massive carbon footprint. Japan – With its advanced technology and manufacturing industries, Japan became capable of generating almost 5% of its general energy intake from solar energy in 2016. For the reason that Fukushima Daiichi nuclear catastrophe the Japanese government has approached solar energy with power, and it has set targets for 28 GW and 53 GW for 2020 and 2030, respectively.
Germany – Germany has been among the leaders in manufacturing of photovoltaic power for years and turned into one of the first international locations to introduce grid-scale sun electricity in 2004. Renewable power is considered an excessive precedence by means of the nation’s government, which objectives to supply 80% of energy from renewable sources via 2050. US – the USA is domestic to some of the arena’s largest sun strength flora, even as home photovoltaic installations are also popular. Many person states have set bold renewable energy goals surrounding sun electricity, and the solar industry lately overtook oil, gasoline, and coal inside the provision of employment. Italy – despite the fact that Italy has historically depended on overseas imports for a sizable proportion of its electricity, recent years have visible rapid boom within the USA’s solar strength technology and the advent of beneficent government schemes to incentivize home renewable strength production. After the ECU set a goal to generate 20% of energy from renewable sources with the aid of 2020, Italy turned into one in every of 11 international locations to reach the objective years in advance of the cut-off date. UK – authorities tasks encouraging faculties, groups, and houses to introduce sun panels, along with a lower in the value of photovoltaic generation, have helped the United Kingdom set up itself as the leading USA.
In sun energy production. In 2016, 3. 4% of power within the UK has generated the usage of solar electricity, and the government expects that four million homes will be sun-powered by way of 2020. India – a country with one of the fastest-developing sun industries, India quadrupled its sun-technology ability from 2014 to 2017. In addition to that specialize in the grid-scale photovoltaic era; India is introducing sun merchandise to rural, energy-deprived regions to minimize reliance on fossil fuels. The following are the roadblocks, which are preventing Technology A from being adopted in India due to – Issues on immense sun-powered vitality mix with the network – rather than coal, and fuel principally constructed power plants in light of which the electrical utilities have trusted for right around a century; Sun-controlled assignments are not fit for creating power on interest. Loss of sunlight or floating of mists over a sun-based plant can diminish its capacity yield extensively, and if the plant is giving the principal extent of the network’s vitality, this quick absence of power can realize the loss of the lattice recurrence appropriately underneath 50 Hz, causing framework unsteadiness or even a power outage. Underneath such examples, while not having an adequate guide from other customary and sustainable sources, it may be uncommonly difficult to play out a powerful framework with such an enormous measure of sun-based vitality. The absence of essential transmission offices – Solar plants have a low incubation length and, thusly, a put off in their network with the matrix may furthermore present basic issues related with gainfulness and feasibility of huge sun based plants. Thus, making arrangements and change of transmission machine must be attempted legitimately sooner than the implantation of network intelligent sun power.
In the Indian circumstance, numerous states are well off in sustainable power source age and can wind up power overflow, while numerous different states, particularly in the Northern segment generally need extra power. A decent method to solidly use the period from sun-based power, solid clearing foundation is mandatory. Low execution, declining yield, and intemperate substitution costs – The Conversion execution of thin film (7– 13%) is a mess diminish than crystalline silicon sun based cells. inferable from the low execution, the thin film innovation requires an outstandingly preferable region over that required with the guide of a crystalline period for the indistinguishable capability of the power plant. saving in musings the shortage of land for sun based errands in heaps of states, this component merits intrigue. further, because of the bigger unfurl place of thin-film exhibits, the cabling cost alongside both material charges of link and work expense of establishment can be superior to anything its crystalline partner will. on account of thin-film sun cells, smaller scale splits show up because of the temperature distinction among the best and base layers, causing comparatively decay of their general execution on account of the entrance of dampness. thin film SPV vitality plants ought to obligatorily refresh 1% of modules for every year that expands the incentive also. in this manner, overreliance on the thin film innovation may also affect the gainfulness and long-term suitability of the sun quality undertakings with a set term (25 years) vitality purchase Agreements (PPA).
Future development perils related with thin-film modules – Massive amounts of thin film modules with poor agreeable at the appearance of alleged low esteem are being dumped in India with the guide of outside versatile makers who appreciate extensive nation sponsorship to practice savage estimating and, along these lines, crush the home sun industry. In 2011, thin film time represented eleven% extent in the worldwide market and is anticipated to curtail to 7% through 2019 in view of inconveniences related with keeping up the favoured execution stage and high elective costs. Underneath such events, high dependence on thin-film innovations in India’s sun-powered activities may be a temperamental suggestion. Over that, exorbitant import reliance on sun oriented cells and modules have its own one of kind consequences on India’s capacity security. Ecological impacts – Electricity from sunlight-based power is not as unpractised in light of the fact that it has been depicted. Indeed, even from the natural perspective, in the meantime, as sunlight based power vegetation contain tons bring down carbon outflows over their ways of life cycle than coal fundamentally based vegetation, sun-oriented vitality isn’t in every case totally “smooth”. Generation a photovoltaic (PV) sun cell requires a lot of intensity beginning from the mining of quartz sand to the covering with ethylene-vinyl acetic acid derivation – frequently got from the consuming of grimy petroleum products. While there is no carbon, discharge related with the period of intensity from sun-oriented power, there are outflows related with various degrees of the PV presence cycle, for example, inside the extraction of crude materials, materials generation, module producer, and machine/plant perspective make. India, without finish end-of-life administration rules for PV modules, does not require PV makers/designers to have broadened maker obligation applications. Thinking about overwhelming dependence on imported PV cells and modules and furthermore considering the huge organization of thin film PV modules, India’s strong sun-powered limit expansion objectives upgrade extreme inconveniences related with wellness, assurance, and natural damage, which need to be disguised into the ways of life cycle costs.
The sustainable power source is an unmistakable victor concerning boosting the economy and making employment. The sustainable power source is presently huge and is not anymore a specialty fuel. Non-renewable energy sources (coal, oil, fuel, and gas) are initially framed from plants and creatures that lived a huge number of years prior and ended up covered far below the Earth’s surface. These then overall changed into the burnable materials that we utilize today for fuel. The soonest known petroleum derivative stores are from around 500 million years back, when the greater part of the real gatherings of creatures originally showed up on Earth. The later petroleum derivatives, for example, peat or lignite coal (delicate coal), started shaping from around five million years prior. Right now, we are (over) dependent on non-renewable energy sources to warm our homes, run our autos, control our workplaces, industry, and assembling, and react to our voracious want to control the majority of our electrical products. Almost the majority of the vitality expected to meet our requests – 80 percent of worldwide vitality – originates from consuming petroleum products. At the present rate of worldwide vitality requests, petroleum products cannot renew quick enough to meet these developing needs. The (over)consumption of these non-inexhaustible powers has been connected to the outflow of ozone-depleting substances and contaminations into the environment – the main source of a worldwide temperature alteration and environmental change. The sustainable power source is vitality that is gotten from normal procedures (e. g. daylight and wind). Sunlight based, wind, geothermal, hydropower, bioenergy and sea control are wellsprings of the sustainable power source.
As of now, renewables are used in the power, warming and cooling and transport parts. The sustainable power source, overall, gives just around 7 percent of the world’s vitality needs. This implies petroleum derivatives, alongside atomic vitality — a non-sustainable power source — are providing 93% of the world’s vitality assets. Atomic vitality (a disputable vitality source among popular sentiment) at present gives 6% of the world’s vitality supplies. Consuming petroleum products makes carbon dioxide, the principle ozone-depleting substance producer that adds to an Earth-wide temperature boost, which hit its top in 2012. Over the most recent 30 years, temperatures have ascended to the hottest since records started. In the event that we keep on directing ozone-depleting substances into our condition, the normal worldwide temperature could increment by 1°C to 4°C by 2100.
Regardless of whether we changed today to utilizing more sustainable assets rather than petroleum products, for instance, increments could be between 1 to 2. 5°C. India has been an observer to incessant vitality neediness and very nearly, one-fifth of its populace is without access to power. This likewise clarifies why India’s per capita power utilization is among the most minimal on the planet has appeared. Moreover, the accessibility of power in numerous regions is constrained to a couple of hours amid the day. In this way, at present, a lot of interest is neglected inferable from restricted accessibility and availability of power. India is inexhaustibly supplied with all types of sustainable power source assets. Sustainable power sources and advances can possibly give answers for the longstanding vitality issues being looked at by the creating nations like India. Sunlight based vitality can be an imperative piece of India’s arrangement not exclusively to add new limit yet additionally to build vitality security, address ecological concerns, and lead the gigantic market for the sustainable power source. Sun oriented warm power (STE) otherwise called focusing sunlight based power (CSP) are rising sustainable power source advancements and can be produced as the future potential choice for power age in India. In this paper, endeavors’ have been made to abridge the accessibility, status, procedures, points of view, advancement approaches, significant accomplishments and future capability of sun based vitality choices in India.
The investigation advocates for patching up state-wise sun oriented limit expansion target in view of the sun-powered Vitality capability of the state; more noteworthy accentuation on CSP advancements and de-brought together uses of sunlight based power. A CSP plant can be combined with traditional coal or gas based warm power, and in this manner sparing fuel. Accentuation ought to likewise be given on gas-SPV cross breed control plants in urban territories. It is generally acknowledged that in the rising and less created nations, provincial zap can essentially add to monetary improvement. Focusing extensive sun based limit at one place, despite the fact that has the advantages of economies of scale, however auxiliary costs, for example, augmented transmission lines, substantial transformer stations and so forth and the loss of favorable position of geological assorted variety are frequently disregarded. A smaller scale or little network, with appropriated vitality age, stay away from high interest in transmission foundation. Taking a gander at the expansive number of un-zapped family units, control deficiency, high T and D misfortunes, poor matrix network and poor monetary status of the circulation organizations and furthermore tuned in to the worldwide pattern, it would be more proper to advance decentralized sun oriented applications in India. It is additionally critical to make a vigorous residential assembling base for sun-powered cells, modules and other supporting instruments in accordance with Indian Leader’s “Make in India” crusade. This will not just make more occupations, yet additionally, protect our economy from outside unsettling influences. Likewise, with such a huge spotlight on sunlight based power, a far-reaching end-of-life administration enactment and strategies for PV modules requiring PV makers/designers to have expanded maker duty require critical consideration.
The Inexhaustible Buy Commitments ought to be made more enforceable. In this specific circumstance, there is a pressing need to de-politicize India’s vitality area to make Discoms as autonomous benefit focuses. At last, India must investigate all supply choices that incorporate traditional and sustainable power sources like sun oriented, twist, little hydro and biomass to connect the blossoming request supply hole. The spotlight ought to be given on cleaner coal advancements alongside atomic power for India’s base load control age. Cleaner coal innovations like super and ultra-supercritical burning advancements, coal-to-gas innovation have the capacity to limit the outflow of ozone-depleting substances from warm plants because of their higher warm productivity. Household coal ought to be our real wellspring of vitality with a specific end goal to make vitality cost reasonable. It is likewise critical to quicken “India’s three-phase atomic projects” with the goal that we can use our tremendous thorium save to deliver power at stage three. The re-established enthusiasm for atomic vitality in cutting-edge economies like the US, France, and Germany gives a critical flag of its suitability and wellbeing. Vitality protection and vitality effectiveness upgrades have critical possibilities to lessen vitality utilization, which has a coordinate bearing on outflow decrease at a lower cost.
Symbolic meaning of the beast
Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of the true, wise friend called Piggy (202) A group of English School boys are marooned on an isolated Island where they create an image of “The Beast” by their worst fears.
The boys hold meetings about the beast, they have nightmares about the beast, they hunt the beast, and the beast figures prominently in the novel, Lord of the Flies (1954) by William Golding, disturbing final chapters(background essay). This book is full of hidden meanings and symbolism. ¨All the symbolisms in this book have yet to be discovered¨ (187). As the reader simply gazes over the book they will think the beast is just a casual beast that everyone fears. But, the more the reader uncovers the symbolism that this book contains, you realize the true meaning of “The Beast”. “The Beast” develops into a more complex figure as the novel progresses. First, the beast is just fear created from the imagination of the littluns. They have no mothers to comfort them and they ¨externizale their fears into the figures of the beast (Rosenfield). Hence, the beast is formed. Second, the beast develops into a meaning of war. As the boys drift farther away from civilization, the beast develops into the savageness of humans and how far humans will go. When they drift away from civilization they will murder and do ungodly things. Beast- bēst/ – Noun an animal, especially a large or dangerous four-footed one (google definition).
The beast is the main contributing factor to the events in the novel. Many stories have beast in them. But, this story is special. The beast symbolizes something more than just an ordinary animal with four feet that is dangerous. It symbolizes fear, war, and the beast within humans. When the boys first land on the marooned island the littluns create “the beast. ” The kid with the mulberry colored mark is the first one to see it. He is externalizing the fear into the figure of the beast. He says that he sees it at night and when the day comes it turns into the ropes hanging in the trees (pg (35&36). The boys, except the littluns, know this is untrue. Although, everyone has the fear that the beast is there, lurking in the undergrowth.
Factors, Which Caused The Process Of Degradation in “The Lord Of Flies”
Within the novel innocence is progressively lost through the boys. The boys were placed in a situation where they had no other choice but to grow up, and grow up fast. These boys were put in a very traumatic situation and they had to learn on their own and from each other how to survive and almost create a thriving society all on their own. Slowly they learn that their needs to be a leader, but there are no adults to precede the role of authority. Therefore the children resume power and take the role of authority. All these things make the boys lose their innocence and become very violent. No one is completely innocent and everyone has the ability to turn violent, this is demonstrated in this novel.
In the Lord of the Flies, the boys started off by adopting civil rules and creating civility amongst themselves. In Lord of the Flies, the boys’ descent to savagery was a gradual process, which was influenced by many different factors
Below list the following factors:
Later on in the book, the younger boys start to become lazy, and not do their work. This is mainly influenced by Jacks lazy attitude. “I agree with Ralph. We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English, and the English are best at everything. So we’ve got to do the right things. “We’ll let the fire burn out now. Who would see smoke at night-time, anyway? And we can start the fire again whenever we like. Altos, you can keep the fire going this week, and trebles the next–” Jack From this quote, you can see that Jack is suggesting letting the fire out because he thinks they can light it later. This shows that Jack doesn’t value the fire, and the hard work it takes to keep it going. The rest of the boys copy Jack’s apathetic attitude, and as a result, the shelters don’t get made.
Lack of Faith
As the days go by without any sign of a rescue ship, the boys start to doubt if they will ever get rescued. This discourages them from working to keep the signal fire going.”I’ve been watching the sea. There hasn’t been the trace of a ship. Perhaps we’ll never be rescued. As a result of this. The boys stop guarding the fire and the fire goes out, they struggle to make fire and Piggy’s glasses break
Jack uses wet red and white clay and makes black marks with a stick of charcoal. His purpose is to replicate the effect of “dazzle paint” which was used in the two World Wars to break up the outline of ships. He wishes to camouflage himself so that the pigs won’t spot him in the jungle foliage and patches of light. Once he applies the paint however Jack also becomes aware that “behind the mask” of his painted face he is free from all restraints and responsibilities, he can in effect do what he pleases.”For hunting. Like in the war. You know–dazzle paint. Like things trying to look like something else”-“–Like moths on a tree trunk. ” When the boys follow Jack and apply paint to themselves they almost instantly change. The war paint starts to reveal the hunters’ inner savagery and it conceals their true identities so they can do whatever they want with no consequences … Even murder.“The others nodded. They understood only too well the liberation into savagery that the concealing paint brought.”
Lack of Democracy
When the younger boys started following Jack, Things got out of hand. Jack influenced the boys’ and made them follow his rebellious ways. Later on in the book, he leads them to killing the sow and putting its head on a stake, which is perhaps the most brutal display of savagery. He leads them into believing that there is a beast, and evokes fear upon them. Ralph is trying to tell the boys that there is no beast and that it is all in their heads. This fear of the beast eventually leads to the death of Simon, the most civilized of them all. “The thing is–fear can’t hurt you any more than a dream. There aren’t any beasts to be afraid of on this island.” “Serve you right if something did get you, you useless lot of cry-babies! But there is no animal”- —Jack
Loss of Innocence
After the boys’ most riveting display of brutality and savagery (the slaughtering of the sow), the boys’ sense of morality and civility is completely gone. Their innocence goes along with it. They are no longer little church boys-but brutal savages being completely misguided by an even more brutal fascist-like leader. “Jack held up the head and jammed the soft throat down on the pointed end of the stick which pierced through into the mouth. He stood back and the head hung there, a little blood dribbling down the stick”
Quotes Describing The Setting in Different Points in The Novel Lord Of The Flies
William Golding goes to great lengths to carefully describe the settings on the island on which the boys are stranded. The overall setting is an important aspect of the novel as a whole.
“Within the diamond haze of the beach something dark was fumbling along… Then the creature stepped from the mirage on to clear sand, and they saw that the darkness was not all shadow but mostly clothing.” (Golding 19) The arrival of Jack Merridew and his militant choir is described as the imminent arrival of a savage beast or creature, foreshadowing Jack’s profound transformation from despotic choir leader to pig hunter to murderous dictator later in the novel.
“The smoke increased, sifted, rolled outward… Acres of black and yellow smoke rolled steadily toward the sea. At the sight of the flames and the irresistible course of the fire, the boys broke into shrill, excited cheering… Beneath the capering boys a quarter of a mile square of forest was savage with smoke and flame. The separate noises of the fire merged into a drum-roll that seemed to shake the mountain. “You got your small fire all right.” Startled, Ralph realized that the boys were falling still and silent, feeling the beginnings of awe at the power set free below them. The knowledge and the awe made him savage.” (Golding 44) The rapidly spreading fire that breaks loose on the mountain symbolizes how uncontrollable savagery is taking over civity, order, and democracy, which falls the poor stranded boys. This kickoffs the violent beginning of the island’s gradual descent into total disarray and a turning point in the book. The overwhelming heat which remains over the island adequately serves as a symbolic precursor to the novel’s conclusive theme of self-destruction.
“What would a beast eat?” – “Pig.” – ”We eat pig.” – ”Piggy!” (Golding 83) The ragged boys are still fearful of a beastie roaming aimlessly the island. The fundamental fact that the fearsome beast eats pig is significant and symbolic. The vicious beast of whom they speak is precisely the boys or the terrible evil within the boys. It is inevitably the boys who tragically kill Piggy later in the novel. In other cruel words, the beast does eat pig, metaphorically speaking.
“The beast struggled forward, broke the ring and fell over the steep edge of the rock to the sand by the water. At once the crowd surged after it, poured down the rock, leapt on to the beast, screamed, struck, bit, tore. There were no words, and no movements but the tearing of teeth and claws.” Simon represents moral goodness. At this moment, evil has taken over the boys, and they eliminate goodness from the island. Simon was the one with the valuable information of where the true evil lay. His message will now never be delivered. This complex interaction between good and evil is the proper conclusion of Simon’s critical conversation with the pig head in chapter 8.
An Analysis of Greed in Lord of the Flies: an Study of Greed in the Novel by William Golding
People are selfish, and they need order. That is why government is an integral part of society. It urges civilians to follow the rules and prevent anarchy. Anarchy is the lack of order and stability in society, where no one follows the rules resulting in chaos. Thomas Hobbes, a British philosopher, believed that a strong leader was necessary to prevent chaos, and keep civilians in check since everyone is born selfish. William Golding had similar beliefs and proved this point in the timeless classic, Lord of the Flies. This novel takes place in the World War II era, where a plane transporting schoolboys gets caught in the midst of war, resulting in a crash landing. The boys on the island, who are without any adult supervision attempt to create a utopia. However they are not successful in their attempt to govern themselves, resulting in a chaotic mess. In the novel, Lord of the Flies by the honorable William Golding, Ralph, the main character, fails to govern the schoolboys effectively resulting in loss of life and the ultimate consequence of anarchy.
Hobbes believed that one leader with absolute power who acts in the best interest of its subjects is the most efficient way to be governed, however the boys on the island lack a powerful leader, which results in anarchy as all begin to disobey the law. After being brought up in England as it was going through a time of civil unrest, Hobbes concluded humans were inherently selfish. Thomas Hobbes thought it was vital to have a strong leader so that people would obey laws and not go back to their natural state. Hobbes argued that if there were no absolute authoritative figure, the civilian’s self-interest would take over, and their actions would not be for the benefit of society, but would only be for their self-motive (Loyd). When the boys crash-land on the island, they immediately choose Ralph as chief. However, Ralph’s lack of leadership and enforcement of the rules make Jack and the others susceptible to breaking them. A clear example of this is when the hunters carelessly extinguish the signal fire and Ralph “said no more, did nothing, stood looking down at the ashes around his feet” (Golding 72). Jack and the hunters commit a huge mistake that could possibly distinguish the boys’ chance of survival. Instead of being authoritative and enforcing punishment like a strong leader, Ralph lets the incident go. Although Ralph’s lack of response to the boys’ carelessness of letting the signal fire go out may seem harmless, it leads to significant consequences. Towards the end, Jack steals Piggy’s glasses, when Piggy attempts to speak out against this unfair action, one of the boys in Jack’s tribe, Roger, decides to throw a huge rock that “struck Piggy a glancing blow from chin to knee” and falls to his demise. Golding writes how afterward, “Ralph’s lips formed a word but no sound came”(Golding 181). When Ralph remains silent in times where the boys are morally wrong, it provides a gateway for the kids to commit even more drastic and violent actions in the future without any fear of repercussions. In this case, the murder of Piggy was the consequence of Ralph’s lack of response. Yet again, Ralph does not say a word. His silence fails to demonstrate his authority causing the boys’ descent into savagery, and thus creating anarchy. Although Ralph does his best to help the boys get rescued, the death of Piggy was inevitable due to the lack of any leadership skills.
Although it may seem that Lord of the Flies is a fictional tale, the message and ideas of this novel could not have been more relevant to our society today. A major threat looms: Tension between the United States and North Korea. This conflict must be avoided as it has the power to be detrimental to our entire world. Golding clearly illustrates in his novel that humans are naturally greedy, selfish, and are bound to cause harm to others to satisfy their needs. Which goes hand in hand with Thomas Hobbes’ idea that all people are selfish and by nature always “in a state of war” (Loyd). The boys lose all they know about civilization and humanity, and as a result the whole island turns into a murdering mess. The boys’ desires and selfishness like hunting and building forts, overtakes what is morally correct. It is imperative that we learn from the lessons of Thomas Hobbes and what he has warned about the true nature of man to prevent conflicts that our nation faces today. One can hope that North Korea or America’s ego or greed may not lead them to a nuclear war that ends the world as we know it.
Negative Consequences Of Fear In “Lord Of The Flies” By William Golding
Imagine that you have been on an air crash; you land on an island in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. You have nothing except for fear. What would you do? Fear, is not only an emotion frightens you, but it also would come along with other undesired influences. In the novel “Lord of The Flies” by William Golding explains this point perfectly through the survival of a group of young boys on an isolated island.
Throughout the entire story, fear brings about several negative consequences to people, such as, weakening courage, losing mind, and preventing people from doing appropriate things. First of all, fear is likely to weaken people’s courage. In other words, it makes people cowardly. In the beginning of the novel, the boys didn’t express much fear against the beastie in the jungle. They still had adventurousness to explore around the island and ignite fire to make signal on the mountains. However, the circumstances changed after they discovered something that made their hair stand on end. “No go, Piggy. We’ve got no fire. That thing sits up there – We’ll have to stay here”. This speech from Ralph responded to Piggy reveals that he had been completely defeated by fear. He didn’t dare to go up the mountains anymore. He was not as brave to take risks as he used to be. The contrast above distinctly identifies that fear reduces courage.
Other than weakening people’s courage, fear will also result in losing people’s mind. One, Two, fear leads people to make impulse decisions and judgments that end up with grave consequences such as death. “Kill the beast! Cut his throat! Spill his blood! Do him in!” This speech was yelled out by a bunch of boys when the saw the “beastie” ran towards them. However, this is an example of dramatic irony, the “beastie” was actually Simon who was going to announce that the “beastie” they saw is only a dead body of a pilot. As the boys were nervous and panic awfully, they murdered the “beastie” – Simon without even thinking twice. As a result, they made a careless and serious mistake which is enough to attest that fear will lose people’s ability to think. Thirdly, fear is apt to prevent people from doing appropriate things. According to the novel, at the beginning of chapter five, Ralph used the conch, which is a symbol of power, to convene an assembly in order to censure the kids for their failure to obey the rules. Due to the fear of unknown and beastie, the boy wandered around anxiously instead of courage.