The Connection between Literacy, Education and New media Analytical Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


The thesis statement for this essay will be to analyze the relationship that exists between literacy, education and new media, which includes; the Internet, technology, e-learning, e-commerce, digital technology and information literacy. The essay will analyze each of these concepts by looking at how they affect each other and whether the relationship that exists between them is complex or easy to define.

This will involve analyzing each of the concepts separately by defining what literacy, education and new media means and determining whether there is an interconnection between the three concepts. The essay will also focus on the various issues and aspects that support the relationship of the three concepts as well as the thesis statement.

Definition of Literacy, Education and New Media

Literacy is defined as an act of critically understanding the current situation of the world. It is a means of extending an individual’s efforts towards education where individual acquires the necessary tools that will be used in developing solutions to problems.

Literacy leads to education, the result of which is usually empowerment through the acquisition of necessary skills and knowledge that can be used in the effective functioning of the individual within a societal or community context. Literate people are viewed to have better reasoning skills than people who are illiterate or lack any basic knowledge (UNES 11).

Literacy helps individuals to lead a better quality of life as they have the necessary skills and knowledge that can be used to better their lives. Literacy also helps people to utilize their knowledge and skills gained from education by participating in activities that will see them benefiting from the use of their skills and knowledge.

To add on, Literacy allows people to join gainful employment so that they can be able to fully utilize their educational experience for maximum benefits that come in the form of salaries, wages and work benefits (UNES 10).

The main goal of education is to provide people with knowledge and information which they can use to better their lives in a positive way. Education empowers people to be able to think and act based on their existing knowledge on what is right or wrong. It also improves the self esteem and self confidence of an individual by motivating them to be better than what they are through the use of information.

Education is considered by many sociologists to be an important tool in developing intellectual capacities and potential in people who are going to be involved in human capital formations. People who have received some form of education are viewed to be literate as they have gained the skills that will allow them to perform even the simplest tasks (UNES 10).

The use of new media in the recent past has increased with new media technologies playing a significant role within the education sector of most developed countries (Leaning 49). The modern world is today experiencing an explosion in the form of information technology where more and more activities are becoming computerized and Internet based.

Education today has become more computerized with more and more institutions seeking to conduct their learning processes in virtual classrooms where students do not have to attend the real class. The increasing use of the Internet as a learning tool has also increased significantly with most learning institutions incorporating the various programs within the Internet for their learning activities (Kumari 4).

The Relationship between Literacy, Education and New Media

The general relationship that exists between literacy, education and new media is not as simple and easy to understand as it should be. This is because the impact of education on new media and literacy solely depends on certain issues which include what is taught in educational institutions and how much the learners can be able to learn at a given time.

The content of education will determine the impact that this concept has on literacy and new media as it is the educational contents and teaching methods that determine the relationship that exists between the three terms.

Issues such as the interaction of education with social and economic environments will also determine the kind of relationship that exists between education, literacy and new media. Social factors such as the culture of the society will determine the literacy levels of the people within that society and it will have an important impact on education as well as new media technology (UNES 11).

According to Vasudevan (63) literacy studies and education were marked by a significant shift in their theoretical and methodological concepts in the early 1980s that saw a change in the educational systems that were in use during that time. These shifts were mostly influenced by the introduction of portable technologies that could be used by school going children to improve on their literacy and intellectual capacity.

Such portable technologies included lap tops, walkmans and radios that would be used by most teachers in their learning exercises. Digital or new media were therefore deemed to have a relationship with literacy and education in most learning institutions during the late 1980s and the early 1990s (Vasudevan 63).

In the current world today, the relationship that exists between literacy, education and new media is often at times far removed from the reality on the ground based on what the current practices of learning are in most educational institutions. This is evident when most students prefer digital learning media to attending classroom lectures as these media offer far better learning exercises than classroom teachers or lecturers.

Also many urban youth especially in the developed countries have become more digitalized and technology savvy yet they continue to be confined in analog schools that use blackboards and chalk as teaching tools.

This has created a digital divide in urban educational institutions where educational literacy is being challenged by the multimodal communication practices of the existing technological revolution as well as the multimedia literacy skilled revolution (Vasudevan 64).

The digital divide between education and literacy has also been increased by the introduction of e-learning equipment such as school web pages and desktop publishing tools that allow students to incorporate educational practices and learning techniques in the new media technology.

Many students in the United States prefer to use digital technology when performing their assignments and class tasks as it not only provides a practical approach to learning but it also allows for the various understandings of social constructs within the current world.

Digital students are able to learn at a faster pace and they are able to cover the course syllabus at a faster speed than their traditional counterparts who prefer the old classroom style of learning (Vasudevan 64).

Apart from the digital divide, it is no longer possible to consider literacy, education or new media in isolation as these concepts are affected by similar social, economic and technological factors.

The emerging dominance of technology in educational aspects has spurred a shift in the line of thinking when it comes to determining whether a relationship exists between the three concepts. New media has impacted on literacy and education in both a positive and negative way where most school based curricula have incorporated the use of digitalized learning modes in their educational exercises.

The positive side of this will be that the literacy development of students will be more practical in nature rather than theoretical as the digitalized exercises offer practical exercises while the negative side of this will be that the slow learners will not be able to catch up on the learning exercises.

New media therefore bridges the gap that is created between literacy and education when the practical application of education in literacy comes in. New media therefore provides the means that can be used in presenting and communicating educational content at the various stages of intellectual development (Kress 1).


The thesis statement for this essay was “to analyze the relationship that exists between literacy, education and new media which includes the Internet, technology, e-learning, e-commerce, digital technology and information literacy”.

The relationship that exists between literacy, education and new media while complex in nature has continued to grow over the years with the continued introduction of technological innovations that are meant to make life easier. This relationship is viewed to continue growing stronger as more educational institutions incorporate the use of new media in the literacy development and educational practices.

Works Cited

Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the new media age. London, UK: Routledge, 2003. Print.

Kumari, Sarita. Increasing role of technology in education. Delhi, India: Isha Books, 2004. Print.

Leaning, Mark. Issues in information and media literacy: criticism, history and policy. California, US: Informing Science Press, 2009. Print.

UNES. Relationship between literacy, education and development, n.d. Web.

Vasudevan, Lalitha. “Educations remix: new media, literacy’s, and the emerging digital Geographies”. Digital Culture and Education. 2.1 (June. 2010): 62-82. Print.

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Literacy in Young Children Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Young children develop communication abilities as soon as they are born and their perception of the world begins. This process starts way before they can talk and is expressed in diverse ways that may be considered minor but are important developments that pave the way for literacy. In this context, literacy is considered the possession of the ability to read and write. A long but interesting journey precedes this state and it begins almost at the moment of birth.

Infants and toddlers learn in radically different ways when compared to adults. Since they are born with what can be called a fresh brain that has no prior impressions, their alacrity for knowledge is much stronger than older people. This makes them view the learning process as a holistic undertaking in which every available facet can be applied; physical, mental, emotional and social.

When viewed physically, young children quickly learn that books are meant to be read and for this to happen; they must be held or placed on some support, probably with fingers used to guide the eyes in moving across the pages.

When viewed mentally, young children realise fairly early that what they learn, such as words and their pronunciations, must be committed to memory so that they can be applied in future. Emotionally, children who are learning literacy skills adapt certain attitudes, such as paying attention when being taught, which they are aware will facilitate the education processes.

Lastly, the social angle shows that in most societies where there’s a modicum of literacy, young children embrace the education process, and the resulting literacy, as a means to acquire knowledge and progress in life. All these education processes take place simultaneously with no distinct beginning or end from the moment the child is born to the age of proficiency in literacy as adults.

The key resource for young children in acquiring literacy is language. These are the words, their pronunciations and the methods by which they are combined and used as understood by a community. Once young children have crossed the stage of learning how to speak a language, it is much easier to teach them how to read and write it. This is because they will be already familiar with the words that they come across, which makes the learning process easier.

This is the point where adults’ contribution proves valuable. By responding to young children and helping them whenever they try to repeat or pronounce words, adults satiate the curiosity which soon progresses to the stage of reading and writing.

Youngsters also learn the flow of conversations from talking to adults and this is crucial when the construction of words, sentences, paragraphs and conversations comes up in the learning process. Punctuation and speech are also facilitated when open communication with adults is maintained.

Programs dedicated to the enhancement of literacy in young children tend to be centred on one particular activity; reading. The common approaches are usually divided into two groups; those that involve training youngsters on how to read and those that involve adults from different walks of life reading different types of materials to young children. This commonly takes the form of literacy fairs at different institutions within the community.

The chief aim of these activities is to simply improve literacy among young children, which then opens the door for education and the eradication of ignorance, the cause of disease and poverty.

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Creating a Theory of Cultural Literacy Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Cultural literacy is described as the capacity to connect oneself with cultures not because of rote learning but due to an extensive understanding of the expressions and informal elements of a particular culture as well.

Even though history, language, and literature are helpful ways of attaining an extensive understanding of culture, it is inadequate if somebody desires to obtain the cultural literacy position. It is uniformly, if not more, essential to be capable of communicating using the general idioms and references of the culture which people of that culture practice.

Schweizer (52) formed Cultural Literacy Theory where he claimed that for people to value a text and acquire real literacy, they should not only have the necessary reading skills, but also have background understanding which hails from a general background of the real information which is mutually essential. This basic understanding allows people to present their different diagrams of the world to the book or content they are reading and hence understanding the content better.

For instance, in the American comedy program, “The Simpsons,” people who do not possess cultural literacy have a lot of challenges understanding several jokes, but if they abruptly create jokes regarding Indian society, several American viewers would be mutually confused, for example.

Another instance may be traced back in the 18th century when the United States was attempting to influence France to hold its cause in the War of Independence; several educated envoys were requested to go to Paris but they were fruitless (Schweizer 52).

In the long run, Benjamin Franklin was requested to pay a visit to Paris and even though he did not speak or was familiar with the French language, he understood and perceived the French culture. These two examples indicate the way cultural literacy varies from the common rote learning.

The culture shock can be considered as the opposite of cultural literacy. This happens when a person from some culture comes across a person from a different culture or the settings of that culture. Since people create several assumptions on a daily basis in their native culture, they do not always recognize the sum of subliminal conclusions that they are creating until they are abruptly forced to deal with different cultures.

Currently, several assumptions unexpectedly turn into things which should be considered deliberately. This may be traumatic, thus, several people succeed in those differences but others find it difficult to handle.

Globalization indicates that cultures should be merged more recurrently, not merely on a social stage but on economic, business, and political stages as well. For instance, businesses sometimes find themselves working with some other businesses which have different cultures. This may bring about misinterpretations and discomfiture on the two sides. Several cultural difficulties can be resolved given that some efforts are made and this may give a definite advantage for businesses which are effective in this field (Hirsch and Kett 13).

However, various companies aim to strengthen their cultures instead of understanding the other cultures of different companies which is termed as cultural hegemony. For instance, some companies may implement a subsidiary in China and disregard local activities in support of enforcing their own process and systems, which may have various benefits but may eventually bring about friction and less productivity.

The majority of people all over the globe are mainly concerned about the United States’ cultural hegemonic supremacy and aggressively opposing it.

Literate culture has become the most valuable issue in American democracy. Citizenship is automatic in case someone understands the basic information and the linguistic rules which are required to speak, write, and read successfully. Cultural literacy contains the only certain path of opportunity for needy kids. Advanced literacy alone allows the houses to be constructed and companies to be efficiently managed (Hirsch and Kett 13).

Cultural literacy is not just a big problem to the companies or people working across countries around the world. As culture literacy between countries is becoming very essential, it may as well be a big issue between generations, people, or communities from various divisions of the same city.

Some parents do not understand the modern music which their children listen to; this is an issue which is partially due to cultural literacy. Some can contend that no one can have complete cultural literacy, since to act that way would mean that they have to learn every single culture existing on the globe. It is thus essential that culture literacy is straightforward and applicable to the requirements of the people (Hirsch and Kett 13).

Those who oppose the idea of cultural literacy, have just got it backwards through neglecting the common culture significance and common support for knowledge. These privileges are not probable to pass by the benefits which go together with understanding the way to position expressions within their correct contexts, the way to read text within a web of references, the way to place occasions on a sequential timeline, and the description of ideas like “Idealistic” or “Orwellian.”

Cultural literacy is inappropriate in the fact that it may not really bother other people and it may bring disagreements. It is a big concern to the people who are wealthy or earning higher incomes than others. Some households that can pay for better schools, can be assured that their children are instilled with the type of cultural fluency which others are attempting to influence us.

The more people debate the cultural literacy insignificance in the society or people’s life, the more they downgrade the control of this knowledge to the region of a socio-economic privilege, thus, donating to solidifying of social stratification and decrease of social mobility (Schweizer 53). Cultural literacy shows possession and it indicates movement of knowledge within firmly join coteries.

The state of cultural literacy makes it hard to ‘cope’ to be culturally literate, since cultural literacy is empirical instead of anything which can be understood from a book. Those people who are superior to others easily cope with different cultures, but the only means to turn into real cultural literature is to become submerged in different cultures and progressively come to learn them.

There is, debatably, no easy means for the process and people who attempt to find an easy way merely delude themselves into considering that they are culturally literate.

Works Cited

Hirsch, Eric and Joseph Kett. The new dictionary of cultural literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002. Print.

Schweizer, Bernard. “Cultural Literacy: Is it Time to Revisit the Debate?” The Nea Higher Education Journal (2009): 2(4): 51-56. Print.

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Culture, Literacy, and Learning: Taking Bloom in the Midst of the Whirlwind by Carol D. Lee Essay (Book Review)

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


In this book, Carol Lee brings into play her experience as a participant viewer to offer an exceptional and detailed opinion of both planning and employing a cultural receptive strategy to enhance learning and teaching in a particular subject.

Through clear reports from real classrooms, Lee explains how AAVE helps students motivate themselves and learn. She describes the way students respond to improved scheme and the way teachers modify the cultural background of the language or English arts program. As the book emphasizes on literacy of African-American students, Lee assesses the role of culture in supporting learning.

She provides approaches of changing cultural knowledge to support the issue, particularly the educational learning. Lee argues that attainment gap to some extent is affected by the restrictions of knowledge based on hypotheses which enlighten decisions concerning pedagogy, curriculum, evaluation, teacher qualification and situations which teachers follow while working.

In this book, Lee reports on her three-year program while teaching students how to respond to literature at Fairgate High School; she states that teachers can achieve their targets if they realize the discourse, practices, and content of their field. Teachers will also succeed if they have precise understanding regarding the cognition, language, incentive, culture, and social certainties of urban learners.

Cultural Modeling

The approach which the author employed is based on her practices on cultural modeling, which serves as a learning plan to facilitate solving the issue in learning institutions. This helps both learners and teachers discuss the differences between the school-based and community-based standards. For example, African American learners are supported to generate clearly their understanding and responses of their cultures which are used outside the school.

Their knowledge and answers are then implemented in the sphere of educational learning. In this manner, learners are offered support to create their culture applicable in the school environment and classrooms. They use certain languages to address the problem-solving lessons which help them create links between what they have done and what they are expected to perform with school based issues.

When teachers and students assess the function of satire in literary understanding, cultural modeling contains outlines of this issue which students practice daily using oral traditions, songs, television, and film. Students create clear approaches of distinguishing satire set up in music lyrics, film, and television.

They may keep on looking for satire in African canonical performances and in non-African, American canonical performances which help them improve their knowledge. Another issue for students is to distinguish the functions of symbolism in literary reasoning. Lee starts with students examining closely the cultural relics of their daily practices, such as hip hop lyrics, hip hop records, etc., observing and intuitively interpreting the difficult views in Toni Morrison’s Beloved.

Most influential are the transcripts which are there in classrooms. These disclose discussion of student and teacher in interpretive reasoning articulated in AAEV. They also reveal daily language used by students, method of thinking, and significance of complex text applied in classrooms. Lee, in her book, describes the readers a classroom where animated discussions concerning the significance of satire and symbols prosper are aroused, and students experience a great desire to express their understanding openly.

Correcting the Way Students Talk

Lee persists that teachers can attain better outcomes and success if they only appreciate the strength of instructional talk derived of the standards of AAEV. They should put more focus on supporting students’ reasoning in a perspective of literary rather than correcting the manner they are used to communicate.

Lee chooses not to correct students when they are responding to literature and states that they should feel that their views are well-considered and taken into account. She argues that selecting a student who will speak should not be regulated by the teacher. Lee continues to state that teachers should have both the content and educational understanding, and these two issues needed for the effective teaching are both valuable and compound.

The teacher in this situation should be able to teach using various approaches which will help students struggling against literary problems. Lee argues that teachers should be aware of what students understand and value. Teachers should hear and respond to a wide range of students’ debatable questions with proper understanding.

Additionally, Lee shows some important pedagogical understanding including some abilities, such as possibility to evaluate what students know and do not know. Other abilities include understanding several ways to capitalize learning and the way to know developmental progression.

Lee considers that teachers should enter modern reading areas susceptible to the usual range of social and developmental issues displayed by students who are identified as incompetent. She considers that this is a requirement which almost all learning institutions or schools disregard.

Lee specifies her instructional choices in many examples in her book. She uses Taquisha’s conflict to discuss this issue. Taquisha seems to be reading a newspaper instead of attending to Sax Cantor Riff. This is evident when Taquisha questions the function of the film in their study programs. Lee mentions that she employs her understanding of adolescent growth as a basis for managing the conflicts which Taquisha have.

Lee also states that she uses her knowledge of Taquisha as an individual African American communication experiences to reconstruct the condition. Moreover, she offers the readers and students six guidelines for teaching which clearly create a precise reasoning to difficult theme or issue as well as provides interesting instances. Her example is re-voicing learners’ expressions to guide students to huge plans within the area under discussion.

Lee favors responsibility but is uncertain of problematic evaluations which are not genuine and rigorous in corrective reading at the resultant stage. Hence, these do not bring about students to find out ways to participate in very complex and analytical reasoning concerning the theme. In chapter seven, Lee offers instances of the post and pre evaluations of literary learning, and I hope Lee will add example of students’ essay. This could portray the language of literary reasoning.

Several books and journals are used by teachers so that they can improve the students’ language through the application of literature and culture. Lee’s book can be recommended since it addresses this issue. The book begins with an issue concerning literacy, culture and learning, then it suggests values of student’s culture and understanding in the service of attaining educational success.

Lee proposes that achievements in urban schools are not easy for the teachers to gain and need plainly a profound understanding of the theme of the book, language, language socialization and the way students learn. They should also understand the process of the children and teenagers’ maturation. Teachers should improve their teaching skills and knowledge used in urban schools.

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Marketing of New Services – Set up Information Literacy Talks for Mature Report

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer


Service marketing is a sub-component of the wide discipline of marketing. It essentially refers to B2B (Business to Business) and B2C (Business to Client) services that embrace the marketing of various services such as financial, telecommunication, air travel health care, literacy seminar services, and professional services among others. Marketing of a service is a new area of study, which is rapidly developing since the current world economies are exceedingly characterised by service economies.

The growth is associated with the increased need and development of information sharing enabling technologies such as the development of web 2.0 applications, SMS, and social networking. This paper discusses marketing of literacy seminar services for mature students. These services entail leasing out books and other academic materials through online library checks for the availability of the books, which can then be physically collected from the library premises.

An effort is made to discuss the potential customer base for these services and to evaluate strategies to create and manage relationships with all potential customers for the proposed services (including any internal marketing strategy) and communicating the service to the chosen group of customers including the creation of a service brand and image.

Potential customer base for the service

Identification of scope coupled with the target audience of marketing campaign is a substantial step in the success of the marketing strategies to push for acceptance of a service in the market (Broady-Preston & Steele 2002, p.385). While attempting to set online information literacy talks for mature students, the campaign can only reach people who are logged into the internet or who have accessibility to internet connection.

Consequently, the main target audience that also forms the potential customer base for the services is the largely growing family of bloggers and people interacting through social media. With the increase in information availability and the development of the culture of information sharing, students at secondary and tertiary levels of education resort to the web as the first and the principle preferred source of information (Cmore & Chan 2009). This pool of people forms an immense potential clientele for literacy talk services.

The main challenges of marketing literacy seminar services rest on looking for mechanisms of ensuring that, as the target audience seeks its preferred information, it is also able to link up with the organisation’s information on the available resources, which can provide both qualitative and quantitative data to inform its contributions. One way of achieving this goal is by providing library links in the search results web pages.

Consequently, potential customers can have an overview of books and other materials held in the library, which are related to their seminar talks. This way, customers who are largely driven by the culture of quick accessibility to information that is spread by the era of information sharing through the World Wide Web are able to quickly locate or request for the precise academic materials on offer at the library.

Now, it becomes possible to capture the attention of people who depend on e-books to conduct their researches. If they find that the available e-books do not have substantive information that relates with their seminar themes, they would get an alternative. This alternative is visiting a physical library where they can specifically request books over the counter without going through the manual or even computerised library index.

Strategies to create and manage relationships with all potential customers of the proposed service

The goal for developing strategies for managing customer relationships in the service industry is to ensure that potential customers are both attracted and retained to an organisation. Indeed, scholars have been interested in “allocation of resources between customer acquisitions and retention” (Keller 1998, p.31).

Management of customer relationships requires deployment of the information concerning potential customers to aid in their segmentation in the effort to channel marketing efforts to the strategies that would yield optimal results to the specific segments (Zineldin 2000).

Among the many methods of maintaining positive relationships with customers is keeping the potential clients up to date meaning that the library needs to constantly update the potential customers who mature students for these case with new leases since most of their seminars address current issues. Such an attempt calls for commitment of funds from the library.

Although such a strategy increases the costs of running the library, it is justifiable in the context of Fornell’s (1992) argument, “marketers are quick to recognise that the value of the customer asset (the value that a customer or a potential customer provides a company) is the sum of the discounted net contribution margins of the customer over time” (p.11).

The argument here is that attempting to build customer relationships comes at a cost, which an organisation seeking to retain potential customers must be willing to incur for the overall long time future gains.

Ensuring that the library’s web is updated with the latest academic resources for mature students to provide updated information that matches their talks is critical in the development of the brand image of the organisation. These students are likely to seek renting services from a library where it is easy to access its information on what is available in house.

High probabilities also exist that a library organisation, which is capable to capture the loyalty of both the existing and potential clients, would have a competitive advantage. In the context of the library discussed in this paper, this competitive advantage can be built by ensuring that mature students have a quick access to any resource they are interested in for their seminars.

Marketing services is different from marketing products because in addition to the usual traits of products, services “lack ownership, are intangible, inseparable, and have heterogeneity” (Rust, Zeithaml & Lemon 2004, p.113). Renting of books for mature students to facilitate their seminar services means that the activity is bound by these characteristics.

Consequently, to manage to realise results in attempting to establish good customer relationships, appropriate service marketing mix must be deployed. The service marketing mix includes physical evidence, people, and process. Physical presence prescribes the characteristics of the place of the service offering. The deployment of these aspects in building and managing customer relations is realised through ensuring that the organisation is distinguished clearly from probable and existing competitors.

All book-renting organisations charge fees for the services rendered. However, mature students are more willing to pay for books and other materials. Indeed, a new book is appealing to the eye. The student can concentrate and pay attention to it better than an old book. By capitalising on building the brand image that the library rent books, which are clean and almost new, it becomes possible to build a physical evidence image for the organisation that will make it possible to build positive customer relationships.

Advertising to potential clients of the literary seminar services is a major milestone to enhancing the performance of the organisation. However, the retention of the clients is a function of how well they are treated at the library premises once they come seeking for services to enhance their talks.

This argument underlines the significance of people in helping to build good customer relationships for the library. In fact, according to Broady-Preston and Steele (2002), “people are essential ingredients in service provision: recruiting and training the right staff is required to create a competitive advantage” (p.388).

From the context of the library operations to boost mature students’ seminar services, mature students make their decisions to seek services from the library based on how they are handled online by the communications personnel and or based on how they are handled at the physical premises of the organisation by the sales personnel.

In the quest to build positive customer relationships, it is vital that an effort is made to select people who would represent the interests of the organisation in the most pragmatic way.

This is because, research has shown, “customer make judgments about a service provisions and delivery based on the people representing an organisation” (Rust, Zeithaml & Lemon 2004, p.116). People working in a service organisation are the representative elements of the quality of the service rendered based on the manner in which they interact with clients.

In this extent, it is significant to note that building good customer relationships with the organisation would come from recruitment and selection of persons possessing good interpersonal skills, good knowledge of the services, attitude, and the degree of quality of the service desired to ensure that potential clients (mature students) seek service from the library in the future.

In the list of service-mix that may help to build good customer relationships is the nature of the process of service delivery. A process is “the marketing mix element that looks at the systems used to deliver the service” (Fornell 1992, p.15). It is for this purpose that one of the strategies for building goods customer relationships entails the creation and maintenance of a web based library index. The index is meant to ensure that mature students only go to the library to seek for reading materials that they are sure are available at the premises.

The materials too have to provide information that matches the subject under scrutiny in their seminars. Such a process may ensure development of good customer relationships since it is not only efficient in the delivery of the services because mature students do not have to make repeat trips to the library checking on the status of availability of the reading materials for their talks.

As revealed, people and physical evidence are some of the service-mix elements that service organisations can deploy to build good relationships with potential clients.

Therefore, it is deducible that the central idea behind the selection of appropriate service marketing mix is to create a form of non-verbal communication aiming at spreading the message that the library organisation is the one that offers the best services. Therefore, an image is developed in the potential customers’ mentality that they are most likely to get what they need to satisfy their information needs from the library at any time subject to confirmation of the availability of the requested materials online

In order to build such a customer relationship, it is critical for the organisation to invest in strategies for enhancing both offline and online communication on the nature and quality of the services offered by the organisation to mature students. Since the targeted customers are people who have constant access to internet, selection and investment in an appropriate online communications technology is necessary.

One of such technologies is the campaign management technology, which is a customer relationship management online application, which helps to enhance interactions processes between an organisation and potential clients in an online platform. The main objective of deployed of such technology is to help communicate library services coupled with helping to develop brand loyalty through the development of a positive brand image.

Strategies for Communicating the Service to the chosen group of Mature students, including the creation of a service brand and image

Customers not only buy a product or pay for a service but also pay for the brand image. According to Keller (1998), brand image is a “perception of customers when they see a brand reflected by brand associations in their mind” (p.27). These associations are multidimensional. They contain a myriad of attitudes or dimensions, which are emotionally instigated in relation to customers’ perceptions on the brand quality and the degree to which the brand satisfies the needs of the customers.

Zineldin (2000) notes the relevance of creating service brands and image in a service organisation when he claims, “from customers’ overall picture of their experiences, brand image is important because it will create the customers’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioural responses as the outcomes” (p.21).

In case of the organisation providing library services to mature students to boost their literacy talk seminars, brand image can be strengthened through the creation of publicity among other promotional techniques. In particular, the power of the internet can be utilised as the main approach for developing and creating awareness of the brand.

Using the internet as the means of creating a brand image of the library organisation implies that the internet can serve the dual purpose of distribution coupled with communication.

By making use of social networks and websites, it is possible to influence the quality of the talks based on the library services through ardent communication with the potential customers in the effort to persuade them to seek library services from the organisation. Internet aids in helping an organisation to “focus on enabling customers to find information about services” (Fields 2010, p.14).

Brand image cannot be satisfactorily developed if potential clients (mature students) are not aware of the existence of an organisation that is offering services. Building the brand image can also be enhanced through deployment of technologies such as short message services (SMS). SMS has emerged in the recent past a powerful tool for sending massive short messages to many users within a short time following the developments of telephony technologies (Anbu & Mavuso 2012).

In the effort to create awareness of the existence of an organisation, social media is incredibly helpful. Such a strategy for building positive brand image is opposed to traditional approaches for brand communication in which organisations mainly focused on “controlling what was said about their products and brands by dominating communication channels with carefully planned messaging” (Anbu & Mavuso 2012, p.319).

However, in the modern business environment, control of messages is immensely difficult since the ability of the customer to access information through online interactions has become incredibly sophisticated.

The significance of effecting communication strategies for marketing the service brand through social media is ardent bearing in mind, “today, customer communication takes the form of bilateral dialogue” (Rust, Zeithaml & Lemon 2004, p.117: Cmore & Chan 2009, p.395). This strategy often entails online communication through B2B since the goals is building service brand image of the organisation through social media communication.

The findings indicate that social media and web-based forms of marketing services attract the attention of students seeking material to include in their researches. Consequently, it is important that librarians take proactive efforts to engage mature students through blogs coupled with other web 2.0 applications in the efforts to make them have access to library renting services to enrich their seminar talks.


Marketing of services is different from marketing of products since the two have different characteristics. This paper argued that, in order to set up information literacy talks for mature students, it is important to consider service-marketing mix to determine the characteristics of the target audience of marketing campaigns.

The paper discussed marketing of new library services through online marketing strategies in which social media and web 2.0 applications were presented as crucial in helping to communicate the service chosen for mature students to boost their information literacy talks.


Anbu, J & Mavuso, M 2012, ‘Old Wine in New Wine Skin: Marketing Library Services Through SMS-Based Alert Services’, Library Hi Tech, vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 310-320.

Broady-Preston, J & Steele, L 2002, ‘ Employees, Customers and Internal Marketing Strategies in LIS’, library Management, vol. 23 no.8, pp. 384-393.

Cmore, D & Chan, C 2009, ‘Bogging towards Information Literacy: Engaging Students and Facilitating Peer Learning’, Reference services Review, vol. 37 no. 4, pp. 395-407.

Fields, E 2010, ‘A Unique Twitter Use For Reference Services’, Library Hi Tech News, vol. 6 no.7, pp. 14-15.

Fornell, C 1992, ‘A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 5 no.6, pp. 6-21.

Keller, L1998, Strategy Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Rust, T, Zeithaml, A, & Lemon, N 2004, ‘Customer centred brand management’, Harvard Business Review, vol. 82 no.4, pp. 110-118.

Zineldin, M 2000, ‘Beyond relationship marketing: Technological marketing’, Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol.18 no.1, pp 9-23.

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Literacy Practices Inventory and Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

In our societies, there are so many factors that tend to bring people together and this is why a community is not restricted by geographical elements but also by religion, ethnic origins, culture, preferences like sexual orientation, resources, happiness and lifestyle.

So many times, these will be the defining standards that will be used even by the media in referring to a particular group of people. For instance, one will hear about: the Indian community, the gay community, the catholic community, the banking community and etc. The fact that individuals stay in the same neighborhood does not necessarily mean that they have anything in common.

It is how they relate with one another that become the important aspects in forming a community. With the advent of technology and the Internet, the concept of a community becomes effective irrespective of the members’ physical locations because they are not limited by the mode of communication or transportation. The values treasured by a certain group of people could also be what bind them together. Values such as beliefs, solidarity and commitment could be the cohesive factor behind a community.

Literacy Practices

Literacy practices are therefore greatly affected by the different communities because the same values that shape a community are likely to frame their literacy practices. When we talk about literacy practices, we are simply referring to what individuals, societies and the general public all do with literacy; which is the writing and reading aspects of learning and acquiring knowledge.

Literacy practices involve values, attitudes, feelings, and social relationships. They involve the different concepts that communities have about literacy; that is, reading, writing and the conversations they hold about it and how they generally make sense of it.

The Campus Community

The campus community is very broad and made up of various smaller communities, which are in one way or another interrelated. In this particular case, we shall focus on two main categories under which these minor communities fall. Many of these groups are formed by either out of interest or default. Those that fall in the default bracket are those based on factors like religion, ethnic origins and academic specialty. The individuals in these communities do not actually choose to be members, but are predisposed.

The main focus in this report will highlight groups that are formed with a particular intention for example Christian Union which will target Christians, the basketball club which will have the basketball fans in mind, the cookery class whose main enthusiasts will be those interested in cooking. Some of these communities however, are not the ones that people are acclimatized with. In no way should literacy practices of such groups be disregarded or considered as mediocre and inconsequential.

The Gang Band

In this report we will try to understand one such community. Let us try not to judge too fast, the word gangster alone brings a lot of prejudicial ideas to mind. The society has often viewed gangsters as a social affiliation of young people who are seldom seen as meaningful members of the society. They are never viewed as people who are simply trying to express their beliefs, ideals and interests.

The Gang Band is a group that is formed by members you may not expect. These members are probably out to engage in street fights, drug related battles, exchange a lot of gun fire and think of anything else that is villainy and outright act of resistance by a youth; to whatever is morally acceptable by the society. They will also be classified as gangsters based on their physical appearances; tattoos, heavy makeup, body piercings, crazy hair styles and fashions.

This community of gangsters I have not met. They are different and you just have to attend one of their fortnightly scheduled meetings to understand this. They may have similar facades to what you would expect a gangster to look like, but will undeniably amaze you with the different ways they are trying to make their voices heard. They will design everything from their books: cars, homes and clothing with graffiti.

They embrace a certain literacy practice no matter how much the community frowns upon it. They have been marginalized and probably do not even understand that they have a form of literacy practice. If this practice were channeled appropriately, and accepted by the society that has all along been frowning upon it, it could become very productive. They have successfully used many literacy practices as means for changing the society’s assumptions and mentality towards gangsters.

The Gang Band Website

The crew has designed a website where they talk about who they really are, what their mission and vision is and also what activities they are involved in. Through their website they use graffiti to change the attitudes and perceptions of people about gangsters. They offer services such as: vehicle body designs according to individual’s taste, wall painting for kindergartens, T-shirt and other clothing art works.

They also use this art to design catchy advertisement flyers and brochures. While offering the services, they profess that all this is what they really consider as a useful form of graffiti and art as opposed to inappropriate painting of public facilities. A percentage of the proceeds from their work go to charity work for helping orphanages, juvenile convicts and supporting youths with drug addiction problems. This is a form of literacy practice because it involves reading and writing, although it is mainly graphical.


Every fortnight, this group meets to discuss how their projects are impacting on their society, how they are progressing and welcome new ideas. They read out any new ideas that have been presented online through their website and also update a blog that is managed by a few members and also write their opinions on any issues raised by their audience. This way they maintain a social relationship with the public and still stand by their values and attitudes which are not always embraced by all and sundry.


Sometimes, what it takes to reach out to others is something that will catch the eye. Their tracts are definitely eye catching, very graphic and explicit; it is very easy to understand the tracts information. Sometimes it is not always about joining a book club and reading not less than two books weekly.

Reading is just one of the means of remaining informed, passing time or appreciating a particular form of writing. And this is what these pamphlets and brochures that are distributed by the crew aim for; that is to have an effective audience. A picture speaks a thousand words.

Annual Conventions

There is no better way to reach out to many people, than to showcase what you are all about, what exactly you stand for, your opinions and ideas. They use this form of literacy practices as a way of being expressive and an effective communication tool. These youth are using this method of literacy practices to be part of the society and take a social position in the community.


All one has to do is take a look at the various designs on T-shirts, caps, cars, walls, buildings, book covers, crockery and cutlery, badges, all designed by members of this gang band. They all speak for themselves with very informative, rich and uplifting messages and in this way their voices are heard, loud and clear.

Sales of these items have been the source of funds that have supported many of the charitable organizations in the community. They have also improved on the appearance and architecture of so many condemned structures in the community through their graffiti, including also, painting walls and ceilings of kindergartens and improving the learning environment for young kids.


Literacy Practice Source Of Practice Practice Location
The Gang Band website Social Network Website Website
Bi-weekly meetings Invitation from a member of the group Campus Art lecture hall
Tracts Campus Notice board Group headquarters which is a garage in one of the member’s homes
Annual Conventions Interview of members of the group Location is not permanent, but keeps changing from one venue to another
Artifacts Collection of a range of artifacts These are on display in the groups’ headquarters
Observation They wear some of the T-shirts they have designed, carry some of the book covers they have made and even drive some cars that have graffiti all over.


The Gang Band has definitely claimed a place in society and taken a social position in the world. The fact remains that gangsters are living within and among societies and should be accepted by all means.

Notwithstanding, gang bands generally speaking, are exposed to marginalization in societies; this is because societies have biases against gang bands. Literacy practices need to be challenged and broadened to accept both conventional and unconventional pedagogies that illustrate that literacy at the end of the day embraces the main idea of reading and writing; which brings cohesion in our communities.

What matters is how these practices at the end of the day will impact on our community and how they will promote the culture of reading and writing. Different people will embrace the reading and writing culture in different ways and the sooner we accept other alternative styles, the sooner we will be able to involve a larger audience into appreciating the various forms of literacy practices that our communities have to offer.

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My Struggle for Literacy in America Rhetorical Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The main purpose of this presentation is to convince the audience that literacy is one of the skills that a person can and should develop. Moreover, an individual should not become despondent, if he/she has to confront some difficulties. This is the main message that is conveyed to the audience.

Moreover, it is aimed at increasing people’s awareness about the problem of illiteracy and its influence on the experiences of individuals who have to face this difficulty. This video clip can be of great interest to viewers who may have various cultural or educational backgrounds. Yet, it can be particularly relevant to individuals who attempt to develop his literacy skills.

The author skillfully achieves this goal by adopting various rhetorical techniques. First of all, she relies on ethos and lays stress on her credibility. It should be noted that the speaker presents a personal narrative which describes the difficulties that she faced due to lack of literary skills.

Moreover, this narrative shows how the speaker was able to overcome her difficulties and achieve success (“My struggle for literacy in America”). In this way, the author demonstrates that she is knowledgeable enough to discuss this topic. Additionally, the author makes use of pathos or emotional appeal. It should be mentioned that this presentation tells the story of a girl, who becomes despondent because of academic failures.

In this way, the author makes the audience empathize with this character. Apart from that, emotional appeal is created with the help of music which reflects the experiences of an individual who may feel helpless sometimes, but is able to regain one’s confidence. In turn, one can say that logos or appeal to rationality does not play an important role in this presentation. This is one of the aspects that can be distinguished. Overall, the use of these rhetorical strategies makes the presentation more convincing.

Furthermore, the speaker is able to address the audience by combining verbal and visual elements. For instance, the viewers can see that the most important parts of this speech appear on the screen. In most cases, these words replicate the author’s speech, especially at the beginning when she mentions the scale of illiteracy in the United States (“My struggle for literacy in America”).

However, they also supplement the ideas that the speaker expresses. In particular, they can throw light on the experiences of a girl named Samantha who cannot overcome her illiteracy. For instance, she becomes obsessed with the idea that she cannot “keep up with the readings’ (“My struggle for literacy in America”).

So, one can say that this text helps the speaker make the presentation more fluent. Yet, this text is also necessary to help viewers who may have some hearing impairments. Judging from the tone of the author, one can say that she is extremely concerned about the issues that she discusses. The word choices of the speaker indicate that she wants to provide encouragement to the audience.

Moreover, the author includes various images in the presentation. In particular, one can speak about the combination of cartoons and drawings. These images depict people who are mentioned in the author’s narrative. In most cases, these cartoons and drawings are related to a girl named Samantha who attempts to develop her literacy skills. This story is necessary to make the speech more vivid. It should be noted that while depicting Samantha, the author does not try to describe the face of this character.

This is one of the details that can attract the attention of a viewer. Probably, the use of this technique is necessary to show that such difficulties can be encountered by a great number of people. One can say that the text and images supplement one another. Moreover, this presentation includes a link to a website which can show how literacy skills should be developed. This is another aspect that should be distinguished.

It is possible to say that the author attempts to support her claim with the help of personal examples. In particular, she argues that if she was able to overcome her illiteracy, other people may also cope with this task. Moreover, the speaker mentions that there are various methods that can enable a person to improve his/her literacy skills.

The main limitation of this argument is the personal story of Samantha may not be applicable to other people. For instance, some of them may have cognitive or visual impairments. Therefore, they may not be able to follow the recommendations offered by the author. However, this limitation does not undermine the ideas expressed by the speaker because many people can cope with this problem only because they do not know much about educational methods that can help them.

One can argue that the speaker examines the topic from a personal perspective. Therefore, she relies primarily on her own experiences while the problem of illiteracy. This approach prevents the author from identifying the main reasons why many people may lack literacy skills. This is one of the short-comings that should be considered.

Works Cited

“My struggle for literacy in America.” Online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 17 Jun. 2013. Web. <> .

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The Cornerstones to Early Literacy Essay (Article)

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Language acquisition is the process through which people gain the ability to understand and use language. An individual is said to acquire a language when he/she is in a position to use words and sentences to receive and pass messages across.

Language is an inherently human trait because other animals do not use language to communicate with each other. There are four key elements that set language apart from the forms of communication used by other animals. These elements are arbitrariness, semanticity, productivity and displacement (Luongo-Orlando, 2010).

Arbitrariness implies that in spoken language, the form of a word cannot predict what it defines. For instance the words car, gari and coche all describe the same thing. However, it is not possible to tell why any of the words describes the invention better than the others (Piper, 2012).

Semanticity basically describes the fact that words in any given language represent ideas. For instance the word mobile phone represents the idea of a gadget that can be used for communication across large distances and is also portable (Piper, 2012).

Productivity is a description of the fact that human beings can combine different sounds to come up with an infinite number of utterances. This is the reason why individuals can pair up different sounding words to come up with a sentence that makes sense to other speakers of the language (Piper, 2012).

Displacement is the idea that language can be used to communicate on things not in the immediate environment. Words in any language can describe things that happened in the past and those that will happen in future.

One unique feature of language is that children, growing up, can easily learn how to communicate in multiple languages, with or without the intervention of their parents. It is a fact that children even those with unique disabilities can learn a language, which will then help them in communication.

In some instances, however, it will take the encouragement of teachers or parents. However, for children to learn anything in taught in a formal setting, they must first be in a position to communicate in the language of instruction. As such, language is the medium by which children build literacy.

Language structure

Syntax Phonology Semantics (Meaning)
All forms of languages use one particular structure in order to form meaning-subject, verb, object (Nikolov, 2009). The order of the elements may not be the same in all languages. Focuses on the physical properties of sound. Phonology also studies the rules that dictate how various sounds can be combined for communication purposes (Piper, 2012). When learning a language, children primarily seek to know the proper way of combining different sounds in order to pass across a particular meaning. For instance, a child learning English will know the difference between man and Dan, while subconsciously picking the difference between the ‘d’ and ‘m’ sounds Children, when learning a language, first understand how to make certain sounds to represent a particular idea (Luongo-Orlando, 2010). They then learn how to use a combination of different sounds to pass a message across, as well as to comprehend what other people say.

The steps of learning language

Linguistic-Children first learn how to use language in order to pass messages across and to also comprehend what others are saying.
Metalinguistic-After learning to communicate using the sounds that make up a particular language, children then become aware of the different elements of language and how to manipulate them to come up with an entirely new language.
Metalinguistic verbalization-Finally, the children verbalize the elements of language that they have formulated in the metalinguistic stage. This is the most advanced level of language.

Reference List

Luongo-Orlando. (2010).The Cornerstones to Early Literacy. Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Limited.

Nikolov, M. (2009). The age factor and early language learning. Munich: Walter de Gruyter.

Piper, T. (2012). Making meaning making sense: Children’s early language learning. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education.

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Modern theories about literacy Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

There are many modern theories about literacy and ways of constructing it through the personal hands-in experiences, the connection of learning materials to the actual social reality in which learners exist, and the alignment of students’ and teachers’ identities through social interactions. Such innovative techniques enable to weld the learning process in the social reality and make the learner less detached from the actual body of knowledge they obtain.

The articles of Darville (2009), Atwood (2007) and Hamilton (2009) provide the practical and theoretical evidence to support the efficiency of these new approaches to literacy; due to the accounts given by authors, one can estimate the true value of these practices and design the curriculum and pattern of studies suiting him/her as a learner or an educator.

The article of Darville (2009) offers an additional insight into how literacy represents a social construct. The author argues that teaching literacy should be aligned learners’ practices and involves embodying, giving voice to the text learned. It is also important to note that the mechanics of learning has to be learned through participative practices because students often feel detached from the material being learned, which gives them additional challenges in covering it (Darville, 2009).

The experience-telling model of taught material, with easy instructions and the accessibility for learners, is estimated as the most effective learning tool. The institutional genres are thought to be exclusive for learners because of the absence of background knowledge implied in the text, so the author suggests that the innovative, inclusive genres of texts for learners should be created to enhance the educational process (Darville, 2009).

This idea of the necessity to tie the texts learned to the immediate, practical reality in which learners exist and upon which they may reflect, is a truly useful finding for the present educational practice.

It is a real challenge for the learner to align the learning material with the student’s perception because of his/her lack of understanding of the material’s relevance. As soon as the gap between learning and the learner’s life is bridged, the activity gains additional motivation from the learner and the internal incentives become the powerful drive for knowledge acquisition.

The example can be wonderfully supported by the analysis of Hamilton (2009) who assessed the value of Individual Learning Plans (ILPs) in the formation of adult literacy – only once the teacher is able to act as a mediator between the student’s aspirations and demands, and the system’s requirements, adequately adjusting the flow of learning to the individual needs of learners, the success in obtaining literacy can be achieved.

This fact is also supported by the account of the participation in the Nunavit education program Somebody’s Daughter by Atwood (2007). The author indicates how hard it is to initiate learning in the women from the indigenous people from the north of Canada, used to living in severe conditions and lacking the fundamentals of literacy.

The aggravating effect is the unpleasant, shocking experience of ruinous practices conducted by the Canadian government for the major part of the 20th century, with the compulsory separation of indigenous families, humiliating education in the residential schools and deprivation of the traditional experience that indigenous peoples were used to acquiring in their local settings (Atwood, 2007). The women who hardly achieved a possibility to learn their traditions in sewing could not realize the need for literacy.

Nonetheless, the volunteers managed to find a thread from their traditions to learning writing, and they managed to raise the Nunavit women’s self-esteem, and to help them overcome fear and shyness cultivated by mandatory practices of the government (Atwood, 2007). Only after finding the connection with the lively experience of women and the need to learn to write, they managed to overcome the barrier and enter a new stage of self-awareness.

Hence, the hypothesis about the close connection existing between becoming literacy and looking at the educational process through the prism of one’s social background can be proven. There is no pure knowledge, and no educational plan may allow full detachment from the reality; literacy is taught through the continuous connection of experiences of the learner and the material learned.


Atwood, M. (2007). The Alphabet of Hope. Writers for Literacy. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

Darville, R. (2009). Literacy as practices, teaching as alignment: A message in a bottle. Literacies, No. 10, pp. 14-18.

Hamilton, M. (2009). Putting words in their mouths: the alignment of identities with system goals through the use of Individual Learning Plans. British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 221–242.

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Reading Commentary About Literacy Articles: What Does Literacy Mean? Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Thousands of people in Canada demonstrate low levels of literacy skills. The Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey creates a gloomy picture of literacy in Canada. 14.6 percent of respondents from Canada score as low as Level 1 and 27.3 percent are at Level 2 in prose literacy (Literacy Foundation, 2005a).

Level 1 covers individuals with extremely poor literacy skills; these people lack knowledge and abilities needed to perform even the simplest tasks (Literacy Foundation, 2005a). Individuals at Level 2 can read but face considerable difficulties, when working with materials that require comprehension; they cannot always develop new learning skills (Literacy Foundation, 2005a).

It goes without saying that the level of population literacy affects countries’ economic and social wellbeing (Literacy Foundation, 2005b). Unfortunately, the reasons behind low literacy rates and their implications for job performance remain poorly understood. This paper tries to explain the reasons of low literacy in Canada and offers recommendations to improve the quality of workplace performance in the country.

Surprisingly or not, Canada demonstrates remarkably low levels of literacy and workplace proficiency. In 2005, almost 48% of Canadians were at Literacy Levels 1 and 2 (Literacy Foundation, 2005b). Simply stated, almost every second Canadian could not cope with the simplest tasks and had few chances to develop better job skills (Literacy Foundation, 2005b).

Individuals with medium to high literacy skills and high levels of computer proficiency earned the highest incomes, whereas their low literacy counterparts failed to achieve even the modest level of income (Literacy Foundation, 2005b). It would be fair to assume that literacy is an essential factor of sustained economic disparities in the developed world (Literacy Foundation, 2005b). The question is in what causes low literacy levels and what can be done to improve the situation.

I believe that the lack of understanding of what counts as literacy is one of the most serious causes of continued illiteracy: entrepreneurs, business owners, and state officials simply fail to define what literacy is.

Furthermore, the boundary between social and practice-based literacy is increasingly blurred (Jackson, 2004). As a result, when individuals demonstrate low levels of literacy, does that mean that they cannot cope with the simplest life issues, or does that mean that the level of literacy is just enough for their survival? There is no answer to this question.

Another problem, in my opinion, is that no one can definitely say what literacy work is and how to integrate literacy with the key labor trends. I cannot but agree to Levine (2005) in that literacy has a potential to reduce social disparities and foster participation and inclusion. However, it is high time the meaning and significance of literacy were redefined.

I am convinced that, in order to raise literacy levels, new approaches for literacy need to be developed. Literacy is no longer a shallow combination of theoretical principles, which have little or nothing to do with the real-life conditions of workplace performance. Literacy cannot be project-based; nor can it be grant-dependent (Levine, 2005). Instead, literacy must become an inevitable component and the key prerequisite of success in everything we do (Levine, 2005).

Certainly, this approach is not without controversy. At the basic level, literacy is unique, and individuals hold entirely different perceptions about its role in the workplace. The lack of funding is another problem, which Canadian businesses and organizations must solve. Eventually, integrating literacy with workplace realities is impossible without producing a profound cultural shift, which is neither easy nor painless (Levine, 2005).

However, and I am sure of it, there is no way for Canadians to improve their literacy skills other than making literacy practical and available to the low-skilled workers. Every business owner and trade union must define the scope and boundaries of literacy needed to attain the necessary level of workplace proficiency. The success of literacy training will depend upon unions and businesses’ ability to integrate literacy requirements with the real-life conditions of their workplace performance.


Jackson, N. (2004). What counts as literacy work? Literacies, 3, 9-10.

Levine, T. (2005). Part of everything we do: Integrating literacy into the Canadian labor movement. Literacies, 6.

Literacy Foundation. (2005a). Learning a living: First results of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills (ALL) Survey. ABC Canada, May, 1-4.

Literacy Foundation. (2005b). International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey (IALSS). ABC Canada, November, 1-4.

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