Interpreter of Maladies

The Importance of a Community in Some of the Stories from Interpreter of Maladies

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Community is a safety harness. When you’re climbing a huge rock wall, your harness is there to prevent you from falling. It restrains you from hurting yourself. If your foot slips, or you let go too soon, your harness will catch you, keep you away from danger, and makes sure that you are safe. When you are part of a community, you are a harness. You have an unspoken responsibility to look out for others. It is your job to make sure that everyone in your community is okay, and to look out for and help those who are struggling. In the book, Interpreter of Maladies, Jhumpa Lahiri uses multiple literary devices to develop this theme of community. In the short stories, Mrs. Sen’s, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, and The Treatment of Bibi Haldar, Jhumpa Lahiri uses literary devices like imagery, perspective, and characterization to convey the central theme, Responsibility of a Community is to look out for others and not just worry about yourself.

The use of Imagery in the short stories, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, and The Treatment of Bibi Haldar helps Jhumpa Lahiri to convey the importance and responsibility of looking out for others in your community. In the beginning of the story, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, Jhumpa Lahiri describes how Lilia’s parents are looking through the university directory, trying to find other “Indian” people in their community. The text says, “In search of compatriots, they used to trail their fingers, at the start of each new semester, through the columns of the university directory, circling surnames familiar to their part of the world. It was in this manner that they discovered Mr. Pirzada and invited him to our home” (Lahiri 26). Jhumpa Lahiri’s detailed description of Lilia’s parents’ search helps readers to understand the theme of responsibility in a community. Lilia’s parents know what it is like to feel on the outside of a community, and are reaching out in their own community to make sure that people in the same situation that they once experienced have a safe place/second home that they are able to rely on and feel comfortable in. Lahiri also uses imagery to develop this theme in the story, The Treatment of Bibi Haldar. When the narrators are describing Bibi’s sickness in the beginning of the story, they explain how everyone in Bibi’s community is trying everything they can to cure her. The text states, “When we heard her screams and throws in the night, when her wrists were bound with ropes and stinging poultices pressed upon her, we named her in our prayers. Wise men had massaged eucalyptus balm onto her temples, steamed her face with herbal infusions” (Lahiri 172). Lahri uses detailed imagery to illustrate the picture of wise men massaging Bibi’s temples and steaming her face, trying to cure her. This description of the community trying to help Bibi become healthy shows readers that the people in Bibi’s community are acting on their responsibility to look out for her. In this particular story, the narrators are actually a part of Bibi’s community. This unique perspective also helps Jhumpa Lahiri to convey the story’s theme.

The use of perspective in the short stories, The Treatment of Bibi Haldar, Mrs. Sen’s, and When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine helps Author, Jhumpa Lahiri convey the central theme, Responsibility of a Community is to look out for others. In the story, Mrs. Sen’s, the point of view is 3rd person submissive, the perspective of the main character, Eliot. This allows readers to closely follow and analyze the interactions between Mrs. Sen and Eliot’s mom from the perspective of a young boy. A quote from the text states, “She tended to hover over on the far side of the room… but Mrs. Sen would not allow it. Each evening she insisted that his mother sit on the sofa, where she was served something to eat” (Lahiri 118). Mrs. Sen wants to make sure that both Eliot and his mother are getting a good meal to eat every night. She is doing her part in the community to look out for them and oversee that they are eating well. Eliot’s perspective is vital for readers to understand this interaction, because it shows that even a young boy like Eliot can recognize Mrs. Sen’s effort to care for him and his family. The use of perspective is also apparent in the story, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine. When Lilia is sent upstairs one night, she overhears the interactions between Mr. Pirzada and her parents. “Eventually I was sent upstairs to do my homework, but through the carpet I heard them as they drank more tea, and listened to cassettes of kishore kumar, and played Scrabble until the ll o’clock news…For this reason I never saw him leave, but each night as I drifted off to sleep, I would hear them, anticipating the birth of a nation on the other side of the world” (Lahiri 38). Lilia’s perspective in the story helps readers to understand how her parents are taking care of Mr. Pirzada. Lilia’s “eavesdropping” reveals how late Mr. Pirzada stays at her house, hanging out and talking with his parents. Mr. Pirzada feels safe and comfortable in her home, and that her parents are succeeding at their role in their community of looking out for others. Another use of perspective can be identified in the story, The Treatment of Bibi Haldar. The perspective in this story is the women of Bibi’s community. These women are very sympathetic towards Bibi and do everything that they can to make her feel somewhat “normal.” This can be spotted when Bibi is asking the women millions of questions about their weddings and lives. “She prestered us for details of our own weddings …we showed her our photo albums embossed with the designs of butterflies…” (Lahiri 174). Bibi is making the women all about their weddings, because she wants to get married one day and therefore want to know what it is like. Instead of the women being rude to Bibi, and telling her she will never find love because of her disease, or simply just ignoring her, instead they decide to take the time out of their busy days to answer all of Bibi’s questions, and show her their wedding books. This makes Bibi, who usually feels like an outcast, feel happy and accepted in their community. This quote also indirectly shows and characterizes that the women in Bibi’s community are kind, caring, and sympathetic people.

The use of Characterization in the short stories, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, and The Treatment of Bibi Haldar helps Jhumpa Lahiri to convey the central theme, Responsibility of a Community is to look out for others and not just worry about yourself. In the story, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, Lilia is about to go out trick-or-treating, and Mr. Pirzada expresses his concern. “‘Perhaps I should accompany them?’ Mr. Pirzada suggested. He looked suddenly tired and small, standing there and displayed stockings feet, and his eyes contained a panic I had never seen before. In spite of the cold I began to sweat inside my pillowcase” (Lahiri 42) Jhumpa Lahiri Indirectly characterizes Mr. Pirzada as overprotective and worried. Mr. Pirzada does not know much about American Traditions, Specifically Halloween and Trick-Or-Treating, and thinks it might be dangerous. Since Mr. Pirzada is un-informed about this tradition, he is worried that Lilia will not be safe, and wants to come with her. This characterization shows that Lilia and her parents made Mr. Pirzada feel so comfortable in their home, that he now feels extremely connected to them, and considers Lilia as a part of his family. Lilia’s parents exceeded in not only making Mr. Pirzada feel welcomed and comfortable, but made him feel like a valued part of their family. Indirect characterization can also be observed in The Treatment of Bibi Haldar. In this story, Jhumpa Lahiri characterizes Bibi as jealous to develop the idea of how comfortable she feels speaking her mind with the women in her community. Bibi is expressing her envy about the narrators’ lives. “Is it wrong to envy you, all brides and mothers, bust with lives and cares? Wrong to want to shade my eyes? Scent my hair?” (pg. 174) This indirect characterization of Bibi being envious helps to develop the main theme of the story. Bibi is talking/complaining to the narrators like any other “normal” women would express their feelings to their friends. The comfortability in Bibi expressing her feelings allows readers to infer that the narrators and women in Bibi’s community are treating Bibi like a normal friend, and fulfilling their responsibilities in ensuring that Bibi feels welcomed in their community.

Jhumpa Lahiri, the author of The Interpretation of Maladies, does an excellent job with using intriguing literary devices to portray the central theme, Responsibility of a Community is to look out for others and not just worry about yourself, in the short stories, Mrs. Sen’s, When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine, and The Treatment of Bibi Haldar. The application of these devices such as imagery, perspective, and characterization not only keep readers entertained and hooked throughout the story, but allow them to obtain a thorough grasp on what it means to be a part of a community. These devices allow readers to understand how this theme is illustrated in the short stories. Looking out for others is vital to being a part of a community. You may not know when someone is feeling uncomfortable or struggling, and the smallest gestures like inviting someone over for dinner, showing them your photo albums, or simply just engaging in a conversation could impact someone’s life more than you could ever imagine. In a community, always be a safety harness, because you never know how steep someone else’s rockwall might be.

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Racism and Ethnicity in Interpreter of Maladies and Ceremony

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

One’s ethnicity or their cultural beliefs and traditions are what make people different in addition to their physical appearance, and in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies and Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony, these are the two key aspects of life that are focused on as characters determine how they wish to interact with one another. Lahiri’s short story exemplifies the struggles that make themselves visible when people of different racial and ethnic backgrounds interact, similar to the way Silko’s Native American fictional novel does, specifically when having white people interact with Native Americans like Tayo. Racism and ethnicity are two concepts that drive the actions of characters, such as Lilia and Mr. Pirzada as well as Tayo and the white people that surround him, because it provides something for the characters to focus in on as differences between one another. Regardless of the efforts by characters in both texts to get rid of these preconceived notions based on physical appearance, there remains people who refuse to see past it, which is evident in the case of whites versus Native Americans in Ceremony, along with those who focus in on minutia in order to differentiate themselves from others, as shown in Interpreter of Maladies.

Initially, Lilia determines that Mr. Pirzada is different than she is for what she presumes is a racial or ethnic reason, and it is that idea that drives all of her actions in building a relationship with him. She observed that something about Mr. Pirzada was not the same as what she was used to in a person, which drove her curiosity to find out what exactly it was that caused this feeling. She stated, “Now that I had learned Mr. Pirzada was not an Indian, I began to study him with extra care, to try to figure out what made him different. I decided that the pocket watch was one of those things. When I saw it that night, as he wound it and arranged it on the coffee table, an uneasiness possessed me; life, I realized, was being lived in Dacca first” (Lahiri 30). The fixation that Lilia admits she has over his pocket watch reflects on the idea that no matter what, she is already determined to find something that makes Mr. Pirzada different from herself and her family. Over time, Lilia does take a strong liking to Mr. Pirzada once she is able to allow herself to dismiss any preconceived notion she had, and then formulate a relationship with him that was greater than any racial or ethnic difference.

However, the progression that Lilia goes through does not mirror that of the white people in Ceremony because they do not undergo the same transformation of bias that Lilia does when it comes to Native Americans. Tayo along with the other Native Americans in Ceremony are aware of the way white people view them as different simply because of their race, yet they do not even consider their ethnicity, which drives Tayo’s ideology towards white people throughout the text. For example, “The first day in Oakland he and Rocky walked down the street together and a big Chrysler stopped in the street and an old white woman rolled down the window and said, ‘God bless you, God bless you,’ but it was the uniform, not them, she blessed” (Silko 38). The author allows Tayo to show how deeply he wishes to be looked at as an American in the same way a white man is looked at as an American because ethnically speaking, he feels as if he is one. Her intent may not have been malicious towards Tayo specifically by any means, but her attitude towards solely blessing the uniform he was wearing, as opposed to Tayo himself, is a clear example of racism impacting the actions of a particular character in Silko’s novel. Tayo believes that regardless of the way white people want to believe Native Americans are different because of the color of their skin, they ought to understand that from the perspective of ethnicity, they are Americans just like they are underneath their skin color. Racism in Ceremony is a conflict that white people force Tayo and the other Native Americans to face throughout the entire course of the text; however, it is this battle that fuels the development of Tayo’s own ideology towards the issue of one’s race. Tayo focuses on the idea of racism by fixating on its literal definition when he says, “The skin. He saw the skin of the corpses again and again, in ditches on either side of the long muddy road — skin that was stretched shiny and dark over bloated hands; even white men were darker after death. There was no difference when they were swollen and covered with flies” (Silko 6). Silko demonstrates the conflict that race cultivates in Tayo’s thought process by having him highlight the idea that all people, regardless of their respective race, look the same after death. No matter what race somebody is when they are alive, Tayo states how everyone as the same after death, which shows his desire to have all people viewed upon as the same with no racial prejudice while they are alive as well. The way in which racism is used as a way to create divides between groups of characters resembles the way in which Lilia attempted to differ herself from Mr. Pirzada in Interpreter of Maladies.

Race at its surface is a simple term, which is in reference to one’s physical appearance and skin color, however, characters in both Interpreter of Maladies and Ceremony used this as a means of differentiating themselves from one another, regardless of ethnicity. Jhumpa Lahiri’s character Lilia attempts to use race to separate herself from Mr. Pirzada initially, but eventually allows herself to form a bond with him by accepting what is under his skin. The same ability to progress was not shown on behalf of the whites in regards to the Native Americans in Silko’s Ceremony because unlike Lilia, they refuse to attempt to see under the skin of those who physically appear different than them, even though they have the same ethnicities.

Works Cited

  • Lahiri, Jhumpa. Interpreter Of Maladies: Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999. Print.
  • Silko, Leslie Marmon. Ceremony. Penguin Books, 2006. Print.
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Interpreter of Maladies and The Buddha of Suburbia: Through the Subaltern Lens

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri and The Buddha of Suburbia by Hanif Kureishi, explore how the figure of the subaltern negotiates the postcolonial climate resultant of the convergence between the Western and Indian societies. The subaltern is defined as the lowest and least powerful population, that exists outside the postcolonial hegemonic power structure. The subaltern figures in both narratives occupy a position of liminality in an interstitial space between both cultures. This in turnprovides for an impartial stance between both cultures through which the narratives are focalised. The focalisation of both narratives through the liminal figure of the subaltern highlight the constant flux and conflict between the cultural polarities of East and West, resulting in the subversion of gender roles and the disintegration of the nuclear family unit. However both narratives posit a hopeful re-visioning of a family structure not presupposed by inheritance of the past, through the symbolic acceptance of the illegitimate child, while recognising the subaltern’s disadvantaged position, which in turn allegorises the wider postcolonial situation; thus framing both narratives as idealistic but not naïve of a progressive and impartial postcolonial future.

The figure of the subaltern in both texts is defined by their position as a liminal character situated in an interstitial space between the cultural binary of the East and West. In Bringing it All Back Home: Essays on Cultural Studies, Lawrence Grossberg establishes the subaltern as “neither one nor the other…defined by its location in a unique spatial condition that constitutes it as different from either alternative” (Grossberg 359). This suggests that the inability to ascribe liminal characters to either polarities of colonised and coloniser situates them outside the hegemonic power structure, rendering them subalterns. This is evident in Interpreter of Maladies, where Mr. Kapasi’s command of a multitude of native and foreign languages, inspires him to be an interpreter who “[resolves] conflicts between people and nations, settling disputes of which he alone could understand both sides” (Lahiri 52). Albeit unfulfilled, the ability to communicate in diverse languages positions Mr. Kapasi’s character as a liminal linchpin between nations and cultures. This is further expounded through the nature of his occupation as a tour guide. Mr. Kapasi functions as a cultural broker, bridging the gap between the Das family’s American culture and their genealogical Indian culture; in turn reinforcing his liminal position between cultures. Similarly in The Buddha of Suburbia, Karim describes himself as an “odd mixture of continents and blood, of here and there, of belonging and not” (Kureishi 3). His interracial biological make-up, resultant from his Indian father and English mother, frames him as a character that straddles nations, cultures and races, unable to exclusively associate with one. Moreover, being raised in the suburbs locates him in a symbolic ‘in-between’ space, as a suburb is the middle ground between the urban city and the rural countryside, further delineating his role as a liminal character in the novel. Thus, the inability to essentially categorise both protagonists within the East-West binary results in their marginalisation as a subaltern. Both texts in turn utilise the unique position of the subaltern as a medium through which the narrative is focalised.

The focalisation of narratives through the liminal subaltern figure allows for an impartial negotiation and examination of conflicts between differing cultural belief systems; illustrated through the subversions of gender expectations and resultant disintegration of the nuclear family in both texts. Gender expectations between Western and Indian cultures differ in their attitudes towards stereotypical gender roles of femininity and masculinity in society. In Interpreter of Maladies, Mrs. Das’s indifference towards her children is evident from the onset of the narrative, and eventually culminates when she confides in Mr. Kapasi “I have terrible urges…to throw everything I own out the window, the television, the children, everything” (Lahiri 65). Her desires of abandonment illustrate her apathetic attitude towards her children, emphasising her disassociation from the feminine notion of domesticity and motherhood. On the contrary, Mr. Das is portrayed as the maternal figure within the family as he “looked forward to coming home from teaching…and bouncing Ronny on his knee” (Lahiri 64). This suggests that Mr. Das is inclined towards the domestic sphere and the nurturing of his child, characteristic of motherhood, which in turn indicates a subversion of stereotypical gender roles between him and Mrs. Das. Similarly, in The Buddha of Suburbia, Changez is relegated to the domestic sphere of the house, evident when he laments to Karim, “I’m on bloody dole…how can I work and look after Leila Kollontai” (Kureishi 272). Changez’s fundamental role is to take care of the baby, along with preparing breakfast and doing the laundry for Jamila as opposed to being employed. Also, he relies on ‘dole’ provided by Jamila, which further delineates a subversion of gender roles where Changez adopts the maternal role and is confined to the domestic while Jamila adopts a masculine role, earning a living for her family. With access to both cultures resultant of a position of liminality, the focalisation through the subaltern’s liminal lens, highlight these subversions within westernised familial units as detrimental because it is incongruent with their indigenous patriarchal Indian culture. Thus delineating the disintegration of the nuclear family unit. However, both narratives provide a hopeful resolution in the form of the figure of the illegitimate child.

The acceptance of the illegitimate child, a symbol of failed filiation, allows for the re-visioning of a new familial structure beyond the system of inheritance and in turn function as a reflection of the macro postcolonial situation. In Family Stories: Narrating the Nation in Recent Postcolonial Novels, Erin Haddad-Null suggests that the family and home can be viewed as “sites where hegemonic power relations are challenged and new types of family arrangements might be conceived” (Haddad-Null 120). This illustrates how extrinsic hegemonic powers can influence the family structure, where the outcome reflects and allegorises the wider postcolonial society. In Interpreter of Maladies, Mr. Kapasi is “tempted to whisper a secret into the boys ear” (Lahiri 68) but eventually refrains from doing so. His exercise of restraint, as opposed to jeopardising family relations, denotes his acceptance of the illegitimate child’s position within the familial structure as viable. This idea is further depicted when the entire Das family eventually gathers round Bobby to offer him comfort and care, symbolic of their acceptance of the illegitimate child. Similarly, in The Buddha of Suburbia, Changez accepts Jamila’s illegitimate child, Leila, as “belonging to the entire family of friends” (Kureishi 231). Despite being born out of wedlock and being a taboo in his native Indian culture, Changez accepts an illegitimate child as part of a workable familial structure. Furthermore, the baby’s name of Kollontai is adopted from and an allusion to Russian revolutionist Alexandra Kollontai. Kollontai was an advocate of Communist ideology that supports the breaking down of traditional familial structure to make way for better forms of the family unit. The acceptance of an illegitimate child suggests a symbolic break in lineage and the re-imagining of a family unit that deviates and evolves from traditional stereotypes of family and home. In turn, when mapped out onto a larger postcolonial setting, both narratives posit a hopeful shift away from the lineage of hegemonic postcolonial power relations, towards the birth and acceptance of a new postcolonial situation of impartiality. However, despite the hopeful outlook, both narratives are aware of the deprived position of the subaltern to speak.

The conscious recognition of the position of the subaltern frames both narratives as idealistic but not ignorant, allowing an attempt for the creation of a space for the subaltern to speak. In her cornerstone essay Can the Subaltern Speak?, Gayatri Spivak ends off the essay claiming that “the subaltern cannot speak”. For Spivak, the term ‘speak’ is not entirely literal. She questions whether the subaltern can articulate their concerns and enter into dialogue with those in power and whether there is the infrastructure for them to be heard and ultimately complete the act of speaking. Both narratives establish an acknowledgment of this shortcoming in their respective endings. In Interpreter of Maladies, the narrative closes with “the slip of paper with Mr. Kapasi’s address on it [fluttering] away in the wind” (Lahiri 69). This scene is significant as it symbolically represents the disintegration of the possibility of correspondence between Mr. Kapasi and Mrs. Das. Mr. Kapasi’s figuration as a subaltern and Mrs. Das as representative of the West, expounds the paralytic position of the subaltern with respect to his ability to speak or be heard by hegemonic powers in postcolonial society. Similarly in The Buddha of Suburbia, Karim is left both “happy and miserable at the same time” (Kureishi 284). This conflicted position that Karim occupies highlight an inconclusive end to his search for a concrete identity and voice, to “locate [himself]” (Kureishi 284) within society. This is symptomatic of his position as a subaltern, unable to define himself as an individual within the larger system of society. Therefore, the recognition of the subaltern’s stifling position frames both narratives as well informed, as opposed to naïve and idealistic postcolonial discourses.

In conclusion, Lahiri and Kureishi’s situation of the subaltern figure in a liminal position is pertinent as it allows for an unbiased focalisation of both narratives. In turn, conflicts due to a convergence between the East and West results in the implosion of the nuclear family unit, evident through the subversion of gender roles. Despite this, both narratives suggest a possible resolution in the symbolic figure of the illegitimate child. The acceptance of the illegitimate child functions to allegorise the acceptance of a postcolonial future not marred by legacies of the past. This coupled with the awareness of the subaltern’s limits and constraints, frame both Interpreter of Maladies and The Buddha of Suburbia as optimistic but not ignorant of the current socio-political postcolonial climate, attempting to provide the subaltern a platform, to speak.

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Different Stories in Interpreter of Maladies

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Interpreter of Maladies Essay

Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri is a collection of short studies whose characters’ experiences translate to those of several immigrants across the globe. The details of the stories vary greatly; the reader learns of an Indian immigrant babysitting American children, a woman living in absolute poverty on the streets of Calcutta, and a Hindu couple stumbling across Christian trinkets in their new home. Despite the different settings and contexts, the stories are unified by imperfect characters struggling with problems that any reader can identify with, such as Lilia’s struggle with cultural collisions in “When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine”. Through these characters’ problems, Lahiri explores many of the problems in her own life, specifically the dissatisfaction with the American Dream and American life that so many immigrants experience.The struggles of the characters in The Interpreter of Maladies caused me to question aspects of my own life, like what constitutes a healthy or normal relationship, and the correct manner of falling in love.

In “When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine”, the protagonist Lilia feels a disconnect between the cultural values she is taught at school and those that she is taught at home. While at school, Lilia is taught American History, and spends large portions of time exploring the American Revolution. To Lilia, this learning feels impersonal and repetitive. On the other hand, at home Lilia and her family keep up with the civil war in India. This war has special importance to her because her family is Indian, and because a Bengali man named Mr. Pirzada comes over each evening to watch the news and discuss the conflict. Mr. Pirzada’s family is in the war zone, which gives the war a sense of meaning and severity that is not present in the lessons about the Battle of Lexington and Concord. Lilia develops an interest in the Indian civil war at home, but is told at school that this interest is illegitimate. This cultural disconnect is highlighted by Lahiri when Lilia is working on a school book report about the Mayflower, and is caught reading about Bengali culture by her teacher:

“‘Is this book a part of your report, Lilia?’

‘No, Mrs. Kenyon’

‘Then I see no reason to consult it… Do you?’” (33)

Lilia’s response to this question should have been that she did see a reason to consult the book. The conflict in India is relevant to her life, and she feels that it is important to be informed about life there. However, her American education is telling her that American history should take priority over all else. Distinctly different cultures pull Lilia in different directions, and unfortunately, this conflict does not reach a neat resolution by the end of the short story.

Through the Interpreter of Maladies, the reader is able to observe Lahiri’s struggle with the great expectations that so many have for life in America, and the problem of disappointment with the American Dream. The United States is often glorified as the land of opportunity, when anyone one can become rich through hard work. However, as almost anyone working several jobs and just scraping by knows, this is hardly the case. Many immigrants are disappointed by the harsh realities of life in the US, as opposed to the image of a perfect life that is so often propagated by Hollywood. This theme of disappointment arises in many of Lahiri’s short stories, such as “Interpreter of Maladies”, “Sexy”, “Mrs. Sen’s”, and “This Blessed House.” However, Lahiri most clearly displays this disappointment with the American Dream in “A Temporary Matter”.

In “A Temporary Matter”, the unraveling of the relationship between Shoba and Shukumar exposes their disappointment in American life. Initially, Shoba and Shukumar are happily married and are optimistic about their life together. However, this image of a perfect future begins to deteriorate when Shoba goes into labor while Shukumar is out of town, and the child does not survive. Each of the main characters react to this tragedy in different ways. Shukumar loses all motivation to get out of bed in the morning, and feels increasingly self-conscious about being in his sixth year of graduate school. Additionally, Shoba’s mother holds a grudge against Shukumar because he was not present when Shoba went into labor: “[Shoba’s mother] never talked to him about Shoba; once, when he mentioned the baby’s death, she looked up from her knitting, and said, ‘But you weren’t even there.’” (9). Shukumar’s self respect is gone, and he is presented to the reader as a man without a purpose. Inversely, Shoba becomes increasingly active, and distracts herself with her workload outside of the home. The relationship between Shoba and Shukumar suffers as a result of these differing coping methods. They stop eating meals together, have insignificant surface level conversations when forced to interact, and begin to act as if they are roommates rather than a married couple. Ultimately, the story concludes with Shoba saying that she has found a new apartment and is moving out. Clearly, Shukumar’s life in America is far from perfect. His expectation was to become successful, raise a family, and live happily ever after with his wife. Instead, he is struggling to make it through graduate school, has a wife that is leaving him, and he has tragically lost a child. Through this story, Lahiri acknowledges the imperfections that exist in an American society like they do in any other, and refutes the perfect American life that so many claim is achievable.

As a reader of Interpreter of Maladies, I was forced by Lahiri to reevaluate many assumptions that I have regarding relationships and love. Jhumpa Lahiri crafts all different types of relationships in her short stories, and these relationships often drive the plot. “A Temporary Matter”, “Interpreter of Maladies”, “Sexy”, “Mrs. Sen’s”, “This Blessed House”, and “The Treatment of Bibi Haldar” all feature unhealthy or failing relationships. The only story in the entire collection that features a happy and successful marriage is in “The Third and Final Continent”, between Mala and the narrator (who remains unnamed). This marriage was arranged by the narrator’s brother, which goes against the majority of what I have learned from American culture regarding relationships. As the reader, my problem was accepting that love can be something that is cultivated after marriage, rather than before it. In western culture, the accepted practice is for two people to get to know one another first, then fall in love, and to finally propose as a demonstration of absolute love and commitment. Of course, I had known that arranged marriages existed, but I had considered them to be foolish and impractical. In the final two pages of the book, when the narrator speaks of all of the happiness in his life with Mala, I am convinced otherwise. The problem for the reader is to accept the merits of an arranged marriage, despite the unfamiliarity of this type of relationship in American popular culture.

The problems of The Interpreter of Maladies, such as Lilia’s problem of cultural collision, Lahiri’s problem of disappointment with American life, and my problem, as a reader, with arranged marriages all stem from short stories that are unlike my day to day life. They involve people with drastically different backgrounds than my own, generally included themes of Indian culture that are not present in my life. Yet because of the problems used to bring these characters to life, their stories felt more familiar than foreign. The problems, such as troubled relationships, adjusting to a new place, and cultural disconnect felt like they could have been my own. The Interpreter of Maladies invokes empathy from the reader rather than just compassion because the problems that Lahiri illustrates strike the reader close to home, despite a setting that may be thousands of miles away.

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Main Character in Interpreter of Maladies

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

In Jhumpa Lahiri’s intricately beautiful The Interpreter of Maladies, Mrs. Das serves as both a catalyst for plot development and vehicle for social commentary. Through her indirect characterization, Mrs. Das serves as a direct cultural contrast to Mr. Kapasi, thereby moving the plot forward and creating poignant social commentary.

The short story begins with the Das family meeting Mr. Kapasi as they prepare for their trip through a certain part of India. Almost immediately it’s clear that there is a cultural gap between Kapasi and the Das family when it’s mentioned that “Mr. Kapasi found it strange that Mr. Das should refer to his wife by her first name when speaking to the little girl” (page 14). The cultural gap is later clear when it’s mentioned that “Mr. and Mrs. Das behaved like an older brother and sister, not parents” (page 16). Such drastic differences often leads to curiosity, as is the case of Mrs. Das and Mr. Kapasi. Mrs. Das represents a land far away, a land that Mr. Kapasi can’t understand. As the story progresses, Mr. Kapasi’s infatuation with Mrs. Das grows: he finds himself staring at her, admiring her legs, wishing to be with her. What makes this infatuation different and more interesting than other infatuations is the cultural clash between Mrs. Das and Mr. Kapasi (thereby carrying the story forward). On one hand is Mr. Kapasi, a poor, down-on-his-luck Indian who translates and does tours for a living. On the other, Mrs. Das seemingly has a life of luxury. In reality, she doesn’t: she’s miserable because she lives a life of irresponsibility, shallowness, superficiality, and extremely unhealthy serenity.

Mrs. Das moreover represents stereotypical American flaws: self-centeredness, ethnocentrism, carelessness, and a lack of regard for the world around it. It’s her characterization that reveals this. Our initial impression of Mrs. Das comes when it’s mentioned that “[Mrs. Das] did not hold the little girl’s hand as they walked to the restroom,” suggesting that she is both a bad parent and a careless, miserable person who focuses on herself rather than her kids (pg. 12). This elicits a response from their tour guide Mr. Kapasi. He’s fascinated. Fascinated by the drastically different culture than his own and fascinated by Mrs. Das herself. He’s also intrigued with her because she and her family are ethnically Indian; in terms of their identity, though, she and her family are American. This is because people are often attracted to things that they don’t understand fully; Mr. Kapasi is no exception. They find that they are share many things in common with each other and have an odd moment together in which Mrs. Das tells Mr. Kapasi of her adultery and how her son Bobby was born out of said adultery. In other words, like Mr. Kapasi, she has a loveless, miserable marriage. However, after these words are exchanged, it’s clear that the two are nothing alike. In fact, they are complete opposites. This is illuminated when Mr. Kapasi asks Mrs. Das if “It [is] really pain you feel, Mrs. Das, or guilt?” (pg. 28), angering her and severing the connection that they had once held despite their differences. All of this is social commentary and a scatching indictment of America and the family unit its culture promulgates. The Interpreter of Maladies argues that America and its people are too privileged and too ethnocentric, leading to poor marriages, bad parenting, and an unnecessary superiority complex, all of which are bad through the eyes of the author and presumably most Indians.

In effect, Mrs. Das is characterized in a way that moves the story forward and in a way that creates social commentary. Mrs. Das is a self-centered, ethnocentric, careless woman who happens to be ethnically Indian like her tour guide, Mr. Kapasi. They became attracted to each other, creating the main conflict in the story (thereby moving it forward), providing a stark and ironic contrast between their lifestyles. Their differences also creates social commentary. That is, American culture is propped up on cruelness and shallowness, bad marriages that often lead to infidelity, unwarranted privilege and an unjust sense of arrogance, as well as a glaring superiority complex. In other words, Americans have an incredible amount and don’t know how lucky they are, so they should, in the words of one of the more famous idioms, either shape up or ship out.

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Interpreter of Maladies And The Lake of the Woods: What Do They Have in Common?

March 18, 2021 by Essay Writer

Literature Comparison Essay

Often in pieces of literature, similar themes are identified in which connections are made between the characters experience from both novels. In Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies and In the Lake of the Woods by Tim O’Brien, some characters from each text share similar experiences which correspond to identical themes. For example, both novels share the themes of the lack of communication as well as the burden of secrecy, in which obstacles are encountered in these characters’ lives as they learn to face and overcome them.

Demonstrated in both novels, there is a difficulty of communication between the characters and their loved ones. For instance, the short story of “Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine” from Interpreter of Maladies describes a man who moves to America for his job while his family remains in Dacca, India, during the Pakistini army invasion. Mr. Pirzada is clearly unable to communicate with his wife and daughters because of the war. He therefore experiences a lack of contact with his family, with his only way of transmission being through the news channel of the television. Each week, Mr. Pirzada would join a friendly Indian family who invited him over, and he would watch the news to keep himself updated on the events taking place in Dacca, to make sure his family was safe. By the end of the short story, although Mr. Pirzada does end up going back to India to reunite with his family after several months, the disconnection between him and his wife and children most likely affected the strength of his marriage and tested his love for his wife, which in this case seemed to happily continue by the end of the short story.

Similarly, John and Kathy Wade in In the Lake of the Woods also experience a severe lack of communication. Before John and Kathy were married, John spent some time as a soldier in the Vietnamese war. Because John was away for such a long period of time, there was a disconnection between Kathy and John, which potentially weakened their relationship. Even when John wrote letters to Kathy during the war, she slowly stopped responding to them. In one letter, however, Kathy wrote to John about how she was “seeing some guys” and that it was “nothing serious” (p.186). Despite the fact that it was nothing serious, the fact that Kathy is seeing other men while she is in a relationship with John proves their growing disconnection as John spent his time in the war. The relationship between John and Kathy enfeebled, and although they got married after the war, they did not seem like a true loving and married couple. This disconnection could perhaps explain why Kathy decided to vanish from the lake-house the night of her disappearance. However, the readers may never know since O’Brien only leaves Hypotheses about Kathy’s disappearance for the audience to read. As portrayed, based on these two texts, the characters have faced similar experiences involving the theme of the lack of communication. However, the only difference is that Mr. Pirzada seemed to completely reunite with his family without such a long-term effect of the disconnection between his family, while John and Kathy did not lovingly come together as a true husband and wife, illustrating that the war caused serious communication problems which in effect impacted their marriage negatively.

Another theme that can be related to both novels is the burden of secrecy, in which the characters keep secrets away from others in avoidance of the truth. The short story “Interpreter of Maladies” in Interpreter of Maladies portrays of perfect example of a character who hides the truth. Mr. and Mrs. Das visit India with their children, and are driven and guided by an interpreter, Mr. Kapasi. When Mrs. Das confides in Mr. Kapasi, she tells him about what she has been hiding for eight years from everyone, and that he is the first person she has finally told. “And no one knows, of course. No one at all. I’ve kept it a secret for eight whole years. But now I’ve told you” (p.62). One of Mrs. Das’ three children, Bobby, is not Mr. Das’ son. Mrs. Das had an affair with Mr. Das’ business partner that came into town for a job interview, in which she became pregnant and conceived Bobby. Realizing that she cannot hide from the truth, she asks Mr. Kapasi to interpret her malady. However, Mr. Kapasi sees only guilt from her secret and cannot offer a remedy to her malady.

Comparably, John and Kathy Wade from In the Lake of the Woods both have some hidden secrets that were never shared. Secrecy was a convenient way for John and Kathy to avoid facing the facts. However, the burden of concealing the truth eventually proved to be too much when Kathy mysteriously disappeared. Before the war, John had continuously spied on Kathy whenever he gained the chance to. Although Kathy knew about this secret, it was still something that was always kept to himself. As for Kathy, it is evident that she had an affair with another man while she was with John, which he does not know about. “Kathy was no angel. That dentist… I shouldn’t say his name… I guess it hurt him pretty bad— John, I mean” (p. 261). Spoken by Kathy’s sister, Patricia, it is portrayed that Kathy was having an affair with a dentist while she was with John. This secret was never figured out from John, and when Kathy disappeared, there would really be no way for him to find out the truth. From both texts, one can apprehend that running away from the truth will not solve anything, and that no matter what, the truth will always come out.

The characters from both novels of Interpreter of Maladies and In the Lake of the Woods experience intense and emotional stages in their lives in which they learn to accept and face the truth. The two themes of lack of communication and the burden of secrecy reflect on the characters’ actions in the novels and how they learn to face the large or little obstacles that come along in their lives, such as the difficulty to communicate or the avoidance of the truth.

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The Struggles with Honesty and Communication in Interpreter of Maladies, a Book by Jhumpa Lahiri

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Mixed Messages Make for Miscommunication

Everyone struggles with honesty and communication throughout Interpreter of Maladies, although such is life. The most intense of human emotions hit you when you are connected with another person on such a non-superficial level. Anger, confusion, pain, and guilt, affect and interfere with every aspect of their lives. Characters in this collection of short stories struggle with being truthful, as the fear of rejection, as shame, as overthinking, leads towards being unable to be fully truthful with their partner, thus leading to severe consequences. Instead of being forthright, people drift further apart, creating a distance that never needed to be there in the first place. Actions driven by mutual honesty is the link between two people, and is pivotal to deciding if the relationship is healthy or toxic.

Lack of sincerity propels you into a realm of distance and separation. Mr. and Mrs. Das in Interpreter of Maladies, have a toxic marriage, in which secrets are divulged to someone who is not another. The lie that Mrs. Das had concealed from her entire family, causes her bitterness. Her guilt, is turned to a form of irritation, since that is her reaction in comparison to internalizing her feelings and becoming depressed instead. However, upon becoming acquainted with another man, all of that guilt and bitterness becomes fleeting. She seeks relief in confiding to him everything she has kept in the dark, using a random man as an emotional crutch, as an involuntary therapist. Mrs. Das has not been candid about her feelings towards her family, especially her husband. In the process of uncovering her secrets, she inadvertently reveals how she has been misleading her husband. The fragile connection between her and every member of her family, highlights the imperfections in her character. There is no real dialogue to be present between the husband and wife, because shame and fear separates the two. Mrs. Das explains the burden she carries, by conveying her true feelings to this other an.She is crumbling under her shame, while the secret of an affair long ago threatens to ruin her lifestyle. She lives in an environment where she endures constant reminders of the guilt, it looks her in the face every day,when she looks in her illegitimate son’s eyes. With the lack of truthfulness, everything in her marriage is extremely superficial. Both the husband and wife are consumed in their own realities, as if they are looking through camera lens, and not once looking up from it. The lack of candor between the two reveals the unsteady bond between them.

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Perception, Truth and Misconception in Interpreter of Maladies

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Time and time again, humans make a habit of imagining their lives as more glorious than they are. Author Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies is a collection of short stories about misconception. She exploits the universal yearning for something greater and, through her characters, creates a clear deviation between a desired abstract and reality in each piece. For every storyline, the gap between perception and truth does not last for long and ultimately ends in a subtle personal tragedy.

The strongest example of constructing one’s own reality lies in “Interpreter of Maladies,” the namesake of the novel, which further supports the idea that misperception is Lahiri’s focus. The Das family, American tourists, take Mr. Kapasi’s taxi to Indian attractions. The cabbie quickly becomes obsessed with Mrs. Das, even imaging an entire life with her, all the while ignoring her coldness towards her family. Despite admitting her faults, even revealing that one of her children is the product of an affair, he still fantasizes of her. “In those moments Mr. Kapasi used to believe that all was right with the world…” (Lahiri 56); Lahiri purposes uses the word “believe”—not knows, not understands, but believes. Having just faith means constructing a reality that is not actually there. There’s zero chance they have any future together, but it is nice for him to imagine so. He is disappointed but does nothing when she doesn’t even notice that the paper containing his contact information floats away in the wind, obliterating the potential for a future together. Then there is Mr. Das, who is infatuated with the country of India— but only the good parts. He’s elated to explore his motherland for the first time. On a road, he tells Mr. Kapasi to pull over because he wants “to get a shot of this guy” (Lahiri 49), an emaciated vagrant—but does nothing to aid the man in any way. By treating the situation so casually, he capitalizes on the poor man’s struggle in the name of what he imagines a developing, foreign country should look like for the sake of his memories. Later on, he is still too distracted by his camera to notice his son being attacked by monkeys. It is only once Mrs. Das shrieks during the attack that Mr. Das is brought back to the brutal reality of the situation and thus agrees to return to the hotel immediately, too shocked to really speak or act; he did not see the problems of India until they personally affected him. The obliteration of these men’s false realities, meant to comfort, unsettles them, as Lahiri leaves no resolution.

In the story “Sexy,” a young woman deludes herself in what it means to be a mistress. Miranda, lonely and new to Boston, is thrilled when a handsome, cultured, married man pays attention to her. She wholly embraces the role of mistress, going so far as to “buy herself things she thought a mistress should have” (Lahiri 92). She considers their relationship romantic, whereas it is truthfully lustful, largely consisting of a regularly scheduled sexcapades. The illusion is fully shattered when a child calls her “sexy”— a word she once treasured when Dev called her it— when she models her prime, never-worn “mistress” outfit. Miranda is appalled and further bothered by the young boy defining “sexy” as “loving someone you don’t know,” illuminating the illegitimacy of Dev and Miranda’s relationship. From that point onward, she stops seeing him, ignoring his calls, because the semblance of a relationship is no longer comforting.

Lahiri uses “This Blessed House” to draw attention towards the discomfort of making choices solely for comfort. Sanjeev misleads himself by trying to plan out the perfect life. He, like Lahiri’s other characters, focuses on the good while acting almost purposefully oblivious to the bad. This is most evident in his choice of home and wife. He is hasty and stubborn—before even buying the house that he and his wife live in, he “had already made up his mind, was determined that he and Twinkle should live there together, forever, and so he had not bothered to notice the switch plates covered with biblical stickers…” (Lahiri 137). It ends up being the religion iconography that drives him crazy about his home, which he could have avoided if he had only payed attention. But “when, after moving in, he tried to scrape it off, he scratched the glass” (Lahiri 137); not only is his ignorance a discomfort to him, it is literally damaging. The house is a metaphor for his marriage with Twinkle, a quasi-arranged marriage that he rushes into in desperate need for a companion that is a safe option. It is only later that aspects of her personality that he disregarded begin to aggravate him. Lahiri uses Sanjeev as an example of what happens when people make serious but ordinary life decisions on a basis of blatant misconceptions.

The reason the personal tragedies are “subtle” is because the characters cannot do anything about the unraveling of their delusions. Lahiri’s writing is not dramatic and rather insinuates a calm acceptance of the truth. Furthermore, the object of each character’s deceptions are not actually deceptive. All fault lies on those with the overly-active imagination, seeking to escape harsh realities. In life, the malady of delusion is unavoidable but never stands permanent. It is impossible for people to make their lives wholly comfortable.

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Masking Reality with Illusion: Unhappy Relationships in Lahiri’s Short Stories

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Appearances and Unhappy Couples In Jhumba Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies, there is a common theme of glossing over the truth. Many characters preoccupy themselves with appearances in hopes of escaping the reality of their unhappy relationships. In the short stories “This Blessed House,” “Interpreter of Maladies,” and “A Temporary Matter,” symbols are used to demonstrate the need to put on a façade not only for others around them, but more importantly for the characters themselves. Ultimately, this inability to accept the truth is what causes each character’s perpetual unhappiness.

In “This Blessed House,” the character Twinkle is the total package—beautiful, funny, intelligent, and good-humored. Yet all her husband sees is a childish woman with a short attention span. Unlike most people seeking a relationship, Sanjeev does not want a partner who loves him or who brings meaning to his life. Rather, he wants someone who is just like him—sensible, organized, mature. He wants someone who will give him the appropriate life for a man of his age—a life that all of his friends have. This mistake costs him happiness as he marries simply to fulfill a step in his life plan rather than for love. His obsession with appearances can be seen in the way he gets angry at Twinkle for wearing heels because they make her taller than him. Sanjeev cannot stand the height difference because it deviates from his traditional image of a couple in which the man is taller than the woman. Similarly, his focus on appearances is seen through the symbol of the Christian paraphernalia. To Twinkle, it is simply a game—an unsolved mystery and an exciting treasure hunt. Yet to Sanjeev, it is inappropriate, strange, almost blasphemous. He is worried that others will see the paraphernalia and judge them. When Twinkle wants to put a statue of Virgin Mary on the front lawn, he adamantly objects and says: “All the neighbors will see. They’ll think we’re insane…We’re not Christian” (Lahiri “Blessed” 146). The Christian paraphernalia therefore becomes a symbol of the difference between Sanjeev and Twinkle. Ironically, Twinkle—a woman who could care less what anyone thinks of her—ends up being the most beautiful and likeable character. Because of Sanjeev’s need to appear a certain way, he fails to appreciate the eccentric and untraditional nature of Twinkle. Only at the end when he discards his preconceptions of what a couple should look like does he reveal any hope for the couple’s future.

Similarly, in “Interpreter of Maladies” both Mr. and Mrs. Das are too preoccupied with looking like a perfect family to realize how dysfunctional their family truly is. For Mr. Das, he cares so much about capturing idealized moments on his camera that he fails to notice that nothing about his family is ideal. In this way, the camera becomes a symbol of his desire to avoid the truth and to instead surround himself with pictures depicting a happy family—one that in reality is the farthest thing from his own. And just like Mr. Das, Mrs. Das cares more about the appearances of herself and those of her family than their actual happiness. She dreads having to take her daughter to the bathroom and remains completely inattentive to any of her children’s wishes like when Tina asks to have her nails painted. Yet, her fixation with appearances is clearly demonstrated when Bobby is attacked by the monkeys—something that never would have happened if she had not been so careless with her food. After the incident, she brushes it off as if Bobby’s being attacked by a swarm of monkeys is no big deal and says, “He’s fine. Just a little scared, right, Bobby?” (“Interpreter” 68). Instead of checking to see if he is alright, she is quick to tape over the cut on his knee and fix his hair—caring more about how he looks than how he is doing after such a traumatic event. Because of both Mr. and Mrs. Das’s need to appear perfect, they become oblivious to each other and their wishes—so much so that Mr. Kopasi thinks they look more like siblings than husband and wife.

The desire to cover up the truth is also present in “A Temporary Matter.” Both Shoba and Shukumar have let themselves go, seen in the way that Shoba is “looking, at thirty-three, like the type of woman she’d once claimed she would never resemble” (“Temporary” 1). They care nothing about how they look and Shukumar does not even bother to brush his teeth. So when the power goes out and darkness surrounds them, the couple is able to escape reality at least for a little while. The light, therefore, becomes a symbol of the harsh truth and the darkness represents their desire to avoid that truth. Though they are not preoccupied with keeping up appearances the way the other two couples are, they are still keenly aware of those appearances. By not being able to clearly see each other when the power goes out, Shoba and Shukumar can hide from the unpleasantness of what they see when the lights are on. Yet for this couple, it is not a concentration on appearances, but a lack thereof that defines their relationship. Ultimately, however, both lead to the same end result—an unhappy partnership.

Perhaps the malady is not that the characters are incapable of love or of sustaining their relationships, but rather that their desire to escape reality is what is ultimately holding them back. In showing the two extremes of the spectrum—couples that care only about appearances and couples that don’t care at all—Lahiri demonstrates that a healthy relationship must be composed of both. That is why the story “This Blessed House,” in which Sanjeev faces the truth, is the most hopeful of the three. Through Interpreter of Maladies, Lahiri demonstrates that ultimately, it is a balance of caring enough to keep up appearances and being honest enough to see things for what they really are that leads to a successful relationship.

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Culture, Identity and Memory in Lahiri’s Short Fiction

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

In her collection of short stories entitled Interpreter of Maladies, Jhumpa Lahiri illustrates the difficulties that immigrants face when displaced and distanced from their culture. Each story serves as a different viewpoint on cultural experience, which allows Lahiri to bring together a detailed image of cultural displacement and the challenges it poses when forging one’s identity. The importance of cultural ties is emphasized in the stories, as is the natural longing to achieve such connections. However, Lahiri shows the difficulties in doing so, especially with a younger generation that has only family ties to their culture because they have already been assimilated into American society. She also illustrates that distance is not always a disadvantage as she begins to show the reader the first steps to establishing one’s identity and home. The stories in the collection Interpreter of Maladies illustrate the need and natural inclination people have to connect with their heritage and culture while conveying how to safely make those connections and forge one’s identity.

In Lahiri’s stories, there is a longing among the people of the younger generations to connect with their culture, a longing that seems impossible for those assimilated into American culture. In “Mr. Pirzada Comes to Dine,” Lilia’s mother declares proudly that her daughter was born in America as Lilia remarks, “She seemed genuinely proud of the fact, as if it were a reflection of my character” (Lahiri 26). However, Lilia desires to understand Mr. Pirzada and treasures the candies that he gives to her, as if eating one made a connection with her culture. As she observes him and her parents in the living room watching the news from overseas, she observes, “…I remember the three of them operating during that time as if they were a single person, sharing a single meal, a single body, a single silence, and a single fear” (Lahiri 41). Lilia is an outsider among them because she is the first generation to be separated from her heritage by distance and she realizes in the end a connection with her heritage is impossible as she throws away the candy from Mr. Pirzada. In the short story “Interpreter of Maladies,” Mrs. Das attempts to make a connection with Mr. Kapasi, which in turn would serve as a connection to her heritage from which she is far removed. Mr. Kapasi imagines corresponding with Mrs. Das after her return to America saying it would fulfill his dream of “serving as an interpreter between nations” (Lahiri 59). However, as his address floats away, Lahiri shows, as she did with Lilia, that a cultural connection cannot be forged when one has already become enveloped into American culture, which creates both a physical and cultural distance too great to overcome.

After her negative depiction of distance, Lahiri illustrates how distance can be used as an advantage. In “This Blessed House,” Sanjeev becomes angry at Twinkle as she collects and displays the Christian paraphernalia all over the house to the point that he questions whether or not he loves her. However, when she takes the partygoers to the attic, Sanjeev feels completely alone and distanced from her in the same way that he felt at the beginning of their relationship, when they were in a long-distance relationship. Distance allowed Sanjeev to imagine their life together and retain a romantic view of her fashioned through their phone conversations. He sees her shoes on the floor and “instead of feeling irritated, as he had ever since they’d moved into the house together, he felt a pang of anticipation at the thought of her rushing unsteadily down the winding staircase…” (Lahiri 155). Distance forges a want to make a connection with Twinkle within Sanjeev. In “The Third and Final Continent,” there is a similar occurrence. The narrator observes the world of Mrs. Croft, where she retains the pieces of America from her time that she is comfortable with and securely locks the rest of the world outside. She allots him physical distance, which allows him to create his own “country” where he can feel at home. In both cases, distance facilitates one to retreat away from reality and create a romanticized view of their world, an illusion that encourages and aids connections with others.

Alongside the positive view of distance and its usefulness, Lahiri also illustrates the dangers of forging this type of connection. In “A Real Durwan,” Boori Ma creates her own identity by painting elaborate pictures of her past. In the same way that a romanticized version of reality can aid connections in the real world, Boori Ma’s tales help her accept the harsh reality of her life. Those around her suspect that “she probably constructs tales as a way of mourning the loss of her family” (Lahiri 72). She grounds her identity in her savings and the keys she keeps in her sari. After these are stolen, her forged identity is shattered. She has failed as the guard to her identity and calls out for the people to believe her and her claims. However, when she shakes her sari to emphasize her point and nothing jingles, she can no longer believe herself. Similarly, Mrs. Sen attempts to keep India with her by placing rugs around the house and cooking traditional Indian food. She also continues to identify her home as India and states, “Everything is there” (Lahiri 113). However, the letters that she allows to come through shatter the illusion of being in India within her apartment because it reminds her that home is thousands of miles away, where life is continuing without her. Boori Ma grounds her identity in concrete and insignificant things, namely the savings and keys, while Mrs. Sen continues to identify her true home as India, making both illusory coping mechanisms faulty and impossible to maintain.

In her short story collection, Jhumpa Lahiri establishes the need for a connection with one’s culture and illustrates both the right and wrong way to forge such a connection. The strong longing to connect with one’s culture is illustrated in Lilia and Mrs. Das as they both attempt to make unsuccessful connections with those that embody their heritage. Next, Lahiri illustrates that distance itself is not the problem by showing that it can be used to one’s advantage. Distance can encourage a romantic view of the world, which aids one in making connections with others. At the end of “The Third and Final Continent,” Lahiri finalizes her discussion about forging one’s identity by illustrating the best way to do so. In the final lines, the narrator identifies his great accomplishment by stating, “While the astronauts, heroes forever, spent mere hours on the moon, I have remained in this new world for nearly thirty years” (Lahiri 198). He avoids the faults of Boori Ma and Mrs. Sen because he finds his cultural ties in nothing material and identifies his home as where he resides. He has forged an identity within this “third continent,” which symbolizes the world he has created for himself that cannot be tainted or taken away from him. He claims, “…I am bewildered by each mile I have traveled, each meal I have eaten, each person I have known, each room in which I have slept” (Lahiri 198). He does not feel the displacement of being thousands of miles away from the country of his birth and yet he carries all the miles he has traveled with him, making his identity a collection of where he has been and what he has accomplished that is grounded in himself.

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