A Scholarly Study of Two Different Literary Genres Fiction and Poetry, Using the Works of Alexie, Kincaid, and Hughes Research Paper
For this particular study two works of fiction and one of poetry will be used. In the fiction genre the proponent of this study will examine the work of Sherman Alexie, a short story entitled Indian Education and another short story by Jamaica Kincaid entitled Girl.
In the poetry genre Langston Hughe’s A Dream Deferred will be examined more closely and together these three works will be analyzed using an element of literature. Furthermore, these three will be compared side-by-side to determine any connection, any common denominator. And finally these three works by these three authors will be read for pure enjoyment to appreciate literature and how it can inform, entertain, and move the soul.
The element of literature that will be used to study these three works is plot. In short stories it is how the authors arranged events to provide information needed to understand a story. It can also be understood as the way the author arranges the events, information given in the story to create a particular effect on the reader. This should make the reader want to read more. In a more simplified explanation, a plot is the beginning, middle, and end of a fictionalized short story.
When it comes to poetry it is not easy to determine the plot especially when the poem in question cannot be considered a narrative poem and something that only contains a few lines, such as Hughes’ A Dream Deferred. In this case it is helpful to know that a poem’s plot can also be understood as the way the author tries to argue a point (Drury, year).
In A Dream Deferred the argumentation did not go full circle because it did not contain any information concerning the gathering of evidence and chains of reasoning but at least it began and ended the poem with a prelude to argue about the possible impact of a dream deferred.
Looking first at Sherman Alexie’s work one can automatically see that the author used a clever way of arranging information and events by using the events surrounding his student days as he went through grade school – specifically from First Grade to Twelfth Grade.
In this manner one can see how he has metamorphosed from a small and insecure little boy into someone who tried to rectify his life by taking charge and eventually graduating with honors and recipient to numerous awards and scholarships while his friends, neighbors and classmates back in the reservation continues to struggle even as they graduate from High School because they have little prospects considering who they are and where they are at.
Thus, the story is not just about the triumphs of Alexie, the typical story of a little boy who defied the odds and overcame every obstacle thrown his way. The plot of the story consistently highlighted the discrimination, poverty, hopelessness that many experienced in the Indian reservation. Alexie also constructed the plot in such a way that as the humiliation, frustration, and anger escalated with each grade level, one can also find different villains at each different stage.
For example in First Grade it was the other Indian boys who bullied him no end up until he found a friend. This is very ironic because they are a people oppressed and instead of helping each other they are fighting and hurting one another. In the Second Grade the villain was a mean teacher who made his life miserable and it was his first major taste of what injustice is all about.
In the Third Grade and Fourth Grade he was always in the firing line either as a guilty participant in some prank or an innocent bystander caught in the collateral damage. There was a bright spot in this stage of his development process though because it is during the Fourth Grade that he received an encouragement that he can be a solution rather than a mere spectator to the Indian Reservation problem that was about to go down the dumps.
It was a major turning point in his life because as one will take a step backwards and analyze the story one can see that his life began to change for the better. It was in the Fifth Grade when he discovered the beauty and power of basketball. Nevertheless, the villains are still there ready to pounce on him.
In one occasion the villain was not human, but a temptation in the form of a “rubber cement from a paper bag” and his cousin the victim of the said villain went round and round the merry go round his ears rang, mouth dry and his mind blank (Alexie, 1993). And then he was up again when he was in Sixth Grade because he found a best-friend and ally.
In the Seventh and Eight Grade he discovered that villains are not only found in schools and the school playground but they can also be the unknown force called discrimination and this is a debilitating force powered by the hatred and bigotry of many members of the community, the state, the nation. They spew venom without even verifying the facts and made judgments based on biased information.
In the Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh Grade he realized that racists will judge him solely based on the color of his skin and nothing more. He also learned one more thing, that for those living in the Indian Reservations and even Indians who are trying to get away from it all, the number one villain that they need to contend with is not the environment and the people who tried to pull them down or those who judge them harshly, their number one enemy is the way they treat themselves.
He mentioned his father early on in the story who had a bad habit of downing a gallon of vodka a day – though it seems like an exaggeration one can get the picture. It is true that people must not condemn others but based on how the story has unfolded the author also pointed to the necessity of the Indians pulling themselves out of the gutter.
In the last and final stage, in the Twelfth Grade this is the resolution. The author demonstrated that the nation, the state and the community may try to force Indians to do something that the do not like and to make them feel that they are second-class citizens but they can do something to rectify it.
They can be like the author who blazed a trail for others. He defied the odds by becoming educated, by becoming a scholar. But at the end of the story he found it difficult to rejoice because looking back, his people are in a path to self-destruction.
Kincaid the Girl
The challenge of understanding plot in this short story is obvious to the reader. The author tells a story using only one sentence. It is a unique and interesting way of telling a tale but Kincaid had to sacrifice a few elements of plot in order to pull it off. First it is hard to find out the setting and time. No one knew where the story happened and at the same time nothing much is revealed about the character. More importantly there was not even a semblance of a dialogue between two characters.
It is clear though that a mother is speaking to a daughter but it is a one way street. The daughter tried to interact but the mother knew nothing about it because her daughter was only able to reason in her head. This also gave the reader a difficult time trying to adjust every time the girl tried to interject her own thoughts and opinions.
Nevertheless, the causality or the reason for writing the piece and the reason why the reader must continue with the story is clear even from the beginning. It is a mother’s set of instructions given to her daughter on how to become a fine woman acceptable in society and able to make her parents proud.
Langston Hughes began the poem right at the very beginning; he started his argument by asking a question: “What happens to a dream deferred” (Hughes, 1996).
And then he developed the piece using more questions and zero answers. As mentioned earlier the plot of this poem can be seen as the start of an argumentation that has no resolution. The author asked a question but instead of answering it the next lines in the poem were all clarifications in the form of questions. However, one way to interpret this poem is to see the questions as answers.
Thus, when the author asked: “Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?” he was not merely asking he was also giving suggestions and probably an answer. If one will use this analogy then a dream deferred is a dream that will undergo a slow and agonizing death. First it will dry up, then it will fester like a sore dripping with all the bad odor and decaying fluids. It will stink like a rotten meat while parts of it will shrink and sag and the it is gone.
If one will compare the two short stories and the poem one can argue that there is indeed a common denominator: poverty and despair and in the short stories one can even add the element of anger simmering just beneath the surface. The reason why Indian Education is such a pitiful state is due to poverty.
If all the Indians were as fortunate as the author they could have had the chance and the opportunity to transfer to a much better school were the teachers are kinder and has a better world view as compared to the teachers sent to the reservation. These teachers are understandably rude because they may also resent the fact that they were sent to a far away place far from their homes and forced to co-mingle with people with different traditions and culture.
Poverty is the reason why the Indians were faced to make decisions as the author eloquently puts it. There are two things in the story that reinforces this view and these are illustrated using two words: HUD and reservation. They have no place to live and they have no other place to go. They do not have the means to make money so that they can experience respect and dignity once again. Their land was taken from them and many of them do not have the skills suited to a modern economy. And so they have to live in the reservation.
As a result they do not have the ability to send their children to a good school and at the same time they do not have the capability to build a home that is suited for the family they simply had to rely on the government to build a house for them. All of these things had crippled the Indian man, he can no longer stand proudly just like their ancestors and the warriors of an era long gone.
Poverty breeds despair and the men took solace in alcohol. Alcoholism is a constant feature in the story from the time that the author mentioned the voracious appetite of his father for vodka, a very strong drink, to the time he talked about a young man who died from alcohol abuse – crashing his car into an innocent tree – and finally when the graduates, from the government run school in the Indian reservation deciding to meet frequently in the tavern instead of finding work and changing their destiny.
There is also an anger that tries to break free and yet the author realized that it has to be pushed below the surface. So many times he wanted to explode bewildered and frustrated by the racist comments, by the condemnation, and by the generalization made by others who had not even an iota of information to be able to understand the context of the struggles and various problems faced by those living in the reservations.
Poverty is also very much evident in Kincaid’s piece. Poverty is the reason why the mother was a little bit paranoid in teaching her daughter how to behave because they cannot afford to make mistakes. The strict rules, the forceful discipline that does not even allow her daughter to speak one word is due to extreme poverty.
The things that the mother wanted the girl to perform is a direct result of their poverty – they cannot afford to buy ready-to-wear-clothes, there is no money to buy food already cooked or prepared by someone, there is no way to pay the services of a laundry woman or go to a Laundromat to clean the clothes, there is no money to go to the supermarket to buy okra. It was the duty of the girl to produce and take care of these things.
Despair is seen in the way the girl or the daughter tried to reason out but her thoughts have no room in the house. There is no other source of information considered valid but that of her mother. It must be pointed out though that not everything about the story is a paranoia and child labor. The author also tried to show that she grew up in a particular culture where the mother transmits to the next generation – in this case mother to daughter – the necessary lessons of life that will guide her to womanhood. Thus, in the monologue the mother tried to enforce rules that will hopefully transform her daughter into a fine lady highly respected in society and able to become a productive citizen of the community or at least a dutiful wife like the mother in the story.
Nevertheless, it can also be argued that anger is simmering just beneath the surface considering that every aspect of her life was controlled and also the fact that she was forced to work doing not only household chores but the gathering and cooking of food. This is the work of an adult but the daughter had to endure all of that and more.
Poverty can be the reason for the dream that was deferred. Although the author did not provide enough information to make a solid conclusion one of the major reasons that a person is unable to achieve dreams is due to extreme poverty. Another possible reason for a dream to be deferred is injustice and other social factors that prevent a person from realizing his dream or from competing in a level field. Racism can be also a factor why injustice exists in the dream crushing world of Langston Hughes.
There are at least two memorable lines in Alexie’s story. The first one states: “Sharing dark skin doesn’t necessarily make two men brothers” and the second one states: “That was the year my father drank a gallon of vodka a day and the same year that my mother started two hundred different quilts but never finished any” (Alexie, 1993). The first statement is like a two-edged sword it cuts through racism as well as a rebuke to the Indians who prefer to live a life of mediocrity.
The author demanded equality and respect for his heritage but at the same time there is something in him that says do not create a link between me and the drunkard who killed himself by ramming his car into a tree – we may have the same features but we are not related – this he desperately wanted the world to understand.
The second statement encapsulates the despair and the frustration that everyone felt while living in the Indian reservation. The alcohol was a way of escape while the quilt was a way to reconnect with the past, a continuous attempt to preserve their heritage even if they feel that it is not really that important and so the mother is not that inspired to go to the next level when it comes to improving her business and in the words of the author does not even finish what was started.
The poem of Hughes and Kincaid’s short story can be linked together by the idea labeled as a dream deferred. The girl in the story have her own idea about how to live life and how to determine his future but it seems that society and her mother had already chosen a path for her. While she is still alive and while the culture and traditions of her land continue to be dominant force then she simply had to accept that her dream has to be deferred.
The works of Alexie, Kincaid, and Hughes talk about poverty and despair, in a way that people will listen. They did not present cold hard facts, statistics and demographics about poverty and the feeling of hopelessness among the people – they illustrated, it they described using vivid terms and analogy that makes their message come alive in the mind.
The reader was moved and vowed never to participate in racist actions and words. The proponent of this study was moved to take a closer look at the lives of marginalized people and the things that they had to go through on a daily basis and why many of them has lost hope and surrendered to the notion that their dreams will forever be deferred.
Alexie, S. (2010). “The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven.” Web.
Annenberg Media. (2010). “What Goes into a Plot?” Web.
DiYanni, R. (2007). Literature, Reading fiction, Poetry, and Drama (Ashford Custom 6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hogue, D. (2010). “Elements of Literature.” Web.
Hughes, L. (1996). “A Dream Deferrred.” Web.
Moore, J. (2008). “Jamaica Kincaid’s Girl: How Structure and Language Convey Tone and Theme” Web.
Short Fiction Analysis Essay
There are various opinions with regard to the story “A Good Man Is Hard to Find.” The varying opinions mostly revolve around the grandmother’s act of reaching out to touch the Misfit.
The most dominant opinion though is that the grandmother’s final deed was graceful, thereby implying that “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” was penned by the author to depict a gradual change in the grandmother as the story progresses. Initially, the grandmother appeared to be more concerned about looking like a good Christian than striving to be one.
This is illustrated by her selfish desire to head to Tennessee instead of Florida and, more importantly, by her efforts to protect her own life, regardless of the fact that her family members continued to loose their lives while she watched.
This was even made worse by the fact that if she had remained silent, none of them would have been met their fate like they did. Eventually, she came to understand that she has not led a decent life and therefore decided to get in touch with her persecutor, the Misfit, in her last act. This “epiphany” is similar to that of the grandmother’s newly found salvation.
Even though she does not succeed, her desperate effort have a profound impact on the Misfit, who subsequently says that through experiencing relentless violence, she would have turned out to be a decent lady had someone shot her on daily basis (O’Connor 142).
The second opinion with regard to the aforementioned matter is that the grandmother’s last deed was in fact not a charitable one and that she is yet again attempting to save her life. Some are of the opinion that the author Flannery O’Connor deploys the excuse to serve as the grandmother’s last gracious occasion to redeem the story from the horrific series of bloodshed as well as violence.
It is noted that by the time the grandmother reached out to the Misfit, claiming that she was her mother, he spotted a shirt with Bailey’s emblazoned on it. In addition, there are other opinions that point out to the fact that it is either not in line with her character or that she was yet again attempting to rescue her life and that her self-centeredness remained intact in the whole story.
The third opinion is that the grandmother is fraught with shortcomings but unlike the rest of her family members she attempts to be a decent person as she is respectful to her family members despite the fact that they ignore her at times.
In addition, its noted that the grandmother was very crafty as she indirectly influences the children so that they may desire to go and visit the house they were not intended to, thus the author notes “she said craftily, not telling the truth but wishing that she were”.
The grandmother thinks that to get anything she desires, she has to manipulate her family members, regardless of the fact that her conscience does not approve of it. The grandmother is the person charged with responsibility of meting out punishment to the children as well as entertaining them because the parents of the children do not seem to care about them (Goodman 45).
Not all interpretations are centered on the morals of the grandmother.
Flannery O’Connor’s has the despicable habit of using the dark as well as the morose to bring out the beauty as well as the philosophical prowess; with regard to the case of “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” it portrays divine grace. Divine grace is a concept vital to Christianity as unwarranted favor.
“Christians strongly believe the imperfect is made perfect”, i.e. people gain salvation by the blood of Jesus Christ. (Goodman 45).
The grandmother in the story attains grace by acknowledging that she was instrumental in creating The Misfit and that they are tied by kinship thus she reaches out to him in a manner that a mother reaches out to her child.
O’Connor has the reputation of a religious writer. A lot of people cannot figure out why she feels the need to use violence in many of her short stories. She points out that in her stories, violence serves the purpose of making her characters come back to reality. The use of violence in her short stories makes stubborn and unsavory characters in her stories to receive divine grace when their time comes (Weber 89).
The story ends with The Misfit shooting the grandmother. She tells Bobby Lee that she would have been a good woman, if there had been somebody there to shoot her every minute of her life. This statement clearly shows The Misfit’s knowledge to what the grandmother had undergone right before being murdered.
He said that he noticed that she was attempting to minister the word of God to him, but that it only happened because she was afraid of death. The Misfit feels that if the grandmother had lived her life with a gun held in her head, she might have lived a better life than the life she had led.
Goodman Theodore. The techniques of fiction: an analysis of creative writing. London, UK: Liveright Pub. 2007. Print
O’Connor Flannery. Frederick Asals. ed. A good man is hard to find. New York, NY: Rutgers University Press. 1993. Print.
Weber,Jean. Critical analysis of fiction: essays in discourse stylistics. New York, NY: Rodopi. 1992. Print
Pulp Fiction: Moral Development of American Life and Interests Essay
Pulp Fiction is one of the most famous works by Quentin Tarantino that was released in 1994 in order to introduce the audience the peculiarities of American life from various perspectives. This movie is a unique combination of such issues like humor, violence, love, devotion, fear, desire, respect, style, fashion, etc.
In fact, it is difficult to evaluate Pulp Fiction from the one perspective only because its richness and power lie deep in the perfect combination of the properly chosen genre, auteur, ideologies, and numerous cinematic elements. One of the most noticeable and amazing features of Pulp Fiction is Tarantino’s decision to present a kind of collection of stories that represent different people’s lives which are connected by the issues like money, power, sex, and family.
On the one hand, it is not always easy to comprehend director’s intentions: why it is important for so many people with different problems to make decisions and improve or at least save their lives. On the other hand, this movie is centered on the lives of two gangsters who have common affairs and duties, and their lives are hard to forecast but still easy to understand.
Quentin Tarantino introduces his Pulp Fiction by means of several scenes which have a certain sequence: proper enlightenment, strong and certain camera movements and shots, focus on some details and complete ignorance of the others, and careful attention to monologues and dialogues provide the audience with a good chance to grasp the main idea offered by Tarantino and accept it the same way the director does it.
Almost each American movie has its own message or a couple of messages, its audience, functions, and power. In case with Tarantino’s works, it is useless to admit that his movies may be interesting to one group of people and unclear to the others. Quentin Tarantino is one of those directors and screenwriters who cannot focus on one issue and devote the whole movie to it. He tries to add as many captivating details and lessons to his works in order to underline that it is wrong to accept this life as one-sided state of affairs.
This life is a combination of mistakes, lessons, desires, and dreams which fulfill each day and each night of an ordinary American citizen. Such attitude to screenwriting and directing makes many critics pay much attention to Pulp Fiction and evaluate the movie’s main aspects and approaches. First, according to genre, Pulp Fiction is characterized as a neo-noir that displays ironic and reflexive sensibility that is challenging to comprehend at first.
The movie under consideration has also numerous features to be recognized as a neo-realistic movie as it depicts social context with all its outcomes and challenges, authentic shooting that helps to underline some important moments, and numerous violent progressive changes which attract people’s attention due to their suddenness or long-term expectation.
One of the possible examples may be observed in the scene when Vincent (John Travolta) and Jules (Samuel L. Jackson) come to Brett’s in order to punish the character who tries to transgress their boss. More than 5 minute, Jules communicates with the characters in order to clear up what happens and provide them with some time to live.
It is clear that Jules and Vincent come here to kill but still it is not clear when they should kill these men. In my opinion, with the help of this scene, Tarantino wants to represent a kind of spiritual message, where Marsellus Wallace (Ving Rhames) performs the role of the devil whose soldiers come and takes someone’s lives because of numerous sins and disobedience.
Talking about this movie and its strong and weak sides, it is necessary to remember the article written after the movie was released. “You don’t merely enter a theater to “Pulp Fiction”: you go down a rabbit hole” (Maslin para. 3). Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction has numerous hidden and evident messages in order to learn people, explain the challenges of this life, and evaluate the outcomes which may influence many lives at once.
And the point is that he shares his ideas and messages in absolutely different ways playing with light, camera movement, and even words. For example, Tarantino explains that danger may expect you anywhere and anytime. This message is depicted in the scene when Butch (Bruce Willis) comes to his home and discovers Vincent in his bathroom. Vincent cannot even guess that when he leaves the bathroom, someone may shot him.
Probably this Tarantino’s message is ironic and cruel but still it is always important to be careful when you are alone and defenseless. In fact, this scene has many captivating points to concentrate on. When Butch notices the gun on the table, he comprehends that there is another person who meddles in his life and his affairs. When he takes the gun, the camera movements play an important role at this moment.
The camera moves slowly away from Butch and represents a long corridor that leads to the door. Now, the camera directs and slowly approaches to the door that is open by Vincent. Short shots, two men (one of them is armed with the gun and another with the book), a working toaster, and quick gunshots. The life is over; death comes suddenly without any warning.
There are no sudden moves; the auteur does not hurry up to change the scene. There is no other way out, and people have to accept this reality though cruel and violent but still realistic and integral. The use of camera turns out to be a significant point in the movie, and Tarantino tries to make use of its movements, angles, and distances as professional as possible.
Such writers and directors like Tarantino get used to rely on numerous cinematic tools in order to advance their worlds. They try to use everything from sight and light to camera angles and sounds. Though there are a number of dialogues and monologues in the movie, much attention is paid to different tools in order to tell the audience about the plot and allow them participating in the story.
Though it is impossible to observe a specific camera position and numerous angels while watching the movie, Tarantino admits that he implied more than 10 camera angels to create this movie. He slows down the reality to provide people with a chance to comprehend the moment and enjoy it; he makes use of editing and achieves the best results.
The scene when Wallace says or even orders Butch to lose the fifth round in the fight may be taken as an example. During the talk, camera movements alternate to demonstrate that several people are involved into conversation. However, when the suggestion is announced, Tarantino does not move the camera but leaves it on Butch in order to allow the audience concentrating on his face and thinking about the thoughts and ideas in his head.
It is very important to comprehend what runs Butch at this moment, and camera pause, as nothing else, helps to represent this task. Another powerful example of camera movements and editing may be observed on the scene at Brett’s. Camera shots seem to be a bit uncertain but still quick and logical. Tarantino knows what he wants to tell and what characters have to be observed.
In this scene, the main role is performed by Jackson who not only discusses about the sins, mistakes, and possible redemption but also provide the audience with a chance to comprehend the true nature of their business, their boss, and actions which may lead to different outcomes.
Even the positions of the actors (Jackson and Travolta) may be interpreted in many ways. One of them is that they encircle Brett as predators encircle the prey. Camera movements help to see that Brett is at the worst position even: he cannot observe these two people together at once; this is why he has to move and open himself to the stroke.
In this scene, as well as in many other scenes of the movie, certain attention is also paid to the light. To realize the whole essence of this episode, it is necessary to combine camera effect and movement with the light chosen. Poor lighting of certain parts of the room and clear lighting of Jules’ face make the reader focus on certain details and emotions.
When Jules is talking, the light allows to observe how emotionally tensed this character is. Though he does not like Brett’s attitude to the situation and cannot forgive his mistakes, Jules does everything possible to remain polite and confident in his ideas and words.
It is also possible to notice that the room where the characters communicate is bright, and people in it are deprived of a chance to be lightened completely. They are bad; they sin often; and they have to be punished one day. Another powerful example of how Tarantino uses light in the movie is the scene when Vincent opens the briefcase taken from Brett. This plot device cannot be even properly interpreted by the director. This briefcase contains the light.
This light is brighter in comparison to everything else that may be found in the room. The point is that the viewer cannot even get a chance to discover what may be here. Numerous theories and suggestions were offered: from Wallace’s soul to Oscar’s Statue. The chosen color certain tapers off the possible guesses, but still it is impossible to give a clear answer that is so perfectly hidden by Tarantino.
To underline the significance of the sin and wrong actions which are conducted by people to get more money, power, or recognition, Tarantino also focuses on words and thoughts that may bother the characters. In the scene under discussion, one of the most excellent and educative speeches was introduced by Jules. The final words before he kills Brett are taken from Ezekiel 25:17:
“The path of the righteous man is beset on all sides by the iniquities of the selfish and the tyranny of evil men. Blessed is he who in the name of charity and good will shepherds the weak through the valley of darkness, for he is truly his brother’s keeper and the finder of lost children. And I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers. And you will know my name is the LORD when I lay my vengeance upon thee.” (Pulp Fiction)
This religious side of the movie has to be appreciated because not each director will be able to unite such themes like murders, drugs, sex, and violence with the Bible and its rules. Though this movie is full of “F” words, it does not mean that it lacks of serious lessons and educative and spiritual stories. People are free to choose their style of life, their interests, and their duties. However, if the decision/choice is made, there is no other way out.
People have to be responsible for their actions, and if they prefer to use rude language and slang to be more comprehensible to people, they are welcome to talk this way. Tarantino does not want to look too religious, too right, or too wrong. Monologues and dialogues help the audience to comprehend the plot and those aspects which cannot be evaluated by means of camera movements or light preferences. Manner of conversation proves that this movie is a neo-noir that may be wrongly interpreted at first but appreciated with time.
Frequent use of rude and vulgar words, much attention to sex and sexual abuse, use of drugs, everyday violence, cheating, and nudity lead to the idea rate this movie as “R” so that only people at a certain age are able to watch it. However, one day or another each person would like to watch this movie, enjoy the chosen style, be amazed of the used techniques, and get one of the most significant lessons in this life.
It is just necessary to keep in mind that all phrases and ideas have to be listened till the end and evaluated together with settings, camera movements, and lighting because only the proper combination of details promotes the desirable effect and influence of the audience.
Quentin Tarantino introduces one of the most powerful and captivating movies about this life and its rules, people and their dreams, events and their outcomes. This professional director and writer makes a magnificent attempt to create a captivating story and to strengthen it by means of numerous cinematic tools and approaches. His Pulp Fiction contains many interesting scenes and episodes where the main role is performed not only by actors but also by cameras.
Without such a correct use of camera movements, this movie and its message will be hard to interpret and evaluate. This is why, to provide the audience with the necessary hint, Tarantino relies on light and shadow as well as one the play of Travolta, Willis, and Jackson.
The episode when two gangsters come to Brett’s in order to take a revenge, teach, and explain the mistakes made may be used as one of the possible examples of how perfectly and clearly each cinematic issue is chosen. Movements of cameras demonstrate how anxious and scared some characters are; certain lighting of the room demonstrates that not everything as clear as it should be, and there are still many aspects that have to be highlighted.
The peculiar feature of the chosen episode is not accidental because it can prove that only a well-coordinated work of each aspect, concrete phrases, and even mimics are able to reproduce the main idea of the story and show how the movie may influence people’s perception of the reality, this cruel but still integral reality.
Maslin, Janet. “Film Festival Review: Pulp Fiction; Quentin Tarantino’s Wild Ride on Life’s Dangerous Road.” The New York Times. Sept. 1994. 8 Apr. 2010. <https://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/23/movies/film-festival-review-pulp-fiction-quentin-tarantino-s-wild-ride-life-s-dangerous.html>
Pulp Fiction. Dir. Quentin Tarantino. Perfs. John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, Bruce Willis, Uma Thurman. Miramax Films, 1994.
The Science Fiction Movie “Inception” Essay
The film entitled Inception is a science fiction movie like no other. In a typical science fiction movie the audience is treated to storyline that talks about the future, outer space, time travel, a space ship that can crisscross galaxies in the speed of light and of course aliens bent on destroying humans.
But in Inception the journey is within the mind of the person. The access to the mind is through a hypnotic technique where people can enter the subconscious through a dream. Using that medium they can influence their targt to do the things that they want or to divulge sensitive information. The director, Christopher Nolan was able to create a believable science fiction movie because of his clever use film-making techniques such as those that pertains to camera shots, lighting and visual composition.
The movie begins with a close-up shot of surf hitting sand. The camera then focuses on an unconscious Leonardo DiCaprio – the lead character – who suddenly came to life but moving slowly and trying to get up. He was then taken to a fortress built near the beach and presented to the big boss – an old Japanese businessman who obviously had amassed a great deal of wealth in his lifetime.
It turned out that both of them knew each other. At first the audience was made to think that this is some sort of a time-travel movie but then the main character pulled out an object that signaled the beginning of a complex story about dreams.
The first half of the film attempted to explain to the audience the meaning and purpose of a technique that allows for the extraction of information as well as the planting of the same. The subplot was all about the complexity of this “inception” method and how it can destroy the mind of the person who is trying to enter in, and the person who is being violated due to a type of psychological intrusion without permission.
The middle part of the movie also revealed the reason why DiCaprio was driven to go to uncharted territories when it comes to using his skills as an inceptor. He needed to clear his name through the help of his employer.
The movie had a complex ending because Ken Watanabe the actor who played the part of the billionaire-businessman had to take part in the “inception” and yet he was injured during the operation.
DiCaprio may succeed in inserting the information on the mind of the target but without a healthy benefactor he could never expect his record to be expunged and his name cleared from a false accusation that he murdered his wife. So he had to go back to the deepest recesses of his employer’s mind to rescue him. However, the ending was not clear if he succeeded or if he was still in limbo in dreamland.
This film would not have been made possible if not for the use of film-making techniques such as camera shots, lighting and visual composition. The director used a variety of close-up and medium shots to bring the audience closer to the characters and for them to understand what they are going through.
Nolan rarely used a long shot except in a few scenes where he had to show how a dreamer sees his or her world. In a popular scene for instance the dreamer saw the landscape folded as if it was a piece of paper; it was meant to communicate how the dreamer can manipulate the objects within his dream.
Nolan preferred soft light as opposed to hard light. The purpose was to shift the spotlight away from the physical characteristics of the actors so that the audience can direct their focus on the story. Another reason is to create a dreamlike atmosphere especially when the shadows fall on the face and the audience is only given a partial view of the character. It seems as if there are different layers to this image – imagined, hidden, and real.
Visual composition was made to create a surreal world so that in the first and middle part of the film the audience can easily distinguish the demarcation line between the dream and reality.
But as the story was nearing to a close it was revealed that the wife of the lead character committed suicide because she can no longer distinguish the difference between life in the real world and life in the subconscious. Aside from the use of the camera, the acting was superb and it made the audience believe that such an outlandish idea is possible.
The goal of the director was to convince the audience that the inceptors, such as the character played by DiCaprio and his team can infiltrate the mind of a target and steal corporate secrets and at the same time plant an idea, a suggestion that the target willingly accepts as his own. This requires the use of camera shots, lighting and visual composition techniques that will allow for the merging of the real and the surreal.
The director used soft lighting such as diffused light that created shadows a subtle message that there is more than meets the eye in this film. Since the separation between fantasy and reality exists in the mind of the characters the movie showed a great number of close-up shots and medium close-up so that the audience can have access to the emotions of the characters. Superb acting complemented everything to produce a compelling movie experience.
Inception. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Leonardo DiCaprio Ken Watanabe. Warner Bros., 2010.
Analysis and Interpretation of Short Fiction Essay
Toni Cade Bambara and Joyce carol Oates, the authors of the allegorical stories the lesson and where are you going, where have you been respectively describe the epiphanies of the principal characters.
Through her interaction with Miss Moore, Sylvia is able to awake to the reality of the socioeconomic class that exists in her community. Initially, Sylvia seems to be happy with her lifestyle but when she realizes her level of poverty, she becomes angry. Miss Moore is a figure that represents the fight for minority like blacks against racism and discrimination especially in America.
On the other hand, Connie’s personal experience with a stranger Arnold who forced her to lose her sexual innocence awakens her into the reality of oppression, abuse, and discrimination of women in the society. Besides, the epiphanies that occur in the lives of the main characters like Sylvia and Connie opening them up to the bleak future in a discriminatory or oppressive society, have comparison and contradictory elements.
Sylvia’s exposure and observations about the other side of the town puts her in somber mood while Connie’s personal experience with Arnold puts a permanent mark in her life. Sylvia is a tough, witty, or distrustful Harlemite girl. She is also bright and her trip to Manhattan exposes her to the injustices and discrepancies or inequality in her society.
Her hometown is filthy, dirty and only occupied by uneducated blacks who live in abject poverty. Their playground is not safe because it is not only a waste disposal ground but also acts as urinal thus producing a bad odour. Although she is an American, discrimination has divided the society in two diverse worlds. On their way to Manhattan, Sylvia and her friends gape at the dressing and the lifestyle of the whites.
Due to cultural differences, she is unable to comprehend why the white people wear stockings or fur coats during summer. At the toy store, Sylvia and her friends become perplexed at the elegant but expensive toys, which cost more than they can afford. Only the children of the white people can afford such expensive toys, which may not live forever. The white community lives in a lavish lifestyle while the black anguish in poverty.
Finally, reality dawns on Sylvia that she can neither touch nor buy the toys at the store. Instantly, she becomes mad not because that she hates anybody around her but because of the poverty, discrimination, and oppression in her society.
She feels that due to racial discrimination and that she is unable to afford or live the same lifestyle as the majority in the society. Her observation, wittiness and intelligent compels her to hate the discriminatory nature in the society. Her anger is symbolizes that she is ready to fight for her rights and that of the minority people in the society.
Furthermore, her moment of epiphany gives her the urge to come out of the prison she lives. For instance, her happiness mood changes to sadness and she tells her friends “let’s go” (Bambara par.12). This means that she does not want to continue being a prisoner or see the inequality that exists in her society. Thus, Sylvia’s brightness opens her to a future that is full of obstacles but her anger is a symbol of determination that she is ready to fight on.
On the other hand, Connie is a beautiful but disobedient girl in her adolescent stage. She listens neither to her mother nor to her aunties who want her to change her mannerisms and attitude towards life. Her dressing, walking and laughing styles are ways to seek attention from members of the opposite sex (Oates 2).
Regrettably, one of the male figures she attracts turns out to be violent, which leads to a conflict and eventually to rape. Connie is unable to resist Arnold’s advances due to his threats and leaves with him to unknown destination (Kurkowski par.2). Nevertheless, the conflict, rape, and forceful eviction from her home open her to the reality of oppression, sexual or physical abuse and disrespect women undergo in the society.
If Connie had listened to her parents and accompanied them to the barbecue party, she would not have had the awful experience. Therefore, Connie’s moment of epiphany comes in a form of a fight and personal experience that leaves her distressful while Sylvia’s moment of epiphany is through an observation that indirectly touches her life compelling her to fight for her rights.
Sylvia’s moment of epiphany has both a social and political orientation. All the leaders in either public or private institutions are from the majority group or race. Miss Moore symbolically represents the black people in the society who have risen above all odds to fight for their rights. She mainly speaks for the author when she enlightens Sylvia and her friends about the division of the world into social classes (Brandon par.1).
She is both educated and has relevant information about the social, political and economic state of her country thus volunteering to give lessons to poor black children. Through Miss Moore, the moment of epiphany in Sylvia’s comes through a learning process that makes her envy the white people or the majority group in the society. Moreover, Sylvia is able to realize the political, social, and economic status of her society through Miss Moore, which was the aim of the author.
On the contrary, the epiphany moment in Connie’s life is only socially oriented. Connie’s transition from adolescent stage to adulthood seems to have thrown her into confusion leading to frequent fights with her mother. Arnold appearance puts her into fear and when he forces himself into her, he not only makes her frightened but also enables her to understand the level of inhumanity in her society or in the world.
Although the author does not give the fate of Connie, the rape and harassment from Arnold are a premonition of the bleak future that lay ahead of her. Therefore, through Connie, the author is able to highlight the social discrimination and traumas women or poor people undergo in hands of men while through Sylvia the author mainly focuses on racial discrimination in the society.
The moments of epiphanies in the main characters are similar because they not only occur to young girls but also change the course of their lives. Additionally, their social nature makes them to interact with strangers who give their lives a different direction. Although Connie resists the advances or the oppressive nature of Arnold, eventually she has no choice but to follow his footsteps.
Therefore, Connie succumbs to Arnold when she realizes her feminine nature and the society’s perception of women as inferior cannot save her. In addition, she realizes the world is full of evil people because she is unhappy and Arnold forces her to smile when he says” let’s see a smile try it “ (Oates 9).Similarly, Sylvia’s poor living conditions and lack of adequate education gives her the urge to fight the oppressiveness, discrimination or inequality that prevails in the society.
Moreover, Sylvia asserts, “ain’t nobody is gonna to beat me at nuthin”, which means she is ready to fight for the rights of the minority in the society (Bambara par.12). Therefore, the moment of epiphanies in the two principal characters reveals to them about the unfairness that is in the world they live in. Therefore, the authors of the two books use the youth to enlighten the society about feminine rights.
In summary, through the description of the way of life of the main characters, the authors are able to describe their epiphany moments, which reveals to them the inhumanity, oppression and discrimination that exists in their world. When Sylvia realizes about the discriminatory nature of the black people in her society, she decides to fight for equality. On the contrary, although Connie is able to learn about the poor perception of women and the poor people in her society, she is unable to fight for her rights.
Sylvia’s moment of epiphany has political, social, and economic orientation while Connie’s epiphany is mainly socially oriented especially on the aspect of poverty and women. The similarity in the epiphany moments in the two cases is that it not only occurs to youths but also transforms the daily lives of the young girls. Finally, Bambara uses Miss Moore to highlight explicitly the political, social, and economic situation in her country.
Bambara, Toni. The lesson, 1972. Web.
Brandon, Martin. ‘The Lesson’ as an Analysis of Societies Economic Differences, 2009. Web.
Kurkowski, Clifford. A Psychological Analysis of Connie: A Feminist Viewpoint of “Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? N.d. Web.
Oates, Carol. Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?” Ed. Elaine Showalter. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1994.
Elements of Modern Fiction Essay
Modernism refers to a strong shift from the traditional ways of thinking or perceiving. It signifies a separation of the two where peoples’ perception of things changes.
It takes into account the ‘thinking’ aspect of individuals stressing on the unconscious observable self. It is characterized by a pronounced response against what has been laid down ranging from politics through religion to the society. A modernist holds that peoples’ perceptions are the determinant of the nature of everything and hence, no fixed certainty about them. They assert that the future is imaginary while the past is completely far from them.
Modern fictions on the other hand are contemporary literature works founded on purely imaginations. It opens up the world from all angles, philosophically, politically, theoretically, just to mention a few. It erases the realist view of it by people. Modern fiction constitutes quite a number elements ranging from time and realism to openness. This overview checks these into details.
Time and realism is a crucial element of modern literature. “Time, in Modernist literature, may take the reader through a day in the life of a narrator, whereas in Realism, the reader is taken into a year in the life of the characters” (Childs 25). This shows that this notion of time and as applied in literature is not chronological but recurrent.
It takes place in a free will manner. The cyclic notion of time in a fiction arises when a novelist takes readers through an unorganized literary journey. As he/she encounters images, he/she is unable to predict which will follow. What is expected may even fail to be realized in the unfolding of the entire fiction. Free will and the discovery of the subconscious is also a result of this notion.
The writer gives the reader a chance to go beyond him/herself through thoughts entering into the thoughts of others where he/she has the free will of discovering how they operate both in their minds as well as in their subconscious. The life of people in and out of the presence of God is more of a theoretical supposition resulting from modernisms.
Another element of modern fiction is openness. It stands out as an aesthetic following the writer’s presentation of their works, novels, encounters, and poems. This element distinguishes the modern fiction from any other that has ever existed. It addresses openness on the issues of family, masculinity and feminism, the mind, not sparing bisexuality.
This on the other hand has led to an increased use of imagery in modern fiction, which has added beauty in the works of the authors. Following the introduction of this element in literature, the significant difference between the modern and the previous fictions arouses doubts, a case that has led to the shift on study. The shifts in politics influences modern fiction to a larger extend.
It depicts the changes in the social life, which ranges from country-town through personal-public to land-industry. There is also a significant change in the area of development and the peoples’ view of life, which is evident from Carl Max capitalism views.
In conclusion, modern fiction centers on the notions of doubt of spiritual or governmental institutions, individuality, and the skepticism of certainty. It makes a move from realism addressing the relevant shifts in both history and the society employing the element of openness as well as time and realism.
Childs, Peter. “Modernism: The New Critical Idiom” London: Continuum, 2007.
British Empire Adventure Fiction – Cosmopolitanism/Citizenship Essay
The popularity of British ideology was not unified. It was habitually grassed with enormous uncertainties and obsession. Though, the onset of the 20th century illustrated the British Empire obsessed with acquiring extensive colonies abroad “… annex new territories overseas” (Dunae, 2008,p.112).
According to George (2006), however, acquiring of these colonies was not easy; it was beleaguered by qualm, thus; these qualms sneaked into deliberation of British royal program. British were tasked with the challenge of maintaining the flouting warnings of modern social opponents who viewed substantiation everywhere of its civilization diminish.
They categorically cautioned of social and cultural deterioration, gender assault, hostility and opposition, colonial revolution and class cessation (Georgia, 2006). These fears were distinct, for while social, gender, race and colonial precincts and identities were in place, in the 20th century; the British precincts untying them were delicate and thawing. Thus, an initiative crafted to disintegrate the doubts through royal tales.
The Boys’ Literature and the Idea of Empire, 1870- 1914, one of the adventures literatures tried to argue that; boys as the role model of Britons “are you proud to be a Briton?” (Dunae, 2008, p.111).
According to Dunae, (2008, p.105), every British boy born notion, Kestner asserts that they were restricted in publicly talking against the British Empire, if noted; severe punishment was executed (2010, p.157). Dunae appears to be factual to his arguments during the 19th century, and early 20th century, a larger proportion of British youth were unquestionably conscious of their heroic tradition (2008, p.106).
This was strengthened by early exposure to British Imperialistic notions in; schools, recreational associations and church among other places. Consequently, narratives and other printed publications portrayed the supremacy of young British nationalists with enticing assortments of imperialistic notions.
Overtime, the philosophies of publications of Boy’s literature and the empire fixed the progression of British imperialism across the world. The period of adventure fictions concurred with the intensifying importance of British influence abroad (Dunae, 2008, p.106). The literatures published thus, served as a theoretical platform to infuse British ideologies to boys which will later make them defenders of British philosophies in adulthood.
According to Orgeret (2010), the publications of adventure fictions were critical they highlighted the progress that Britain encompassed to form a strong empire in its overseas acquired territories. Besides, British spirit of adventure as a result of their exploration undertakings mirrored how the people at home reacted.
Thus, the concepts of bias, slavery, gender and superiority were main aspects associated with its expansion interests. Despite of vast empires in overseas colonies; the adventure fictions highlighted how the British influenced male dominance and the superiority of its empires (Orgeret, 2010).
Besides, the idea of cosmopolitanism came about as a result of the imaginations among the Britons in discovering the world around them. Moreover, the vast British colonies provided a larger geographical landscape. Thus, this provided a room for more interaction with other races. A new form of citizenship also was created. For example, The British overseas created a new form of citizenship due to interaction with other races (Kestner, 2010, p. 77).
According to Ferguson (2003, p. XII), the British Empire, as a result of its overseas expansion interests, encouraged slave and slavery. They sold slaves to different countries across the world. Thus, dispersal of slaves to various parts of the world established a new form of migration. This consequently facilitated development of cosmopolitan urban with different races, and new kinds of citizens, as Fergusson asserts “ I have relatives spread across the world…. In Ontario, Perth, Philadelphia… because of the British empire” (2003, p. Xiii).
Further, he gives another example when he says “in 1966, after completing medical studies in Glasgow…. Taking his wife and two infants children in Kenya (Fergusson, 2003, p. XIV). This situation shows how the British Empire contributed to the development of cosmopolitan-urban centers across the world.
Although most of the readers of adventure fiction remained in Britain, the narratives reinforced the influence of British approach of life and the “rightness” of British cause. On far distant lands, the middle-class workers in colonies found illustration of adventuring as a demonstration of attachment of outstanding lifestyle. In isolated stations, the colonial-civil servants found such narratives resilient thus they were actually on a point of something exhilarating (Kestner, 2010, p. 129).
However, surprised by the reports of the waning British strength, and establishment of manufacturing, and military hegemony of other countries such as Germany Boy’s literature was seen as restorative “…..looked apprehensively at Germany…power” (Dunnue, 2008, p 116).
Since the lower working class in the society was already lost, the Boys’ literature targeted the population with potential, and those involved in supporting the standing of the British Empire, and what was better for the Victorian society. This means the middle and upper class working individuals.
The Boys’ literature provided a variety of organized and most conformist rational prospect. Therefore, it appealed to middle class and parents as a whole since it embraced the traditional masculine and heroic figures to persuade responsible behavior. For instance, Scouting instilled obedience and submission. It encouraged grading as a natural edict in the society and indicated divergence from mainstream social systems which would otherwise mean cultural destruction (Kestner, 2010, p. 138).
Dunae, A.P., (1980) Boys’ Literature and the Idea of Empire, 1870- 1914, Victorian Studies, (24), 1, pp. 105-121
Ferguson, N., 2003. How Britain Made the Modern World, Camberwell, Penguin Group
Georgia, G., 2006. Empire and Exoticism in the Short Fiction of Alexandros Rizos Rangavis, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, (24), 1, pp.23-55
Kestner A.J., 2010. Masculinities in British adventure fiction, 1880-1915, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, ltd
Orgeret, S,K.,s 2010. Mediated Culture and the well Informed Global Citizen, Nordicom Review, (31), 2, pp. 47 -67
The Use of Puzzle Game Elements in Detective Fiction Story Essay
Most detective stories tend to use puzzle game as a style in the writing of books. The main idea behind use of puzzle games is to ensure the reader is involved in critical thinking thus make the story as interesting as possible. In the detective stories ‘Mysterious Affairs’ and ‘Silver Blaze’ the authors use puzzle game as a style of writing. Some elements of puzzle games in the two stories include: appropriate field settings; various player combinations; plan of goals; barriers and handicaps; clues; and rules of fair play.
First, appropriate field settings are evident in the two stories. The two stories take place in a social environment that is like a normal set up where people live in today. This gives a logical scene of the murder to the reader, making the reader to have familiar settings that are helpful in interpreting the rhymes correctly. In the ‘Silver Blaze’ the murder occurs in a stable where the horse had been locked in (Maida 36). Similarly in ‘Mysterious Affairs ‘the murder occurs in a country estate, where there are relatives, colleagues and travelers.
Secondly, goals are well planned in the two stories. Typically, it is not easy to ascertain the goals in puzzle games. In our case, everyone has the possibility of being a victim of murder. Christie demonstrates that the person to be killed would be vulnerable and that the innocent could suffer by bringing events upon themselves. Conon leaves the reader in a state of dilemma on the main suspect who would have undertaken the murder.
Thirdly, the element of barriers and handicaps is eminent in the two stories. The reader faces lots of difficulties in evaluating who the possible murderer is, as in the case of the renowned hidden identity in the “Silver Blaze”. Conon ensures that the reader cannot know the suspect from either the horse, Holmes or the family members.
Fourthly, clues have been used in the two stories. Clues are usually tricky since they could be false or genuine. However, when given a direct clue, one can easily arrive at an appropriate answer. Christie uses impersonation, hidden, and mistaken identity to makes sure that there is no definite clue which will assist the sleuth to come up with a suitable suspect.
Christie also builds up suspicion that assists the sleuth to uncover information, as exhibited in the act of trying to match cards on the table so as to come up with a solution (27). Moreover, Christie clearly displays a Janus-faced character that confuses everyone when he portrays different pictures thus deceiving the public (24). He does not allow the reader to get a straight forward formula. Instead, he ensures that the reader is able to invent imaginative variations that lead to formulation of a basic formula by use of clues.
Finally, the element of fair play has been used in the two stories. Puzzle games focus on fair play with the reader, ensuring that problem solving is less difficult. A fair game does not involve a lot of participants and must give consistent results. Christie manipulates the reader’s point of view by concealment and ambiguity as a result she gives a false picture (36).
Puzzle games assists the reader to anticipate as the mystery of the story unravels, be able to solve problems and view situations from different perspectives, especially those related to crime whereby out of a group of suspects, one individual turns out to be personally responsible.
Apart from use of puzzle games, another approach that would fit both stories would be use of riddles. This would be appropriate as it does not give direct answers, but allows someone to think wisely like in Ten Little Indians. Riddles also allow one to imagine the true scenario and to evaluate answers correctly.
In conclusion, the elements of puzzle games that are evident in the detective fiction story ensure that the reader gains more interest in the story. Significantly, puzzle game gives the reader a chance to actively participate through critical thinking. Puzzle games can be used to test someone’s thinking capacity.
Christie, Agatha. Witness for the Prosecution: A play in Three Acts. New York: S. French, 1982.
Maida, Patricia. Murder She Wrote: A Study of Agatha Christie’s Detective Fiction. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1982.
Global Warming: Fact of Fiction Essay
This paper looks at the debate concerning global warming. At one extreme end is the camp that is convinced that human activities are responsible for global warming.
This is countered by another camp that argues that global warming can only be attributed to natural and not human causes. This paper provides an introduction to the topic through definitions and get to the background. After that, the two opposing views are critically analyzed before a conclusion is drawn regarding the two hardline positions adopted in the debate on global warming.
Climate can be described as the average of weather for a region. On the other hand, weather reveals the daily atmospheric condition (Gasaway, 2009). In his book, Gasaway (2009) observe that global warming and climate change are interrelated though they have different meanings as interpreted.
According to him, climate change incorporates warmth, as well as cooling changes and other variations like precipitation. On the other hand, global warming has been defined with assumptions as the literal increase in temperature (Gasaway, 2009). This paper will focus on the argument about global warming, thereby advancing two opposing positions as to whether it is a fact or fiction.
Background on Global Warming
Statistics and data dating from 1900 have shown a marked increase in global temperatures with 1.1 degrees Celsius with a concentration on North and South poles. This has consequently spanned the thawing of ice caps in the Polar Regions, which in turn has led to too much melting. This has resulted to rising sea levels which affects the salinity of oceans, in addition to acting as a potential cause for flooding.
The increasing sea levels may lead to drastic changes in ocean currents, and this is a potential danger in the formation of destructive hurricanes. The rise of temperatures on earth has also generated untold stories of heat waves, droughts, colder winters, and hot summers that have been the highest since the start of the industrial revolution. This paper aims at convincing Congress on the most controversial causes of global warming.
The greatest debate on the causes of global warming revolves around human and natural causes. According to Al Gore (2006), scientists all over the world are reading from the same script that global warming is real and an emerging threat to human life. In fact, in his book, Gore observes that it is an emerging emergency that should not be ignored by any nation.
Notwithstanding this observation, the greatest debate of all time is on whether humans or nature is the cause of global warming. To some extent, views have gone to the most unrealistic rationalization that there is no global warming.
One of the most conservative views is the belief that progressive rise in temperatures is not a result of human action, but rather that of a natural action. In dispute of this assertion, there is a strong conviction backed by science that anthropogenic causes are the first culprit. Therefore, these assertions set the tone of the paper centered on the two opposing factions presented in the arguments presented below.
Argument for Anthropogenic Causes of Global Warming
This argument is presented by those who believe that global warming is real and happening. To prove this point, it is important for facts to be laid bare for all to see and probably believe. The major contribution to the rise in temperature is the greenhouse gases (GHG).
The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide gas, methane, and water vapor that have formed in the atmosphere. As the sunlight enters the earth’s atmosphere, is it in the form of short wavelengths; but when it is reflected, it attains long wavelengths. These reflections are trapped by these gases, thus leading to an increase in temperature (Gasaway, 2009).
The major culprit of these GHG is carbon dioxide gas that has the capability to linger in the atmosphere for almost a hundred years. There is no doubt that the increased level of carbon dioxide from the normal 0.036% has been caused by anthropogenic activities (Gasaway, 2009).
These activities include the use and burning of fuels to provide energy for various sectors that run the world like transport, mining, and oil production. On the other hand, activities like cutting down forests and burning of wood or other materials increase carbon dioxide and other pollutant gases that serve to increase global temperatures (Gray, 2001).
The proposition is that of assessing the impact of human economic activities to the environment in order to adopt renewable sources of energy and methods that reduce or contain the amount of GHG released into the atmosphere. Once this is done, other factors can be regulated by Mother Nature; and safely, this generation will have considered the safety of the future generations.
Argument against Human Causes: Natural Causes
On the other side, there are those with a conservative view who have been labeled skeptics. Arguments from this quarter assert that global warming is not happening, and even if it exists, then human activities are not to blame. In fact, the argument is that human activities are not substantial to cause global warming. The notion advanced by those lobbying for change in the way human activities cause global warming forget critical facts on the ground that the skeptics seem to acknowledge (Rohli & Vega, 2011).
Firstly, the observation that global warming has been on the rise since the years of the industrial revolution is flawed. The argument presented is that humans have lived on earth and have engaged in activities that have polluted the earth for long. However, the effects have been balanced by Mother Nature. The years of industrial might are too negligible to form a background case for such a crisis existed at all.
These proponents of nature believe that natural causes of global warming are to blame for the rise in temperatures. Therefore, there is no need to worry since the system is self-regulating. In the heart of its argument, the theory of global dimming explains that for real, pollution helps to cool the planet by the reflection of solar energy back to outer space. Therefore, the idea of GHG contributing to global warming should not be brought forward by the proponents of anthropogenic causes.
At most, it is suggested that global warming is a hoax that is meant to reduce the amount of profits and other benefits arising from the most successful companies using coal and other non-renewable sources of energy. Therefore, it is argued that nature should be left alone to determine the cause of action and resolve the obvious as it has done all through the past decades.
Rife among this group is the fact that the data and scientists’ observation are just a propaganda meant to enrich a few and make others seem irrational and immoral. They believe that changing human economic activities to reduce the impact of global warming is very expensive and is not feasible. This is due the fact that the data is not convincing (Houghton, 2004).
From these two assertions, each holding its ground with no apparent conviction, it is important for the Congress to be convinced that global warming is an issue that requires a better approach. Probably, the debate about the causes of global warming should be objectively approached.
If it is found that scientists are right about global warming, then foes and allies can work together to eliminate a common enemy as the adage goes. On the other hand, if the scientists’ information is not true, then the focus should be on how we can all engage in a fact finding mission to bring every debate on the same platform and form a formidable force aimed at saving the earth.
Although the question of urgency is rife, it is still worthwhile to embark on missions that short term, but characterized by a unity of purpose hence guaranteeing greater accuracy and efficiency. Therefore, it is paramount that the most developed nations like the US should take a leading role in devising a course towards great historical achievement in saving humankind.
Gasaway, R. (2009). An inconvenient purpose: linking godly stewardship and alternative energy. Enumclaw, WA: WinePress Publishing.
Gore, A. (2006). An inconvenient truth: the planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it, London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Gray, V. (2001). The cause of Global warming. Frontier centre for Public Policy. Web.
Houghton, J. T. (2004). Global warming: the compete briefing (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rohli, R. V. & Vega, J. A. (2011). Climatology (2nd ed). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Representation of Women in History As Opposed To Fiction Essay
Woolf’s Socioeconomic Theories
Over the years, women have always had a little place in the traditional linear history, and like Woolf says, it is time they claim their dominance in the roles they play. Being a feminist, Woolf challenges the representation of women in past literal works as their fictionalized characters misrepresent their contribution to history.
Based on her socioeconomic theories, it is clear that she disapproves how women are represented in fiction. According to Woolf, women were denied the opportunity to participate in fictional works as they were required to have a roof over themselves, and at least had an allowance of over £500 a year. For this, the true nature of women’s representation was misplaced in fiction. In other words, women with potential were robbed the chance to explore their talents, giving men the advantage of dominating them.
The omission of women in history has been the cause of fictionalization that misrepresents the female gender. By addressing this, Woolf stands out as one of the few feminists who attempted to fix this re-imaging that challenged the understanding of women in history. Their non-representation has clearly had a toll on history; as a result, fiction has played the major part due to lack of information.
As seen in her writings, she offers insights of socio injustices that are seen today in feminist literals works which trickle down to her view on social exclusion, and occupational segregation. The fact that Woolf herself did not go to the university just shows how difficult it was for women to access educational facilities.
Having been denied the opportunity to make their contributions, women suffered from unreported past whereby their issues were ignored. However, this lack of history is changing with time as more and more women are venturing into the writing field, uncovering stories that failed to be told due to lack of exposure.
Today feminists are reclaiming their roles in history by putting up stories that cover their perspectives, unveiling what was untold. Basically, times have changed as women are now able to tell their stories. Fictionalization of women has enormously misrepresented their role in history due to the unreal depictions. With time, there has been the re-imaging of women’s literal past especially now when feminists have stood up for their rights.
Women Representation in Fiction As Opposed To History
Chronologically, fiction has had a certain way of portraying women, which is different from history. The exclusion of women in literature is evidently viewed in the history of literal work, whereby some women even conspired in their own exclusion.
The domination of the male gender in literature has over time raised controversies that explain the enormity of socio injustices in the nineteenth and in the beginning of the twentieth century. The ancient history of women is seen to suggest that the only role they played was in the domestic life. As much as this might be true at some point, not all women were reserved and submissive as history claims; more information to be added remained undocumented because of the unfavoring factors.
Their misrepresentation in history has been falsified as their voices went unheard. However, Woolf’s socioeconomic theories are seen to bring true revelation of how history should be understood. In addition, biographers have had to invent stories when it comes to documentation of women’s histories due to the absence of information about women’s past.
Fiction has for long been used to dramatize history, misrepresenting the real image of women as a society, and as individual heroes. The fact that women’s opinions were ignored has robed the current generation the understanding of the real challenges that women in the nineteenth century underwent. Based on the content of journals written in the nineteenth century, it is obvious that writers did not consider their audience, or rather did not make a conscious decision when covering some subjects.
For instance, social welfare was ignored as the socioeconomic ideas that shaped history were mostly fiction. Though families were valued, women are seen to be restrained by their marital responsibilities, giving the men the upper hand in deciding what goes to historical archives. Chronologically, women have been depicted as forms of entertainment in novels, which misrepresents their historical background. This misrepresentation has always had an effect on the attitude people have towards women.
With the socio injustices women have been subjected to over the years, it is evident why they still struggle to find their position in society. To sum up, it is evident that history and fiction are opposing sides when it comes to representation of women. There is the need to rewrite history so as to reclaim the positions women deserve, and not fictionalized roles that were documented.
However, with women like Woolf standing up for social exclusion, and occupational segregation, there is a better future for the female gender, as opposed to history. Woolf’s diaries and socioeconomic theories have helped reveal historic social injustices; and as a result, advocate for gender equality.