Fiction Essays

226

Short Fiction Analysis Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

There are various opinions with regard to the story “A Good Man Is Hard to Find.” The varying opinions mostly revolve around the grandmother’s act of reaching out to touch the Misfit.

The most dominant opinion though is that the grandmother’s final deed was graceful, thereby implying that “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” was penned by the author to depict a gradual change in the grandmother as the story progresses. Initially, the grandmother appeared to be more concerned about looking like a good Christian than striving to be one.

This is illustrated by her selfish desire to head to Tennessee instead of Florida and, more importantly, by her efforts to protect her own life, regardless of the fact that her family members continued to loose their lives while she watched.

This was even made worse by the fact that if she had remained silent, none of them would have been met their fate like they did. Eventually, she came to understand that she has not led a decent life and therefore decided to get in touch with her persecutor, the Misfit, in her last act. This “epiphany” is similar to that of the grandmother’s newly found salvation.

Even though she does not succeed, her desperate effort have a profound impact on the Misfit, who subsequently says that through experiencing relentless violence, she would have turned out to be a decent lady had someone shot her on daily basis (O’Connor 142).

The second opinion with regard to the aforementioned matter is that the grandmother’s last deed was in fact not a charitable one and that she is yet again attempting to save her life. Some are of the opinion that the author Flannery O’Connor deploys the excuse to serve as the grandmother’s last gracious occasion to redeem the story from the horrific series of bloodshed as well as violence.

It is noted that by the time the grandmother reached out to the Misfit, claiming that she was her mother, he spotted a shirt with Bailey’s emblazoned on it. In addition, there are other opinions that point out to the fact that it is either not in line with her character or that she was yet again attempting to rescue her life and that her self-centeredness remained intact in the whole story.

The third opinion is that the grandmother is fraught with shortcomings but unlike the rest of her family members she attempts to be a decent person as she is respectful to her family members despite the fact that they ignore her at times.

In addition, its noted that the grandmother was very crafty as she indirectly influences the children so that they may desire to go and visit the house they were not intended to, thus the author notes “she said craftily, not telling the truth but wishing that she were”.

The grandmother thinks that to get anything she desires, she has to manipulate her family members, regardless of the fact that her conscience does not approve of it. The grandmother is the person charged with responsibility of meting out punishment to the children as well as entertaining them because the parents of the children do not seem to care about them (Goodman 45).

Not all interpretations are centered on the morals of the grandmother.

Flannery O’Connor’s has the despicable habit of using the dark as well as the morose to bring out the beauty as well as the philosophical prowess; with regard to the case of “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” it portrays divine grace. Divine grace is a concept vital to Christianity as unwarranted favor.

“Christians strongly believe the imperfect is made perfect”, i.e. people gain salvation by the blood of Jesus Christ. (Goodman 45).

The grandmother in the story attains grace by acknowledging that she was instrumental in creating The Misfit and that they are tied by kinship thus she reaches out to him in a manner that a mother reaches out to her child.

O’Connor has the reputation of a religious writer. A lot of people cannot figure out why she feels the need to use violence in many of her short stories. She points out that in her stories, violence serves the purpose of making her characters come back to reality. The use of violence in her short stories makes stubborn and unsavory characters in her stories to receive divine grace when their time comes (Weber 89).

The story ends with The Misfit shooting the grandmother. She tells Bobby Lee that she would have been a good woman, if there had been somebody there to shoot her every minute of her life. This statement clearly shows The Misfit’s knowledge to what the grandmother had undergone right before being murdered.

He said that he noticed that she was attempting to minister the word of God to him, but that it only happened because she was afraid of death. The Misfit feels that if the grandmother had lived her life with a gun held in her head, she might have lived a better life than the life she had led.

Works Cited

Goodman Theodore. The techniques of fiction: an analysis of creative writing. London, UK: Liveright Pub. 2007. Print

O’Connor Flannery. Frederick Asals. ed. A good man is hard to find. New York, NY: Rutgers University Press. 1993. Print.

Weber,Jean. Critical analysis of fiction: essays in discourse stylistics. New York, NY: Rodopi. 1992. Print

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117

Pulp Fiction: Moral Development of American Life and Interests Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Pulp Fiction is one of the most famous works by Quentin Tarantino that was released in 1994 in order to introduce the audience the peculiarities of American life from various perspectives. This movie is a unique combination of such issues like humor, violence, love, devotion, fear, desire, respect, style, fashion, etc.

In fact, it is difficult to evaluate Pulp Fiction from the one perspective only because its richness and power lie deep in the perfect combination of the properly chosen genre, auteur, ideologies, and numerous cinematic elements. One of the most noticeable and amazing features of Pulp Fiction is Tarantino’s decision to present a kind of collection of stories that represent different people’s lives which are connected by the issues like money, power, sex, and family.

On the one hand, it is not always easy to comprehend director’s intentions: why it is important for so many people with different problems to make decisions and improve or at least save their lives. On the other hand, this movie is centered on the lives of two gangsters who have common affairs and duties, and their lives are hard to forecast but still easy to understand.

Quentin Tarantino introduces his Pulp Fiction by means of several scenes which have a certain sequence: proper enlightenment, strong and certain camera movements and shots, focus on some details and complete ignorance of the others, and careful attention to monologues and dialogues provide the audience with a good chance to grasp the main idea offered by Tarantino and accept it the same way the director does it.

Almost each American movie has its own message or a couple of messages, its audience, functions, and power. In case with Tarantino’s works, it is useless to admit that his movies may be interesting to one group of people and unclear to the others. Quentin Tarantino is one of those directors and screenwriters who cannot focus on one issue and devote the whole movie to it. He tries to add as many captivating details and lessons to his works in order to underline that it is wrong to accept this life as one-sided state of affairs.

This life is a combination of mistakes, lessons, desires, and dreams which fulfill each day and each night of an ordinary American citizen. Such attitude to screenwriting and directing makes many critics pay much attention to Pulp Fiction and evaluate the movie’s main aspects and approaches. First, according to genre, Pulp Fiction is characterized as a neo-noir that displays ironic and reflexive sensibility that is challenging to comprehend at first.

The movie under consideration has also numerous features to be recognized as a neo-realistic movie as it depicts social context with all its outcomes and challenges, authentic shooting that helps to underline some important moments, and numerous violent progressive changes which attract people’s attention due to their suddenness or long-term expectation.

One of the possible examples may be observed in the scene when Vincent (John Travolta) and Jules (Samuel L. Jackson) come to Brett’s in order to punish the character who tries to transgress their boss. More than 5 minute, Jules communicates with the characters in order to clear up what happens and provide them with some time to live.

It is clear that Jules and Vincent come here to kill but still it is not clear when they should kill these men. In my opinion, with the help of this scene, Tarantino wants to represent a kind of spiritual message, where Marsellus Wallace (Ving Rhames) performs the role of the devil whose soldiers come and takes someone’s lives because of numerous sins and disobedience.

Talking about this movie and its strong and weak sides, it is necessary to remember the article written after the movie was released. “You don’t merely enter a theater to “Pulp Fiction”: you go down a rabbit hole” (Maslin para. 3). Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction has numerous hidden and evident messages in order to learn people, explain the challenges of this life, and evaluate the outcomes which may influence many lives at once.

And the point is that he shares his ideas and messages in absolutely different ways playing with light, camera movement, and even words. For example, Tarantino explains that danger may expect you anywhere and anytime. This message is depicted in the scene when Butch (Bruce Willis) comes to his home and discovers Vincent in his bathroom. Vincent cannot even guess that when he leaves the bathroom, someone may shot him.

Probably this Tarantino’s message is ironic and cruel but still it is always important to be careful when you are alone and defenseless. In fact, this scene has many captivating points to concentrate on. When Butch notices the gun on the table, he comprehends that there is another person who meddles in his life and his affairs. When he takes the gun, the camera movements play an important role at this moment.

The camera moves slowly away from Butch and represents a long corridor that leads to the door. Now, the camera directs and slowly approaches to the door that is open by Vincent. Short shots, two men (one of them is armed with the gun and another with the book), a working toaster, and quick gunshots. The life is over; death comes suddenly without any warning.

There are no sudden moves; the auteur does not hurry up to change the scene. There is no other way out, and people have to accept this reality though cruel and violent but still realistic and integral. The use of camera turns out to be a significant point in the movie, and Tarantino tries to make use of its movements, angles, and distances as professional as possible.

Such writers and directors like Tarantino get used to rely on numerous cinematic tools in order to advance their worlds. They try to use everything from sight and light to camera angles and sounds. Though there are a number of dialogues and monologues in the movie, much attention is paid to different tools in order to tell the audience about the plot and allow them participating in the story.

Though it is impossible to observe a specific camera position and numerous angels while watching the movie, Tarantino admits that he implied more than 10 camera angels to create this movie. He slows down the reality to provide people with a chance to comprehend the moment and enjoy it; he makes use of editing and achieves the best results.

The scene when Wallace says or even orders Butch to lose the fifth round in the fight may be taken as an example. During the talk, camera movements alternate to demonstrate that several people are involved into conversation. However, when the suggestion is announced, Tarantino does not move the camera but leaves it on Butch in order to allow the audience concentrating on his face and thinking about the thoughts and ideas in his head.

It is very important to comprehend what runs Butch at this moment, and camera pause, as nothing else, helps to represent this task. Another powerful example of camera movements and editing may be observed on the scene at Brett’s. Camera shots seem to be a bit uncertain but still quick and logical. Tarantino knows what he wants to tell and what characters have to be observed.

In this scene, the main role is performed by Jackson who not only discusses about the sins, mistakes, and possible redemption but also provide the audience with a chance to comprehend the true nature of their business, their boss, and actions which may lead to different outcomes.

Even the positions of the actors (Jackson and Travolta) may be interpreted in many ways. One of them is that they encircle Brett as predators encircle the prey. Camera movements help to see that Brett is at the worst position even: he cannot observe these two people together at once; this is why he has to move and open himself to the stroke.

In this scene, as well as in many other scenes of the movie, certain attention is also paid to the light. To realize the whole essence of this episode, it is necessary to combine camera effect and movement with the light chosen. Poor lighting of certain parts of the room and clear lighting of Jules’ face make the reader focus on certain details and emotions.

When Jules is talking, the light allows to observe how emotionally tensed this character is. Though he does not like Brett’s attitude to the situation and cannot forgive his mistakes, Jules does everything possible to remain polite and confident in his ideas and words.

It is also possible to notice that the room where the characters communicate is bright, and people in it are deprived of a chance to be lightened completely. They are bad; they sin often; and they have to be punished one day. Another powerful example of how Tarantino uses light in the movie is the scene when Vincent opens the briefcase taken from Brett. This plot device cannot be even properly interpreted by the director. This briefcase contains the light.

This light is brighter in comparison to everything else that may be found in the room. The point is that the viewer cannot even get a chance to discover what may be here. Numerous theories and suggestions were offered: from Wallace’s soul to Oscar’s Statue. The chosen color certain tapers off the possible guesses, but still it is impossible to give a clear answer that is so perfectly hidden by Tarantino.

To underline the significance of the sin and wrong actions which are conducted by people to get more money, power, or recognition, Tarantino also focuses on words and thoughts that may bother the characters. In the scene under discussion, one of the most excellent and educative speeches was introduced by Jules. The final words before he kills Brett are taken from Ezekiel 25:17:

“The path of the righteous man is beset on all sides by the iniquities of the selfish and the tyranny of evil men. Blessed is he who in the name of charity and good will shepherds the weak through the valley of darkness, for he is truly his brother’s keeper and the finder of lost children. And I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers. And you will know my name is the LORD when I lay my vengeance upon thee.” (Pulp Fiction)

This religious side of the movie has to be appreciated because not each director will be able to unite such themes like murders, drugs, sex, and violence with the Bible and its rules. Though this movie is full of “F” words, it does not mean that it lacks of serious lessons and educative and spiritual stories. People are free to choose their style of life, their interests, and their duties. However, if the decision/choice is made, there is no other way out.

People have to be responsible for their actions, and if they prefer to use rude language and slang to be more comprehensible to people, they are welcome to talk this way. Tarantino does not want to look too religious, too right, or too wrong. Monologues and dialogues help the audience to comprehend the plot and those aspects which cannot be evaluated by means of camera movements or light preferences. Manner of conversation proves that this movie is a neo-noir that may be wrongly interpreted at first but appreciated with time.

Frequent use of rude and vulgar words, much attention to sex and sexual abuse, use of drugs, everyday violence, cheating, and nudity lead to the idea rate this movie as “R” so that only people at a certain age are able to watch it. However, one day or another each person would like to watch this movie, enjoy the chosen style, be amazed of the used techniques, and get one of the most significant lessons in this life.

It is just necessary to keep in mind that all phrases and ideas have to be listened till the end and evaluated together with settings, camera movements, and lighting because only the proper combination of details promotes the desirable effect and influence of the audience.

Quentin Tarantino introduces one of the most powerful and captivating movies about this life and its rules, people and their dreams, events and their outcomes. This professional director and writer makes a magnificent attempt to create a captivating story and to strengthen it by means of numerous cinematic tools and approaches. His Pulp Fiction contains many interesting scenes and episodes where the main role is performed not only by actors but also by cameras.

Without such a correct use of camera movements, this movie and its message will be hard to interpret and evaluate. This is why, to provide the audience with the necessary hint, Tarantino relies on light and shadow as well as one the play of Travolta, Willis, and Jackson.

The episode when two gangsters come to Brett’s in order to take a revenge, teach, and explain the mistakes made may be used as one of the possible examples of how perfectly and clearly each cinematic issue is chosen. Movements of cameras demonstrate how anxious and scared some characters are; certain lighting of the room demonstrates that not everything as clear as it should be, and there are still many aspects that have to be highlighted.

The peculiar feature of the chosen episode is not accidental because it can prove that only a well-coordinated work of each aspect, concrete phrases, and even mimics are able to reproduce the main idea of the story and show how the movie may influence people’s perception of the reality, this cruel but still integral reality.

Works Cited

Maslin, Janet. “Film Festival Review: Pulp Fiction; Quentin Tarantino’s Wild Ride on Life’s Dangerous Road.” The New York Times. Sept. 1994. 8 Apr. 2010. <https://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/23/movies/film-festival-review-pulp-fiction-quentin-tarantino-s-wild-ride-life-s-dangerous.html>

Pulp Fiction. Dir. Quentin Tarantino. Perfs. John Travolta, Samuel L. Jackson, Bruce Willis, Uma Thurman. Miramax Films, 1994.

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169

The Science Fiction Movie “Inception” Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The film entitled Inception is a science fiction movie like no other. In a typical science fiction movie the audience is treated to storyline that talks about the future, outer space, time travel, a space ship that can crisscross galaxies in the speed of light and of course aliens bent on destroying humans.

But in Inception the journey is within the mind of the person. The access to the mind is through a hypnotic technique where people can enter the subconscious through a dream. Using that medium they can influence their targt to do the things that they want or to divulge sensitive information. The director, Christopher Nolan was able to create a believable science fiction movie because of his clever use film-making techniques such as those that pertains to camera shots, lighting and visual composition.

The Film

The movie begins with a close-up shot of surf hitting sand. The camera then focuses on an unconscious Leonardo DiCaprio – the lead character – who suddenly came to life but moving slowly and trying to get up. He was then taken to a fortress built near the beach and presented to the big boss – an old Japanese businessman who obviously had amassed a great deal of wealth in his lifetime.

It turned out that both of them knew each other. At first the audience was made to think that this is some sort of a time-travel movie but then the main character pulled out an object that signaled the beginning of a complex story about dreams.

The first half of the film attempted to explain to the audience the meaning and purpose of a technique that allows for the extraction of information as well as the planting of the same. The subplot was all about the complexity of this “inception” method and how it can destroy the mind of the person who is trying to enter in, and the person who is being violated due to a type of psychological intrusion without permission.

The middle part of the movie also revealed the reason why DiCaprio was driven to go to uncharted territories when it comes to using his skills as an inceptor. He needed to clear his name through the help of his employer.

The movie had a complex ending because Ken Watanabe the actor who played the part of the billionaire-businessman had to take part in the “inception” and yet he was injured during the operation.

DiCaprio may succeed in inserting the information on the mind of the target but without a healthy benefactor he could never expect his record to be expunged and his name cleared from a false accusation that he murdered his wife. So he had to go back to the deepest recesses of his employer’s mind to rescue him. However, the ending was not clear if he succeeded or if he was still in limbo in dreamland.

Criteria

This film would not have been made possible if not for the use of film-making techniques such as camera shots, lighting and visual composition. The director used a variety of close-up and medium shots to bring the audience closer to the characters and for them to understand what they are going through.

Nolan rarely used a long shot except in a few scenes where he had to show how a dreamer sees his or her world. In a popular scene for instance the dreamer saw the landscape folded as if it was a piece of paper; it was meant to communicate how the dreamer can manipulate the objects within his dream.

Nolan preferred soft light as opposed to hard light. The purpose was to shift the spotlight away from the physical characteristics of the actors so that the audience can direct their focus on the story. Another reason is to create a dreamlike atmosphere especially when the shadows fall on the face and the audience is only given a partial view of the character. It seems as if there are different layers to this image – imagined, hidden, and real.

Visual composition was made to create a surreal world so that in the first and middle part of the film the audience can easily distinguish the demarcation line between the dream and reality.

But as the story was nearing to a close it was revealed that the wife of the lead character committed suicide because she can no longer distinguish the difference between life in the real world and life in the subconscious. Aside from the use of the camera, the acting was superb and it made the audience believe that such an outlandish idea is possible.

Conclusion

The goal of the director was to convince the audience that the inceptors, such as the character played by DiCaprio and his team can infiltrate the mind of a target and steal corporate secrets and at the same time plant an idea, a suggestion that the target willingly accepts as his own. This requires the use of camera shots, lighting and visual composition techniques that will allow for the merging of the real and the surreal.

The director used soft lighting such as diffused light that created shadows a subtle message that there is more than meets the eye in this film. Since the separation between fantasy and reality exists in the mind of the characters the movie showed a great number of close-up shots and medium close-up so that the audience can have access to the emotions of the characters. Superb acting complemented everything to produce a compelling movie experience.

Works Cited

Inception. Dir. Christopher Nolan. Perf. Leonardo DiCaprio Ken Watanabe. Warner Bros., 2010.

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144

British Empire Adventure Fiction – Cosmopolitanism/Citizenship Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The popularity of British ideology was not unified. It was habitually grassed with enormous uncertainties and obsession. Though, the onset of the 20th century illustrated the British Empire obsessed with acquiring extensive colonies abroad “… annex new territories overseas” (Dunae, 2008,p.112).

According to George (2006), however, acquiring of these colonies was not easy; it was beleaguered by qualm, thus; these qualms sneaked into deliberation of British royal program. British were tasked with the challenge of maintaining the flouting warnings of modern social opponents who viewed substantiation everywhere of its civilization diminish.

They categorically cautioned of social and cultural deterioration, gender assault, hostility and opposition, colonial revolution and class cessation (Georgia, 2006). These fears were distinct, for while social, gender, race and colonial precincts and identities were in place, in the 20th century; the British precincts untying them were delicate and thawing. Thus, an initiative crafted to disintegrate the doubts through royal tales.

The Boys’ Literature and the Idea of Empire, 1870- 1914, one of the adventures literatures tried to argue that; boys as the role model of Britons “are you proud to be a Briton?” (Dunae, 2008, p.111).

According to Dunae, (2008, p.105), every British boy born notion, Kestner asserts that they were restricted in publicly talking against the British Empire, if noted; severe punishment was executed (2010, p.157). Dunae appears to be factual to his arguments during the 19th century, and early 20th century, a larger proportion of British youth were unquestionably conscious of their heroic tradition (2008, p.106).

This was strengthened by early exposure to British Imperialistic notions in; schools, recreational associations and church among other places. Consequently, narratives and other printed publications portrayed the supremacy of young British nationalists with enticing assortments of imperialistic notions.

Overtime, the philosophies of publications of Boy’s literature and the empire fixed the progression of British imperialism across the world. The period of adventure fictions concurred with the intensifying importance of British influence abroad (Dunae, 2008, p.106). The literatures published thus, served as a theoretical platform to infuse British ideologies to boys which will later make them defenders of British philosophies in adulthood.

According to Orgeret (2010), the publications of adventure fictions were critical they highlighted the progress that Britain encompassed to form a strong empire in its overseas acquired territories. Besides, British spirit of adventure as a result of their exploration undertakings mirrored how the people at home reacted.

Thus, the concepts of bias, slavery, gender and superiority were main aspects associated with its expansion interests. Despite of vast empires in overseas colonies; the adventure fictions highlighted how the British influenced male dominance and the superiority of its empires (Orgeret, 2010).

Besides, the idea of cosmopolitanism came about as a result of the imaginations among the Britons in discovering the world around them. Moreover, the vast British colonies provided a larger geographical landscape. Thus, this provided a room for more interaction with other races. A new form of citizenship also was created. For example, The British overseas created a new form of citizenship due to interaction with other races (Kestner, 2010, p. 77).

According to Ferguson (2003, p. XII), the British Empire, as a result of its overseas expansion interests, encouraged slave and slavery. They sold slaves to different countries across the world. Thus, dispersal of slaves to various parts of the world established a new form of migration. This consequently facilitated development of cosmopolitan urban with different races, and new kinds of citizens, as Fergusson asserts “ I have relatives spread across the world…. In Ontario, Perth, Philadelphia… because of the British empire” (2003, p. Xiii).

Further, he gives another example when he says “in 1966, after completing medical studies in Glasgow…. Taking his wife and two infants children in Kenya (Fergusson, 2003, p. XIV). This situation shows how the British Empire contributed to the development of cosmopolitan-urban centers across the world.

Although most of the readers of adventure fiction remained in Britain, the narratives reinforced the influence of British approach of life and the “rightness” of British cause. On far distant lands, the middle-class workers in colonies found illustration of adventuring as a demonstration of attachment of outstanding lifestyle. In isolated stations, the colonial-civil servants found such narratives resilient thus they were actually on a point of something exhilarating (Kestner, 2010, p. 129).

However, surprised by the reports of the waning British strength, and establishment of manufacturing, and military hegemony of other countries such as Germany Boy’s literature was seen as restorative “…..looked apprehensively at Germany…power” (Dunnue, 2008, p 116).

Since the lower working class in the society was already lost, the Boys’ literature targeted the population with potential, and those involved in supporting the standing of the British Empire, and what was better for the Victorian society. This means the middle and upper class working individuals.

The Boys’ literature provided a variety of organized and most conformist rational prospect. Therefore, it appealed to middle class and parents as a whole since it embraced the traditional masculine and heroic figures to persuade responsible behavior. For instance, Scouting instilled obedience and submission. It encouraged grading as a natural edict in the society and indicated divergence from mainstream social systems which would otherwise mean cultural destruction (Kestner, 2010, p. 138).

Reference List

Dunae, A.P., (1980) Boys’ Literature and the Idea of Empire, 1870- 1914, Victorian Studies, (24), 1, pp. 105-121

Ferguson, N., 2003. How Britain Made the Modern World, Camberwell, Penguin Group

Georgia, G., 2006. Empire and Exoticism in the Short Fiction of Alexandros Rizos Rangavis, Journal of Modern Greek Studies, (24), 1, pp.23-55

Kestner A.J., 2010. Masculinities in British adventure fiction, 1880-1915, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, ltd

Orgeret, S,K.,s 2010. Mediated Culture and the well Informed Global Citizen, Nordicom Review, (31), 2, pp. 47 -67

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146

Global Warming: Fact of Fiction Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

This paper looks at the debate concerning global warming. At one extreme end is the camp that is convinced that human activities are responsible for global warming.

This is countered by another camp that argues that global warming can only be attributed to natural and not human causes. This paper provides an introduction to the topic through definitions and get to the background. After that, the two opposing views are critically analyzed before a conclusion is drawn regarding the two hardline positions adopted in the debate on global warming.

Climate can be described as the average of weather for a region. On the other hand, weather reveals the daily atmospheric condition (Gasaway, 2009). In his book, Gasaway (2009) observe that global warming and climate change are interrelated though they have different meanings as interpreted.

According to him, climate change incorporates warmth, as well as cooling changes and other variations like precipitation. On the other hand, global warming has been defined with assumptions as the literal increase in temperature (Gasaway, 2009). This paper will focus on the argument about global warming, thereby advancing two opposing positions as to whether it is a fact or fiction.

Background on Global Warming

Statistics and data dating from 1900 have shown a marked increase in global temperatures with 1.1 degrees Celsius with a concentration on North and South poles. This has consequently spanned the thawing of ice caps in the Polar Regions, which in turn has led to too much melting. This has resulted to rising sea levels which affects the salinity of oceans, in addition to acting as a potential cause for flooding.

The increasing sea levels may lead to drastic changes in ocean currents, and this is a potential danger in the formation of destructive hurricanes. The rise of temperatures on earth has also generated untold stories of heat waves, droughts, colder winters, and hot summers that have been the highest since the start of the industrial revolution. This paper aims at convincing Congress on the most controversial causes of global warming.

The greatest debate on the causes of global warming revolves around human and natural causes. According to Al Gore (2006), scientists all over the world are reading from the same script that global warming is real and an emerging threat to human life. In fact, in his book, Gore observes that it is an emerging emergency that should not be ignored by any nation.

Notwithstanding this observation, the greatest debate of all time is on whether humans or nature is the cause of global warming. To some extent, views have gone to the most unrealistic rationalization that there is no global warming.

One of the most conservative views is the belief that progressive rise in temperatures is not a result of human action, but rather that of a natural action. In dispute of this assertion, there is a strong conviction backed by science that anthropogenic causes are the first culprit. Therefore, these assertions set the tone of the paper centered on the two opposing factions presented in the arguments presented below.

Argument for Anthropogenic Causes of Global Warming

This argument is presented by those who believe that global warming is real and happening. To prove this point, it is important for facts to be laid bare for all to see and probably believe. The major contribution to the rise in temperature is the greenhouse gases (GHG).

The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide gas, methane, and water vapor that have formed in the atmosphere. As the sunlight enters the earth’s atmosphere, is it in the form of short wavelengths; but when it is reflected, it attains long wavelengths. These reflections are trapped by these gases, thus leading to an increase in temperature (Gasaway, 2009).

The major culprit of these GHG is carbon dioxide gas that has the capability to linger in the atmosphere for almost a hundred years. There is no doubt that the increased level of carbon dioxide from the normal 0.036% has been caused by anthropogenic activities (Gasaway, 2009).

These activities include the use and burning of fuels to provide energy for various sectors that run the world like transport, mining, and oil production. On the other hand, activities like cutting down forests and burning of wood or other materials increase carbon dioxide and other pollutant gases that serve to increase global temperatures (Gray, 2001).

The proposition is that of assessing the impact of human economic activities to the environment in order to adopt renewable sources of energy and methods that reduce or contain the amount of GHG released into the atmosphere. Once this is done, other factors can be regulated by Mother Nature; and safely, this generation will have considered the safety of the future generations.

Argument against Human Causes: Natural Causes

On the other side, there are those with a conservative view who have been labeled skeptics. Arguments from this quarter assert that global warming is not happening, and even if it exists, then human activities are not to blame. In fact, the argument is that human activities are not substantial to cause global warming. The notion advanced by those lobbying for change in the way human activities cause global warming forget critical facts on the ground that the skeptics seem to acknowledge (Rohli & Vega, 2011).

Firstly, the observation that global warming has been on the rise since the years of the industrial revolution is flawed. The argument presented is that humans have lived on earth and have engaged in activities that have polluted the earth for long. However, the effects have been balanced by Mother Nature. The years of industrial might are too negligible to form a background case for such a crisis existed at all.

These proponents of nature believe that natural causes of global warming are to blame for the rise in temperatures. Therefore, there is no need to worry since the system is self-regulating. In the heart of its argument, the theory of global dimming explains that for real, pollution helps to cool the planet by the reflection of solar energy back to outer space. Therefore, the idea of GHG contributing to global warming should not be brought forward by the proponents of anthropogenic causes.

At most, it is suggested that global warming is a hoax that is meant to reduce the amount of profits and other benefits arising from the most successful companies using coal and other non-renewable sources of energy. Therefore, it is argued that nature should be left alone to determine the cause of action and resolve the obvious as it has done all through the past decades.

Rife among this group is the fact that the data and scientists’ observation are just a propaganda meant to enrich a few and make others seem irrational and immoral. They believe that changing human economic activities to reduce the impact of global warming is very expensive and is not feasible. This is due the fact that the data is not convincing (Houghton, 2004).

Conclusion

From these two assertions, each holding its ground with no apparent conviction, it is important for the Congress to be convinced that global warming is an issue that requires a better approach. Probably, the debate about the causes of global warming should be objectively approached.

If it is found that scientists are right about global warming, then foes and allies can work together to eliminate a common enemy as the adage goes. On the other hand, if the scientists’ information is not true, then the focus should be on how we can all engage in a fact finding mission to bring every debate on the same platform and form a formidable force aimed at saving the earth.

Although the question of urgency is rife, it is still worthwhile to embark on missions that short term, but characterized by a unity of purpose hence guaranteeing greater accuracy and efficiency. Therefore, it is paramount that the most developed nations like the US should take a leading role in devising a course towards great historical achievement in saving humankind.

References

Gasaway, R. (2009). An inconvenient purpose: linking godly stewardship and alternative energy. Enumclaw, WA: WinePress Publishing.

Gore, A. (2006). An inconvenient truth: the planetary emergency of global warming and what we can do about it, London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Gray, V. (2001). The cause of Global warming. Frontier centre for Public Policy. Web.

Houghton, J. T. (2004). Global warming: the compete briefing (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rohli, R. V. & Vega, J. A. (2011). Climatology (2nd ed). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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122

Global Warming: Fact or Fiction Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Executive Summary

Global warming poses a unique challenge to world major economies including US. Yet, current mechanisms adopted by national governments specifically United States are insufficient to prepare for the negative impacts caused by this disaster.

According to (Bily, 2006), global warming is the average persistent increase in the atmospheric temperature near the earth’s surface leading to changes in global climate patterns over a given period of time.

This paper is designed to address the issue of global warming and to explain two opposite point of views on its impact. Some of us might be skeptical on the topic ‘global warming’ prodigies and the potential impact it has on our economy. Without any doubt, some of the chemicals emitted to the atmosphere have extremely long term negative effects, hitherto, the federal government has no mandate to enforce compliance measures for some of these threats that can potentially harm our economy.

The nation instead is relying on US Climate Change Action Plan which adopts non compulsory programs to specific market sectors to reduce these emissions. Although the impacts are always unlikely, they are plausible. The congress must therefore make a radical decision lest our children not revel the sweet ocean breeze and the cool atmosphere we are releasing today.

Discussion

Global warming has led to an persistent increase in average summer temperatures. The increase in temperature level has started since 1981 while the most serious and high temperature has been recorded in 1970.

Even though there has been a substantial reduction in solar output while still the surface temperature has continued to rise. Nowadays summer days last longer than before besides being unbearable. In fact, in the Blue Ridge foothills on the Southeastern part of US, the temperature is always at 70s with the leaves showing their bright autumn colors.

This is an evidence of global warming that has started and will continue eroding our country’s economy if not addressed in timmely manner. Occurrence of hurricanes such as Katrina will be more destructive than occurance in a year of 2005 which cost the economy over $125 billion. Increased high temperature raises the probability of drought and instigate wildfires especially in grassland and forest areas. (Bily, 2006)

Global warming has led to multiple floods and droughts. Some of the latest statistics shows that floods have seriously hit 14 countries in Africa, UK, Malaysia, North Korea and the Midwest of the US, while drought and water shortages have in the past, plagued areas of the Middle East and the South Eastern US.

These crucial impacts should not be ignored if we are passionate about this country. Let us not put our children’s future on the environmental limbo, when today we have the opportunity to adopt those strategies that can save the future of this nation. (Jenkins.& Jackson ,2012).

First of all, global warming has serious negative effect on health of course. Greater part of North America in 2006 has experienced great heat wave leading to deaths of over 140 people including those having air conditioner installed. In 2003, the situation was worse in Europe when almost 70,000 lives were lost. Widespread outbreaks of diseases such as Malaria, dengue fever, tick borne encephalitis, have increased in the past due to alternating periods of drought and deluges. (Jenkins.& Jackson ,2012).

The thickness of Arctic sea and green land ice sheets have reduced, while Antarctica had lost almost 152 cubic kilometers by 2005.

All these calamities notwithstanding, we still doubt the reality of global warming. We still have some doubts in regards to the calculations made on the basis of existing data. Some of us therefore think that the increase in temperatures could be a natural occurrence. Finally some pessimists’ argue that adoption of policy on emissions and carbon production could lead to loss of jobs in the country. Despite all these, global warming is not a fiction as some of us tend to believe, it is a reality that is with us. (Haugen, Musser & Lovelace ,2010).

Conclusion

Scientists and other professionals have conflicting opinions on the evidence of global warming. Regardless of all these opinions, it is a fact that chemicals with extreme life times are emitted to the atmosphere, though there effects and long term impacts are not fully known.

It is axiomatic to argue that there is a need for a more comprehensive research on how these emissions can be reduced or stopped. Basing on negative evidences which are presented in this paper, it is a fact that our economy will be at limbo when environmental concerns are not addressed in time.

As a congress, we must think of the present and the future generation, just the way the founding fathers of United States of America laid a foundation for us. The citizens of this country have entrusted us with the power to make these solemn declaration that global warming is a disaster which must be treated with all sense of urgency it deserves. Let us think ‘favorable temperatures’, let us think ‘green environment’, and let us think of the future generation. May God bless United States of America.

References

Bily, C.A. (2006). Global warming, Greenhaven Press: San Diego.

Haugen, D. M., Musser S., Lovelace K.,(2010). Global warming. Greenhaven press:Detroit.

Jenkins, A.& Jackson R. (2012). Global climate change:How do we know? National Aerotics and Space Administration. Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

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113

Fiction-Narrative Story Reflecting the Claims in The Queen and The Philosopher Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

The thinking self identifies the common sense and the genuine sequence of logical ideas that allows a person to make the corresponding conclusions. The clarity of thought, however, is hard to achieve due to the external influences and emotional stance.

According to Descartes, the supporter of the rationalist perspective and the author of the phrase “I think, therefore I am”, declined the importance of emotional and sensuous perception of the world because it does not provide evidence and facts about existence of the world. In fact, his perception of the world and objective reality was possible through the thinking process that is the only means of recognizing the matter.

The mind allowed the philosophy to recognize and explain various phenomena; it was compared with the soul that allows the human organism to live and act logically. Genuine thinking is still challengeable because people are often affected by emotional and irrational factors that prevent them from understanding what is certain and what is not.

Because the thinking process focuses on the material side of the debate, the existence of spirituality and God is under the question because the presence of the divine cannot be proved. However, such an argument cannot be fully justified due to the narrow-focused emphasis placed on the claim.

Specifically, the existence of the world cannot rely only on thinking, but on the perception and emotion as well because they serve as the links to the external world. Five senses exist to cognize the world whereas the role of the mind is confined to interpreting these senses in a logical way. In this respect, the objectivity of judgment, therefore, premises on the extent to which feelings and emotions influence the thinking process.

Such an assumption has many confirmations, when a person’s vision disaccords with the perception of another person. The level of comprehension of certain ideas depends on the background and intelligence of a person.

For instance, in case a person lived in Middle East and adhered to the principles of Islam, his intelligence and background will make it difficult to understand the mentality and traditions of European culture, in which men and women are equal. People could argue against the principle of equality because they have been taught the opposite since their birth.

Relying on the facts that have been distracted from contexts has serious consequences in different situations. The story below supports this position:

John and Andrea had lived in one neighborhood for 15 years since their birth until they had to move to different places. John and his family moved to England where their predecessors lived whereas Andreas moved to Berkeley, California to study Art History at the University.

As per John, he decided to dedicate himself to the computer science due to his great interest in innovation and technological progress. Before they departed, both friends had much in common; they studied and walked together, their liked talking on different topics and they were fond of arguing about what is more important culture or science. These disputes were the most interesting activities, although they knew that they never reach agreement on either of issues.

Six years later, John decided to visit Berkeley and find out how Andrea was doing and what changed in her life. The girl was very glad to see him because she missed him much and disputes they used to involve during their school years.

She confessed him that she was interested in art because she needed the opposite point to quarrel with him. In fact, her interest in art history was premised on the possibility to create arguments against and engage in quarrelling. John was a bit surprised by Andrea’s confession because his obsession with technologies was genuine. He was strictly convinced in his judgments and, therefore, his arguments were shaped by his genuine interest. Once they start discussing this issue, Andrea replied,

“My interest in art history is also a kind of genuine, but the purpose of studying was completely different than yours.”

“But, I cannot understand what actually the truth is in your attempt to discuss contradictory issues. Do you really believe in what you are asserting?”, John wondered.

“I really do because I rely on facts and evidence that have been proved before me”, she logically explained.

“But those people also relied on somebody else’s observations and, therefore, you cannot state for sure that what you learn is actually the truth, until you apply it to practice”, John remarked with in perplexity.

“I believe that if the majority agrees with the statement, it is not by chance. Their own beliefs and suggestions premise on valid facts and logical deductions. Besides, art history is not an exact science and, therefore, different interpretations of phenomenon is acceptable”, Andrea started arguing.

John did not notice the moment when they started disputing on another issue. They were deeply engaged in the process, attaining no importance to the topic of their arguments. As soon as they realized this, Andrea questioned,

“Are you not sincere and genuine when engaged into an argument with me? Do you dislike the process itself?”

“Well, I do…but…”

“So, does it make difference to you whether I like something or not? It is just a context, which does not change the matter of facts”, Andrea explained.

“Well, probably, you are right, let us leave this issue and enjoy our dispute”, John responded with a smile.

As soon as they realized that genuineness of quarreling and arguing does not lie in the angles of discussions, but in the actual process of arguing, Andrea and John ignored this fact and acknowledged the actual purpose of their friendship. Additionally, genuine thinking is often affected by external factors, as it is presented in the story.

Hence, Andrea sacrificed her genuine interests and preferences for sake of pleasing her friend John, whose interest in the context was also real. Despite this situation, Andrea’s intentions were initially good, which justifies her action as a morally and ethically right one.

What is more important is that their discussions were premised solely on logically construed assumptions and theses, which means that they are true. It also supports the idea that original thinking cannot be based merely on the fear of not finding an answer to the question. Rather, the purpose of the argument should premise on searching for the truth.

Certainly, if a person possessing power asks a question to an inferior person, the latter could be afraid of engaging into a genuine argument because of the authoritative influence. Such a situation also distorts the objectivity of judgments and creates false observations. In fact, the person cannot clearly state what original and genuine thinking should base on to make the dispute objective.

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124

Growing popularity of science fiction films in 1950s Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Abstract

This paper focuses on the growing popularity of science fiction films in 1950s. Besides the tension between U.S and Russia following the World War II, there were also rumors of Alien visitation. These two combinations of events had a very huge impact on the Holly wood movies.

During this time, Spy thrillers and Science fiction films dominated the movie shelves. Spy thrillers were attributed to the spy agents deployed by both the Russian government and the U.S government to protect their interests, while science fiction was attributed to both the Roswell rules and the advancement in technology especially the military technology. Most of the science fiction films reflect the socio-political environment in both the US and the rest of the world.

Introduction

Science fiction is an art of exploring impact of real or imaginary science on an individual or society at large. Just like fantasy and horror, science fiction is a type of indecisive fiction. All types of tentative fiction use elements that are profoundly unfamiliar to the reader or the audience. In this kind of situation, real human concerns and subjects can be explored in a completely different light.

Therefore, science fiction not only thrills its readers/audience by unknown and imaginary world, but also reflects issues affecting people in different environments (Nicholls & Clute, 1995).

Science fictions are known to predict the future advancement in science and technology. By combining the knowledge of real science and imaginations, the authors of science fictions have been able to create unbelievable technologies in the movie world. More significantly, these authors have also predicted the impact of such technologies on individuals and society in general (Orr, 2001, Nicholls &Clute, 1995).

Exceptionally prevalent in film and literature in the present day, science fiction has mainly established itself as genre over the past one and half century. In spite of its growing popularity, science fiction owes its root to the mythical and philosophical literature. Classic poems like The Odyssey, books such as Utopia written by Thomas More among others had elements of the fantastic prediction of the science fiction in the 20th Century (Nicholls &Clute, 1995).

Science fiction has presented not only some of the greatest stories in the contemporary literature, but has also predicted many developments that define the modern world. “This paper focuses on the growing popularity of science-fiction films in the 1950s reflecting the contemporary social and political concerns as well as addressing changes in the Hollywood film industry after World War II” (Orr, 2002).

Science fiction films in the post world war II era

One thing is definite; myths are characterized by their times. For instance, ancient myths look ridiculous in the world today. Ancient Greeks believed that lightning comes from Zeus and that Apollo hauled the sun across the sky. Those beliefs have become fairytales in our contemporary world (Camp, 1997).

Modern science allows people to view things in a different way. Almost every person knows why the sun moves and causes of lightning, but there is a reason why the ancient people did not have such knowledge. Such an idea is significant today since we live in a rocket age. Countries such as US and Russia send their people to the moon and their satellites to other planets. Therefore, these specimens are real in the modern world (Parish, 2001).

There has been a culture of paranoia after the World War II. The main factors that have contributed to this are the post war transformation of nations into industrialized society, religious extremism, and the fear of weapons of mass destruction/ nuclear weapons. These factors form a powerful combination of the emotionally charged days (Knight, 2002). Some authors believe that science fiction expresses reality and not cultural phenomenon.

In essence, these authors have given example of certain instances in order to convince their audience. Many people believe that an alien aircraft crashed near Roswell in the mid 1969. Fanatics believe that the government staged a cover up to hide the truth from the public. Hollywood has taken advantage of this fanaticism and produced many Alien movies (Toby, 2000).

A collection of articles edited by Orr (2001) provides an outlook of the transformation that took place in the American films following the Second World War. World War II gave rise to two genres of film. These are the science fiction, and the spy thriller movies. Both of these categories of films provide a window into the 2nd world war culture.

Presentation of the future in science fiction films changed tremendously following the Second World War. Orr (2002) analyzes this fact. Orr (2002) looks at several films and highlights the evolving features of the science fiction as the war progressed. The main examples of science fiction films he provided are Star Wars, Space Odyssey, and the Alien film.

After the Second World War, US entered the cold war. This was the major starting point of the Science fiction films and conspiracy theories. The main theme at that time was paranoia. This was partly attributed to the real fear of attack by the USSR and by the general lack of trust among the government officials. Emerging from the remains of the war, were completely new type of American citizens (Keith 1993).

This resulted into fundamental changes in the US economy. There was a paradigm shift from production to consumption; otherwise known as the post-industrial American society. Under the post industrial American society people became more and more estranged from the government bureaucracies. American citizens were becoming more generic creating a notion of Lonely America (Melley, 2002).

Other features of the cold war included printed magazine stories alleging visitation of Aliens into the earth and other extraterrestrial stories. As time progressed, tension started to rise between US and Soviet Union. Soviet Union tested their first nuclear bomb in 1949. The combination of Roswell incident which was just two years old and the soviet atomic bombs created a huge paranoia among the American public and the world at large (Alain & Luc, 2001, McAndrew, 1997).

The cold war affected almost every aspect of the American society. This saw dramatic changes particularly in the film industry. Orr (2001) stated in his article, the cold war and the cinema wonder, that there were two types of films that dominated the film industry during the cold war era.

These were the spy thrillers and the irresistible science fiction. The idea behind the spy thriller was attributed to the allegation that the US had trained individuals to safeguard American interest by spying. U.S and the Soviet Union spied on each other all the way through the cold war. It even came to the point where the Russian film industry produced its own version of the America’s James Bond. Therefore, the same pressure that infiltrated the American culture was also finding its way in the Russian culture (Melley, 2002).

Besides the spy thriller, science fiction is seen as one of the most dominant genre during the cold war period. Smith (2000) draws a correlation between science fiction films and the Roswell incident. Smith termed this correlation as Roswell rules.

Roswell rules essentially take the stand that every science fiction movies featuring Alien invasion for the most part takes place in a desert, with the military involved. This is very common in most films for instance “The day the earth stood still” and “Invaders from the mass”. Both of these films took place in the desert thus followed the Roswell rules (Alain & Luc, 2001, McAndrew, 1997).

In addition to Roswell incident, Hantke (2003) draws a correlation between science fiction films and the advancement in technology during the 1950s. Hantke (2003) states that 1950s was dominated with technological advancement in comparison with the previous decades.

People started to imagine the future as an astounding technological utopia where humans could communicate with Aliens from other planets while at the same time making trips to the outer space (Hantke, 2003). There was no reason to doubt Hantke’s theory since people started to travel to the outer space as early as 1957 when Sputnik entered the orbit. In 1969 Neil Armstrong became the first man to ever step his foot on the moon.

The period between 1950s and 1970s saw a large number of space programs being conducted from nothing to humans walking on the moon. If this development had kept going along similar line, then the idea behind the film” A space Odyssey” would have not been so outrageous to the viewers (Darlington, 1997).

From the above arguments, it is very clear how programs such as “Star Trek” and “Movie 2001” originated. Nevertheless, science fiction is nothing more than the glorified ancient tales. Alain & Luc (2001) compares science fiction to the stories of goblins and gnomes during the ancient times.

In the stories of goblins and gnomes, creatures seized people and transfer them to other dimensions where there was change in time. Just a couple of years after bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world first radiation mutant appeared on the big screen. This mutant was known as the “Godzilla” in a movie starred by Harrison Ford (Alain & Luc, 2001).

After the Godzilla, the cold war films were full of mutant aliens, body snatchers, man-eating dandelions, pods, blood-sucking vegetables among others. The rise of nuclear era considerably changed the way people viewed the world. It changed even people’s fantasies. Other movies of that period took a much less optimistic view of the future. 1979 film “Alien” by Ridley Scott almost by itself introduced a new visual grammar for the science fiction movies.

This film featured extraterrestrial creatures trying to eliminate all the people that existed before it. Its main difference from other science fiction films is how it portrayed life in the future. The previous films such as Star Trek and 2001 presented a clean and lustrous view of the future where the environment is perfect and advanced (Alain & Luc, 2001).

In the film spaceship Alien, everything from the ship and the environment looks filthy and claustrophobic. This presented the idea that the future is likely to have enormous technologies, which instead of improving the human life will ruin it.

This was not Ridley’s idea in making the ship; the ship was made tighter and compact to increase the tension resulting from fighting the vicious animal-like creatures from the outer space. This does not take a way the fact that many science fiction films nowadays have a less positive view of the future (Lev 1998).

Let us start with the “Planet of Apes” in the early 60s which represents a future world destroyed by nuclear war and the Apes are now the rulers of the earth. In this film human beings are not wiped out by the nuclear war, instead have become slaves to the apes. In a matter of fact human in the movie cannot speak. This is means that humans have become animals and animals have taken their place. The main theme of this film is that, while technology allows us to progress, it is also the cause of downward spiraling that can result to destruction.

This is a true picture formed by the cold war ideology. The world war wiped out many generations and the ability to do this came from sophisticated military technology. Killing of the mass is a science when it comes to military warfare. Therefore, advanced military technology can only result to the death of more people. The nuclear bomb represented that threat (Parish, 2001).

Others argue that the presence of advanced nuclear weapons has also saved lives. Something that people during the cold war would have not anticipated. The truth is that the presence of nuclear weapons prevented the US and the Soviet Union from engaging in war. In addition, sophisticated military technology has helped to save lives during wars.

Precision guided missiles minimizes the total number of people that are killed during wars, thus provides the ability to prevent civilian deaths. These are some of the facts that could have not been anticipated during the cold war era (Keith, 1993).

A number of films have followed these concepts. Their main theme is that some type of disastrous future awaits the humankind, for instance” Mad Max”, “Blade Runner”, and the “Water world” (Lev 1998). Each of these films is a product of the cold war mentality. The films “Water world” and “Blade runner” each focuses on the ecological catastrophe while “Mad max” emphasizes on a future earth that is unproductive and unusable.

They are not peripheral films. Numerous well-produced science films continue to flood the entertainment world. The American public acknowledged the science fiction as the conventional entertainment genre during the cold war era. This is associated with the cold war suspicion and improbability (Fenster, 1999).

Science fiction films and the American culture and socio-politics

The fear and suspicion caused by the cold war environment worked to create facets of popular culture. These included Alien films, science fiction films and other range of conspiracy theories.

These ideas have continued to be promulgated even in the post cold war era, thus showing how rooted they have become in our culture. Unluckily the predictions of science fictions have not come true. Besides landing in the moon 30 years back, there is no significant developments that have been made apart from sending satellites to far away planets (Fenster, 1999).

What can be learned from this is that the future can never be predicted. In all likelihood, the conspiracy theory will not fade away very soon. Mysteries such as the Alien visitations are also unlikely to be solved very soon and this will only add to its public appeal. Cold war laid a foundation for conspiracy theories to be ingrained in the American consciousness. This consciousness is not static but dynamic (Fenster, 1999).

Besides the tensions among nations and extraterrestrial creatures, science fiction films also depict the reality of the American social life. For instance, the original film “Star wars” portrayed a large planet without nations, societies and colored race. In the movie, we see warrior fighting the bandits and the scavengers.

Critics argued that the movie portrayed racism that existed in the American society since there was no single black, Hispanic or Asian face. This forced director to include other actors such as Samuel LL Jackson the subsequent series. The boundless territory represented the effects of globalization that is turning the world into a global village (Lev, 1998).

The American theme is apparent in the 5th and penultimate episode of the “Star Wars: Episode II- Attack of the clones”. The movie presents the republic as both incapable to maintain law and order or enforce laws on the wayward members. The legislature is so ineffective that it does not even care about the efforts to assassinate one of its member; Senator Padme Amidala (Lev, 1998).

This kind of scenario can be compared to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The film also portrays the current apprehension in America with the politicization of the Supreme Court. In the movie, the Supreme Court is portrayed as bogged down in prolonged hearings, whose findings are disregarded by the trade federation. From the film, we see Lucas having little faith in formal politics and believe that politics is entrenched in deception, that legislation is the art of ploy (Fenster, 1999).

Conclusion

Science fiction film originally was based fundamentally on the scientific knowledge, myths, and imaginations. This was later shaped by advancement in military technology following the World War II. In this era, most the science fiction movies were mainly based on military technology. After the World War II, the world particular America was engulfed in paranoia.

There was an increase in tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. At the same time, there were rumors that Aliens had visited the earth as with the Roswell case. Both the fear of war and Alien invasion shaped the Hollywood movies.

At that time, Hollywood was dominated by spy thrillers and science fiction movies. Spy thrillers are attributed to the spy agents deployed by both the Russian government and the U.S government to protect their interests, while science fiction is shaped by the Roswell rules and the advancement in technology especially the military technology. Some science fiction films such as the star wars depict the rot in the American judicial and political systems.

References

Alain, P., & Luc, P. C. 2001. Extraterrestrial Beliefs and Experiences: An Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action. Journal of Social Psychology, 141(2), p199.

Camp, G.1997. Selling Fear: Conspiracy Theories and End-Times Paranoia. Grand

Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

Darlington, D.1997. Area 51: The Dreamland Chronicles. New York: H. Holt.

Fenster, M. 1999. Conspiracy Theories: Secrecy and Power In American Culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Hantke, S. 2003. In the Belly of the Mechanical Beast: Technological Environment in the Alien Films. Journal of Popular Culture, 36(3).

Keith, J.1993. Secret and Suppressed: Banned Ideas and Hidden History. Venice, CA: Feral House.

Knight, P. 2002. Conspiracy Nation: The Politics of Paranoia in Post War America. New York: New York University Press.

Lev, P. 1998. Who’s Future? Star Wars, Alien, and Blade Runner. Literature Film Quarterly, 26(1), p30.

McAndrew, J. 1997. The Roswell Report: Case Closed. Washington D.C.: Headquarters United States Air Force.

Melley, T. 2002. Empire of Conspiracy: The Culture of Paranoia in Post-War America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Nicholls, P., &Clute, J. 1995. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, (Reprint Edition) St. Martins Press.

Orr, J. 2001. Post-War Cinema and Modernity: A Film Reader. New York: New York University Press.

Orr, J. 2002. The Art and Politics of Film. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Parish, J. 2001. The Age of Anxiety: Conspiracy Theory And the Human Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell/Sociological Review.

Toby, S. 2000. Little Gray Men: Roswell and the Rise of a Popular Culture. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

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147

Rural Injustice, the Fiction Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction

Many scholars have provided different definitions of the word injustice. In this paper, injustice will be defined as the absence of fairness and lack of justice in dealing with issues related to people’s rights; it basically includes violation of people’s rights and unfair treatment of people.

This paper will discuss some of the rural injustices in the society as depicted using imagery in the following three short stories: “When I Was in Hsia Village”, “Marriage of Young Blacky,” and “Springs Silkworms.” Rural injustice imagery is an important aspect that these three short stories have used to demonstrate and illustrate some of the prejudices and unreasonable human experiences that take place in the modern Chinese rural societies.

In these three stories, the authors have clearly managed to use characters, styles, and major themes to provide clear evidences that there is rural injustice in the society. These writers have used imagery to illustrate the rural injustice that affects the Chinese rural society. Therefore, this paper will demonstrate how rural injustice is depicted in these three short stories using styles, themes, setting, and characters (Shu-li 94).

In the story of “Marriage of Young Blacky,” there is rural injustice where Yu Fu’s father lost his temper and beat some young men who had come for his daughter-in-law; indeed, this woman had managed to attract a big number of admirers within a few days. As the big crowd surrounded her with gaity and laughter, Yu Fu’s father thought such behavior was improper, and had to do something to save the situation. Indeed, one day when such a crowd had gathered as usual, he lost his temper and gave the young people a good scolding.

This certainly prevented them from coming again, but irritated his daughter-in-law so much that “she cried for a whole day and night, refusing to comb her hair, wash clothes, wash her face, or take any food” (Shu-li 91). This shows that there was injustice as the daughter-in-law was not happy with the beatings given to those young men by Yu Fu’s father. Indeed, she had not complained that those men were a nuisance to her or that she was not interested in them.

Another rural injustice is seen in the story where Hsiao Chin’s mother was gossiping with the neighbors and Chin Wang came to Hsiao Chin to kiss her.

This is illustrated in Marriage of Young Blacky where one Chin Wang made an impromptu visit to Hsiao Chin’s home, in the absence of her father and mother who were in the fields and neighbor’s residence respectively, and insisted of having a good time with her. Although she resisted, the young man was adamant and tried to blackmail her saying, “Stop acting! You would soften enough if you were with Hsiao Erh-hei.

Come on; let me have a go too” (Shu-li 93). This shows how boys were capable of sexual abuse to girls in the rural society. There is also rural injustice where Chin Wang’s father was said to be one of the village farmers who behaved like a tiger, especially due to the alleged tendency to maltreat people in the society when he was a master. The story narrates that, “for a good number of years the old man had mean of the village, and was a past master in maltreating people” (Marriage of Young Blacky 94).

Again, his son Chin Wang and their cousin Hsing Wang were seen mistreating people during village official elections, as illustrated in the story that “the country folk hated them like poison , but nobody dared breathe a word , for fear of rousing the enmity of such formidable enemies” (Shu-li 95). There is also another rural injustice in the story where Chin Wang planned to revenge against Hsiao Chin by claiming that Hsiao Erh-hei avoided the meeting and was not sick with malaria.

He then goes on and plans another meeting in order to embarrass and confront Hsiao Erh-hei and Hsiao Chin, although he does not succeed in his plans. This is illustrated in the story through the statement that “fortunately, the village head knew his job and reproved Hsing Wang, Hsiao Erh-hei really was ill with malaria; it was not just an excuse” (Shu-li 98).

Another rural injustice is illustrated where Third Fairy–maid forced her daughter Hsiao Chin to marry Brigadier Wu against her wish, as she had wanted to marry Hsiao Erh-hei; indeed, “Third-Fairy-maid was terribly upset about all this” (Shu-li 101).

There is rural injustice when girls are forced to marry partners that are chosen to them by their parents against their wish. Indeed, it shows how this young woman, Hsiao Chin, has faced injustice several times, first in a forced kiss from Chin Wang and then her mother’s attempt to force her to marry Brigadier Wu.

There is rural injustice in the story where Chin Wang managed to take Hsiao Chin and Hsiao Erh-hei to the district government because Hsiao Chin had refused to marry Brigadier Wu (Shu-li 102). In addition, using styles such as dreams where Hsiao mother dreamt that a play was being performed in the temple, we see injustice in the rural society, as this dream is later interpreted in the case where Hsiao Erh-hei is tied with Hsiao Chin and taken to the district government office (108).

Lastly, another injustice in the rural Chinese society as depicted in the story is the issue of parents who want their daughters to marry even when underage as in the case of Hsiao Chin, whose mother wanted her to marry Brigadier Wu even before reaching 15years of age (107). Therefore, the author of the short story has managed to show various rural injustices in the Chinese rural society through the use of themes, styles and characters as discussed in this paper.

The second story that depicts the availability of rural injustices is “Spring Silkworms.” In this story, there is rural injustice where Tung Pao’s grandfather and Old Master Chen had been forced by Long Hairsrs to work as captives for seven years in a secluded place without payment and against their wish or consent. The story ends by, “because they raised a crop of spring silkworms, the people in old Tung Pao’s village got deeper into debt” (145). This shows how the villagers were suffering.

This is illustrated in the book where it states that “years ago Long Hairs campaigning through the countryside had captured Tung Pao’s grandfather and Old Master Chen and kept them working as prisoners for nearly seven years in the same camp” (Tun 11). Another injustice is seen where we are told that Old Tung Pao’s father once killed a young long-haired man on patrol and continuing to state, ‘what Old Tung Pao could not understand was why the fall of the house of Chen should affect his own family” (Tun 12).

Besides, there is also rural injustice in the story where villagers had bad attitude and prejudice towards foreigners to a point of petitioning the government to repatriate them; the story states that, “in the village, his attitude towards foreigners was well known, the new Kuomintang government says it wants to” throw out” the foreign devils” (Tun 14). This shows that in rural areas, foreigners were not valued and were mistreated by others, thus showing injustice towards these foreigners, most of whom were innocent.

Furthermore, due to exploitation and other mistreatments, there was poverty in the village, as women and children had little to eat, while “their clothes were old and torn” (Tun 17). Therefore, in this story, the writer has clearly shown some of the rural injustices in the Chinese society using characters and themes such as poverty and cultural beliefs.

The last story that demonstrates the presence of rural injustice is “When I Was in Hsia Village.” In this story, we see injustice in the village where we are told of existing political turmoil in the village and some elementary school, which were destroyed by other people. The story illustrates this by stating, “These used to be an elementary school, but last year the Jap devils destroyed it” (Ling 269).

Another injustice in Hsia village is illustrated where people have to go and hide due to turmoil at political department. There are also rural injustices where girls are involved in prostitution in Hsia village as illustrated in the story – “it’s said that she has slept with at least a hundred men” (Ling 271). This shows that there are sexual injustices taking place in the village (Ling 278), especially in relation to the circumstances that lead to girls to turn to prostitution.

In addition, rural injustice is seen where Japanese attack Hsia village some time back and some people were killed. The author illustrates this by stating, “Liu Erh-ma said, talking about the Japanese attack on Hsia village a year and a half before” (Ling 272).

Lastly, there was also a lot of suffering in the village due to severe living conditions and political interferences that were common in the villages (Ling 277). Therefore, using appropriate themes such as suffering, prostitution, religion, and political instability, the writer of the short story, “When I Was in Hsia Village,” has been able to successfully show some on the rural injustices in modern Chinese society.

In conclusion, this paper has discussed some of the rural injustices as exhibited and evidenced in the three short stories including “When I Was in Hsia Village,” “Marriage of Young Blacky”, and “Springs Silkworms”. As seen above, injustice involves the infringement of civil rights and inequitable treatment to other people; thus, rural injustice is the violation of basic human rights and deficiency of fairness in the rural society.

From the three short stories, we have seen and found out that some of the common rural injustices in the society include marriage challenges, prostitution, and bad leadership, poverty due to exploitation, colonialism, and poor cultural beliefs. In the story of “ Marriage of Young Blacky “, the author has managed to show us various rural injustices in the Chinese rural society through the use of themes, styles, and characters as discussed in this paper.

Secondly, we have discussed some of the rural injustices as depicted in the short story,” Spring Silkworms”, with the injustice that stands out being foreigner’s discrimination. Besides, this shows that foreigners were not valued and were mistreated by others in the village.

Furthermore, due to exploitation and other mistreatments, there was poverty in the village, as women and children had little to eat and no clothe to wear. Lastly, in the story “When I Was in Hsia Village,” appropriate themes such suffering, prostitution, religion and political instability have been used to demonstrate the existence of injustice in the society. Indeed, the writer of this last short story has been able to successfully show some on the rural injustices in modern Chinese society.

Finally, although the writers of these three short stories have highlighted various injustices to the society in the past, it is important that other writers use literature to depict current happenings in the society. Again, writers should use literature to create more awareness to the members of the society about how to eliminate and prevent potential injustice.

Literary writers should also be creative and use words that are more appealing and styles of writing that would make their literary works more interesting to read. Lastly, short stories are among the most humorous and enjoyable pieces of literary works; therefore, the writers should combine good use of characters, themes, literary styles, and settings, including the plot of the story in order to make their writings more interesting and globally accepted

Works Cited

Ling, Ting. When I Was in Hsia Village. (Attached article)

Shu-li, Chao. Marriage of Young Blacky. (Attached article)

Tun, Mao. Springs Silkworms. (Attached article)

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Pain, Cyber Punk and Science Fiction in the Moon is a Harsh Mistress Essay

September 21, 2021 by Essay Writer

Introduction The book is set in 2076. The earth’s lunar colony decides to rebel against the earth authority. The United Nations Lunar authority rules the lunar colony These people have been exiled from the earth and taken to the moon. They are mostly criminals or political exiles.

These people who have been exiled once they spend a few months on the moon certain changes start taking place. There are physiological changes that occur in these people which are irreversible. The changes occur as they live in a planet that has a different gravitational field. The people become trapped.

The area has a higher number of polyandrous marriages since the number of men is more than the women in a ratio of 10:1. There are wardens and guards on the moon. However the rules are few since the convicts cannot escape.

The hero in the novel, Mannie is reluctant. He wants change but is rather comfortable interacting with spending time with the super computer, Mike and interacting with his wives and co-husbands.

It is the beautiful Wyoming and Professor Wyoming who involve him in their affairs to rebel against the earth till he sees the chance of success. The exploitation of the moon by the earth is dangerous as the moon will only last for a few more years.

When Mannie is finally on board, he is passionate and does everything to ensure the loonies are successful. The three of them recruit groups and form cells. They want to influence the people on earth to see the importance of the lunar independence. They are intelligent and the Authority Security Chief is not able to penetrate the group. In May

after the soldiers rape a girl and murder two girls. The rebels fight the soldiers and win. Though they win, there is the fear of the earth reclaiming the colony. The trio is able to ensure that the religious people and the politicians are always engaged in endless arguments. Meanwhile they are laying down their plans to win the war.

Mannie and Professor travel in a grain shipping container from the moon to the earth. They go to plead the case for the independence of the moon that has just been declared. They go on a world tour speaking of the benefits of a free Lunar kingdom. Mannie says it will be great for commerce and industry.

He encourages various countries that will organize for the building of a catapult to transport vital materials to the moon. The earth should transport water and trace elements to the moon in exchange for grain. The delegation’s proposals are however rejected when they go to the federation headquarters.

In fact more troops will be sent to the moon to secure it and ensure it is a tightly controlled police state. It is not a total failure however since the people on the earth are no longer united on the activities going on in the lunar colony. Some actually want it to be free.

On the moon however, people are more united. In the last part of the book, the federation warships come to the moon. The attacks between the moon and the earth intensify with many people dying. However, the Loonies are victorious and the lunar nation is finally recognized. The professor, Bernado is the leader of the nation for a

while then he collapses and dies. Mannie takes over. After a while though he steps aside and lets another person to rule. At the end of the novel, Mike is severely affected and only responds and functions like a normal computer. It could be due to physical damage or the whole experience of fighting was a draining process.

Pain, Cyber Punk and Science Fiction in the Moon is a Harsh Mistress

There are several aspects of science fiction, pain, cyber punk and science fiction addressed in the book. There is a lot of pain expressed in the novel. First of all the people living in the moon undergo mental and psychological anxieties. There is pain and misery as the people can die at any time from the vacuum.

The people in order to survive in the area have to behave well towards each other. The second issue in this society is the family unit. There is an acute shortage of women in the moon causing the society to adopt polyandry relationships. The women are few as most of the criminals are usually men (Lerner, 1985, pg 65)

This must have been hard to adjust to since the people were coming from a monogamous kind of society. The women in the society are very powerful. If a man offends a woman, the other men are likely to get annoyed and attack the individual. This is a society that the men find it hard to adjust to.

The society has learned to cope with the way they live. The people are peaceful and live by certain rules such as payment of debts and looking after one’s own body.

As the loonies fought the war, strong bonds were formed between the three main fighters, the professor, Wyoming and Mannie. The war has been won but Mannie feels disoriented.

Mike was severely affected by the fighting. He is back to being a computer. Mannie feels lost, missing the companionship that Mike offered before and during the war. He misses the way he could answer very difficult questions. Mannie is in disbelief and keeps asking Mike questions which he does not answer.

The computer was repaired so he expected things to go back to normal. Since nothing changes, he actually starts thinking that maybe the computer was affected psychologically. He reasons, “Can a machine be so frightened and hurt that it will go into catatonia and refuse to respond?

While ego crouches inside, aware but never willing to risk it? No, can’t be that; Mike was unafraid—as gaily unafraid as Prof ”(Heinlen, 1966 pg 232).

The war has been won however Mike has lost a great firend and his loss will always be felt. The victory over the earth though goes to give him great memories of how Mike helped win the war. He was a great asset and help in the rebellion.

Cyberpunk is a combination of cybernetics and punk. In books where Cyber Punk is the theme, the story usually takes place in the future but not so far away. The setting of the cyber punk story is usually a place of great misery. The genre shows great advances in information technology.

There may also be great developments in the internet and artificial intelligence. The other common theme in cyberpunk is the societal control theme. They may be aggressive heroes from the beginning of the story or reluctant

heroes that take time to pick up but at the end all of them save the people and the story ends well.

All these characteristics of the Cyber Punk theme is true in the novel the Moon is a Harsh Mistress. The setting of the book is in the new future that is 2076. The environment on the moon is harsh, even as the people suffer physiological changes which are irreversible.

There is despair and lack of hope in the people who are trapped. They cannot leave the moon. There is also the theme of societal or government control. This is evident in the book as the people on the moon are being controlled by the governments of the earth.

The book explores politics and the society. The professor is for self-regulation and not state or government control. He says that every person is responsible for his own actions.

The protagonists have to do something to set the people free. In the novel, Marnie, the professor and Mike are heroes who do everything to set the people on the moon free. There is a terrible fighting with Mike bombing the earth’s space defense command centre at Cheyenne Mountain.

Civilians die in the process as they go to these locations despite the warnings of the press. The earth’s military on the other hand attacks the moon, destroying the catapult for transporting grain to the earth.

Step by step as Mannie throws the rocks, the earth’s counties recede and surrender recognizing the moon as a new nation. After a while all of the earth recognizes that the colony is no longer theirs. The loonies are set free at last.

Science fiction is a genre of fiction where the main themes are science and technology. This genre of literary fiction tells the story in an environment where they have been progressive innovations in science. The innovations are mostly imagined and have not taken place yet.

The novel usually discusses or shows the impact of those scientific innovations. Take the situation where men have created highly intelligent machines to assist them take care of the earth and their businesses.

However, a danger occurs where the machines become so highly intelligent that they start a revolution to take over the earth. A war occurs between the machines and the human beings.

The science fiction novels are not limited in the events that can occur in the earth. It shows other possibilities that can occur on the earth. The scientific fiction differs from the fantasy genre though because the events in the science fiction novel can actually occur due to the laws of nature or other laws of science.

It concentrates on the operations of some of the laws of science. While reading a science fiction novel, the reader has to practice a degree of suspension of disbelief.

If the writer can capture the reader’s interest and use some aspect of the truth then the reader may overlook the incredulous and impossible events of the book. The writer seeks to explain the events in the book through the scientific laws.

Another critical aspect of science fiction novels is the aspect of time or time travel. The story is usually set in the future. The science fiction may also have events happening even in the past however they do not match what has actually happened in the past.

The explanation in the novel given may be that the characters are able to influence the past events in order to create a certain future. The story can even have characters travelling in between time zones, going forward and backward in time.

The story usually involves aliens or humans in other planets. It is all about the outer space or another universe. Most of the science fiction stories show wars that occur in space, different worlds or even a different universe.

The wars are usually between the humans and the aliens. The aliens could be planning a total mass invasion of the earth. It could be subtle like aliens coming to the earth and changing body form into humans in order to infiltrate the society.

The moon is a harsh mistress fulfils most of the characteristics of the science fiction genre. It has artificial intelligence, space travel and atomic drives. First of all in the Moon is a Harsh Mistress, there are people who have been transported to live in the moon.

There are no people who can survive or live in the moon. This has been proved by scientific experts. Secondly, there is also the aspect of advanced artificial intelligence. A quality in most science fictions where it is believed the artificial intelligence of the computers will be high.

Machines and robots will be in force on the earth and may actually take over. Computers that exist in the earth and moon at that time have a higher artificial intelligence level. Take Holmes IV, known as Mike as an example. He has become self aware. A machine that is almost human. It has come to understand

human emotions and feelings. Mike even has a sense of humor. To most people, the computers in the future will be smaller and advanced. However Mike is a huge mainframe. It is a main computer that controls all the facilities on the moon.

In the rebellion, the supercomputer Mike provides a lot of insight. It actually acts like Adam Selene who is the leader of the group. The computer is able to make complex calculations. It can store 90 minutes of conversation in ten minutes.

He can animate the human face, something that he also learns in a few minutes. He reads over a 1000 books and every fact that he reads he can connect it with everything else that he knows, something he also does in minutes.

The professor Bernado tells them that the moon has to soon cease transporting wheat to the earth and its resources may dry up. At this point Mike is able to calculate that there will be food riots in seven years. Additionally, there will be cannibalism on the Moon after nine years.

These projections of the Moon’s gloomy future work to motivate the professor and Mannie more on the decision to revolt. Mike is even able to calculate the chances of success of the rebellion. He says it is a 1:7 win situation. As the story progresses, Mike keeps calculating and revising the chances of failure and success of the revolt.

The people on the moon though have a gambling culture and as long the chances of being successful is not 0, then it is okay to proceed. Mannie suspects Mike of rigging the elections when he is elected to the congress together with the Professor and Wyoh.

The novel is also set in the future. The people in the moon have a distinct syntax in their language showing the way the earth’s language will develop and change in the future. The author lays the idea that in the future there is the possibility of a different version of English or other languages being spoken on the earth.

It is a war that takes place in the universe between the people on the moon and the earth. The equipment involved in the war is advanced. The earth uses advanced war ships. The federation warships arrive for war at the moon however the revolutionaries are able to destroy them. The revolutionaries are even able to destroy the ships while in the air, before landing on the moon.

Fourthly, there is the operation of the laws of science. The moon sends wheat to the earth using an electromagnetic catapult. In the war between the moon and the earth, in the universe, Mike throws rocks travelling at 11km per second that are like atomic bombs.

They release the same amount of energy. During the war in the universe, many people in one location become asphyxiated due to loss of air pressure.

The science fiction novels usually speak of events and happenings that do not occur in this world. On the earth, monogamy is practiced in most countries. In some countries, polygamy is traditionally practiced. Very few countries or cultures practice polyandry.

However in the Moon is a Harsh Mistress, the population of the women is much higher than the men population. In order for the people to continue the family unit, they adopt a polyandry kind of society (Bryan, 1998, pg 1357).

The state of marriage at that time in the future is illegal however in the earth. When Mannie travels to the earth to lay the argument for the moon’s independence, he is arrested for bigamy and polygamy.

Conclusion

The Moon is a Harsh Mistress incorporates all the themes of pain, cyber punk and science fiction in a great way. The computer, Mike is given human elements that cause the reader to feel Mike’s pain when at the end they can no longer communicate they way they used.

One is left angry at the costs of war. Things are never the same between the two after the war. Though Mike is able to use the computer to perform certain functions, it is not to the high degree that was there before and during the war.

The reader is also made to identify with the suffering people on the moon and root for their deliverance. Though one starts wondering of how it must be like to live in a society with polyandry marriages. The society is a reversal of the present state of affairs. The men are so weak. The women have totally taken over the society. It is not a man’s world in the moon.

The adjustment to live on the moon for the convicts is hard. The feeling of being trapped in a place is hard to deal with. After only a few months there is no way of escape.

The earth’s inhabitants on the other hand are selfishly taking grain from the earth not thinking of the impact it has or will have on the moon in the future. If such transportation of the grain to the earth continues, the people on the moon will surely perish. It is with this mindset of the future that Mannie and his friends plead the case for the lunar independence and recognition as a state.

Works Cited

Heinlein, Robert. The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. New York: Tom Doherty Associates,1997. Print.

Lerner, Fredrick. Modern Science Fiction and the American Literary Community. United States: Scarecrow press, 1985. Print.

Ryan, Bryan. Major 20th Century Writers: A Selection of Sketches of Contemporary Authors, Volume 2. United States: Gale group.1998, Print.

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