Elements of Fascism in UK and US Practices on Global Issues Analytical Essay
As it has been observed, contemporary politics are becoming more radical and dominated by authoritarianism as most politicians seem to advocate for totalitarianism. Totalitarianism can be described as the process through which men dominate their experiences in the society with regard to power acquisition and control of resources. Notably, some western nations like US and UK have largely been observed to contain elements of fascism.
According to Gregory (2007, p 235), fascism ideology has largely erupted from rationalism where the most powerful states perceive themselves as being the ultimate controllers of human activities, following the currently increasing globalization among nations. This paper will discuss how United States and United Kingdom nations have been observed to express some elements of fascism in controlling the masses, following the currently experienced neo-liberalism era.
With the massive increase in the earth’s population, totalitarian dominion has been evidenced by the way politicians are engaging in the control of the world’s scarce resources, mainly with personal interests. According to Ball & Dagger (2010, p 173), the act of modern masses becoming superfluity, indicating high competition for scarce resources, reflects the way totalitarianism is becoming deeply rooted in the society.
As it has been revealed, merciless processes where totalitarianism is driving men to organize the masses reveals high degree of suicidal escaping of realty among the men in the society. On this basis, the totalitarian attempt to make men superfluous reflects the experiences of modern masses of their struggle for scarce resources in the currently overpopulated society, as triggered by loneliness among men.
Since industrial production seems to expand at a lower rate than the human population, jobs are becoming scarce and industrial workers get involved in competing for the limited job opportunities.
As Gregory (2007, p 235) reports, lawlessness has become an apparent act among men, as they struggle to maintain the control of the scarce resources. With totalitarianism taking new shapes, men in the contemporary society are becoming more vigilant to maintain their royal status by even involving use of force and terror.
According to Ball & Dagger (2010, p 157), the rise of terrorism in the cold-war era can be described as the ultimate strategy to acquire power and fame among the people. Quite significantly, loneliness has largely participated in enhancing the ideology of ‘terror’ since the currently overpopulated society necessitates power and influence to acquire control of the scarce resources.
Being prospective movements of the contemporary society, fascism and totalitarianism has been revealed to facilitate the various changes observed day to day life. As has been observed, US and UK today seem to be the most influential nations globally, as they seem to overrule most of international strategies in all levels. For instance, the rise of terrorism has largely been attributed to the fascism nature of these nations in controlling the world’s resources.
As held by Gregory (2007, p 237), everything has been kept in motion as a strategy to enhance dominance of power among the most influential nations. Considering the fact that idleness would result into creation of new strategies to overthrow the prevailing powers, men are evidenced to act in merciless manners in their pursuit of maintaining a dynamic society in fear of being overthrown.
As it has been observed, the act of military invasion of Iraq and Baghdad by US in the war of terror can be largely described as a strategy of keeping the Americans in control of the global activities. Such activities as evidenced in the contemporary society seem to be aligned with the fascism ideology to a greater extent.
It has been noted that, fascism can largely be associated with personal interests and the urge to realize self actualization. Notably, it is from a lonely situation that individuals develop the urge to achieve their desires, in which totalitarianism forms the focal part of it.
On this basis, this hypothesis developed by Renton (1999, p 21) can be tested in the current society dominated by various power struggles, especially between western states like UK and US and the Middle East countries. With the world becoming globalized as a result of neo-liberalism, political powers are becoming largely centralized among the powerful states.
Considering the current trend of security patterns across the world, super-power countries like US are becoming dominant in global issues. This can be described as high level of totalitarianism. Particularly, the rise of imperialism among nations has largely impacted on the economic and political uproars currently experienced.
With the current trend of universalism, UK and US states have largely been observed to reveal totalitarian political leadership where there has ultimately been no antidote despair. As Gregory (2007, p 239), “If lawfulness is the essence of non-tyrannical government … then terror is the essence of totalitarian domination”, implying how terror dominates the overall fascisms acts.
With the new security system of privatizing all armed forces, creation and maintenance of political powers among these western states has been evidenced. Though the rulers seem not exercise totalitarianism directly, public behavior is being guided by inflicting fear to pave way and intimidate any uprising terrorism from taking into effect.
Considering the act of US of overriding the Middle East countries, fear seems to be inflicted among the terrorist groups from being active. Mainly, with the adoption of totalitarianism in these western states, their domination and terrorization of the global activities from within has been largely realized.
Through the combination of simple ideology and strategies to govern people, totalitarians are always by the law of the nature where individuals strive to survive. Being a continuous process, totalitarianism has largely been facilitated by the state of ‘loneliness’ among the people, as they struggle to dominate the entire world. Considering the recently established European Union culminating to European citizenship, UK has largely been a focal key player in the union.
Political analysis of this strategy has revealed how UK, seems to dominate most of the decisions made in the Union, with an aim of controlling all the ultimate activities in the region. On this basis, UK can be described as being fascist in its governance by establishing networks to dominate the emerging states in Europe.
More so, Ball & Dagger (2010, p 161) presented the ideology of fascism and totalitarianism as being connected to behaviorism and National Socialism. Through totalitarianism as a result of loneliness, arising from superfluity, we can not easily avert mass suicide.
There is usually struggle for power and total control of the scarce resources among global leaders, in which the subsequent impact of the same facilitates mass suicide. As evidenced in the terrorism attacks in US and UK where the alleged terrorists aimed at causing political threats among the potential world political leaders of US and UK, many people died.
In response, the invasion of Middle East countries by US and UK in the war of terror has been evidenced to cause a lot of blood shed. Mainly, it is usually quite hard to avert mass suicide, as long as totalitarianism prevails in the current global leadership.
As evidenced by Renton (1999, p 24), the approach of totalitarianism is philosophical more than just a mere history on the basis of the current trend world events. Further, such approach on human behavior goes beyond politics, psychology or even personal reflection in the way the current happenings are observed as posing great threat to humanity and the universe at large.
With gangster initiatives of the majority, dangerous totalitarians are creating the worst human crimes ever experienced in history. With the rise of terrorism and invariably war against terror, humanity is brought out as at threat of this dangerous totalitarianism.
This is reflected in Gregory (2007, p 241), “…killing of small socialist functionaries or opposing parties merciless dominates the entire process of totalitarianism.” I have found the contemporary estrangement between Muslims and Americans as being intensely rooted on fascism rudiments of American supremacy.
As it has been revealed, fascism movements are owned by masses, in which perplexed people lack clear sense of reality, since the world they inhabit is ultimately destroyed by the turmoil of high levels of unemployment and pressure on scarce resources. It has been observed that, UK and US nations exercise some practices of fascism in their ultimate struggle to control masses.
In fact, the approach of perceiving the helpless people who are exposed to totalitarian movements as being threat to imperial political leaders reveals the danger of ‘the mob’ and the violent nature of the underworld generations. Mainly, the ‘superfluous’ people are brought out as ideal casualties of the totalitarianism terror.
Since this is traced from the capitalism markets where labor movements resulted into the capitalists being at threat of losing autonomy over human labor, the current trend of totalitarianism seems more dangerous and explosive beyond mere explanation.
Particularly, personal reflections are empowered by collective totalitarianism, in which the upheaval oppressive regimes, is being exercised through terrorism.
Ball, T. & Dagger, R. (2010). Fascism. In Political Ideologies and the Democratic Deal (8th
Edition, p 154-182). New York: Pearson Publishing Co.
Gregory, A. (2007). Fascism in the Western States. International Politics, 23(5): 234-251.
Renton, D. (1999). Fascism: Theory and Practice. London: Pluto Press.
Fascism and Socialism Research Paper
Fascism is a right-wing philosophy that commemorates a state or race as a natural community surpassing all other loyalties. It puts emphasis on a legend of racial regeneration following a period of demolition. Fascism, thus, calls for a religious revolution against signs of immorality such as selfishness and cupidity. It seeks to eliminate alien forces and associations that intimidate the ordinary society.
It tends to rejoice in masculinity, youth, spiritual unity and the regenerative supremacy of violence. It supports racial superiority principles, ethnic harassments, imperialist extension and genocide. Fascism may incorporate a type of internationalism based on ethnic or ideological unity across nationwide boundaries. Typically, fascism promotes open male dominance, though it may at times espouse female unity and new opportunities for females of the privileged state (Griffin 150).
The approach of Fascism to politics is termed as both populist and elitist. It is regarded as populist in the sense that it seeks to stimulate persons against alleged oppressors. It is termed as elitist since it treats the will of its people as personified in a chosen group or one ultimate leader, from whom power proceeds downward. Fascism also seeks to systematize a cadre-led group movement to seize state authority.
It compulsorily subordinates all fields of the community to its ideological hallucination of natural community, usually via a totalitarian state. As an association and as a government, fascism makes use of mass associations as a system of amalgamation and control. It also utilizes planned violence to repress opposition, though the scale of aggression differs widely (Renton 34).
Fascism is antagonistic to Marxism, conservatism and Liberalism though it makes use of concepts from the three. It rebuffs the policies of class struggle and employee internationalism as coercions to state unity. It, however, takes advantage of real grievances in opposition to capitalists and property-owners through racial scape goating. Fascism declines the noninterventionist doctrines of personal autonomy and political pluralism (Griffiths 89).
Typically associated with the Nazi movement and with Hitler’s rule in Germany, Fascism has quite short yet rather impressive historical record. However, there is certain inconsistency in associating Hitler’s reign with the epoch of fascism, since Hitler’s politics itself was based on Nazism, which is quite a different movement. However, according to Griffiths, the issue has rather clear and understandable explanation for the confusion.
The movement aimed at intertwining the Church, the State and the Party into a single entity, which, supposedly, could make the state stronger and eventually turn it invincible to the attacks of the enemies (Griffin) was narrowed to the epoch of the totalitarian regime of Benito Mussolini, as Griffin marked:
The word fascism here, however, is the anglicized form of the Italian proper name fascimo (henceforth to be referred to as ‘Fascism’). To apply it to phenomena outside Italy is to change the status of the word: it becomes a generic term. (1)
However, when applied to the German totalitarian regime in 1933-1945, fascism obtains a different palette of meanings, changing the idea of fascism and shaping it into a new ugly and immense power. As Griffin said,
If Italy’s proto-fascism could be pictured as a few rivulets or trickles of ultra-national sentiment whose confluence was only made possible by the interventionist crisis, then Germany’s evokes a meandering network of tributaries which had still to find a common channel by the time the First World War broke out. (85)
Hence, fascism has a number of faces. Splitting into various types, it was bruising until the WWI broke out. However, even the WWI could not put an end to the hatred and rivalry, since the results of the treaty did not satisfy the Central Powers (Griffin 231).
Socialism is a financial system in which production means are both owned by the nation or community and managed cooperatively. Socialism is a form of communal association that is based on joint integration and self-management. The chief aim of socialism is social fairness and wealth allocation based on one’s contribution to the community.
It leads to an economic organization that serves the needs of the community as a whole. Socialism is based on production for consumption and the allocation of economic products to meet financial demands and human needs. In socialism, bookkeeping is based on material resources, physical size and a direct assessment of labor and time.
Products are distributed via markets and income allocation is based on the policy of personal merit. As a political association, socialism involves a wide range of political beliefs that vary from reformism to radical socialism. Supporters of socialism promote the nationalization of production means, allocation and exchange as an approach for executing socialism. Social democrats, however, promote public management of resources in the market economy (Fleming 92).
Socialism deals with a materialistic point of view and a perception that individual behavior is shaped by the communal environment. It holds that societal mores, beliefs, cultural attributes and financial practices are social conceptions and are not the possessions of an absolute natural law.
Socialists claim that socialism leads to human social association up to the degree of modern technological capacity. They assert that capitalism, as a system of allocating wealth, is outdated since it puts both power and riches within a small section of the community. It is, therefore, clear that socialism is the only system to sensibly deal with people fighting against themselves and the natural world (Mill 79).
It is quite peculiar that most people erroneously associate Socialism with Communism, as Fleming notes. However, Fleming emphasizes that the two ideologies are not necessarily to be intertwined into a single entity. As the historian mentions, the two can exist independently, which proves that Socialism is not intertwined with Communism:
Although the collapse of the Soviet empire (in the late 1980s and early 1990s) has tended to discredit communism, socialist ideas (at least in a moderate form) are accepted and praised, even by politicians and journalists who claim to defend the free market. (16-17)
It is essential to mark that the development of socialist ideas is typically split into two epochs, which are the era before the French Revolution and the era after the French Revolution, as Fleming (13) emphasizes.
Indeed, it is essential to mark that the French Revolution has considerably enhanced the development of the socialist ideas, not to mention the fact that it was in the revolutionary France where the famous Equality, Liberty, Fraternity motto was born to be further on spread all over the world as the fundament of a stable and healthy society.
Tracking the differences between the pre-Revolution Socialism and the post-Revolution Socialism, one can see the main landmarks of the ideology development and specify the changes that have been made to the socialist ideas throughout its evolution.
Fleming, Thomas. Socialism. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2008. Print.
Griffin, Roger. The Nature of Fascism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Print.
Griffiths Richard. Fascism. London: Continuum, 2005. Print.
Mill, Stuart. On Socialism. New York: Cosimo, 2009. Print.
Renton, Dave. Fascism: Theory and Practice. London; Sterling, Va.: Pluto Press. Print
Contemporary Examples of Fascist Thoughts Essay
Fascism by definition refers to a philosophy which seeks to ensure that the interests of the society always supersede those of the individual. The ideology of fascism advocates for a state that is ruled by a single party which is meant to mobilise people through all means acceptable and unacceptable to ensure that the roots of the society are not drained.
While fascism is rooted from socialism, the approach taken is one of capitalism where force and violence is used to achieve what is targeted. Fascism must be distinguished from socialism whereby socialism was seeking total control of all the processes of economy in the society by ensuring that production is state controlled (Trotsky 340).
Fascism on the other hand has always taken control though indirectly by ensuring that private owners dominate the processes of economy in the country. While fascism is concept that came to be many years ago, there seem to be merging modern examples of fascist thought. This discussion looks at some of the contemporary examples of fascist thoughts and also the limits and freedoms of such expressions.
Though it happened many years ago Nazi Germany is a perfect example of fascism (Griffiths 145). While the interests of the people were always kept first, the manner in which these interests were achieved was quite wanting especially because there was a lot of violence and force that was applied.
During the time of Hitler, power was acquired gradually without the need for an uprising or protests and this is what makes fascism dangerous. In modern day, a perfect example of fascism would be leftism or what has come to be known as left wing politics.
This is where change that is social in nature is advocated for with the aim of coming up with a society that is egalitarian. Leftism, pretty much like fascism is driven by emotions which were negative like anger, range and violence and all these negative emotions are directed to the status quo (Mosse 354). Modern fascism like leftism is geared towards changing the status quo or the position held by conservatists. It is the manner in which leftist apply their ideology that is questionable (Mussolini 76).
Looking at the Al Qaeda group which was pioneered by their fallen hero Osama Bin Laden may also reveal traits of modern fascism. Osama had a good cause for which he was fighting for and this was the protection of Islamic rights. However, it is the manner in which he carried out his mission that was wanting. He used terrorist’s attacks which led to the death of many people and led to the destruction of property. Modern day fascism is frowned upon leading to modern day fascists changing their tactics and strategy.
Fascist’s expressions have their limits in that they tend to curtain the general freedom of the people by sort of dictating to the people what they ought to and how they ought to behave (Breuilly 97). These expressions however have their fair share of freedom in that the person leading such movements is always a charismatic leader one who is liked by the people he is representing.
Fascism therefore is a double edged sword which can hurt either way or be beneficial in both ways. How effective this ideology is in a society will be highly dependent on how it is implemented.
Breuilly, John. Nationalism and the State. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993. Print
Griffiths, Richard. Fascism. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. Print
Mosse, George. International Fascism : New Thoughts and New Approaches. Michigan: Sage Publications, 1979. Print
Mussolini, Benito. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions. Michigan: Ardita, 1935. Print
Trotsky, Leon. Fascism: What it is and How to Fight It. London: Resistance Books. 1999. Print
Origin of Fascism Essay
Fascism is a contentious subject that has attracted much scholarly debate. Many scholars contend that a regime that embraces fascism is despotic.
Nonetheless, some despotic regimes never practice fascism. Fascism has generally been understood as an ideology or a system of ideologies. “Fascism can be defined as a system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism”.
The 1880s are believed to have marked the onset of fascism. This was characterized by the fin de siècle theme which prevailed in this period. The fin de siècle theme was used to criticize materialism and rationalism. Moreover, they were against capitalist societies and positivism. Thus, they criticized the idea of liberal democracy.
A significant aspect during the formulation of fascism was the merging of nationalism with the political right, while on the left there was sorelian syndicalism. As opposed to most of the leftist ideologies, sorelian syndicalism adopted an enlist perspective that working class morality was supposed to be elevated.
The political left faced a division due to the merging of syndicalism with militaristic influences which occurred from 1907. This political division became entrenched in Italy where there was much influence between the nationalist and syndic lists. “Italian national syndic lists held a common set of principles: the rejection of bourgeois values, democracy, liberalism, Marxism, internationalism, and pacifism, and the promotion of heroism, vitalism, and violence”.
Emergence of Hitler
Adolf Hitler rose from a humble background and he emerged to be an influential leader in Europe during his reign. His rise formally began in late1919 in Germany, when he obtained membership of Nazi Party. The Nazi Party emerged and progressed after World War One.
This party strongly criticized both the Marxist ideologies and the Weimar Republic that was based on democracy. In addition, the Versailles treaty was also opposed by the proponents of the Nazi Party. Consequently, this party embraced extreme nationalism. Hitler’s position was elevated in the Nazi Party during its initial formulation. He acted as the best spokes person of the party.
The Nazis continuously gained prominence in the 1920s until the first period of the 1930s. When the Nazis finally assumed power, they developed a myth about their rise to authority. At the end of 1922, Hitler formed Jug end bund and Hitler Youth organizations, which later became prominent.
A significant opportunity arose for Hitler when he organized a coup in early November 1923. The coup d’état flopped and he was finally tried for having engaged in treason. This coup attempt gave Hitler a national recognition. While in prison, he managed to consolidate his plans for political authority.
The Nazi also used the Barmat Scandal as one of their strategies for elections. In 1929, a referendum was conducted in Germany. Fortunately, it was supported and recognized by members of the Nazi Party. The great depression which prevailed in 1929 primarily contributed to Hitler’s victory in the subsequent elections.
In Germany, the Nazi Party still remained the most popular even after it had lost thirty four posts during the 1932 elections. “On 30th January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of a coalition government of the NSDAP-DNVP Party”. The opponents of Nazism were unable to come together and rebel against it. This enabled Hitler to quickly consolidate extreme authority.
Churchill, W. (1991). Memoirs of the Second World War. London: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ingersoll, D. (2009). The Philosophic Roots of Modern Ideology: Liberalism, Conservatism, Marxism, Fascism, Nazism, Islamism. New York: Sloan Publisher.
Keegan, J. (2005). The Second World War. New York: Penguin.
McElvaine, R. (1993). The Great Depression: America 1929-1941. New York: Times Books.
Pearce, R. (1997). Fascism and Nazism. New York: Hodder Educational.
Shirer, W. (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. London: Simon & Schuster.
How useful is the term ‘fascism’ when applied generically to describe the far right in interwar Europe? Essay
Fascism is a versatile term used to describe the political philosophies that were influential in many parts of Europe following the First World War. It also relates to the style of leadership and the policies adopted by a group of people. According to Eatwell, fascism is the most vicious political crusade that ever emerged1. It is associated with dictatorial rule and violence.
In Europe, fascism was experienced between the first and the second world wars. Countries such as Britain, France and Norway had fascist crusades, while others like Poland and Austria were ruled by fascist governors. Nevertheless, fascism had a profound effect on Germany and Italy. Despite the fact there is question over the origin of fascism; Morgan asserts that fascism is a product of crisis2.
The crisis that engulfed Europe due to war and the great depression presented the perfect opportunity for fascist movements. This is because; crisis created a demand for unusual strategies to solve the political, economic and social issues that emerged after the war.
Fascism is mostly associated with leaders who were against collectivism, egalitarianism and socialism. Some of those leaders include Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler among others. Their ideologies were centered on an acute form of nationalism and racism.
Although these leaders were first seen as heroes due to the efforts they made to recuperate from the war, their actions later led to an era of violence such as the Holocaust that ended after the Second World War. Fascism is useful in describing the political regimes witnessed in interwar Europe.
This paper discusses the origin and ideologies developed in interwar Europe and the reasons why these ideologies spread. It further examines the characteristic policies adopted by Leaders like Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. Finally, it looks at the relationship between fascism and religion in Europe.
Origin of Fascism
Product of crisis
To understand fascism, it is important to look at its history. According to Morgan, fascism is a product of crisis. The First World War left Europe in economic hardship3. Economic control changed hands from England to United States. There was a high rate of unemployment and the inflation rate had increased tremendously.
In Britain, workers initiated strikes in order to demand an increase in salary and improved working conditions. Moreover, Europe was indebted to America. The Americans demanded that the European nations should pay reparations. Since there was no way for these nations to pay compensation fees and inter-allied debts, the Americans invested in Europe to recover their debt.
Unfortunately, when the United States economy failed, the European economy failed too. For most people, the actions of the fascists were not important so long as the nation was restored to its former glory. Still, other historians hold the view that fascism started way before the First World War due to the cultural and social changes that occurred in Europe. Those who hold this view believe that fascism already existed before it could be identified4.
Reaction to communism
However, Eatwell argued that fascism originated from rejection. Fascists detest the idea of freedom and fairness5. They believe that democracy causes the government to be weak. Fascism grew because people could not tolerate the idea of democracy and communism. They blamed communism and democracy for the great depression. In addition, they abhorred the idea of equality. Another analogous view of this subject is that of Furet in his book Fascism and communism.
He claims that fascism is a reaction to the communist rule. Fascism developed because of fear of communists6, who had unsuccessfully tried to invade Europe. For example, fascists gained acceptance because they promised to nationalize property and introduce private property rights. They promoted wealthy entrepreneurs while demolishing workers union. Nonetheless, these rights were subject to individuals who rendered services on behalf of the state.
Emotions like fear, bitterness, and hatred also contributed to fascism. Following the First World War, most of the European people were left without a nation. As causalities of war, people found themselves in geographical entities which did not recognize their values or customs. Furthermore, the people felt embarrassed because of the demands imposed by the champions of war. They feared that the communists would take over and confiscate their property.
Soldiers and war veterans come back home after the first war, in desolation and paucity. All these issues, together with the economic depression experienced in interwar Europe birthed out negative emotions. As a result, people did not need much convincing before they embraced nationalist ideologies. They had lost their value and the state was their only source of pride.
In Italy, the returning soldiers were despised and jeered by the public. Their services during the war were not appreciated or honored. Mussolini targeted the anger of the lower class and the veteran soldiers of war to gain popularity. The support he received gave him the opportunity to bring his party to power.
Ideologies of Fascism
One of the essential ideologies of fascism is nationalism7. Fascists endorse nationalism in terms of ethnicity, religion, race and culture. However, fascism drove nationalism to the negative extreme. Nationalists believe that the nation was more important than a single individual. An individual is only right when his interests concur with the nation.
Fascists failed to see that people were different from the state. Consequently, individuals were treated as division of a nation. To win support, leaders made promises to restore past prominence and power.
They also made effort to create an invisible threat to the state in order to instill fear in people. For this reason, leaders like Hitler were authoritarians who claimed to do everything for the nation. All their actions were justified by the nationalism ideology. The use of nationalism to gain influence is a perfect example of how dictators come to power during the interwar period.
Racism and Anti-Semitism
Another popular ideology with fascism is racism and anti-Semitism. This was seen through Hitler who started to spread propaganda against the Jews. Hitler took advantage of the economic depression and framed the Jews for the economic downfall of Germany. He came up with a solution to eliminate the Jews. To make his message effective, he spread propaganda against them and made the people believe that Jews were inferior and had an agenda to take over Germany. Conversely, racism towards black people was a common phenomenon witnessed in the interwar period. Most of the people were led to believe that white people were superior to other races due to their skin pigmentation8. These ideologies led to ‘racial cleansing’ in order to safeguard their heritage.
Use of violence
Fascists firmly believe that violence is inevitable. It is a common dogma used by fascist to ensure that they solved crisis9. Under fascist administrations, a huge amount of money is set aside for the military. Additionally, violence was used to instill fear and cause intimation. It is the means by which fascists ensured that there philosophies and ideas were adopted. All their orders were obeyed without question. In Germany, Hitler used the Nazi.
In Italy, the terror group was known as ‘black shirts’. In the beginning, Mussolini used this group to tear down the opposition. Later, the black shirts manned the streets disciplining anyone who dishonored the leadership of the dictator. These groups were known to be brutal and the people had no choice but to obey orders. Because fascism was known to endorse war and violence it led to world war two; which in the end destroyed it.
Dictatorship is one of the political regimes witnessed in interwar Europe. It is a term used to depict a system of government in which a democratic system is missing. There are two forms of dictatorship classified into: authoritarian and totalitarian10. Authoritarians are brought to power following a military takeover or an existing conventional administration. The main purpose of such a regime is to preserve long-established structures and customs.
On the other hand, totalitarian rule come to power following a rebellion. Such administrations have radical believes and principles that ensure that change in the political, financial and societal structures. This system of government was seen in Germany and Italy among others. Some of the aspects that were common to these administrations were the use of propaganda to control all sectors of the economy, use of violence to intimidate people, and the complete control of economy.
Fascism in Italy
Fascism originated in Italy under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. This was a period in which Italy was greatly distressed. Like all the other nations involved in war, Italy had borrowed a huge sum of money to cover the cost of the war. However, on returning home, the prime minister and the soldiers at that time had no plunder to show forth.
What followed was a period of economic distress characterized by corruption and unemployment. In the midst of the chaos, Mussolini launched a fascist party and organized a fascist movement that saw him being awarded with a position in the government11.
He later changed the country and forced the opposition party at that time to vote against themselves. This move gave him power to rule over Italy. His ideas were centered on a racial nation, in which all the citizens would be unified by their birthright and outward appearance.
Mussolini’s power and influence increased and extended to several parts of Italy. His rule was characterized by violence. His party took charge of the police force which controlled the streets and instilled fear. Mussolini’s doctrine denied the people many freedoms. All forms of written materials were censored while other books and articles were banned.
The education system was structured to endorse the fascist administration. One of the strategies used by Mussolini to provide a solution to issues of unemployment was the formation of work camps. These work camps provided employment opportunities for the people who were jobless12. In addition, the camps led to an improvement in infrastructure.
Because he increased the rate of employment, Mussolini gained trust and control of the economic sector. Although the ideologies developed by Mussolini improved the economy of Italy, it cost the people their rights and privileges.
Fascism in Germany
Fascism in Germany was first experienced when Hitler came to power. Like Mussolini, he made numerous promises to restore the economy of Germany. Nonetheless, his method of organization was different from Mussolini. The Nazi party was obsessed with being a model of patriotism for the people13. The party was independent of financial donations from industries and businessmen as it was financed by supporters and associates.
Hitler framed the Jews for their defeat during war and the loss of German soldiers. Additionally, he associated the Jews with communism and financial capitalism. He accused them of taking sides with the Soviet Union whose goal was to take over Germany. Consequently, the government endorsed a program to fight the threat. The Jews were denied citizenship and their property confiscated.
Fascism and Religion
Fascists like Hitler and Mussolini used religion to gain political acceptance. Nevertheless, these leaders supported the church for outward appearance but inside they were pagans. There ideologies completely any form of religious belief. Their totalitarian and authoritarian manner made them supreme in their own sense. They demanded allegiance and cooperation from the people. Initially, Mussolini was against the Catholic Church.
He spread propaganda against the church and tried to possess their property. Later on, he denounced his stands when he saw that people were warming up to the church. In the same way, Hitler used the church to attract supporters. In his speech, he would quote religious texts and relate them to the Nazi political schemes.
For example, he altered the bible and claimed that Jesus was not a Jew, and that the Jews had killed Christ because he despised them. It is clear that religion and fascism could never agree because both seek to claim the body and soul of a person.
Based on the ideologies and origin of fascism, it is clear that fascism was a reaction to communism and the aftermath of war. The pain and suffering brought about by the economic downfall and the loss of national pride provided the perfect environment for the fascists to take over. Mussolini and Hitler introduced ideologies as a way of restoring national identity and creating a powerful nation, and the people were excited to hear this.
Fascism developed as a result of extreme patriotism, apprehension, and dictatorship. However, it did not succeed due to its violent nature, lack of proper structures and totalitarian rule. Although fascism made life better for a while, a lot of people paid a high price for the loss of their freedom and privileges. Several people lost their lives and property due to the violent. Fascism is useful in describing the political system witnessed in interwar Europe.
Eatwell, Roger. Fascism: A History. London: Routledge, 2003.
Fieschi, Catherine. Fascism, Populism and the French Fifth Republic: in the shadow of democracy. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 2004.
Furet, François and Nolte Ernst. Fascism and Communism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003.
Morgan, Philip. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003.
Todd, Allan. The European Dictatorship: Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
1 Roger Eatwell. Fascism: a history. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.6
2 Philip Morgan, Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003 , p. 64
3 Philip Morgan. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.64
4 Philip Morgan. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.15
5 Roger Eatwell. Fascism: a history. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.20
6 François Furet and Ernst Nolte. Fascism and communism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004, P. 19-20
7 Catherine Fieschi. Fascism, populism and the French Fifth Republic: in the shadow of democracy. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press, 2004, P. 10
8 Allan Todd. The European Dictatorship: Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 11
9 Philip Morgan. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.64
10 Allan Todd. The European Dictatorship: Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003, p.12
11 Philip Morgan. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.123
12 Philip Morgan. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.130
13 Philip Morgan. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2003 , p.66
Japanese Fascism Research Paper
People always want good leadership and on the other hand, leaders want people to lead. What is however, of great concern in this form of leader-subject relationship is which party should have the power to choose.
Whether the subject should choose their leaders or whether the leaders should choose the style of leadership that they wish to impose on their people remains a thing of concern. From this issue of choice it is a fact that one form of leadership will fit a certain group of people where another form of leadership will not fit and vice versa.
Post war Japan as most historians look at it can be termed as a complete representation of fascism. This paper therefore begins by looking at fascism as a concept; the paper will however focus on Japanese fascism through its differences and similarities with other forms of international fascism. The paper finally looks at the role played by the Japanese culture in the support of the fascist ideology.
To some society, the nation or the country is greater than an individual is and in the same societies, there is no one particular time that the two will ever be equal. This is the origin of fascism and the same approach provides the basis on which a fascism leadership is build.
Fascism can be looked from both a concept and an ideology point of view and the later is the most dominant. Fascism can therefore be described as an extreme ideology that celebrates a nation or a race above all other form of loyalties.
The concept therefore calls for revolution among the people in order to counter the threats of moral decay that comes in the form of materialism and individualism. This revolution also seeks to unite the people against the common enemy that threatens the nation.
It goes without saying that there is safety in numbers and that all together it is difficult to get a victory then being in a fight alone facing something or somebody that is meaningfully bigger and stronger. To start with, the ideology focuses on the internal enemy before stretching its hands on the external enemy.
Leaders always have a way of maintaining authority over the people; some will divide the people in order to rule them while on the other hand the fascists will create a common enemy for the people to impose their unity and submissiveness towards their leaders.
Skirbekk (2011) emphasized on this by stating that “fascism was meant to strengthen and unite the people through emotional ties, such as willingness to make sacrifices and submit to discipline, so that the fascist leader could create order.”
Myths and religions always go alongside the governments and leaderships and this is observable from all forms of governments that have existed in the ancient and the modern world. As concept fascism celebrates masculinity, the youths and their power alongside this factor is the power of violence that is also celebrated.
Closely related to these facts are the aspects of doctrine and racial superiority and they all have a place in fascism. In order for fascist leaders to achieve, their leadership ambitions then they use the innocence of the people to promote imperialists expansion, doctrine superiority and ethnicity.
It is also important to note that the ruling class has limited control over a fascist authority but the society has the most control. Although fascism promotes capitalism, some of its agenda do not fit well in capitalist ideology. The two ideologies however contradict and convince in their agenda.
“Fascism is the dictatorship of monopoly capital drawn by its internal contradictions into policies of oppressions at home and expansion abroad” (Duss and Okimoto, 1997). This feature characterized post war Japan in the 1930s and this led most historians to describe experiences in this period as fascist (Olick, 1964).
Capitalism was facing the Japanese’s authority and they perceived it as a threat. This threat is the main cause of the measures that the authority took; fascism emerged as the main or the key policy that the government of Japan adopted.
Fascism in Japan finds a lot of similarity to other forms of fascism that were taking place in other parts of the world such as Italy and Germany. However, there are some outstanding differences between the different forms of fascism.
To begin with, opposition to communism, virulent nationalism, authoritarian form of government and aggression characterized Japanese fascism. These aspects are shared with other forms of fascism that took place in Germany and Italy at the same historic period.
The concept of fascism remains a controversial issue among historians and political scientists and for this reason, they have failed to reach consensus on the validity of fascism that was in Japan. In particular, the two groups have failed to agree on whether fascism is a revolutionary or a conservative issue.
They have also failed to reach consensus as to whether fascism is a modern or a traditional issue. The other issue that is of concern is whether the concept is a direct consequence of the First World War. In addition, socio economic and agricultural modernization has a close link to fascism and this is another source of controversy among most scholars.
Above all scholars have failed to reach consensus on the role of fascism as a form of ultra nationalism and as a means of restoring a country’s status. These controversies not only arise in Japanese fascism but it is also a common phenomenon in German and Italian fascism.
The events that took place from the time of industrial revolution to World War 1 had a close link to fascism although there is no clear-cut reason as to which event led to the rise of fascism. It is also important to note that all the above countries were directly influenced by these historical events and therefore the form of fascism present in these countries had many similarities.
When it comes to taking control over people with their entire mind and might leaders emerges as the best. In a fascist authority, the issue of taking control over the people is of great significance and fascist leaders know that for them to control the naivety of the people well then they have to be affiliated to the religion and traditions of the people.
The national culture and religion was of great importance to fascist (Payne, 1999). Both in Japan and in Italy fascism was characterized by religion affiliation where in Japan, for example the fascist leadership existed in the umbrella of Buddhism while in Italy fascism was affiliated to the orthodox faith.
Authority in the past has applied fascism to define the structures of their authorities or government although fascism in itself is not a fully defined political system (Duss and Okimoto, 1997). This fact gives the concept or ideology of fascism the ability to exist in different forms.
However, it is important to note that these different forms are not easily distinguishable and as noted by (Sims, 2011) different categories of fascism cannot be distinguished and this applies even in Italy and Germany. In the same article (Sims, 2011) continues to argue that if the issue is perceived from that particular perspective then fascism in Japan did not begin with the invention of the word.
In Japan, bureaucrats promoted a radical, authoritarian form of technocracy, referred to as “techno-fascism” (Mimura, 2011). This claim proves the point that fascism manifests in various forms, some can easily be noted while other cannot and this is a major similarity between the fascism in Japan and fascism in Germany, Italy and other European countries.
Fascism lacks theoretical definition that is acceptable across border and across the different academic fields. In studying the concept of Japanese fascism, looking at the similarities and the differences that existed between Japanese fascism and the other fascism therefore remains the key element that is applicable.
To begin with, unlike in Germany and Italy fascism brought economic destabilization in Japan. By the year 1930 the Japanese was doing far much better and it was closer to Italy and Germany economy more than the Spanish economy (Sims 2011). The Japanese industrial and agricultural sector was also doing much better.
However, fascism brought about economic stagnation, which caused dissatisfaction among the people. Fascism also led to massive unemployment. In particular “disputes involving labor unions did indeed rise from 393 in 1928 to 998 in 1931 and the number of strikes exceeded 80,000” (Sims 2011).
Disputes among tenants and property owners also characterized the fascist era in Japan. The dissatisfaction among the Japanese people did not end with the labor union strike because in 1918, a major food crisis that led to the increase in rice prices led to massive demonstrations among the Japanese people.
Another thing that was easily notable in Japan during this period is the support that was given to the society movements that were behind the demonstrations by top leaders in the government. All these activities that followed fascism point to one major thing, which is national destabilization.
This destabilization is actually, what followed the adoption of this most anticipated ideology of fascism. This is however very different to what happened in fascist Italy and Germany. “In this respect the situation in Japan, though less critical, was not unlike that in post-first world war Italy” (Sims, 2011).
The young people always have a major role to play for an ideology to achieve its objective. In most cases, most of these ideologies take advantage of the youth’s innocence to work while the benefits go to the older generation.
This leads to dissatisfaction among the young people and if this situation arises, the main consequence is destabilization of the economy. Unlike in fascist Germany and Italy the Japanese youths were dissatisfied with their government.
The young people also form the majority of the lower class and therefore in Japan the disconnection between the middle and the lower class was a direct consequence of fascism (Siniawer 2008). In particular, expansion of Zaibastu had great effect in young and small-scale entrepreneurs and this continued to create the differences between the two classes of people.
The issue of unemployment especially among the youths also continued to widen the gap between the middle and the lower class. Although the ideology of fascism had contributed to the rise of the number of colleges and universities in Japan, most of these graduates remained unemployed even after completing their studies.
Following this massive unemployment in Japan, the Japanese university students were left with no option than to join radical student’s movements and these movements such as the brotherhood movement band that was responsible for the 1932 assassinations (Reynolds 2004).
So, fascism did not leave any choices to people in the countries that were reckoned to be democratic. These consequences of fascism in Japan create a major difference between Japan and other countries that underwent fascism. Contrary to Japan, fascism in Italy brought about the reduction of the gap between the rich and the poor. The ideology was also meant to reduce the differences of economic classes that existed in Europe before that.
World War 1 played a major role in shaping the direction taken by the history of most states. To the Japanese’s people world war, one was the source of solidarity and this is what formed the basis for the fascism ideology. This however is different from what happened to postwar Germany and Italy.
In these and most of the other European countries world war one had little or no effect on strengthening solidarity among the people. The war created a common enemy that the Japanese people had to fight and this is what strengthened their solidarity.
From this solidarity, Japan emerges as a hostile country whereby most of its hostility was directed towards stakes that were against the national integration and solidarity. The approach that Japan was taking led to the deterioration in its international relations and caused its economic decline. A combination of these factors gives a clear reason as to why Japan favored a military leader over a democratic leader.
Culture determines the people although most of the times people have claimed the opposite holds. Japanese are people who hold their culture to high esteem and therefore the culture of the people was a major determining factor in the success of fascism.
The main issue between culture of the Japanese people and fascism is how the Japanese’s culture was able to adapt to fascism. Culture is mostly about how people dress, eat and behave and they are all subject to fascism influence.
We are interested on how Japanese fascism operated in artifacts and texts and therefore the connection between it and real life is of concern (Tansman, 1960). From this statement, it is a fact that for Japanese culture and fascism to co-exist, then one had to submit to the other and this is the root of the culture adopting fascism.
Violence characterized fascism and the Japanese people had to adopt violence as part of their culture. Violence however was part of the Japanese religion and in particular, the Japanese people had a god of war. As stated by Tasman (1960) the gods of war made real the connection between culture as a rhetoric and violence as a reality in life.
This directly leads to the idea of heroism, which became a necessity in the culture of fascism. Young people hoped to live as national heroes and therefore they dedicated their lives to serve for the benefit of the Japanese empire (Duus & Okimoto 1979). The Japanese people fully dedicated their service to the empire especially during the war to the extent of dying for the empire.
Spiritual purity is a part of Japanese culture and this is emphasized through their Buddhist religion. The fascism ideology had the religion as the basis for its leadership and control of the people. The Japanese therefore found a connection between their religion and fascism and therefore their culture readily adapted to fascism.
Japanese are also people who believe in hard work and this found application in fascism, which required people to work hard for the good of the Japanese empire.
Fascism is both an ideology and a concept that became dominant in Japan, Italy and Germany after world war one. Fascism was mainly put in place to foster national integration and development and it was meant to combat the external aggression.
Fascism in Japan was different from fascism in Italy and Germany as in Italy and Germany, the Japanese fascism had its root on religion and the culture of the people. Similarly, in all the three states there were different forms of fascism that had no clear distinction.
The major difference that stands between the fascism in the three states is that fascism in Japan led to decline in economic prosperity and social integration unlike in Italy and Germany (Sims, 2011).
Duus, Peter and Daniel Okimoto. “Fascism and the History of Pre-War-Japan: The Failure of a Concept.” Journal of Asian Studies 1 (November 1979).
Mimura, Janis. 1963- Planning for empire: reform bureaucrats and the Japanese wartime state. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2011.
Olick, Jeffrey K. 1964- States of Memory: continuities, conflicts, and transformations in national retrospection. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.
Payne, S. G. Fascism in Spain, 1923- 1977. London. University of Wiscon Press. 1999.
Reynolds, E. Bruce. Japan in the Fascist era. New York, N.Y. : Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Sims, Richard. Criminal Justice in Action: Belmont. Cengage Learning, 2011.
Siniawer, Eiko Maruko. Japan in the Fascist era, 1860-1960. Ithaca. Cornell University Press, 2008.
Skirbekk, Gilje, A History of Western Thoughts: From Ancient Greece to the Twentieth Century. New York: John Wily and Sons, 2011.
Tansman, Alan. 1960- The culture of Japanese fascism. Durham: Duke University Press, 2009.
The Rise of Fascism Essay
Fascism was a radical dictatorial system of creating nationalism. The fascists tried to create autocratic states through mobilization of communities. Fascism spread quickly in Europe in the 1920s and the 1930s. Fascists replaced all parliamentary regimes with their new systems in countries where their movements succeeded.
The major fascist leaders included Benito Mussolini in Italy, Hitler who led the National Socialism in Germany and Franco who ascended to power after Spain’s Civil War. Such movements were also present in other European countries including Netherlands, France, and Great Britain where the revolution was mild. This paper will discuss in detail the Right in France, Stalinism and the Nazi regime.
The Right-wing movements in France were greatly concerned in what happened in Italy led by Mussolini. The French Revolutions included the Action in France and the Popular Front that was a thrilling moment in the history of France. Mussolini was prominently featured in many French magazines.
This served as a catalyst to the revolutions in France. Drieu La Rochelle was among the people who found the Right-wing movement (Merriman 34). He was determined to end social strife in France through restructured industries. He called his new structure medieval Christianity. Another movement at that time was Action Françoise led by Charles Mauras.
Their expansionist ideology encouraged France to capture natural Frontiers including the Rhine River. Catholics and Right-wing extremists had comparable ideologies of revolutions, but Catholics could not join the movements because they feared excommunication.
The popularity of the movement had spread so fast that it scared the Pope, having forced him to rebuke it in 1926. The Crossfire was one other movement that was very violent and recruited former war veterans. These movements kept growing in numbers with their financiers coming from production industries.
Adolph Hitler shared many similarities with Benito Mussolini in his rise to power. He believed in modern technology, inspiring many Germans, for example, to buy radios. He was the most atrocious leader who converted assembly lines into fields of mass murder. Polish Jews were transported in huge trail loads to assembly lines at Auschwitz where they were killed.
The aftermath of World War I saw the rise of Nazism, racism, and racial purification (Merriman 56). The socialists in both Germany and Austria held demonstrations that formed the foundation of revolutionary movements. Hitler led the National Socialism movement that resulted one of the most horrible of all the fascist revolutions.
The Nazi party was an offshoot of the German Workers’ Party that hated the Jews and called for their execution. Hitler was against Marxism as well as he greatly disliked the Jews.
The hatred was so deep that they even called for racial hygiene. They considered Jews as capitalists who advanced the American and British ideologies. Youths were recruited into voluntary groups during the rise of the movement. Resistance was countered with brutality.
Stalin led the Russian Revolution and created an ideology called Stalinism. Non-Russian ethnic groups were killed along with the people believed to have committed economic crimes. Stalin executed and deported those people he felt to be a threat to his rule (Merriman 118).
This movement led to a revolution that resulted in a regime of dictatorship under the Communist Party. The Party agitated for a radiant future, while opposing to capitalism. Harsh famine conditions, the Civil War, and economic hardships contributed to the rise of the movement. Stalin’s relationship with people went beyond ideologies, and he used a lot of deception to recruit members to join the movement.
Merriman, John. A History of Modern Europe. New York: W. W Norton & Company, 2010. Print.
Military Fascism in pre-WWII Japan Essay
Fascism represents a kind of a political system whereby the state possesses total power. As such, every citizen is required to work for the country as well as the government. The head of state for such a state is a dictator or some other powerful individual who uses police force and strong army to maintain law and order. Fascism was first seen in Japan during the period in which it used to export most of her goods, mostly silk and luxury items (Tsutsui, 2009).
At the beginning of the great depression, luxuries were foregone and this left Japan incapable of fueling her factories. In order to put a stop to the depression, Japan had two choices to make; invading China for some more resources or closing down their factories. During this time the Japanese government was being ruled by Emperor Hirohito and his army referred to as ‘a diet’ that was slowly becoming fascists.
This permitted the military together with the factory proprietors to have great influences over the decisions of the country; thereby opting to invade China and Manchuria. It was at a later time that the Japan’s government began to closely conform to the Army Nationalistic objectives. Thence, as time went by, military fascism developed in japan (Tsutsui, 2009).
With control over the government and, essentially, the whole country, the army pushed Japan further and further into the pacific war and ultimately led to more war with the west. A number of other reasons contributed to this Japans military fascism and one such reason was thirst for power.
The Meiji restoration unleashed massive changes in Japan. This was a period of revolutionary modernization and as a motivation from these, came forth the desire for prestige, power and wealth as a way to redress the enforcement of unequal treaties placed upon them by the western powers during the past (Tsutsui, 2009).
Moreover, the Sino-Japanese War victory, gave Japan a first real bridgehead on the continent of Asia, forcing China to acknowledge the independence of Korea and giving up Taiwan and Liaotung peninsula (Tsutsui, 2009). However, Russia, Germany and France dissented that the intrusion of Japanese to Liaotung would stage a constant jeopardy to China thence, forced a deeply chagrined Japan to desolate the peninsula.
Furthermore, the Japanese exertions to incorporate their economy into a liberal global order became futile earlier on in the 1930’s when the economies of the west that were depressed placed a hindrance upon the Japanese trade so that they could guard against the markets of their colonies. The structure of international peace that was substantiated in the League of Nations was thought of by the Japanese to have favored the nations of the west who were controlling the resources of the world.
Moreover, the west had played in a hypocritical way when they barred Japanese out-migration via the anti-Asian in-migration laws of the 1920’s. These series of events caused the Japanese to deflect from democracy and indorse fascism and its extension to the japans empire (Tsutsui, 2009).
In conclusion, the slowly burning aggression of Japan was steered with frustrations with a world whose governance appeared inclined in preference of the west. The military fascism was a way of expressing the Japanese economic, power and policy dissatisfaction by the west, and it hence contributed in some ways to the rise of World War II. They charged their hardship upon the western countries and the incompetent government.
Most citizens of Japan likewise conceived that the government did almost nothing to help them, despite the fact that it stood for democracy. They therefore began to buy into what the Nationalistic patriotic societies were embracing- military strength, reconstruction and respect for autonomy. They started to join these patriotic societies and the army, consequently resulting to the rise of military fascism in pre-WWII Japan.