Comparison of G.Orwell’s “1984”, R.Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451” and A.Huxley’s “Brave New World” Research Paper
Society has always felt safe and organized in the hands of some form of leadership. The leadership is in charge of virtually each and every single activity that takes place in the lives of the inhabitants of the society. The leadership is therefore responsible for a lot of things taking place in the society. In fact, it is argued that the leadership of any society is actually the controller of the lives of its people. However, the extent of this leadership is what can either ruin or better the people’s life.
There are instances where the society has granted the leadership system full access and authority over their lives. This is what is echoed in the books Fahrenheit 451, Brave New World and Nineteen Eighty-Four. This paper will compare and contrast the ideas presented in the above named texts. It will also posit that the big brother situation still exists in some societies today. This will be done by comparing aspects of the societies presented in the texts with those of today’s society.
The Minority Rule
The society in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four is one that is controlled by an inner party. The inner party directs the way the people should live. It makes all the important decisions in the society. This even includes what people should believe and hold as the truth.
In Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, the society is on the verge of losing its identity through the burning of books, which are actually a great treasure in humankind’s day to day life (Bradbury 38). By doing this, the leadership in this society aims at draining significant information from the public and subjecting them to their own beliefs.
The same situation is reiterated in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. In this book, Aldous ironically talks of a brave new world where sleep-learning has become the norm in the society. The leadership in this society uses sleep learning as a method of getting the people to think and act in their own way.
The cases discussed above are governments that seek to have total control over the minds of the people. The techniques and propagandas used by the three leadership systems have the sole purpose of getting the people to dance to the tune of the leadership.
In the contemporary world, there still exist similar situations to the ones presented above. A large percentage of the post-modern society has surrendered itself to the will of political leaders, political parties and systems. This is evidenced by the rampant sycophancy that has engulfed most nations of the world in a huge wave.
Manipulation Of The People
In George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, the inner party uses telescreens and other supervisory techniques to oblige the society to do as it dictates. The telescreens are fitted everywhere in order to monitor the people and keep track of what they are doing (Orwell 20). By achieving this, the party is therefore in a position to direct their every action.
In Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, the leadership has managed to draw the public from reading books. The public is therefore unable to get any other enlightenment apart from the one passed to them by the government through the media. They are fed with distorted facts that are meant to keep them from advancing intellectually.
In the same manner, the society in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World is kept under the yoke of its leadership through perpetual drug use. Soma, a hallucinogen, takes the role of manipulating the way the society in this context perceives life. They are myopic in that they only focus on the temporary pleasures that surround them and do not realize that they have been robbed off their independence.
In the same manner, a majority of today’s action has lost its freethinking capacity. It has given itself away to media dictatorship. It is indeed true that today’s people act and think in a manner that is prescribed by various forms of media. For instance, the internet has been instrumental in showing ways of life of different societies.
Millions of people across the globe use this chance to ape the characters of individuals that they find appealing to them. By doing this, they have totally sold their self-control. They have further decided to steer their lives on a basis of false and untried standards. This is especially the case with the youth who go a long way to ape the celebrities’ ways of life. Because the ways of life of most of these celebrities is obviously immoral, this habit has led to massive moral decadence among these youths.
Suppression Of Opposition
In George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, there are attempts by members of the elite ruling minority to suppress other contradicting ideas from liberal-minded individuals. Winston is an epitome of a person who is forced to align his life according to the dictatorship of the inner party. Julia is also a victim of the same circumstances.
The two are forced to denounce the virtues of humanity and dedicate their loyalty to the Big Brother, who is the leader of the inner party. This manipulation goes as far as forcing the people to accept absolutely false facts. A good example is the fallacy that black can be white and that white can be black at the same time. Although this statement is an outright lie, the inner party members have the capability of forcing an individual to find sense in it.
In the same manner, the society in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 has been prohibited from accessing the truth through books. This is seen where any house that contains books is made to go up in flames. The old woman who decides to be burnt alive with her books is an example of a person who suffers at the hands of leadership’s suppression.
In Brave New World, those individuals who fail to align themselves by what is stipulated by the leadership are taken into exile (Huxley 83). This is an effort to keep the truth form being divulged. This is seen where Helmholtz is taken to the Falkland Islands.
Today’s society also contains government regimes and political leaders that tend to suppress other people in a bid to remain in power. Cases of opposition leaders in parliament who have suffered greatly in the hands of a government have been reported in various nations. These cases are especially common in Africa where some leaders opt to remain in power even after openly losing in elections. These leaders want to keep the society under their continuous rule. Therefore, it is actually true that the Big Brother situation exists today.
The Standard Of Living Of The Elect
In George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, there is an inner circle of authoritative individuals that gain from the oppressive leadership. These are members of the inner party which is headed by Big Brother. These members are considered to be above the law since they can forcefully do anything they want.
They can also get anything that their hearts settle in. O’Brien is a perfect example of such individuals. He lives in a stately home with no insufficiencies. He also has a number of privileges. For instance, he can turn off the telescreens and microphones in his house. He also owns a slave, unlike the other individuals in the outer party and the proles.
In Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, it is the leadership that stands to gain from the burning of all the books in the society. The destruction of all these information sustains them in power for as long as they wish. The practice of burning books is therefore only beneficial to them.
On the other hand, it is unfair to the common people because it denies them the right to be enlightened about various issues in the society. However, this egocentricity is not witnessed in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. Although there are suppressive actions against the common people, their living standards are in good shape.
Likewise, a majority of today’s leaders give priority to their selfish interests. Cases of corruption are rampant in most governments. Furthermore, some leaders have been known to pass laws that work in their favor. For instance, there are presidents of some countries who have remained in power for over two decades. Such leaders have placed their accomplices as the heads of electoral bodies. It then becomes much easier to doctor national votes in their favor.
The Use Of Torture
In George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four, the inner party uses excessive force and unfair means to deal with those who oppose their ideas. They force such individuals to submit to the will of the party through torturous means. For example, Winston and Julia are taken through three purgatorial stages in order to change their way of thinking.
They are even made to deny and betray each other. The same happens in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World. In this society, those who fail to comply with the dictatorship of the leadership are forcefully withdrawn from the society and isolated. It is also unfair that the leadership has condemned noble practices such as marriage and bringing up of families.
The leadership in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451also uses unfair means to deal with individuals who are found in possession of books. For instance, the house of the old woman is set up in flames. It is also crude that the woman is burnt together with her books in her house.
Montag’s house also meets the same fate when he is betrayed by his wife and her friends. Furthermore, it is unfair that the leadership sheds the blood of an innocent man in order to create a positive image to the public. In addition, the leadership is unfair when it triggers a war against its own people in a bid to trace a single person.
Even in today’s civilized world, there are leaders who use unfair means to deal with their opponents. For example, there are those who plan assassinations against people who may be threatening their positions. Alternatively, there are those leaders who make false claims against those who oppose them and have them unfairly thrown into prison.
In conclusion, it can be seen from the above discussion that the three texts are all dystopian. They portray the ways and conditions of life of societies that are led by wicked leaders. The texts also allude to the conditions of today’s leadership in some countries. It can therefore be concluded that the big brother situation still exists in today’s society.
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Books, 1953. Print.
Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. London: Chatto and Windus, 1932. Print.
Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. A Novel. London: Secker & Warburg, 1949. Print.
“Fahrenheit 451” by Ray Bradbury Sample Essay
Many societies have strategies to encourage the culture of reading. With the advent of the Internet, reading has taken a new meaning. It is easy for students, scholars, and any other text-oriented people to access books online without the need to go to the library. Physical and e-libraries have lots of materials with information on various subjects that attract different people according to their interests.
Part of the most captivating plots ever written fall in the fiction category. Novels have come to represent the very best of man’s imagination. Though most of their content is fictional, books’ storylines closely reflect the life people lead on the Earth. They seek to portray the good and the bad of the human race within various contexts as the setting permits. One of these books is “Fahrenheit 451”, a 1953 novel written by Ray Bradbury. This essay is an analysis of “Fahrenheit 451”, an example of science-fiction masterpiece. The themes, messages, characters, topics, and settings of the novel are explored in the below sections of the paper.
Fahrenheit 451: Book Review
In Fahrenheit 451, a riveting story unfolds through the book’s storyline featuring a fictional future society, probably the American one, where reading is outlawed, and a ban on reading is imposed. Authorities affect the ban through burning books carried out by firemen.
When reading the novel, it is easy to agree that reading culture and freedom of expression of one’s thoughts through reading and writing is under threat of media such as television. Above all, the book reveals that people have become their worst enemies concerning reading and censorship and that the culture of ignorance and carelessness is taking its roots. There is an acute loss of intellectual thought in society.
Reading Fahrenheit 451’s provides a perfect revelation of a confused society at war with itself. Guy Montag comes home to find his wife overdosed and a new neighbor who reminds him of the unfulfilling life he leads. Despite participating in books burning, Montag is still not sure why he burns books, as evidenced by his stealing of one of the suicidal woman’s books.
Montag has a pile of books collected from the victims of book burning carried out by firemen. An argument with his wife about what to do with the stolen books opens Montag’s eyes, and he realizes his disgust for society. Montag realizes society’s pretense of happiness when he reads a poem from one of the stolen books, which makes one of his wife’s friends cry despite maintaining a “happy” life picture throughout her life (Bradbury 23).
The madness of the society’s onslaught on itself reaches the epitome when Beatty, Montag’s chief at work, orders him to burn his house. Probably from all the events, a dispute develops between Montag and the Beatty, the chief fireman. A war situation breaks out, and incineration of cities in the country takes place, a clear reflection of the permeation of confusion in society.
Analysis of Fahrenheit 451’s Main Themes
This section of the essay analyzes Fahrenheit 451’s themes. This kind of analysis gives the reader the perfect view of the explicit machinations of the state in promoting censorship and the flow of information. It is easy for a reader to see the blatant indictment of censorship as supported by the state. The firemen are on the government payroll, and their work is to impose a ban on books.
Through the book, the current situation in the world concerning censorship comes out. It is easy for any reader to find the current world situation concerning censorship and media gagging through a subtle and close reflection of what the book causes. But even more impressive is the precise reflection of the effects of television on society, especially concerning reading the literature.
One of the exciting insinuations in the book is the portrayal of people as their enemies. There is a blatant disregard of each other among human beings, the culture of alienation mainly fronted by the media.
In Fahrenheit 451, Mildred, Montag’s wife, is a clear representation of the current world, which is likely to turn into in the future thanks to the media. Mildred and her friends spend most of their time watching television walls in the “parlor,” intentionally ignoring the problems around them till the issues get out of control. There is the only preoccupation for them, which is the program schedule.
Clarisse helps Montag realize that what he is doing is wrong. Within that context, her character represents the voices of the reason that still exist in the chaotic world, the voices that still question the goings-on in the society despite the different obstacles that exist (Bradbury 47).
Fahrenheit 451 is every reader’s book with very infectious quoted and thought-provoking imagery, which explicitly puts the role entertainment, especially television, lack of concern for each other, and the casual attitude which has come to characterize the modern world.
The fact that the events occur in America, though fictional, is a stark reminder that repression is through book burning and is a serious event that can take place even in the most advanced society. Any reader will find it very interesting, primarily through the discovery that most of the hatred in the book comes from people themselves.
How does Fahrenheit 451 end? In summary, the novel’s finale is hopeful. The city has been destroyed by bombs, but the books continue to live in in the “book people”.
As shown in this essay, Fahrenheit 451 is an example of masterpiece in its genre. The novel is analyzed by the scholars in numerous research papers and book reviews. Fahrenheit 451 gives any reader an opportunity to experience firsthand a 1950’s prediction of the world in the 21st century.
People have become slaves to their television sets and the Internet, people don’t bother to ask the root cause of all the crises and armed conflicts that have become characteristic of the 21st century, there is an avid promotion of violence which children access through video games; the drug problems are spiraling out of control.
Reading the book provides a deeper understanding of Montag, the main character, and how he represents the average person in the world today. Books burning and city incineration is a symbolic representation of the problems that bedevil the world mainly through entertainment enslavement.
In a nutshell, the book acts as an eye-opener and helps in comparing the current society to the Montag’s society, where TV reigns as a supreme authority. Additionally, life is fast, and all people tend to think they are happy, while in the real sense, they are not. The real picture of what people are going through comes out through the suicide attempts. It is, therefore, easy to recommend Fahrenheit 451 as the book with the true reflection of the society people live in nowadays.
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011. Print.
Further Study: FAQ
? Why is Fahrenheit 451 a banned book?
Ironically enough, Fahrenheit 451 was banned in the US in the second half of the 20th century. Its storyline caused some controversy upon publication, especially among Christian communities. According to the plot, in the dystopian world where books are banned, one of the books that get burned is the Bible.
? What are some Fahrenheit 451 essay topics?
Fahrenheit 451 is a book that gives plenty of food for thought. Consider an analysis of the main characters to broader topics like individuality and conformity. The book is also quite rich in symbolism, and discussing it in your essay could be a good idea.
? What is the Fahrenheit 451 setting?
Fahrenheit 451 is set in a dystopian futuristic America. There is no specific mention of time and place, yet it is clear that Bradbury was referring to the American culture of the time.
? What are the major Fahrenheit 451 themes?
Some of the book’s central themes are censorship, religion, individuality. The book juxtaposes the symbolic meaning of ignorance and knowledge. Besides, it raises the question about the role that technology plays in our lives.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Essay
An American writer Ray Bradbury is one of the most famous authors of the 20-21 centuries and one of the most ingenious anti-utopians in the world. In his works, the writer often discusses the topic of the human future and the inevitable degradation of people due to the loss of spirituality. Bradbury describes heroes living in the city of the future, where reading books is forbidden, and also predicts technical changes and moral problems of society in his dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. The purpose of this essay is to provide a summary of the book, analyze the main characters and the central theme of the paper, and, finally, present a personal opinion about Fahrenheit 451.
The Summary of the Novel
Ray Bradbury wrote his famous, thrilling, and thought-provoking novel in 1953. The impetus for its creation was the burning by the Nazis of books by authors that they disliked. The writer perceived these cruel acts as a personal tragedy and portrayed the experience in his anti-utopian work. Moreover, “the novel reflects Bradbury’s concerns about censorship and conformity during a period when a free expression of ideas could lead to social and economic ostracization.”1 The future society described in the dystopia receives information from huge television screens, radios, and other distributors of state propaganda. Books that let people think about actions happening around and within society are banned in this world. Any house in which firefighters find books is to be burned. It helps the government subjugate people and eradicate any manifestations of discontent and disagreement. However, very few individuals can see reality as it is, they do not agree with the state, and secretly read books.
The main character of the novel is fireman Guy Montag, who loves the profession and has no doubt in the correctness of his beliefs. His job is to find books and burn them together with the houses of those people who dared to keep them. One day he meets an extraordinary girl Clarisse, who opens his eyes to what is happening in the world. Unconsciously, Montag understands that human communication is more than an exchange of memorized remarks. A meeting with Clarisse makes the protagonist take a fresh look at the life he leads and realize that he is unhappy. Montag has a wife Mildred, a peculiar woman who stares at wall-sized screens all day and does not want to have children.2 There is no emotional connection and feelings between spouses; they do not understand each other.
Fleeting meetings with Clarisse change Montag’s mind, he begins to reflect on the correctness of his actions, the situation in the country, and relations with the wife. At work, the main character feels miserable, does not want to burn books, and destroy people’s houses. His whole stereotypical world crumbles, and Clarisse is the only humane person in his life. However, Montague soon finds out that his friend is dead – she has been hit by one of the fast cars. It makes him realize that the time to act has come, and he talks about books to his wife and her girlfriends. Having no support, he meets Professor Faber, who has long been suspected of reading books. The wife and her girlfriends report on Guy, and firefighters burn his house.3 To save Faber, who the boss learned about, Montague directs the flamethrower at his boss and the team.
Furthermore, Montag is declared a state criminal, and he has to leave the city. With the help of Faber, he finds people who read books and try to transfer their knowledge to future generations. Concurrently, the country undergoes shock – enemy bombers appear over the city abandoned by the main character.4 They ruin this miracle of technological thought and start an imminent war. Thus, the writer demonstrates a consumer society that has lost the ability to think independently, analyze what is happening, and also shows the possible results of such life.
The Main Characters and Theme
Guy Montag is the protagonist of the book, a firefighter whose main task is to burn prohibited literature. Montag is not defined in his moral principles; he cannot find an ideal in the socio-cultural values of society. Throughout the book, he radically changes his point of view about his profession, future, and destiny. Mildred is Montag’s wife and one of the ordinary residents of a metropolis who does not have their own opinion. She obeys modern rules of the society, and her greatest passion is the TV wall. Neighbor Clarissa is a young girl brought up in an extraordinary “traditional” family with an independent opinion, love to nature, and books. She is the person who makes Guy rethink his actions and change his life.
The central theme of the novel Fahrenheit 451 is the role of a book in human life. Ray Bradbury demonstrates a consumer society that has lost the ability to think independently, analyze, and conclude. 5 Books have useful information from our ancestors, which people should adopt to move forward and avoid the mistakes of the past. The author discusses such issues as manipulating society through the media, excessive enthusiasm for technological progress, and the replacement of moral values with consumer ones.6 Bradbury wants to convey a simple idea – the future described in the novel is inevitable if we destroy the previous experience, freedom of thought, art, and the desire to think and learn something new.
Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury is worth reading and thinking about it over at any age. It is likely that through the utopia, the writer shows a world that can be a reality if people refuse to read literature. According to Bradbury, “It is a reminder that what we have is valuable, and that sometimes we take what we value for granted.”7 Moreover, the author proves the need for communicating and creating common family interests. Many people are addicted to their gadgets; they ignore the importance of family relations becoming lonely and insensitive. However, relatives should help in stressful situations, support, and understand each other. Unfortunately, there is no family and love between Guy and Mildred in this novel. They are physically close, but completely alien emotionally to one another.
To sum up, Ray Bradbury’s science fiction novel introduces readers to the world of a possible near future. A government easily manipulates a society that cannot think and reflect. It is the reason why literature is prohibited by the law of a totalitarian regime, which makes destroy books immediately. It is precisely the future that awaits people if they continue to exist as a rapidly developing consumer society.
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013.
Scott, Alisha Grace. “A Comparison of Dystopian Nightmares and Utopian Dreams: Two Paths in Science Fiction Literature That Both Lead to Humanity’s Loss of Empathy.” Journal of Science Fiction 1, no. 3 (2017): 40-54
Study Guide for Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. Michigan: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2015.
Yılmaz, Recep. “A Study of “The Other” in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451.” International Journal of Media Culture and Literature Year 1, no. 2 (2015): 27-44.
- Study Guide for Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 (Michigan: Gale, Cengage Learning, 2015), 1.
- Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2013), 13.
- Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, 136.
- Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, 180.
- Alisha Grace Scott, “A Comparison of Dystopian Nightmares and Utopian Dreams: Two Paths in Science Fiction Literature That Both Lead to Humanity’s Loss of Empathy,” Journal of Science Fiction 1, no. 3 (2017): 47.
- Recep Yılmaz, “A Study of “The Other” in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451,” International Journal of Media Culture and Literature Year 1, no. 2 (2015): 28.
- Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451, 10.
Literature Censorship in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Essay
Written by Ray Bradbury as a fictitious masterpiece novel, Fahrenheit 451 underscores pertinent censorship issues in the contemporary United States of America. Apparently, the censorship issues that bedeviled the American society of the 1950s are the same elements tormenting the 21st Century society. In the novel, firefighters have only one responsibility, viz. to start fires.
They assume the unconventional role of starting fires in homes where books are allegedly hidden. In other words, owning and reading a book is illegal in this futuristic society. Therefore, given that people cannot gain knowledge via reading, they turn to television where they spend their days glued onto the screens. However, this form of living is frustrating, and thus some attempt to commit suicide. Bradbury’s 1953 futuristic thoughts were not far fetched as the contemporary American society is experiencing the very things that he foretold.
The issues raised in the novel, Fahrenheit 451, are relevant in contemporary American society and Bradbury’s thoughts were a warning for what he highlighted is happening in the contemporary United States. This paper will explore the censorship theme in the novel and relate it to similar events occurring in the modern day the United States.
The most outstanding form of censorship in Bradbury’s book is the burning of books. The novel’s protagonist, Guy Montag, is the commander of the book-burning firefighters. The novel starts with, “It was a pleasure to burn” (Bradbury 1). Montag derives happiness from burning people’s homes and according to Bradbury, “He wanted above all, like the old joke to shove a marshmallow on a stick in the furnace, while the flapping pigeon-winged books died on the porch and lawn of the house” (1).
Therefore, in this society, people are not allowed to own or read books because the information acquired allegedly causes pain and conflict in society. Beatty, who is Montag’s boss, explains that sometimes back, minority groups coupled with special interest groups were once opposed to certain books, and thus they caused chaos and societal upheavals.
In response, society resorted to burning books as the only way to settle people’s differences amicably. This aspect marked the genesis of burning of books in Bradbury’s fictitious American society of the 1950s. Bradbury’s fancied thinking is becoming a reality in the contemporary United States.
In the recent past, the United States has experienced burning and banning of books as envisioned in Bradbury’s novel. For instance, in 2001, Reverend George Bender led a group of activists in burning of Harry Potter’s books in Pittsburg as they allegedly have supernatural content. In the same year, Jack Brock took the Harry Potter books’ censorship campaign to New Mexico and he claimed that Harry Potter “is the devil and he is destroying people” (“These religious officials” par. 4).
In Columbia, Pastor Louis Sheldon asked the government to ban Harry Potter’s books due to their satanic influence on children. Even though the push for books’ censorship in modern times is directed towards specific compilations, the act of burning and banning of books underscores Bradbury’s ideas in Fahrenheit 451.
In addition, in Bradbury’s narration, minority groups are behind the genesis of burning and banning of books. Similarly, minority religious groups are pushing for the burning and banning of Harry Potter’s books in contemporary times.
Bradbury also highlights media censorship where radio and television stations are limited in the content that they can air. The government censors media in an attempt to please the public or minority groups. When detailing to Montag how the media should work, Granger posits, “The show’s got to have a snap ending, quick! If they started searching the whole damn river it might take all night. So they’re sniffing for a scapegoat to end things with a bang” (Bradbury 141).
In other words, all media content should be fashioned in a predetermined manner so that people can remain interested. In addition, those that attempt to defy the set structures are punished or killed. For instance, after Montag realizes the wealth hidden in books and rebels against other firefighters, Beatty allocates time and resources to kill him and his accomplices.
However, the government fails to kill Montag, and thus it kills another man and lies to the public that it has killed the real culprit. Unfortunately, the public believes this lie because people have been brainwashed to believe what the government says and the same scenarios are replaying in American society today.
After the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) received the mandate to regulate what the media should air, the contemporary American society has witnessed numerous counts of ‘media-content regulatory’ attempts across the country. For instance, in 2004, CBS was “fined CBS a record $550,000 for Janet Jackson’s ‘wardrobe malfunction’, which exposed the singer’s breast during this year’s Super Bowl halftime show” (Vries par.1).
According to the FCC, whatever happened to Janet Jackson amounted to indecency, which should not be allowed in American society. Afterward, the exposure of rear male nudity, which was hitherto common in different television advertisements, was banned. In addition, the government’s efforts to kill Montag can be likened to the current American administration’s attempts to silence Snowden and Julian Assange over their release of classified information concerning the government.
In addition, after the 9/11 attacks, a list of different songs, which were allegedly inappropriate was released and the media was not supposed to play them. Therefore, the society that Bradbury envisioned in the mid 20th century is coming to fruition in the 21st century.
Finally, Bradbury exposes the effects of censorship on society in his fictitious society. People want to get information, but they cannot due to the censorship, and thus they rely on television as the only source of learning. Therefore, in the process, individuals are addicted to television.
They become too attached to it to the extent that they think the characters portrayed in the different programs are real. Consequently, individuals lose their independent thinking and they lead miserable lives. Montag’s wife, Millie, cannot cope with the frustrating life and thus she decides to commit suicide.
Bradbury records, “The small crystal bottle of sleeping tablets which earlier today had been filled with thirty capsules and which now lay uncapped and empty in the light of the tiny flare” (11). Millie’s friends are also addicted to watching television and leading deplorable lives and they often join her to console each other by running away from the realities of life. Even after Montag reads them a revelation poem, they think he is dissing literature.
Addiction to media and especially television in the United States is a common problem in modern times. In 2010, Americans spent an average of “34 hours, per week…watching television… more than ever before, according to the Nielsen Company” (“America’s TV addiction” par. 8). Also, one in every twenty-five youths attempted to commit suicide in 2013 across the United States due to stress-related causes.
These numbers are sickening, but apparently, Bradbury foresaw that in the 1950s. Teenagers across the United States adore and ape the characters in reality television programs like the “Keeping up with the Kardashians” and “Teen Mom”. The people addicted to these programs will do anything not to miss any of them and they will even go to the extent of not picking up their phones if called during the programs.
Therefore, they behave like Millie and her friends in Bradbury’s fiction masterpiece, Fahrenheit 451. Thus, censorship in contemporary times has taken a different stance by feeding people with what they want to see instead of giving them critical information that can spur their thinking capabilities. Unfortunately, people sadly realize that what happens on the televisions does not occur in real life, and thus they end up frustrated to the extent of attempting suicide.
In the science fiction novel, Fahrenheit 451, Bradbury envisions a society where censorship dictates what people should read and know. The firefighters in this narrative are unconventional as they start fires as opposed to extinguishing them. They derive their greatest joy from burning books for people to remain uninformed, and thus peaceful. However, Bradbury’s 1950s fictitious thinking is a reality in the contemporary United States.
For instance, society has witnessed burning and banning of particular books across the country. Also, the government censors the content to be aired by the media and those that rebel like Snowden lives in constant fear of prosecution or even death. Moreover, people are addicted to television programs, and thus Bradbury’s insights can be taken as a warning of what a society can turn into without proper leadership.
“America’s TV addiction: By the numbers.” The Week 2011. Web. 10 November 2014. <http://theweek.com/article/index/210725/americas-tv-addiction-by-the-numbers>
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451: A Novel, New York: Simon & Shuster, 1967. Print.
“These religious officials don’t want you to read Harry Potter. But we say ignore them.” Huffington Post 2013. Web. 10 November 2014. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/12/religious-officials-harry-potter-_n_3908516.html>
Vries, Lloyd. “CBS Dealt Record Fine Over Janet.” CBS News 2004. Web. 11 Oct. 2014. <http://www.cbsnews.com/news/cbs-dealt-record-fine-over-janet/>
Fahrenheit 451: By Ray Bradbury
The book “Fahrenheit 451” can be considered as a futuristic novel that tells about the future and how various aspects such as technological developments have had an impact on the society (Otten, 1990). The author observes that people in the futuristic society are lazy and do not read books, spend quality time alone or even think as independent minds and do not have conversations which can be considered as meaningful. It is a society of people that watch too much of television and listen to a lot of radio which takes up most of their time.
Based on the views of the author, can it be concluded that technological developments have had adverse effects on human race?
Throughout the novel, the author depicts several themes one of them is that of censorship. The censorship that is depicted in this book is that on read of books whereby books are banned in the future (Bloom, 2007). This is contributed by categories of factors such as lack of interest and hostility of the people towards books.
The symbol presented in this novel is that of a mirror which is used to portray a sense of having self-realization and understanding. The fire Captain is portrayed as a literary expert because of the way the captain flues the fire instead of being the one to put it out. The Captain goes contrary to expectations of a fireman. The choice of those final words is as a result of Beatty standing her ground and daring Montag to take his life through the use of literature (Hiner, 2001).
The problem with the leisure concept as presented by Montag is that it is not in existence in the real world. The people, as depicted in the novel are engrossed in television viewing as well as listening to the radio without any quality information, which is only in the books. By the end of the novel, Bradbury succeeds in establishing his idea (Bradbury, & Bloom, 2008). This is due to the reason that the concepts and views that he puts forward in the novel are still applicable in the modern society despite having written the book many years ago. The modern society is overflown with technological developments which have changed the thinking of people about leisure and what needs to be done during leisure, therefore, showing that Bradbury succeeded in putting forward his idea of leisure.
Clarisse is seen as a young and beautiful seventeen-year old girl who influences Montag and introduces him to a new potential of the world in terms of beauty. Clarisse appears as an innocent and curious girl who impacts on the life of Montag. She helps in the set-up of the whole framework of the novel because of her odd characters which makes her to be viewed as an outcast in the society. Clarisse loves hiking, asking a lot of questions as well as playing, something that the society views as quite odd habits for a teenager. The happiness depicted through Clarisse and her family which is also seen as an odd family influences the views that Montag has on leisure (Reid, 2000).
From the above analysis of this novel, it is to be noted that the whole idea is that on reading of books and the changes that technological developments have caused in the society. One question that one would want to ask is that, “Is it possible to have a society where there are no books and all that people can depend on is technology?” The answer to this question can only be obtained if a research is conducted again to establish if this can occur in real life.
Bloom, H. (2007). Fahrenheit 451. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Bradbury, R., & Bloom, H. (2008). Fahrenheit 451: New Edition. New York: Infobase Pub.
Hiner, K. (2001). CliffsNotes Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. Foster City, CA: IDG Books Worldwide.
Otten, N. (1990). Fahrenheit 451: By Ray Bradbury. Saint Louis, Mo: Milliken.
Reid, R. A. (2000). Ray Bradbury: A critical companion. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Technology in Fahrenheit 451 and the Real World
How technology affects society in Fahrenheit 451 and the real world Every day, everywhere people are using technology to check email, calculate tax, and talk with each other. Technology has greatly affected the social structure today and in Fahrenheit 451. Technology has effected how the TV controls our lives, how we communicate with one another, and how strong the social structure is In both the real world and Fahrenheit 451. Similarly to the real world, in Fahrenheit 451 the TV is a habitual action that diminishes social contact.
In the real world too much TV leads to “the Mean World Syndrome.” (Sheldon).
The Mean World Syndrome is a term for people who have watched so much TV that they believe that the world is a much more dangerous place then it actually is. In addition “Every hour spent watching TV, DVDs and videos as an adult reduces life expectancy by almost 22 minutes, a study suggests,”(Hope). This suggests that people will shave off years of their lives doing nothing but staring at a screen.
In Fahrenheit 451 the TV is also a very consuming habit. For example Mildred says, “It’s really fun. It’ll be even more fun when we can afford to have the fourth TV wall installed.” (Fahrenheit 20). This quote shows how the TV is putting up a physical and an emotional barrier between family and friends. Although TV diminishes social contact in both Fahrenheit 451 and the real world, it is not as bad as it seems. TV has allowed companies to advertize to a larger audience.
TV has also kept people informed about local crimes that have happened. For example, in Fahrenheit 451, when Montag is running away, the cameras broadcast his ‘murder’ to 20 million viewers. TV has taken control of many lives Fahrenheit 451 and the real world. Human communication has greatly increased with the introduction of computers, email, phones, Etc. in the real world as opposed to the lack of communication displayed in Fahrenheit 451. In Fahrenheit 451 people are discouraged from venturing out of their homes to communicate with each other. The mechanical hound is a good example of how the advancements in technology are keeping people from talking to each other without the fear of being hunted down. Another good example of how technology is reducing the amount of communication is how Mildred has replaced her actual family with her so called ‘TV family’(Bradbury 20). In the real world however, because of the increase in amount of technology, there has been an increase in the amount of communication. “Teens on average text over 3500 times in a month,”
(Sheldon).That means that teens are talking online to one another over 100 times a day. Fahrenheit 451 depicts a world where technology has reduced communications whereas today in the real world communication has greatly increased. Technology can either make or break a society. Technology has transformed the real world into a thriving society, which is in contrast with the technological wasteland displayed in Fahrenheit 451. In Fahrenheit 451 the social structure is displayed as a technological dystopia where people live in constant fear. The technology is used mostly to keep the social order intact and keep people from acting out. For example, “-nose so sensitive the Mechanical Hound can remember and identify ten thousand odor indexes on ten thousand men without resetting!”(Bradbury 133). The mechanical hound is used to keep people from being different; it is used to keep people equal. The real world is more of a technological utopia.
Technology is used in classrooms around the world to improve the educational process. ”Imaging studies show the brains of Internet users become more efficient at finding information,” (Richtel). Around half the classrooms in Woodbury High School have a Smartboard to help teach students. Not all technological advances have been beneficial though. After the United States and other countries began the development of nuclear weapons during WWII, the cost of an international incident increased. For example, while John F. Kennedy was the president the was an incident known as the “Cuban Missile Crisis” that dealt with nuclear weapons that the Soviet Union was storing in Cuba as possible attack against the United States.
Technology has had many positive and negative effects in both Fahrenheit 451 and the real world. Technology has similarly impacted how much the TV controls our lives and differently impacted communications and social structure in Fahrenheit 451 and the real world. Albert Einstein said, “It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity.” This famous quote is saying that technology has become a large part of our society, but it is not necessarily a bad thing to have technology in our lives. It is easy to say that technology has become a large part of both the real world society and in Fahrenheit 451.
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine, 1982. Print. Sheldon,
Pavica. “Psychologist Examines Effects of Technology Society.” Psychologist Examines Effects of Technology Society. Newswise, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. http://www.newswise.com/articles/psychologist-examines-effects-of-technology-society Richtel, Matt. “YOUR BRAIN ON COMPUTERS; Hooked on Gadgets, and Paying a Mental Price.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 07 June 2010. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/technology/07brain.html?pagewanted=all Hope, Jenny. “Is Your TV Killing You? Every Hour of Viewing Takes 22 Minutes off Your Life, Couch Potatoes Are Warned.” Mail Online. Associated Newspapers Ltd, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2012. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2026380/TV-watching-Every-hour-takes-22-minutes-life.html
Dialectical Journals Fahrenheit 451
1. Quote : “we must build a mirror factory to take a long look at themselves” Device: Symbolism this remark recalls Montag’s description of Clarisse as a mirror in “The Hearth and the Salamander.” Mirrors here are symbols of self-understanding, of seeing oneself clearly.
2. Quote: The Hearth and the Salamander
This Demostrates symbolism because The Hearth and the Salamander, suggests two things having to do with fire, the hearth is a source of warmth and goodness, showing the positive, non-destructive side of fire.
Whereas a salamander is a small lizard-like creature is known to come in contact with fire without getting burnt by it. The salamander is symbolizing the Guy Montag, who is being described as a salamander because he works with fire and believes that he can escape the fire and survive.
3. Quote: 451 fahrenheit
Device : Foreshadowing
Bradubury uses the title fahrenheit 451 as an foreshadowing technique. 451 degrees Fahrenheit is the temperature at which paper ignites, which has to do with the act of bookburning.
Bradbury uses that to hint the readers of paper (books) burning.
Montag is down at the fire station and the firemen are playing with the new mechanical hound. That hound doesn’t seem to like Montag very much, suggesting that something bad might happen involving that hound.
5. Quote: “are youre the firemen”
Montag is introduced to the reader as a fireman. As the reader we naturally think of firemen as people who put out fires. Bradbury has created the situational irony in this story by having Montag be a fireman who starts fires. He goes into people’s homes and burns their books. He is asked by Clarisse if firemen ever put fires out and he told her that was crazy and it was silly to think that way. Firemen were there to help control the population by burning books.
6. Quote: In our society kmowlegde is power.Everyone try to gain more knowlege and stand out not to conform. Device: Irony In Montags society, the possesionof more knowlegr than someone else can lead to death. this conveys the theme and underlying message of knowlege vs ignorance.
Fahrenheit 451: Journal #3 Quote Analysis
In the quote above, Faber describes books and their content to Montag, who as started to rebel against society through books. Faber was a very special and memorable person Montag met in a park a few years back. They had a conversation in which Faber recited some poems to him and because of that, Montag knew he was a rebel; a reader. He was the only person Montag could think of that would help him in his situation. Faber is the one that uttered this quote and is, by far, my favorite character in the book.
The way he describes books is so unique.
He uses many figures of speech to explain books and even society. Because of this, what he says usually has indirect meanings. Take this quote for example. This quote contains metaphors and personifications that describe Montag’s society and why books are burned. “Pores in the face of life” is a personification that represents the “problems in life.
” Pores on our faces are unwanted, ugly, problematic.
Same with the issues in our lives. It makes people unhappy, and brings torture in their lives. People are afraid of this; therefore, they are removed, avoided. Books reveal these “pores in the face of life,” so they are removed as well. That’s how Montag’s government controls Montag’s society. Through fake, hollow happiness.
The government digs a hole and buries the locked treasure box filled with everyone’s emotions (excluding happiness) and issues deep inside the hole. Heck, they even teach society to do that themselves! For the next sentence, “flowers” is a metaphor for ideas. “Good rain” and “black loam” represents creativity and imagination. “Flowers” need Good rain” and “black loam” to blossom into something grand, special, unique.
But, because the “flowers” are growing on other “flowers,” they become identical to it. Each and every “flower” grows on each other until the world is covered in identical flowers. A few are different, yes, but they slowly dwindle through the influence of the identical “flowers” and the disturbance of nature those “flowers” created. Those “special flowers” may transform into an “identical flower,” or, they die.
May 5, 2013
“…They were gone. The Hound was gone. Now there was only the river and Montag floating in a sudden peacefulness, away from the city and the lights and the chase, away from everything.” (Pg. 140, Fahrenheit 451)
This quote occurs after Montag kills Beatty and two other firemen, as well as burn the Salamander, after his house was burnt by them. Because of that, he is now being chased by firemen in helicopters and Salamanders, and a more efficient and high tech Mechanical Hound. Montag visits Faber one last time, receiving money, new clothes, and directions from him, and then runs into the river, which carries him away to safety. The Hound and firemen then loses track of him. This quote is where, in my opinion, the climax ends and the resolution starts.
It’s when Montag completes his transition from “mindless follower” to “independent thinker.” All with nature’s aid. Nature, at this moment, is shown as something that overrules technology. Even when it’s faced with the highest, most efficient technology that the humans can create, nature wins. Nature was able to bring Montag to safety from the Hound and the clutches of society and technology, to help him escape from everything that was holding him back.
The peace and relaxation nature provides help Montag complete his thinking process, which was incomplete because he couldn’t really think when he was surrounded by the fast-moving, overly colorful things, people that didn’t give a damn about anything except for themselves and their happiness, and a government that’s watching your every move. Not until he was completely separated from all that was he able to accept his new self and to move on; to make peace with his inner conflicts. Even he wasn’t able to accept and make peace when he was with Faber, someone he trusted and cared for. He was wounded by technology and healed by nature.
A critical analysis of Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury
Ray Bradbury’s novel, Fahrenheit 451, published in 1953, depicts a grim and also quite feasible prediction of a futuristic world. In Bradbury’s technology-obsessed society, a clear view of the horrific effects that a fixation for mindlessness would have on a civilization shows through his writing. Being carefree is encouraged while people who think “outside the box” are swiftly and effectively removed. The technology Bradbury’s society is designed to keep the people uninformed, which the vast majority of are happily and voluntarily in their ignorant state.
There are many details in this novel that suggest that the future of a society obsessed with advanced technology is not only bleak but also dangerous.
Bradbury’s use of certain machines shows the emphasis his society has on thoughtlessness. For example, a commonly referenced appliance is the parlor wall. The parlor walls keep people thoughtless by blasting noise and colors at its audience, which is evident in the passage: “A great thunderstorm of sound gushed from the walls.
Music bombarded him at such an immense volume that his bones were almost shaken from their tendons; he felt his jaw vibrate, his eyes wobble in his head. He was a victim of concussion”(45). The speed of which the shows hit their viewers is so intense that one cannot think or grasp on to any sort of thought. Another key example of technology promoting a thoughtless society is the earpieces. Earpieces are small enough to place inside your ear, where, when in place, broadcast the noise from the parlor walls.
Mildred, throughout the entire novel, wears her earpieces, “She had both ears plugged with electronic bees that were humming the hour away”(18). The technology in school also illustrates how thinking for oneself and being an individual is considered both appalling and strange. Clarisse describes her school’s schedule, ‘”An hour of TV class, and hour of basketball or baseball or running, another hour of transcription history or painting pictures, and more sports, but do you know that we never ask questions, or at least most don’t; they just run the answers at you, bing, bing, bing, and us sitting there for four more hours of film teacher”‘(29). After analyzing the evidence presented, it is clear that the society in Fahrenheit 451 does not value thoughtful consideration and does not have to worry about being inconvenienced by such concerns with the use of their advanced technology.
Read Also: Critical Review Essay Topic Examples
Numerous examples of technology also suggest the threatening aspect of a society based upon advancements. The Mechanical Hound, for instance, directly shows the potential for danger. This contraption’s main purpose is essentially that of a killing machine; if someone is a menace to society, it is only a matter of time before they are exterminated. The Mechanical Hound is introduced in the novel by Montag, “It was like a great bee come home from some field where the honey is full of poison wildness, of insanity and nightmare, its body crammed with that overrich nectar, and now it was sleeping the evil out of itself”(24). Montag’s description of the Hound introduces his concept to the readers that although a robot is not human and, therefore, cannot be evil; there is still an ominous characteristic looming about the Hound. However, Bradbury’s society is also a great danger to itself. An example of this would be people driving in their jet cars.
Members of this society do not understand the meaning of caution, which clearly shines through when they get behind the wheel, “The beetle was rearing. The beetle raised its speed. The beetle was whining. The beetle was in high thunder. The beetle came skimming. The beetle came in a single whistling trajectory, fired from an invisible rifle. It was up to 120 mph. It was up to 130 at least”(127). The use of this machine shows that society is more concerned with speed and pleasure seeking than the well-being of others, which is an exceptionally dangerous priority to have. The frightening side of technology is apparent, also, when the advanced bombs of this world are mentioned.
The setting of Bradbury’s novel is at a time of war; bombs are dropped onto the society that once was home to Montag, “Perhaps the bombs were there, and the jets, ten miles, five miles, one mile up, for the merest instance, like a grain thrown over the heavens by a great sowing hand, and the bombs drifting with dreadful swiftness, yet sudden slowness, down upon the morning city they had left behind”(158). Undoubtedly, these bombs are a sinister and dangerous progression for technology. Bradbury’s society has many reasons to feel threatened by the advancements of its world.
However, feeling threatened is impossible for a society that is founded on the principals of apathy. The people are carefree, which is encouraged by the government. How can a society with no worries rise up and rebel? The government obviously has the advantage of manipulation, which is carried out by their technology. Clarisse has an appropriate way of describing the bleakness of a society that doesn’t care, ‘”I sometimes think drivers don’t know what grass is, or flowers, because they never see them slowly,” she said. “If you showed a driver a green blur, Oh yes! He’d say, that’s grass! A pink blur! That’s a rose garden!”‘(9). The uneasiness Clarisse feels for the way people behave in her time depicts how people do not take the time to enjoy the smaller parts of life because nobody in this society cares. Another machine that proves the threat of a technology-obsessed society is the need for the stomach pump. Bradbury mentions early on in the novel that people often overdose on sleeping pills, not purposefully, but because they pay so little attention to the amount of pills ingested, overdosing is extremely commonplace.
Mildred, at one point, swallows too many pills, Montag describes the machine used to pump her stomach, “They had two machines, really. One of them slid down your stomach like a black cobra down an echoing well looking for all the old water and the old time gathered there”(14). The need for a piece of technology like the stomach pump in this novel, only further supports the evidence of technology showing the threatening effects of a carefree society. Another advancement designed to accommodate the need to have no worries all the time would be the incinerator Beatty speaks about to Montag, ‘”Funerals are unhappy and pagan? Eliminate them, too.
Five minutes after a person is dead he’s on his way to the Big Flue, the Incinerators serviced by helicopters all over the country. Ten minutes after death a man’s a speck of dust”‘(60). Beatty confirms the severity of the level of apathy in the fact that his society is so concerned about being unconcerned that technology must do all of the dirty work. A society, which has all the technology to take care of such inconveniences, would and, by using Bradbury’s novel for verification, does make a society carefree, which has been proven time and time again to be an incredibly threatening outcome.
Several fine points of the novel portray Bradbury’s implication that a society founded on the need for advanced technology is doomed to lead a bleak and dangerous existence. Examples of technology promoting a brainless society are abundant throughout the entire book. Even more technology illustrates the hazards and harmful aspects of these technological advancements. When both the developed machines that encourage thoughtlessness along with the destructive technology of the future are considered, one can plainly see that the worst advancements of all of those of which show the grim and threatening effects of a carefree society. Possibly the most uncanny feature of reading Bradbury’s novel is the fact that, realistically, our society has been working up to a technology-obsessed way of life for quite some time, and our impending future could very well be a mirrored image of Fahrenheit 451.
Bradbury, Ray. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine, 1991.
Fahrenheit 451 Symbolism-the River
In Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, Montag’s escape through the river svmbolizes his salvation, along with several other things. . In several other instances besides the river, water is used to contrast fire and to thus show the difference between good and evil. Also, the forest through which the travels river symbolizes the innocence of mankind before civilization. This is merely a scaratch on the surface of this novel’s seemingly endless symbolism. Fahrenheit tells the story of a fireman named Montag whose job is to set fire to books in order to maintain society’s ignorance.
When Montag kills Beatty, the Fire Chief, he decides to run from the world that he has lived his whole life in. His newfound friend Faber, another person on the outskirts of society, tells him that he will be safe if he makes it to the river. This is an illustration of literal salvation. Rivers often represent “divine emmissaries, life, and the enterance into the afterlife” (Jobes 1341).
“After a long time of floating… [Montag] knew he must never burn again” (Bradbury 141). This shows that the river changes Montag or is at least the cocoon in which he stays while he undergoes a metamorphisis into what is basically a different person. Also, it is interesting that, in the old South as well as in Biblical times, the baptisms of new Christians often would take place in the nearest river or creek.
Montag’s journey in the river seems to be a baptism of sorts, as it frees him from the shackles and chains of his former life.
The river, however, is only the vessel in which Montag travels to the heart of the forest. The forest is the “abode of man in his state of innocence, and a Hebrew symbol for kingdom” (Jobes 594). In the novel, the forest and the river are likened to one another at times, such as when Montag describes the forest floor as “a dry river smelling of hot cloves and warm dust” (Bradbury 144). When Montag several men who, like him, are on the outside of society looking in, they are at the old railroad tracks tht cut through the heart of the forest like a rusty dagger wielded by the filthy hand of industry. It is here that he finds his real redemption.
The river is not the only use of water as symbolism in Fahrenheit 451. Water symbolizes “baptism, cleansing, resurrection, and is a source of both good and evil” (Jobes 167). Water is used on numerous occasions to contrast with fire, wich is representative of “divine love, fervor, and life, but also divine anger, destuction, and death” (Jobes 571).
Usually, they contrast good and evil, and although fire is generally associated with evil, its symbolism begins to change toward the end of the novel When Montag sees the fire the men in the forest are using to warm themselves, he realizes “he [has] never thought in his life that fire [can] give as well as take” (Bradbury 147). The fire is a metaphor for Montag; he finally realizes that he can change the world for the better instead of for the worse.
Ray Bradbury’s novel offers a rich tapestry of symbolism to all those who read it.
Bradbury weaves a seemingly endless amount of symbols into his story in a way that is wonderfully eloquent, distinctly American, and easily accessible to the casual reader. His passionate cry against censorship and engaging story has enthralled readers for the past 50 years. He uses symbolism to help get his point across, and thus makes the story work on a deeper level. Through symbolism, Bradbury has found a way to affect the reader in the very core of their being, and he has made this novel one whose jarring imact stays with the reader long after they have turned he final page.