Catch22

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Catch 22: The Consequences Of Characters’ Actions

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Almost all characters in Catch 22 made decisions on behalf of the society, which in return came back to haunt the society. American society had its values and ethics, but the novel demonstrates how the dehumanization, greed, and evil was brought about by individual interest. These actions have undesirable consequences for the nation. The role of the military is basically to protect its people and not to turn against them. The military turned out to be the most unethical unit portrayed in the novel. Just like any other novel, the characteristics of the Catch 22 actions come up with dire consequences to American society.

John Yossarian, one of the captains in the army air forces, was obligated to fight against Nazis but instead sacrificed his life on the altar of all-absorbing wars. This was his personal decision that he was to stand alone and not on the interest of the many citizens and the nation which entrusted him in the war that he was going to deliver the best in that he said: ‘ That’s some catch, the catch 22’. Yossarian was a protagonist and was also an active member of the Squadron’s community. Catch 22 gives a good and clear illustration of how to become a betrayer in the community by not doing what you have been sent to do but instead focused on what is good for you.

However, anyone in the military was then obligated to ensure that they submit to what the authority obliges them to do. It is not yet clear whether there is good evidence as to why they are on one side, which is on the military and not on ordinary people. The role of the military is to protect, not to kill and do other evil things to society. The impact this action had shown the time Yossarian went to Rome and talks to old women; their conversation indicated that police had ruined the town. ‘The police run the girls who were in the brothels and run-away’ meaning that there was a lot which happened and impacted the social life of the girls who believed to be there forever. Self-perseverance then created a conflict for Yossarian is such a way that he overlooked his own life. Even though he was much more determined to save his own life in whatever way, he never minded the other members of his group who were traumatized by the deaths. His actions were in many ways far from the literary expected, and that is the reason why he was not ready to face the people in return. His actions depressed his people to the sense that they installed trust and hope in him but went ahead to let them down by not protecting them.

Moreover, the actions of characters like Milo, who was an extreme version of capitalist, really hurt his people. At first, he comes up with something like a business deal which he was much contented with using to make a profit. He then he used his knowledge to make sure that he is in the best position with the expense of the people who are looking over him “Just because you’re paranoid doesn’t mean they aren’t after you”. The business in the black-market was all that he wanted to see even though many others could argue that there is a need to elaborate on the system of governance. Instead of being a soldier and stand firm for his people, he was engaged in a business which he used to exploit them. The bureaucratic system of governance as well was not in line with what was required by society. The outcome was not what was expected, the government then misused the powers in the name, ensuring that its people are safe but in a real sense, they meant no good for them. All they wanted was to benefit some few individuals who have been in the military, and life was not important to them. It is the obligation of the society and the government to make sure that life is protected and guaranteed; the government is using its powers to oppress its people.

Milo’s actions took a sinister air when he decided to Bomb his Squadron as part of a deal he literary signed with the Germans. It was because of his decisions, which are then believed to be inhumane and evil for people to be killed. “It doesn’t make a damned bit of difference who wins the war to someone dead’. Many people lost their lives, whereas many were unable to even trace their families and relatives due to the scatter and separation they have gone. All this with the expense of a black market and shows how hurdles he was not to think about the impact he had on his people. ‘This was like an evil force which no man could avoid’ illustrating how deadly the bombs and the killings were bythen.

Nevertheless, the consequences of his greed for money and high profits landed his people into trouble because many men and women lost their lives. It was through these deaths that he celebrated his victory or achieving his desired profits. It is inhuman and evil for somebody to use his powers to oppress others or to gain on behalf of others. The best he could have done was to use other means but not necessarily signing a deal with the Germans to see his people dead. He never felt the consequences, but instead, his people felt the consequences. Milo’s actions were more rational that what Cathcart’s has done in the past because, to some extent, he is seen as liberal in the eyes of the society.

Religion was also compromised by the action of the chaplain to Adhere to all the rules of the authority that religion does not matter. He was the chaplain whom people believed in and have a home in him that he leads them to the right way of faith. He betrayed his people by allowing Colonel Cathcart to use the letters to gain popularity. Cathcart believed that “anything worth dying for … is certainly worth living for”. His actions affected his believers because their faith was now compromised and all that they believe is that God does not give strength but the power of people. This then can be treated as evil.

The character of the chaplain shows the extent of the impact of war on morality and ethical codes. It was due to the impacts of the war that they had to undergo the same transition of changing theirs believes to that which they believe could not suit the not knowing how much it will cost them in future. Just the same way, Doc Daneek confused his role as a doctor in a world where the goal of a man was primarily to cause injury and death. The military has caused all this, and society is now facing isolation on its part which is a direct consequence caused by the military and its leaders through unethical ways.

Individual or groups actions normally tend to have consequences in return. The actions of the three main characters in the novel have hurt American society in return. The military was subjected to protecting the citizens, but in return, most of its members began to engage in immoral activities which hurt them. A leader in any group setting is expected to have people he or she leads interest first. In situations where a leader is not accountable to his actions or make decisions at the expense of his people, there is likely to be consequences.

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Critique Of Bureaucracy And The Government In Catch-22 By Joseph Heller

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

The book I am researching is ‘Catch-22’ by Joseph Heller. It is a book set in WW2 and focuses on the terrifying aspects of the war and how the soldiers had no power or control over anything they did or even whether they lived or died. The main character is Captain John Yossarian, a bomber that is stationed on a small island outside Italy called Pianosa. A lot of the book sees Yossarian try to escape the army as he is stuck in a ‘catch-22’ that means he cannot leave or be discharged.

A catch-22 is a ‘paradoxical loop that a person cannot escape because of contradictory rules’. An example of this in real life is finding a job. How can someone gain experience to get a job if they are constantly turned away for not having any?

There are many themes that run throughout this book. For example, the loss of religious faith or the impotence of language. The main theme that I will be focusing on is the absolute power of bureaucracy and their abuse of that power. This theme is the most influential one in the book and it gives the reader a sense of what WW2 was like and how the soldiers were governed by their superiors who had no concern for their safety. Along with this theme, I will also be focusing on the catch-22 motif that runs throughout the book. This motif links to the theme of bureaucracy because Yossarian and all his co-pilots are caught in a catch-22 by the bureaucrats. As well as this, this motif is one of the most important features of the book as it is the title and also the most well-known thing about it.

Bureaucracy is ‘a system of government in which most of the important decisions are taken by state officials rather than by elected representatives’ and the bureaucrats are the officials of that government.

In this piece of writing I want to show how Joseph Heller criticises bureaucracy and the government using catch-22s and other clever techniques. He also shows the effect that bureaucracy has on the characters within the book which reflect the negative impact the power of bureaucracy has in society. I will do this by giving examples of these techniques with explanations that help to prove my point.

Main Body of the Research

Throughout this book Heller shows the power of the bureaucracy and presents it as unfair and selfish, abusing their power for their own gain and having no care for the well-being or lives of their soldiers. He uses this to criticise and ridicule governments and bureaucracies in our society for having the same qualities, others have described the book as a satire on war and bureaucracy. He specifically focuses on how the American government abused its power during WW2, repeatedly putting their soldiers in danger for no good reason.

The bureaucrats are controlling and have little care for their soldiers

“Orr was crazy and could be grounded. All he had to do was ask; and as soon as he did, he would no longer be crazy and would have to fly more missions. Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn’t, but if he was sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn’t have to; but if he didn’t want to he was sane and had to.”

This catch-22 has been put in place by the bureaucrats in order to stop the soldiers being able to be discharged. If they were crazy they could be discharged but if they said they were crazy, that meant they were not. The repetitive use of this motif throughout this book allows the reader to be put in Yossarians position. He is trapped, surrounded on all sides by people who want to kill him and people who want to send him to his death. The use of this motif also highlights the extent to which the soldiers are controlled and manipulated by the bureaucrats. This shows how the bureaucrats will do everything in their power to stop people from being discharged. It presents the bureaucrats within this book as being selfish and having complete disregard for any of the soldiers’ lives and reflects what Joseph Heller thinks bureaucracies and governments are like in our society.

The bureaucrats abuse their power for their own gain

“That’s the catch. Even if the colonel were disobeying a Twenty-Seventh Air Force order by making you fly more missions, you’d still have to fly them, or you’d be guilty of disobeying an order of his.”

This is one of the biggest catch-22s in the whole book. Colonel Cathcart wants to be promoted so he keeps ordering his men to fly more missions before they can be discharged. This catch-22 Is the biggest thing that keeps this soldiers from escaping because every time Yossarian comes close to the required amount of missions, the colonel raises it again. The use of this motif shows the absolute disregard the bureaucrats have for the lives of their soldiers, they will put their lives in danger over and over again just because they want to be promoted. This also makes us feel sympathy for the soldiers because of the utter futility of attempting to escape the system the honest way.

The bureaucrats are unfair, people gain power and ranks not because of merit but because of luck or money.

“General Dreedle stepped up to pin a medal on him for his heroism over Ferrara”

This is the main character in the book, John Yossarian receiving a medal for his so called ‘heroics’ in one of his missions. However, the use of the abstract noun, ‘heroism’ is ironic because all he actually did was make a mistake that caused one of his comrades to be killed. Here he learns the true nature of the bureaucrats. He begins by having confidence in his actions however his actions cause other people to die and he quickly loses the confidence. When he is awarded this medal, it shows Yossarian and the readers how unjust the bureaucrats are and makes him decide that he must find any way possible to leave the army. It also shows how the bureaucrats have absolute power. You could be the bravest and most heroic soldier in the army, but the bureaucrats decide that the officer who caused people to die gets the awards for bravery and honour. This is shown again in the book when a soldier called Major Major is promoted simply because of his name. These are the messages Heller was trying to get across about the unfairness of bureaucracy.

Heller criticises real world governments because of their manipulation and abuse of their power

“‘The important thing is to keep pledging,’ he explained to his cohorts. ’It doesn’t matter whether they mean it or not. That’s why they make little kids pledge allegiance even before they know what ‘pledge’ and ‘allegiance’ mean.’ ‘

Here, Captain Black shows his jingoism (extreme patriotism) by forcing officers to sign ‘loyalty oaths’ and claims that the more loyalty oaths an officer signs, the more ‘patriotic’ the officer was presumed to be. Heller suggests that the loyalty oaths are meaningless when he says that the officers later became forced to sign these oaths in order to be served food and granted other basic human rights. Heller’s authorial intention here is to criticise the pointlessness of American patriotism and gives the example of the pledge of allegiance, in which many young students do not even understand what they are saying. Heller is also criticising the American government for brainwashing their soldiers into accepting every order without question, allowing the people in charge to have complete power over them.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Joseph Heller uses the motif of catch-22 and different characters such as Captain Black and Colonel Cathcart to criticise modern bureaucracies and governments for their abuse of power, especially during WW2. He presents the bureaucracy in catch-22 as having no concern for anyone but themselves, this is supposed to be a reflection of bureaucracies and governments in society. He also uses the theme of the absolute power of bureaucracy to give the reader a sense of what life was like in WW2 and how soldiers had no control over their lives.

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Depiction Of War In Joseph Heller’s Catch 22

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Joseph Heller’s most famous novel, Catch-22 was published on November 10, 1961. The novel was so successful the title even got a spot in the dictionary as a catchphrase. Catch-22 is a satirical war comedy that shows the times Heller had when he was in the war. Although Heller actually enjoyed the war, he uses the experiences he had to write the novel Catch 22 to become successful and popular among the anti-war community. Many people question what changed Heller’s opinion on the war.

Joseph Heller was an American author who was born on May 1st, 1923 in Coney Island, New York. His parents are Isaac and Lena Heller, and he has two siblings named Lee and Sylvia Heller. At the age of 19, Heller joined the war and became a bombardier during World War II. After the war, he went to Columbia University to receive his bachelor’s degree in English.

There are no statements from Heller as to why he changed his opinion on the war. Regardless of his opinions, Joseph Heller became popular among the anti-war community. Heller had many instances where he made jokes throughout the story, which caused it to make people laugh, and believe it was an anti-war novel, which it was. This is not the only reason though. In an article by Charlie Reilly, he interviewed Heller and asked him a few questions, but before that he stated “Heller composed a brilliant attack not only upon the horror and lunacy of a just-completed war but upon the hypocrisy and savagery of the ongoing McCarthy witch-hunts.” The McCarthy witch-hunts were an instance where the Senator composed an idea of searching for people who were practicing communism, and send them to prison, or back to Russia. Heller wanted to point out how this stripped away peoples’ First Amendment rights. Not only did he focus on the McCarthy witch-hunts, but he also mainly focused on the war and how terrible it was. He told stories of instances in the war that were brutal, and he also told of instances in the war that made the American military look childish. His goal was to not only show his thoughts on war, but also show his experiences he had from the war. In the interview, Heller said “ I never wanted to write an autobiography, but part of my plan was to write a novel which contained autobiographical elements”. This quote from Heller tells us that a good bit of his novel is based on true facts that he had experienced when he was in the war. Knowing this, we can see how bad the war and military seems to either act towards other military members, or how it can drive people crazy. Even though at first he enjoyed the thought and just war itself, Heller saw how everything could change in an instant on the battlefield and he decided to base his novel off of it.

One peculiar thing that somehow made Heller’s book so successful was that he never followed a specific story line. All Heller told were stories of instances that had knew had happened during his war experience. One critic explains the situation in this quote, saying “The chapters follow no evident plan; time in the novel is confused because there is no narrative line”. Muste said that readers would get confused, which could also mean readers would get hooked on the novel and keep wanting to read it until they understood the whole novel. This is how the novel became so successful, because many readers enjoyed the cliffhangers that were left in each chapter. Another reason this novel became so popular is because Heller planned on writing it similar to an autobiography. Robert Merrill explains this in one of his critical essays on Catch-22. He says, “there is the peculiar nature of Heller’s flashbacks. Indeed, to use the term “flashback” is a bit misleading, for the word usually implies an episode rendered dramatically and at some length. In Catch-22 there are a number of such episodes, but Heller presents much of the relevant material in oblique references, radically truncated scenes, and passing remarks in the dialogue”. In a more simplified version of this quote, Merrill is explaining how experiences that Heller had written about were exaggerated. This really caught the eye of the anti-war community mainly because people did not see it in an exaggerated way, but they saw it in a way that made the war seem crazy. This made the novel very popular among the anti-war community because it showed, in their opinions, how their beliefs about war were correct.

War has many tragedies, and Heller uses this in a few instances in his novel to show how unpleasant the war could be. Tragedies in World War II were absolutely devastating to each country that had fought. 1,218,820 tragedies happened in World War II for the U.S army from deaths to injuries (Kohler). World War II spread death and devastation through the entire world. Although Heller did not use statistics to explain the tragedy of war in his novel, he did use stories of tragedy from different instances in his novel. One story of tragedy from the novel is when a character names Snowden dies. Heller says “I’m cold, Snowden whimpered feebly over the intercom system then in a bleat of plaintive agony, Please help me I’m cold”. Snowden was a young man who got injured when Dobbs went insane and tried to take over the plane. The plane stalled and knocked everyone over, and it managed to cut Snowden’s leg. The saddest part is his crying for help saying he is cold. Yossarian, who is the “main character,” one could say, of the novel, rushed to him, but by the time he got there it was too late. Even though one is not sure if this is one of the experiences Heller experienced in his time, it still feels real to the reader.

Heller also uses the theme of the inevitability of death so show how dangerous war can be. Yossarian’s main goal is to stay alive, or to die while he is trying to stay alive. There were many times where he almost died, and where the people he was close to died. He was the only one lucky enough to escape death. Yossarian then gets out of the war, and Heller has an opportunity to show how instances of death can be with you, even if you are not in the war anymore. Yossarian takes a rest in Rome, and he attempts to tell a one dying in the war. The woman then blames Yossarian and tries to kill him with a knife. This is a great reason as to why Heller’s book became popular. He showed how no matter you are, death will still follow, even if death will not get to you at that moment.

Catch 22 was written as an anti-war novel by someone who used to enjoy the war, and fighting in it. At first Joseph Heller enjoyed the war, but he wrote his novel making fun of the war and became very popular among the anti-war community. The main question was how, or what, changed Joseph Heller’s mind about how he felt about the war. It is really simple, looking back on how Heller had made this satirical novel, which has been stated in the previous paragraphs, anyone can see that war is what changed his mind about war. Each chapter that was written in Catch-22 was based off of similar experiences Heller had when he was in the war. Heller experienced tragedy, near death, and corrupt people during his time spent in the war. From experience of all this, he wanted to write a story based off of fictional experiences to show the world the problems that war can cause. At first, his plan did not work out how he expected. Most of the critics did not like the novel in his time, but in the long run, his plan was a major success.

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Literary Analysis of Catch 22 by Joseph Steller

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

There is much literature on the subject of World War II. Catch-22 by Joseph Steller, published in 1961, expressively describes this nerve-racking, gruesome, and turbulent era. The story is centered around a paranoid and homesick Yossarian who is fed up with his military career as an air force bombardier. Through imagery, allusions, and mystery the author carefully crafts the storyline and each character to fit in with the surrounding events. The malingering Yossarian who is considered a hero is furious because he thinks “Every one of them, enemy forces, is trying to kill him”. Although he is a soldier in war, the main problem is not the opposing Central Powers, but is in fact his own army whose leaders keep increasing the number of missions the men must fly to complete their duty to the United States. Yossarian faces Catch-22, an ironic and sinister bureaucratic rule, where one is considered insane if he willingly continues to fly dangerous combat missions, yet if he requested to be removed from duty, he is proven to be sane; therefore, ineligible to be relieved from service.

As Yossarian grow certain that he will not be able to leave his comrades venture on different experiences of their own from near-death missions to running fraudulent business ventures. The first climax occurs when Colonel Korn and Colonel Cathcart offer a despicable deal to Yossarian: he can either have a court martial (getting sent to prison) or be sent home. As a always there is a catch, meaning that Yossarian once after arriving to the United States has to boast about the administration and the colonels fighting the war. Colonel Korn and Colonel Cathcart are all in for this as it may get them promoted. Another sub climax occurs when Yossarian has a flashback of Snowden’ death while he was trying to treat him on a bombing run. This leads Yossarian to not betray the men of his squadron by making others fly his missions. The only option he has left is to “turn his back on the whole damned mess and start running” off into a desert in attempts to go to Sweden. How the plot unfolds can be credited to the author, Joseph Heller. As a child of Jewish immigrants from Russia, Heller recognizes what it means to be American and explores American values of liberty and war. It is said that Heller was interested in socialist politics: socialist at the time were one of many groups who were quite vary of entering WW1. This reveals one reason why the main character, Yossarian, is determined to leave the war as soon as possible. As a bombardier himself, Heller understands the pressure and tragedies that one might encounter on missions.

One of the most traumatic and life changing experiences of Heller’s life is portrayed in the book when “Yossarian crawled into the rear section of the plane…to help the gunner”; thus, this reveals Heller’s powerful indictment of the world’s most insane practice: war. Heller’s views of the nature of war is achieved through the satirical tone and fractured narrative. Heller’s personal criticism of events during the postwar years such as the Cold War, the Red Scare, nuclear anxieties, and the possibility of loss of oneself in a large corporation/organization are apparent in the book. Heller tries to target a multiple of groups: the American society, military, and large corporations. The author attacks large corporations for being greedy and degrading America’s ideals only for the sake of wealth as “someplanes were decorated with flamboyant squadron emblems illustrating such ideals as Courage, Might…that were painted out at once by Milo’s mechanics…with the stenciled name M & M ENTERPRISES…”. Among American audiences, the youth, especially men seemed to gain the most inspiration. Heller tries appeals to these to young Americans who are potential draftees for the war, by pointing out and warning about the harsh regulations how one like “Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn’t, but if he was sane he had to fly. If he flew them he was crazy and didn’t have to; but if he didn’t want to he was sane and had to”. This irony of Catch-22 is throughout the story and contributes to his message of how numbing war is.

Heller achieves the goal of showing the desensitizing nature of war is achieved through the rhetoric he uses. His use of ad hominems makes the reader make a generalization about the “uncompromising” character of the colonels rather than their opinion or argument. Using this Heller makes some people look “more ‘sane’ than those who willingly die for Colonel Cathcart or for a tighter bomb pattern”. Heller’s mocking tone matches the ups and downs of the storyline which also describes the absurdity of war. Once the reader become adept at understanding Heller’s style of writing to becomes easier to notice the underlying symbolism used. “The soldier in white who had been filed next to the Texan” is seen multiples time throughout the story, but it is a different human being every time despite Yossarian and Dunbar not discerning that. Heller uses this to show the indifference the government shows to its soldiers, as the soldiers may seem like basic units which can be swapped out at any time without anyone batting an eye. The author’s use of rhetoric effectively communicates his intents and dislike of war by attempting to persuade the reader to be fully aware of the corruption in this time period.

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Review of the Book Catch 22 by Joseph Heller

January 12, 2021 by Essay Writer

Written by Joseph Heller in 1961, Catch-22 is an absolute masterpiece of a novel that rivals giants such as Kafka’s Metamorphosis or Susanna Collins’ The Hunger Games even to this day. Amongst the mass of characters and their individual stories, is understandably a plethora of themes that conglomerate into this novel. This, is perhaps one of the major reasons for Catch-22’s seemingly everlasting success and fame as a narrative. As a result there is a colossal amount of information to unpack and simply cannot be all thoroughly explored in one review. Therefore, only the major and most evident themes and will be explained.

The story follows WWII bombardier Captain John Yossarian and his fellow officers stationed on the Italian island of Pianosa. An individualist prioritizing his own life and interests before that of others, he seeks shelter from the dangerous duty as a bombardier in a military hospital by pretending to have a pain in his liver. After being sent back to Pianosa’s front (much to his annoyance), Yossarian meets with other equally strange and interesting characters. The remainder of the novel takes place in the current year (1944), with two exceptions that both dart back a few years or so, the first to the ‘Great Big Siege of Bologna’ and the second for the sake of backstory towards Milo and his organization. Other than that, the progression of the novel is relatively straightforward – had it not been for the occasionally confusing and misleading writing (this is likely intended on the author’s part). Contrary to most novels, Catch-22’s finale is one of a rather dark and unfortunate tone with Yossarian simply unable to fly any more missions after one of his closest friends: Nately, is killed. In order to escape being court-martialed and being murdered by Nately’s prostitute, Yossarian runs away from Pianosa’s military base with everything still as hectic and dysfunctional as when the novel began. Nevertheless, the novel finishes on a good note with Yossarian hearing of his friend Orr’s survival and his successful escape to Sweden (with Yossarian swearing to reunite with him).

There is no one clear moral to Catch-22, unlike some narratives, and therefore the novel’s moral is subject to debate. This particular review will explore the following interpretation of the novel’s message: ‘Your enemy is not necessarily the person you are officially pitted against, rather, it is whomever puts you in danger in the first place’. This is highly evident throughout the novel. Particularly in Yossarian’s arc who could be much safer from the German war effort, if it was not for his greedy superiors such as Colonel Cathcart who kept increasing the minimum amount of potentially life-threatening missions before being relieved of duty and always put his squadron in the deadliest bomb runs possible. The above lesson is especially useful for students critically analyzing both present and past political and social issues. Particularly with conscription laws and the actions of political leaders. What is unfortunate though, is the fact that Heller decided to never resolve this issue, as the world war rages on with countless other implied officers just like the colonel long after the novel ends.

However, this would not be a review of Catch-22 without touching on the elephant in the room. Known literally as ‘Catch-22’, the dilemma was first described by Heller in his novel of the same name. Later adopting actual use as a concept in the real world, Catch-22 was used by the fictional military officers of the novel to prevent cowardly pilots and bombardiers from escaping their duty in the war effort. It was explained by Doc Daneeka (the squadron’s medic) in the following extract:

‘(Yossarian) ‘You mean there’s a catch?’

(Doc Daneeka) ‘Sure there’s a catch,’ Doc Daneeka replied.

‘Catch-22. Anyone who wants to get out of combat duty isn’t really crazy.’ There was only one catch and that was Catch-22, which specified that a concern for one’s own safety in the face of dangers that were real and immediate was the process of a rational mind. Orr was crazy and could be grounded. All he had to do was ask; and as soon as he did, he would no longer be crazy and would have to fly more missions. Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn’t, but if he was sane, he had to fly them. If he flew them, he was crazy and didn’t have to; but if he didn’t want to, he was sane and had to. Yossarian was moved very deeply by the absolute simplicity of this clause of Catch-22 and let out a respectful whistle.’

With that in mind, the actual the final thoughts of the novel can be expressed. One of the major themes in Catch-22 is miscommunication (e.g. Yossarian censoring letters in the hospital to his preference rather than using the specified procedure; likely causing much misunderstanding between the sender and recipient, Yossarian pushing the bomb line on a target making his superiors think it was already bombed – sparing him from danger, etc.). Not only is it a strong theme for the progression and discussion of the narrative, it also functions as a perfect complement to Heller’s writing style – which proves to be quite convoluted, misleading and confusing at times (providing flavor for certain scenes). Heller’s writing style, misleading and deeply hidden morals, initially confusing – yet conceptually simple dilemmas and the novel’s drastic change in heart from a relatively optimistic satire to a much more depressing and nihilistic tragedy sparing little horror from audiences provides the novel with the perfect formula for unparalleled success, fascination and thought provocation. Due all the reasons above, whether in the final thoughts or general description and unpacking of the novel itself, Catch-22 is an absolute masterpiece and optimal for year nine students to read and later discuss – both for general enjoyment of reading and educational value.

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"Catch-22" by Joseph Heller

May 19, 2020 by Essay Writer

When exploring the concept of moral appropriateness in a text, one seeks out what could be considered as what would be right, judging the situation by hand. Generally speaking when seeking out the right in circumstances the decision comes from analyzing the physical and emotional outlooks on a character in text. In this case what is being disected in terms of moral appropriateness is one of the characters from the satirical novel by Joseph Heller; Catch-22.

Nately is young man of age who resides as a not commonly character in Catch-22. He is known for being someone who is sensitive and who comes from a wealthy family. According to Catch-22; His nature was invariably gentle and polite (Heller 248) and His childhood had been a pleasant, though disciplined one (Heller 248). In terms of exploring moral appropriateness with this character, the entirety of Nately’s context revolves around another character. The whore or Nately’s whore is a prostitute from Rome that Nately falls in love with in Catch-22.

When analyzing the situations of Nately in Catch-22 , dissecting Nately’s background, and what his actions are in the novel we can conclude distinctions on what others or the readers might see as morally inappropriate. For example, Nately comes from a family of wealth yet has fallen in love with a prostitute. A prostitute in the eyes of society is looked upon lowly. This is because their profession involves committing intimate acts with strangers in exchange for money. Usually a woman who does this in the place of poverty. Without knowing that Nately comes from a rich family, there would be no way in pointing out the moral inappropriateness between him and his whore. The appropriateness lies within their personal context that Heller has inputted in Catch-22.

It is not only the scandal between Nately and his whore that is morally inappropriate but what his intentions are revealed in Catch-22. After confessing his love to her with Yossarian and Arfy, Nately says that his intentions lie in the means of marrying the whore. The moral inappropriateness is what Nately believes to be morally appropriate. What Nately believes to be morally appropriate is to be together with the whore in terms of marriage. The character stresses out his defiance when other characters such as Arfy, opposed to his idea of being in love with the whore. In response to his statement, Arfy says I can just imagine what your father and mother would say if they knew you were running around with filthy trollops like that one. Your father is very distinguished man, you know (Heller 288). After Nately declares that he shall be marrying the whore as well Arfy responds with Ho, ho.ho,ho,ho! Now you’re really talking stupid. Why you’re not even old enough to know what true love is (Heller 288).

However there are instances in Catch-22 where readers will suggest Nately and his actions are more morally appropriate rather than inappropriate. For instance, after the whore had slept for eighteen hours, satirically it was that that made her fall in love with Nately. It is satirically in a sense that after longing for the whore to love him, it only took her sleeping for while to fall in love with Nately. Furthermore, Nately felt authority over her and the whore’s kid sister, leading to him developing a demanding side over the whore in Catch-22. Get dressed (Heller 356),Because I don’t want them to see you without any clothes on (Heller 356) are things that he ordered the whore to do. When the whore questioned him, his response was Because I say so! (Heller 356). Readers would analyze his behavior to be morally inappropriate. This is due to the fact that he is forcing her to do things out of her will only because she has fallen in love with him. It is suggesting that her returning her love gives him the right to show authority over her. Generally, others would suggest that this shouldn’t be the case and that the whore should be free to do as she pleases. On another hand, what Nately demanded of her wasn’t to suit his personal interest but rather, he was configuring her image. When he tells her to put her clothes on he says this because he does not want other men to see her in a vulnerable state that would otherwise be

inappropriate. For instance, if he didn’t tell her to cover up then the whore would continue to go her way. That way being the image of a whore. However, when it comes to moral appropriateness, one has to think that what would be best is if neither character acted upon their actions. Nately needn’t tell his whore what to do out of his will because he should not have authority over another human without their consent. The whore should not continue to act scandalously otherwise her relationship with Nately would be unbalanced in terms of class.

The reasoning behind Nataly’s actions are simple enough. He grows authoritative with the whore because he does not want her to be seen in the same way she is seen by him in the eyes of other men. He wishes to marry her because he loves her. Although despite the drastically different characteristic he develops, it can be be easily justified if one focuses on the whore’s background more than his. Nataly’s actions can be justified good in the sense that after the whore falls in love with him, he suggests that They made a wonderful family group, he decided (Heller 356). In reference of the whores sister he thought; The little girl would go to college when she was old enough, to Smith or Radcliffe or Bryn Mawr—he would see to that (Heller 356).

Overall, these actions make create a balance with this character. On one hand, Nately, like any other person contains flaws that may contribute to their moral appropriateness and then others will lean forward to inappropriateness. In this case, Nately’s ideas and what he believes to be right in overall can be considered good. To validate this statement, further into the satirical text it is discovered that Nately wishes to obtain more missions, stating in the process that I don’t want to go home until I can take her back with me (Heller 368). Following these events it is later found that Nately has died while in another mission and it was caused by Dobbs.

That being said, going back to when Nately desired to have more missions in order to be with the whore, Yossarian questioned; She means that much to you? (Heller 369). Nately agreed and responded with I might never see her again (Heller 369). What is considered to be right by Nately could not just be seen morally wrong in the eyes of the reader but other characters he interacts with. Yossarian whom is another character from Catch-22 plainly opposes to what Nately believes in. In Nately’s case it would be morally appropriate, which is to engage in more missions.

Catch-22 references ‘For the first time in his life, Yossarian prayed. He got down on his knees and prayed to Nately not to volunteer to fly more than seventy missions after Chief White Halfoat did die of pneumonia in the hospital and Nately had applied for his job (Heller 368). The negative outlook Yossarian has on Natley’s beliefs can have readers on the same terms. Morally speaking, Nately’s death can not be justified as good in any way. Although one can draw emotional pity from the event, they can also draw the conclusion that Nately did wrong in applying himself for more missions. Why he did wrong in applying for more missions mainly revolves around the fact that by doing this he died in the process. His death could have been avoidable but it all relied on Nately to realize this.

Nately could have realized his mistake by simply taking Yossarian’s advice in consideration. Others could argue that what Nately did was morally right. The idea that what Nately did was morally right can be argued because he went forward with these missions for a good cause. The good cause being that he did not want to leave the whore and her kid sister alone and wanted to take them with him. Although he did suffer death in the end, there is no other motive that can oppose to the good moral of the circumstances other them his death.

The idea of what is morally appropriate and what is not comes in the hands of what most individuals believe, or majority. Often many may see certain actions as the right thing to do while others that are not majority will think the opposite. In this case, while exploring the context of Nately, it can be concluded that this character is specifically drawn to moral appropriateness

Works Cited

Heller, Joseph. Catch 22. New York, Simon & Schuster, 2011.

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272

The War Novel – Catch 22

May 19, 2020 by Essay Writer

War. On the homefront, everyone is a hero; society has made it custom to feel gratitude and admiration for the service that veterans sacrificed for one’s country. Within the war, however, a man’s identity is not masked by their service; these veterans, the heroes that we are conditioned to salute have true colors, colors that are truly revealed to their fellow men in uniform.

World War II was deadly. In a war where countries fought for the sake of their nation’s flag, Catch 22, by Joseph Heller, awakens the reader to the philosophy that the war wasn’t for the purpose of a nation; it was a war in which every man was for himself. In his brilliant piece, Heller artfully draws upon allusions to the Bible to create depth and color to the fictional story.

A key component to the success of Heller in Catch 22 is his use of allusion to biblical themes throughout the text. A radio-gunner in Yossarian, the protagonist and bombardier for the American forces’ plane, passes tragically while being raided by anti- American forces, and the men are rattled with sadness. Three days after the passing of the soldier, Snowden, Yossarian climbs a tree, stripped of clothing, and is accompanied by Milo, a character who some would say is the antagonist of the piece. The squadron chaplain, a young man whose faith in God is truly tested throughout the war, relates a vision he has at the funeral to his alleged deja vu problem, and Heller is successful in his parallel of the tree scene with that of the story of the Tree of Knowledge and the Garden of Eden. Heller writes as follows: The possibility that there really had been a naked man in the tree — two men, actually, since the first had been joined shortly by a second man clad in a brown mustache and sinister dark garments from head to toe who bent forward ritualistically along the limb of the tree to offer the first man something to drink from a brown goblet- never crossed the chaplain’s mind. (Heller, 272). Rich with biblical references, it becomes apparent in this scene that the allusion being made is a parody of the temptation of Christ by Satan, and of the temptation endured by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Yossarian parallels a Christ- figure whereas Milo, who formerly bombed his own squadron, parallels Satan. Heller is also strategic in that the event takes place three days after Snowden’s passing, which alludes to the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his resurrection from the dead three days following.

Biblical echoes are quite prevalent throughout Joseph Heller’s work in Catch 22, and can be attributed to giving the piece such pronounced depth. Heller creates Yossarian to be a man of sanity among chaos; his character parallels a Christ-like figure throughout the piece, beyond merely the scenario with Milo and the tree. Exemplifying this is the contrast made between Yossarians sanity among the army, to Christ’s sanity among a chaotic world. This theme is represented in the novel in that Heller writes, (Yossarian) thought he knew how Christ must have felt as he walked through the world, like a psychiatrist through a ward full of nuts, like a victim through a prison full of thieves (Heller, 414-415). The bombardier brings a hopeful light to his fellow soldiers, fighting against the catch 22 system and the power of bureaucracy in extending the men in the squadron’s missions to an unreasonable quantity.

Catch 22 is a war novel like no other; it strips the fabrication from war, and provides an awakening to bare combat through the eyes of a soldier. Heller is expert in telling a wartime novel, adeptly alluding to biblical concepts to enhance the unique American tale. “

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327

Captain John Yossarian in "Catch-22" by Joseph Heller

May 19, 2020 by Essay Writer

The book Catch-22 by Joseph Heller, It starts off introducing us to Captain John Yossarian, which he is in the hospital with a liver problem. When he is in the hospital, some of his friends came by to check up on him named Hungry Joe, Doctor Havemeyer, and Clevinger. They all try to avoid dying at all cost as long as they can.

We also met Milo Minderbinder who has a lot of money by him having a really good business that is worldwide. He is really not close with Yossarian. But the book is mostly about the lives of a US Air force group. The setting is on an italian island on a base which is close to Rome. Major Major Major is the new leader of the squadron when Major Duluth is killed. Major Major Major gets bored really easily so, starts to sign papers that came to his desk about. One of them was about Washington Irving.

A C.I.D man comes to find out who Washington Irving is. He got no answers but Major Major Major didn’t like all the people coming to him so he made himself scarce so no one can reach him. The Colonel Cathcart has told the man in the group, to bomb the storage area in Bologna. The men are losing their minds it because they know the flight area of Bologna was really bad and they could get killed. Yossarian was also one of those people so he made food by adding ingredients that would make all the men sick so the mission cannot happen. Also Yossarian tries to find another way not to do the mission which was to declare himself crazy so he can go underground. But all the times he has tried to stop it still has failed. That is when we found out the meaning of Catch-22 which the doctor told us. The meaning was if a man can tell the doctors that he has became crazy, then he is called sane and can mostly like be able to fly.

The whole groupe go to Rome and Nately finds his girlfriend which she has a side business of being a prostitue. Corporal Whitcomb who is the chaplain’s aid, has told the C.I.D people that the Chaplain is the man signing Washington Irving to all of the papers that are out. Yossarian was on a mission and his mind was not in the right area and because of that the plane goes down, the 2 men are wounded and died shortly after right there. In his second mission he hurt his leg really badly and doesn’t want to fly anymore. While this is going on Milo formed a group and gave things to his friends and to the Germans so it was double sided so he can get money. Yossarian tells a little fib about having dreams about a fish. The psychiatrist mixes up a patient of his with him and sends the other patient home. We also find out that Orr is dead by him having a crash landing but it also tells us that he was Yossarian roommate. McWatt is conditioning with a bunch of soldiers and flies too close to Sampson who is on a little boat and the other man are stumble from the loss of them.

Yossarians talks to Nately’s girlfriend and he says that he is dead. She starts to come after him so she can kill him and she even when to a extent and went to his base and tried to kill him. So Yossarian goes off the grid with the help of Milo, and he tries and find Nately’s girlfriends and her sister because they got kicked out of there home by the government because of the things that they have done. But Yossarian gets arrested for going going off the grid by the government. He is send back to the Colonel Cathcart’s post and he can go anywhere he want in the US as long as that him and the colonel are good. He says yes but when he walks out the post Nately’s girlfriend was waiting outside stabs him. While he is getting escorted he thinks about the conversation he had with the colonel that he decided that he would rather run away and that’s exactly what he did. That is when he finds out that Orr is still alive in Sweden trying to lay low . So Yossarians decides to runs aways and finds Nately’s girlfriend’s sister so he can escort her to Sweden with him. Also is that he cannot get court-martialed.

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273

World War II in "Catch-22"

May 19, 2020 by Essay Writer

The story begins when the main character Yossarian, who wants to avoid the violence of World War II, goes to a military hospital claiming that he has pain in his liver. His condition wasn’t quite jaundice so the doctors didn’t know how to treat it. Every morning the doctors would check on him to see if his bowels were moving and if the pain was any different.

But he would keep saying his bowels haven’t moved and the pain is the same, which irritated the doctors because they suspected that his bowels were moving but he just hadn’t told anyone and they give him another pill. Yossarian likes the hospital because it has everything he needs.

They brought him decent food such as fresh meat and cool fruit juice or milk. In the hospital he has a lot of time that he can spend by himself other than a little time in the morning when he has to censor letters. He is supposed to black out military and strategic details from letters written home by American soldiers. Since Yossarian has to censor letters all the time he gets bored so he plays a game where he’ll delete random words according to however he’s feeling and he puts his signature as “Washington Irving.” Yossarian is in the ward with a few other men including: his friend Dunbar, a man who is completely wrapped in bandages except for a hole for his mouth for fluids to go in and out of him and can’t move who they call “the soldier in white.”

A new wounded officer is admitted to the ward one day and nobody in the ward can stand his cheerful attitude. He tries to convince the other men in the ward that “decent folk” deserve more votes. A chaplain visits Yossarian and he enjoys his company. Yossarian warns the chaplain about the patients in the other wards because they are crazy. After ten days of the Texan arriving at the hospital, almost all of the patients, even Yossarian, leave the ward because they can’t put up with the Texan. When they find that the “soldier in white” is dead Yossarian believes that the Texan killed him.

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314

Catch-22: Humorous and Insightful Story of a Soldier

May 19, 2020 by Essay Writer

Catch-22 by Joseph Heller provides a humorous yet insightful story of a soldier and his encounters during World War II. The author utilizes anecdotes and dialogue between characters to show the prevailing theme of lies and deception during war. The main character of the novel is Yossarian and is constantly trying to avoid the inevitable violence in war.

In the beginning of the novel, Yossarian is in the general hospital claiming to have liver pain. The author admits to the reader that, Actually, the pain in his liver had gone away, but Yossarian didn’t say anything and the doctors never suspected (1). The soldiers have figured out that they do not have to go on dangerous missions if they are injured or ill. Many of the pilots were taking advantage of this system by giving themselves minor injuries or claiming to have internal pain. The doctors were often stumped and unable to identify cause of the imaginary pain. The characters continue this act until a new character named, Texan, annoys them all enough to return to battle. The characters were avoiding not only war but the corruption of power among the ranks in the military.

The characters in the story are constantly searching for ways to avoid being deployed on a mission. The men hear of a deadly sounding mission and try to postpone their deployment. They could not leave until the current rains subsided, so they prayed and prayed for the rain to never stop, but eventually it did and Yossarian needed to find a new trick to delay the mission further. He came up with a plan and executed it, In the middle of the night Yossarian knocked on wood, crossed his fingers, and tiptoed out of his tent to move the bomb line up over Bologna (119). Moving up the bomb line would make the commanders believe that Bologna, the city they were scheduled to bomb, had already been captured. Yossarian was risking the outcome of the war and possibly missing a chance to save American lives. Eventually, the ploy ended, and the commanding officers realized the effect of Yossarian’s deceit and resumed the alleged plan.

The characters in the novel blatantly disregard direct orders for an important campaign. After they are finally deployed on their mission, Yossarian was trying to find a reason to return in the plane. The author says, Yossarian’s heart sank. Something was terribly wrong if everything was all right and they had no excuse for turning back (140). After realizing this, he convinces his comrades that there is an error in the intercom and that they must turn back. The crew believes it and willingly returns to safety. It seems that as a commander, Yossarian will lie about just about anything for his own safety and to avoid violence at all costs.

So far, the story has been very similar to an episode of M*A*S*H. The characters seem to always be up to something humorous yet deceitful. Yossarian is extremely satirical and has a dark sense of humor. For example, in chapter one he is supposed to be censoring letters sent back to families in America, but instead chooses to make a game out of it and inappropriately mark out words and sign a fake name. Later in the story a conflict arises because of this and another character is blamed for Yossarian’s actions. He acts as if he is a character in a sitcom.

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